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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Axial Skeleton

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (1)

0 answers

Post by aimee benitez on March 1, 2014

this lectures have been really helpful for me. im studying for the dental board part 1 (NBDE1)and this lectures are perfect because they cover pretty much everything we learned at dental school or pre med so its kind of a refreshing for all those concepts and knowledge from our student years!! great ! thanks a lot!!

Axial Skeleton

  • The axial skeleton includes the skull, hyoid, vertebrae, and the thoracic (rib) cage
  • The skull has 22 bones and includes the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones
  • The skull bones can be divided into cranial bones and facial bones
  • The hyoid bone is located in the neck region and helps attach muscles associated with the tongue and helps with swallowing
  • The vertebral column contains 26 bones and is divided into cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and pelvic curvatures
  • The thoracic cage contains 12 pairs of ribs and the sternum
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Why aren’t teeth mentioned in the axial skeleton lesson?
    • A: Technically teeth are not bones. They are in the jaws of the skull (in the maxillae and mandible) but anatomically their contents differ from actual bone and they are not included in the list of 206 bones of the adult human body. They are discussed in the digestive system lesson.

Axial Skeleton

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Axial Skeleton 0:05
    • Skull
    • Hyoid
    • Vertebral Column
    • Thoracic Cage
  • Skull 0:35
    • Cranium
    • Sphenoid
    • Ethmoid
  • Frontal Bone 1:32
    • Sinuses
    • Sutures
  • Parietal Bones 3:29
    • Sutures
    • Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
    • Fontanelles
  • Temporal Bones 5:00
    • Zygomatic Process
    • External Auditory Meatus
    • Mastoid Process
    • Styloid Process
    • Mandibular Fossa
    • Carotid Canals
  • Occipital Bone 8:12
    • Foramen Magnum
    • Occipital Condyle
    • Jugular Foramina
  • Sphenoid Bone 10:11
    • Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
    • Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
    • Has a Pair of Sinuses
    • Sella Turcica
    • Optic Canals
    • Greater/ Lesser Wings
  • Superior View of Cranium Interior 12:33
  • Ethmoid Bone 13:09
    • Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
    • Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
  • Maxillae 15:29
    • Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
  • Palatine Bones 16:17
  • Nasal Cavity Bones 16:55
    • Nasal Bones
    • Vomer
    • Interior Nasal Conchae
  • Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull 19:03
  • More Facial Bones 19:45
    • Zygomatic Bones
    • Lacrimal Bones
  • Mandible 20:58
    • Lower Jaw Bone
    • Mandibular Condyles
  • Hyoid Bone 21:39
    • Supports the Larynx
    • Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
  • Vertebral Column 22:45
    • 26 Bones
    • There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
  • Vertebral Curvatures 24:55
    • Cervical
    • Thoracic
    • Lumbar
    • Atlas
    • Axis
    • Pelvic
  • Vertebral Column Side View 28:33
  • Sacrum/ Coccyx 29:29
    • Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
    • Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
  • Thoracic Cage 31:00
    • 12 Pairs of Ribs
    • Sternum
    • Costal Cartilage

Transcription: Axial Skeleton

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com0000

This is the lesson on axial skeleton.0002

The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that is along to your axis down the middle.0004

This is the middle of the body so every bone in this section is considered part of it.0015

That includes the skull, hyoid bone, vertebral column, and the thoracic cage.0021

Let us start with the skull at the most superior portion of the axial skeleton.0033

The cranium is all of this business right here.0041

That includes the frontal bone, parietal bone, temporal bone, occipital bone.0047

You can see we have a sagittal cross section straight to the skull here.0053

There are 2 other bones that are associated with the cranium, the sphenoid and the ethmoid bone which makes up a lot of the nasal cavity.0057

They do articulate with those of the cranial bones.0081

They form at least a part of the cranial cavity so they are considered part of the cranium as well.0085

The frontal bone includes 2 major parts.0091

The sinuses are hollow cavities within bone.0098

The 2 frontal sinuses are approximately here and they serve a couple of purposes.0104

One of them is these hollow portions within the bone make the bone weigh less.0112

