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For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology
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Lecture Comments (3)

0 answers

Post by Bryan Cardella on September 13, 2014

NOTE: Sometimes a tertiary structure can also be a "full-fledged protein", meaning it's a single, long polypeptide with interacting R-groups.  If multiple tertiary structures are put together then it's the more complex quaternary structure (like hemoglobin)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Nov 25, 2013 10:29 AM

Post by Fletcher Paddison on November 23, 2013

In glucose ring synthesis you say carbon #1 binds to carbon #6. To my knowledge it is carbon #1 acting as the electrophile when the oxygen on carbon #5 nucleophilic attacks it. Thus, carbon #1 links to carbon #5

Metabolism & Nutrition

  • Metabolism is determined by catabolism (breakdown of organic compounds) and anabolism (building up of organic compounds)
  • Nutrients include carbohydrates (sugars), lipids (triglycerides), proteins, nucleic acids (DNA/RNA), vitamins, and minerals
  • Carbohydrate structural terms: ring form, linear form, monosaccharide, disaccharide, polysaccharide, glycosidic linkages, dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis, water soluble
  • Carbohydrates are a quick energy source for all bodily cells
  • Aerobic respiration (most of which takes place in mitochondria) is the breakdown of sugars with the us of oxygen gas and involves: glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation (electron transport chain and chemiosmosis)
  • ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the main energy molecule of the cell and it works by a phosphate group breaking off of ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
  • Anaerobic respiration is the breakdown of sugars without oxygen gas, and after glycolysis it transitions to lactic acid fermentation in the human body (which results in no additional ATP)
  • Glucogenesis is the production of glucose molecules from other types of organic compounds
  • Lipids (traditionally triglycerides) are composed of a glycerol molecule with three fatty acid chains attached to it
  • Saturated fats (less healthy) have fatty acid chains with no double bonds and tend to be solid at room temperature, while unsaturated fats (more healthy) have double bonds in their fatty acid chains and tend to be liquid at room temperature
  • Lipid metabolism terms: lipolysis, beta-oxidation, lipogenesis, lipoproteins
  • Lipids are used for an energy source, energy storage, insulation, and hormone production
  • Proteins are made of amino acids and they have numerous functions: support, movement, transport, buffering, enzymatic action, hormone synthesis, and defense
  • The four levels of protein structure are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary
  • Vitamins (like A, B, C, D, E, K, and folate) are required in limited amounts to keep a body healthy
  • Minerals are electrolyte components that are required to maintain homeostasis
  • A balanced diet would contain the proper amounts of grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy, and meat (unless a person is vegetarian or vegan)
  • Nutrition fact labels have many important components: calories, serving size, fat content, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrates, proteins
  • Did you know…
    • Q: I’ve heard that women and vegans are more likely to be anemic than other people…is that true?
    • A: Statistically, yes, it is true. Anemia results from have inadequate red blood cells moving oxygen around your body, or the RBCs that you do have are not doing a very good job of shuttling oxygen around. Hemoglobin is the crucial protein involved in attaching oxygen gas to the cell, and to make “heme” you need iron. Iron is very plentiful in meat, especially red meat. Vegans need to find adequate sources of iron outside of meats, which is not an easy task. Of course, red meat does have its disadvantages (like high fat content), but its iron content is undeniable. Women tend to bind slightly less oxygen gas molecules to their hemoglobin than men (on average), so a change in RBC number or capability tends to impact them slightly more.

Metabolism & Nutrition

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Metabolism Basics 0:06
    • Metabolism
    • Catabolism
    • Anabolism
  • Nutrients 2:45
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic Acids
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
  • Carbohydrate Structure 5:13
    • Basic Sugar Structure
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Glycosidic Linkages
    • Polysaccharides
    • Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
    • Water Soluble
    • Energy Source
  • Aerobic Respiration 11:39
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebs Cycle
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
  • ATP Structure and Function 14:08
    • Adenosine Triphosphate
    • ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
    • ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
  • Glycolysis 17:18
    • Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
    • Occurs in the Cytoplasm
    • Phase I
    • Phase II
    • Phase III
  • Krebs Cycle 21:54
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation 29:36
  • Anaerobic Respiration 34:33
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
  • Gluconeogenesis 37:36
    • Glycogenesis
    • Glycogenolysis
  • Lipid Structure and Function 39:58
    • Fats
    • Non-Polar
    • Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
  • Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats 43:18
    • Saturated Fats
    • Unsaturated Fats
  • Lipid Catabolism 46:11
    • Lipolysis
    • Beta-Oxidation
  • Lipid Synthesis 48:17
    • Lipogenesis
    • Lipoproteins
  • Protein Structure and Function 51:48
    • Made of Amino Acids
    • Water-Soluble
    • Support
    • Movement
    • Transport
    • Buffering
    • Enzymatic Action
    • Hormone Synthesis
    • Defense
  • Amino Acids 54:56
    • 20 Different 'R Groups'
    • Essential Amino Acids
  • Protein Structure 56:54
    • Primary Structure
    • Secondary Structure
    • Tertiary Structure
    • Quaternary Structure
  • Vitamins 59:40
    • Fat-Soluble
    • Water-Soluble
  • Minerals 1:04:01
    • Functions
    • Examples
  • Balanced Diet 1:05:39
    • Grains
    • Vegetables and Fruits
    • Dairy
    • Meat/ Beans
    • Oils
  • Nutrition Facts 1:08:44
    • Serving Size
    • Calories
    • Fat-Soluble
    • Cholesterol
    • Sodium
    • Carbohydrates
    • Protein

Transcription: Metabolism & Nutrition

Hi and welcome back to

This is the lesson on metabolism and nutrition.0002

The basics of metabolism the word metabolism is often misused by people I have talked to.0005