It has less mass.0118

If all of the sinuses the 8 cavities within our skull were filled with bones our skull will be a little heavier.0120

If that was the case maybe we will get used to it.0127

Having that slightly hollow area does reduce the weight of the bone.0129

Within those cavities have mucous membranes that create secretions for the sake of catching bacteria before they spread deeper in to more vulnerable organs in the body.0134

Some of the cavities or sinuses in the skull section they do connect to the nasal cavity in terms of producing mucous and helping clean out that area.0149

If you get a headache it could be because you have a swelling within the sinuses of your frontal bone.0161

Sutures are those immovable joints that connect a bone to another bone.0169

You have suture that connect the frontal bone and the parietal bone on the side.0179

You have sutures right here that connect the frontal bone to the maxillae.0185

Part of the frontal bone does form part of the orbit of the eye.0194

The orbit of the eye would be the giant eye holes that you see in the skull.0201

That is the frontal bone.0205

Next up is the parietal bone and you could see there is a major suture right here and this is called the sagittal suture but that connects the 2 parietal bone to each other.0208

You could see that there is a suture right here connecting it to the frontal bone.0225

The 2 parietal bones together are the most superior and lateral cranial bones in the entire skull.0229

Because they are here on the top and you can see little bulges on the side.0235

This part of the skull is the most to the side of any part of the head.0239

You can see that I did not list sinuses here.0246

They are not any major sinuses in the parietal bones.0250

Something else is of interest is the fontanelles.0252

The word fontanelle is associated with infants, those soft spots of the baby’s head that you must be careful with.0256

When a baby comes out you want the skull to be slightly flexible so that they can get to the birth canal properly0267

and also to allow for lots of brain growth that happens in the first several years of life.0274

In my skull there are no more fontanelles.0280

Those soft spots are filled with hard bones and immovable sutures.0282

Those fontanelles in a baby’s skull are soft spots you are going to see where the sutures will be when they are full grown.0288

The temporal bones next to the temples of your head.0299

There are several interesting things coming out of the temporal bones that are very important with shape that I want to cover with you.0304

The zygomatic process that is right here.0313

That does connect to the zygomatic bone.0317

This is not part of the temporal bone.0321

This check bone is called the zygomaticus but if you follow it back here, this is the most anterior part0322

of the temporal bone and there is an immovable suture to the cheek bone.0336

The external auditory meatus also called the external acoustic meatus is your ear hole.0341

Here it is.0348

You got the actual auricle or pinna of the ear here but the hole is in the bone as well and that is leading to the inner ear.0350

The mastoid process is this little bulge here and you can barely feel it.0364

If you go behind the ear, there is a little bump that comes right next to the lobe.0375

You have a lot of attachment on the neck muscles there which is very important for moving your head around.0382

Next up is the styloid process.0388

A lot of skulls I have seen that part will easily break off if people are not careful.0393

I had skulls in classrooms before where there are no more styloid process.0403

I cannot have you feel it because it is too deep.0407

You cannot possibly feel it, do not try.0413

You have that connected to the parts of your throat and your tongue.0415

That is the reason why you cannot touch it.0420

The mandibular fossa.0423

Fossa is a term for anytime you have a well that something else fits into.0426

This is the mandible which we will cover towards the end of this lesson.0434

The tops of this bone fit in nicely to a part of the temporal bone.0437

It is hard for me to label it there because it is tucked underneath but next to the mastoid processes you have these mandibular fossae.0443

Fossae would be plural.0452

You have these little condyles, these little bony projections of the jaw bone fitting nicely in there.0454

Those are the mandibular fossae on either side of the skull because you have 2 temporal bones.0463

One of the other ones that I want to mention is the carotid canals.0469

The carotid canals are hard to see in this particular image but the carotid arteries that feed your brain0474

with blood every second of the day go through the temporal bones to get up to the brain.0484

The occipital bone, if you flip a skull up you have to look at the bottom to see it but it is also at the back.0490

The occipital bone does come up here but the majority of it is tucked under.0504

This giant hole here is called the foramen magnum.0510

Magnum meaning large and foramen is a fancy anatomical word for a whole in a bone.0516

Plural word is foramina, you do not use the word foramen that does exist but if you want to talk about numerous of these things the term is foramina.0523

You just have one giant hole there and you can probably guess what comes out of it.0532

The brain stem leading to the spinal cord comes trough that particular passageway.0537

The occipital condyle.0542

On the occipital bone you do have these 2 parts that jagged out next to the foramen magnum0545

and the first vertebra or the top bone of your vertebral column fits nicely with those condyles.0559

It is called the atlas and it fits perfectly to the occipital condyles.0567

Lastly is the jugular foramina.0573

It is tough to see here in this particular image but the jugular foramina are 2 holes that the jugular veins come out of.0577

The carotid arteries those feed the brain with the blood and the veins that come out of your cranial cavity,0586

the jugular foramina hold the jugular veins coming out and going down the neck and connecting back to the heart through the vena cava.0597

The sphenoid we are towards the end of the cranial section of this presentation.0609

I like to nick name this the bat bone.0618

It looks like a bat to me.0620

If you look at this image we are looking straight through the back of the skull.0627

You can see that it kind of have this wing like a bat.0633

The foremost part of the inferior portion of the cranium, that sagittal cross section we saw it was towards the anterior portion of the cranial cavity.0637

It connects the cranium to the facial bones.0650

A lot of facial bones that we will cover a little bit later on this lesson articulate with the sphenoid.0653

Straight back through the eyes and nasal region that is where the sphenoid bone is located.0657

There is a pair of sinuses in here too.0666

These sinuses produce mucous that helps strain into the nasal cavity to clear out some of the bacteria and viruses that you can inhale through that region.0668

More on the sphenoid bone.0678

The sella turcica is a little well and there is another image we saw earlier where the sphenoid from the side look like it had this little well.0683

Almost like a saddle and sella turcica means Turkish saddle.0699

If you are wondering what is the cowboy riding in that saddle, it is the pituitary gland.0706

That is where the pituitary gland is found.0710

If we cut this in half you will be able to see that.0715

There is an image later on the lesson where it is visible.0718

The optic canals are for the optic nerves.0721

The sphenoid is behind the eyes, the optic nerves that come from the posterior portion of the eyes0726

they go to the optic canals on the way to the back of the brain on the occipital lobe.0732

Greater and lesser wings, the greater wings are these big ones here and the lesser wings are these tinier little extensions.0737

Here is s superior view of the cranium anterior.0751

If you remove the parietal bones and keep the rest you can see how it all fits in.0758

The one we have not covered is the ethmoid bone but it is coming up in a bit.0766

You can see those wings of the sphenoid, the lesser wings here.0769

You can see all the temporal bones on either side fit in or articulate with that sphenoidal bone.0775

The frontal bone has it own sutures connecting to it as well.0783

What is this ethomid bone?0787

This is the final part that articulates with the cranium.0791

It forms the superior portion or upper part of that nasal cavity and part of the septum.0795

The septum we often to refer as the skin/cartilage portion of the septum.0802

But if you go back further there is a bony septum, a bony separation between the 2 sides of the nasal cavity.0809

It is also part of the cranial floor.0817

In that previous image remember seeing the ethmoid made up a part of that anterior of the cranium.0820

Ever so slightly part of the orbit of the eye is thanks to the sides of the ethmoid.0826

Here are 2 images from Gray’s Anatomy. This particular one we are looking posteriorly at this particular ethmoid bone.0833

It contains what is called the crista galli.0843

What is this crista galli?0846

Crista galli stands for cocci cone, like that part on the rooster, that very typical red hanging thing on a rooster’s head.0848

Someone who is looking at this named the little part of the ethomid that is protruding up to the cranial cavity the crista galli.0859

If you use your imagination it is remindful of that lilt think poking out.0869

It barely protrudes in the cranial cavity.0874

The nasal conchae this section all in here are nasal conchae.0878

Conch, like that particular spiral shell, is this twisting making up those nasal cavity bones.0887

The perpendicular plate is in the very middle of the ethmoid protruding down this is that bony septum, the majority of it.0902

It is straight back through here.0914

There are also 2 ethmoid sinuses, 2 cavities within this bone that help drain out that nasal cavity.0917

We are moving to the facial bones.0927

The maxillae are 2 bones and each one is called a maxilla.0932

Here is a suture right here.0936

You can see that this is a very peculiar shape compared to the other bones.0938

Each one is a maxilla.0945

You can see that they hold the upper teeth, form the inferior portion of the orbit here and make up the upper jaw and hard palate.0948

There is a soft palate that is more posterior further back.0960

We will get to that later.0965

The last set of sinuses is located in the maxillae.0966

That is a total of 8 sinuses in the skull for 4 pairs.0971

The palatine bones those do connect with the parts of the nasal cavity.0975

It is like a golf post.0982

You can see that shape here from this particular view those 2 bones that fit in.0984

You got the parts that are lateral that hugs the ethmoid bone and connected to the maxillae which we just covered,0991

posterior to the maxilla, hard palate portion, you got the palatine making up a part of the hard palate that is further back.1002

Nasal cavity bones are some more bones associated with all that twisting turning stuff behind the fleshy cartilage nose.1012

The nasal bones if you notice the bridge of the nose right up here is very hard.1025

All of these in here are skin and cartilage but right here, which has a lot to do with the shape of your nose are 2 nasal bones.1032

When someone breaks their nose, chances are they are breaking their nasal bones possibly parts of the ethmoid deeper.1040

The only bones in the proper nose are right here and there are 2 of them.1047

Because of the sagittal cross section we are only seeing one but here is one of those nasal bones and you could see it articulates with the frontal bone.1054

The vomer which we are going to see a little bit more clearly in a future image here is right beneath the ethmoid1062

and forms the most inferior part of that bony septum but it is connected to the maxillae but is further back.1071

Finally the inferior nasal conchae, each one is a concha.1080

If we look at the ethmoid bone as being that twisty turning bone with the perpendicular plate in the middle,1085

here is that crista galli, if you touch the side it is kind of the E.1098

That is how I remember that is the ethmoid because the ethmoid looks like an E tilted.1103

The inferior nasal conchae are these little units coming off the most inferior part of the ethmoid bone.1108

The very tiny bones they call them the inferior nasal conchae because they are on the bottom part of it.1121

This one here is the sella turcica.1126

You can see from this image a very clear view of that saddle where you would find the pituitary gland.1130

There is the sphenoidal sinus.1138

Here is another great view of sagittal section where we can look at the bones that we have looked over.1141

You can see the temporal bone from inside of the cranial cavity.1148

Here is the sphenoid bone once again, sella turcica with the sinus.1152

There is that vomer bone and like I said it articulates with the maxillae and the ethmoid bone and when you have that perfect cross section you can see the vomer.1159

The previous slide was probably a sagittal cross section slightly to the side or slightly lateral.1169

When it is perfectly medial like this you would be cutting right where the vomer bone is.1177

A couple more of facial bones.1182

When we look at the section of the skull there is the maxilla.1188

Here is that cheek bone, the zygomatic bone.1191

It does articulate with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone.1196

Those check bones have a lot to do with the shape of your face as well as the other skull bones and they are called the zygomatic bones.1200

It is a muscle called the zygomaticus it attaches right there.1207

The lacrimal bones they are not labeled in this drawing but I will show you where they are.1211

Lacrimal comes from the Spanish word lagrima which means tear.1216

It comes from the same Latin root.1223

They are tucked into the sides here and you cannot touch them because they are on the sides of your eye balls.1225

They have that name because they help drain tears from the eye area down in to the nasal cavity.1234

This does connect into the nasal conchae through a little passageway there.1241

It is brilliant how it works.1245

Some tear do emerge out of the eye to the cheek but other tears can drain into that lacrimal bone passageway.1248

The mandible or lower jaw bone.1256

It contains the lower teeth.1261

The mandibular condyles are right here.1263

Those do connect with the mandibular fosae1269

This particular process attaches to muscles that help with the particular movement your jaw makes whether you are talking, chewing.1276

If you do look at the mandibular fosae it is a perfect fit for the mandibular condyles.1290

One of the bones of the axial skeleton that is often forgotten is the hyoid bone.1296

If you come up on your throat you can feel a very hard bony section above your larynx.1306

Here is the Adam’s apple larynx section but the hyoid bone is just above it and you can see that.1315

Here is that typical Adam’s apple looking thing which we will cover later in the respiratory system chapter.1321

This is the hyoid bone.1330

This is one of those unique bones in the human body that does not touch other any bones.1332

That is rare.1339

Figure out any bone in your body it is articulating or making a joint with something else.1340

This is connected to other bones via ligaments but it is free floating.1344

It helps with talking, swallowing, your tongue is attached to it.1351

It is a very important bone but not touching any other bone.1359

The vertebral column also known as the spine.1363

There are 26 total bones in the human body.1368

24 of them are typical vertebrae.1371

A vertebra is singular.1374

At the bottom you have the sacrum and coccyx.1377

There are cartilaginous pads called inter vertebral disks between each of the vertebrae.1380

We will see that better in future images.1387

Those little pads are not only for cushioning but it is how these bones are articulating with respect to one another.1390

Every movement you make with your back they are ever so slight movement of those bones with those cartilaginous pads.1399

You could see these are major portions here, anatomical sections that are important to remember.1409

The body of each one of these vertebrae is where that cartilaginous pad is.1416

There is one on the top and one on the bottom to help fit into the other ones above it and below it.1423

Vertebral foramen as you can guess, the spinal cord fits into the vertebral foramina.1428

The spinous process which is the most posterior part, the body will be the most anterior part.1439

The spinous process most posterior or dorsal is when someone bends over and you se those back bones you are looking at the spinous processes.1449

Sometimes they protrude more on other people than others but they attach a lot of back muscles.1458

The transverse process is the last one I am going to mention.1465

The transverse process they say transverse because they come out horizontally.1469

That is where you have the back of the ribs fitting into each of those back bones or vertebrae.1474

There is a little well or a fosae that fits very well with a little condyle, a little protruding part on the ribs.1481

When we look into the vertebral curvature there are 4 major ones.1493

There is the cervical meaning neck, the thoracic which has to do with the thoracic cage, the lumbar or lower back, pelvic curvature also known as the tail bone.1499

There are 2 bones I wanted to show you from the cervical vertebrae and you have 7 neck vertebrae.1510

You have to say c1 to c7 and once you get to t1 that is where the first rib is that is why they have that separation.1517

I want to show you atlas and axis.1525

Atlas is also known as c1 and this is also known as c2.1527

The top 2 are most superior part of the cervical vertebrae1535

The atlas is named after that mythological figure Atlas, who you can see in images holding the entire world.1541

This is a clever name for c1 because the atlas vertebra is right under your skull and that is connected to the occipital bone.1549

I told you that there are those parts on the occipital bone that articulate with the first vertebra.1558

They articulate with these 2 things here called the superior articular facets.1565

It is a clever name because that bone is holding up your world which is all in your head.1570

Right beneath that fitting into part of this little foramen you do have the axis.1577

That is a great name because the axis rotates so that your head can move back and forth.1587

The atlas will remain still against your skull but your axis is rotating around.1594

When we look at the other sections the thoracic lumbar.1603

This is a typical thoracic vertebra this is where you are going to have significant transverse processes because you have to have ribs attached to it.1608

You do have 12 pairs of ribs so there are 12 thoracic vertebrae.1618

You got this hole where your spinal cord is going through it.1626

When you compare the size of the hole here to the size of the average cervical vertebra they can get a little bit smaller.1632

As your spinal cord goes down your back and you have nerves extending off of it, it is like taking traffic away from what is farther down or more inferior.1641

The spinal cord gets slightly thinner when as go down.1653

When you get to the lumbar vertebra at the very bottom proportionally it looks like smaller hole compared to those bones.1658

It makes sense that the body changes size.1668

Look at the body on the cervical vertebrae not nearly as much, there is slightly less weight to hold up there.1671

As you are further down the vertebral column, more and more weight is being held there so1679

you are going to see the body size significantly larger on the lumbar vertebrae.1686

There are 5 lumbar vertebrae and they are quite large compared to the ones superior to it.1692

The pelvic curvature is that part of the tail bone at the bottom that is right in between of the pelvis bones which we will cover more in the appendicular skeleton.1698

Here is that vertebral column side view you can see the 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, and here is that pelvic curvature made up of 2 major bones.1711

The back bone when we see when someone bends over those where the spinous processes over there that you are going to be seeing on someone’s back.1728

Something like scoliosis would be obvious if you have someone bend over and you look along their back1737

If their spinous process does not appear to be straight they have scoliosis.1744

You can see that these curvatures 1, 2, 3, 4 is very wavy.1749

From the front and back it should look straight but from the side this help give us our posture.1759

Here is that pelvic curvature.1767

The sacrum and coccyx.1770

The coccyx is a very small portion of it and the rest of it is the sacrum.1773

The reason why I say here that the sacrum has 5 pieces and the coccyx has 4.1785

When we are born we have a lot more bones than we do as an adult.1789

As an adult we have 206 bones and in some baby bodies if you counted all of them, it would be like 300.1794

A lot of these bones are fusing together to make a smaller number as we age.1801

In adult body you would see the sacrum as one bone and the coccyx as one bone.1806

It is a product of fusing together bones that were previously not connected directly.1811

The sacrum if you count it there is the 5 pieces and they are all fused together here.1818

You can see it says at 25 year.1827

Here is the side view of the sacrum and you could see this little surface here that is where the pelvis or illium would fit into.1831

The reason why I say the coccyx has only 4 pieces is some people it is only 3 bones and in some people it is 5.1842

Most of the time you would see 4 tiny bones making up that very most inferior part of the vertebral column.1849

The last part of the axial skeleton is the thoracic cage also known as the rib cage.1858

You have 12 pairs of ribs if you count all of them there are 24.1865

You can see how this top rib articulates with the first thoracic vertebra or t1 all the way down to t12.1869

Here where you do not have rib anymore that is the first lumbar vertebra down to the pelvic curvature1879

You got these 24 ribs connecting to the vertebrae and back of the thoracic curvature and they connect to the sternum.1886

The breast bone or sternum has 3 main sections, the first one being the maneubrium.1896

The maneubrium right here is the most superior part.1904

The very first pair of ribs connect to it and also the clavicles connect to it which we will cover more in the appendicular skeleton lesson.1909

The body is the major part of the sternum where a lot of cartilage is articulating with it and that is the major part of the sternum.1919

Finally, the syphoid process.1935

This little guy seems very insignificant but there is a major application with CPR when it comes to this bone.1937

If you take a CPR course on how to properly resuscitate and give compression to somebody, they tell you that when you remove their outer garments1945

and you look at their chest to find the proper spot to give compressions, they want you to find where the lowest ribs come together1954

then put 2 fingers there and then place your palm above it because if you give compressions to where the syphoid process1961

is you can break it off very easily if you are giving compression the right way and you can puncture the person long or worse.1971

You would be doing them a service if you try to get them come to and get their heart beating again.1979

they have you do the 2 finger rule so that the bottom of our palm is resting right about there.1985

That is going to be closer to the heart and avoiding the syphoid process breaking off.1992

The last part that I wanted to tell you about is this darker stuff.1999

Even on a real skeleton when you look at them if they are an authentic skeleton that is cleaned and displayed, usually that part of the rib cage will be darker.2010

It is not dried or regular bones, that is dried cartilage and that soft bone tends to be brownish.2023

If it was not for that cartilage we would not be able to do this.2033

It helps the thoracic cage expand and contract much more easily because of that soft bone.2036

The costal cartilage also applies to this other term that has to do with the intercostal spaces because they are between the costal cartilages.2045

The intercostal space also applies to inter costal muscles.2061

Those were the main muscles that are helping you in expanding and relaxing the ribcage.2066

I wanted to point out these ribs at the bottom.2076

They are few ribs that do not come back and connect with costal cartilage and those are called floating ribs.2080

It is tough to find them but they do not come up and connect with other ribs to the body of the sternum.2088

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2099

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