Usually people just talk about metabolism in terms of she is lucky and eats whatever she wants.0015

Her metabolism is high.0021

There is truth to that statement but people only think of metabolism as keeping the weight off or metabolism the other way is gaining weight.0023

But metabolism the actual definition of it is that it is the sum of all chemical reactions within an organism.0033

It includes all the breakdown of nutrients that you need to do with digestion and0039

all of the building of molecules they needed to maintain your body and stay healthy.0045

Metabolism involves a basic formula that would be catabolism + anabolism.0049

The catabolism part is the breakdown of organic molecules.0056

Every time you break down a sugar that you have eaten.0059

A lipid you have eaten which is a fat.0062

That is a catabolic kind of reaction and would involve the release of energy.0065

Anabolism is the opposite.0071

It is the synthesis of new organic molecules which typically requires energy and energy input to get those things link together.0073

When you build muscle proteins, when you make glycogen which is a sugar storage molecule that is mostly found in the liver,0079

those are anabolic reactions.0089

The anabolism part what are you doing it for?0090

It is for structural maintenance and repairs.0094

For support of growth.0096

As you grow of course you need to build more molecules.0099

For secretions you need to build hormones.0102

You need to build secretory products that you are going to be letting go through glands.0106

For nutrients reserves like I have mentioned earlier, glycogen.0110

If it that is been hour since you have eaten you can release sugars from that giant storage molecule that we call glycogen.0114

It will get you through until the next meal.0121

The way that I remember the difference between catabolism and anabolism is I remember the term anabolic steroids.0124

If you follow sports especially you hear about anabolic steroids that athletes will use to bulk up their muscular more than they could.0130

Naturally without it and the reason why it is an anabolic steroid is it is a molecule that mimics testosterone0141

and allows them to have a lot more anabolic development of their muscle tissue.0149

They are building a lot more muscle proteins than is natural.0154

Anabolism, anabolic steroids the building up of organic molecules.0158

When we look at nutrients that we have taken in our diet there are four major organic compounds0164

in terms of looking at them and their structural differences and what they are for?0171

Carbohydrates is one of them.0177

They are also called sugars.0178

Lipids also known as fats.0180

Proteins is one of the more important ones.0183

They are all important but proteins make up the majority of your solid matter.0187

If you took all the water out of an organism the next most abundant substance is going to be protein.0194

It is extremely important for cellular structure and functionality.0199

The nucleic acids, you cannot deny the importance of the nucleic acids that is DNA and RNA.0203

It is interesting how the other nutrients but any time you eat animal tissue, plant tissue,0208

even if it is dead you are going to have these molecules in there that you are also going to consume.0216

You can break down those nucleic acids to make your own nucleic acids in terms of straining together new DNA and RNA.0221

Vitamins and minerals, vitamins is also an organic compound.0229

The reason why these are separate is vitamins are those molecules that you do not have the ability to make enough of them on your own.0235

You do have to take them into your diet.0245

For instance, if you stop taking in vitamin A early on in your life that could cause your eye sight to suffer.0247

People who have enough vitamin A in their diet they may gradually need glasses but0255

in terms of their eye health it is going to be maximized by having enough vitamin A.0261

You do have reserves of vitamins in your body but if you do not take them in your diet they are going run out.0265

Minerals we will cover these towards the end.0271

Minerals you get from electrolytes stuff like sodium, potassium, etc.0273

Before we move on, this picture right here is a kind of packing peanut like if you got a big box when something is ship to you.0278

Instead of using styrofoam peanuts these are actually made of starch.0288

This is entirely natural you could eat them if you want it to.0292

It is like those puffy cheese snacks without any flavoring.0297

They are completely natural.0303

A biodegradable replacement for styrofoam packing peanuts.0306

Carbohydrate structure.0311

We just talked about packing peanuts made of carbohydrates in the previous slide.0315

Carbohydrates these are sugars and interesting thing about the main carbohydrate is that0319

when you look at the carbon atoms in one of these molecules it is surrounded by water.0325

Together this is water.0330

Carbo like carbon and hydrate like water.0334

It is a way to remember the structure of a carbohydrate.0338

This is the typical basic sugar structure in terms of little ratio.0341

It is some variable so we get that 6 in there.0347

With 6 carbon atoms you are going to have twice as many hydrogen and the same amount of oxygen as carbons.0351

We can put 8 in here.0357

We can put 100 in here.0359

Any integer will work.0360

You can have slight variation of this depending on the precise sugar0363

we are talking about but typically more often that you going to see this ratio.0370

If you count this up you would see that.0373

If there were 6 carbons it can be glucose.0375

If there are on twice as many you are going to get something like a disaccharide which is like 2 little glucose or monosaccharide put together.0378

You are going to see the ring or linear form.0386

This is the ring form down here of course it looks like a little ring.0389

This would be known as a hexo sugar because it has 6 sides.0394

Glucose is a hexo sugar.0397

This is the linear form.0398

You tend to see the ring form more often in the human body.0400

It is more stable molecularly than the linear form but you can occasionally see this.0404

The way you go from linear to ring or vice versa is carbon 1 would connect to carbon 6.0408

The double band here would actually go away when you make that connection.0415

Carbon makes 4 bonds if you took chemistry you would know that carbon likes to make 4 bonds that is why for every carbon here0421

you are going to see 4 little lines around it whether it is a double bond or single bond.0429

Over here, another way of writing this is the H can be sticking out here, little H sticking out here and the OH or hydroxide here.0434

This is a shorthand version.0442

When you look at this ring form, this is classic organic chemistry.0443

Every corner here that is not labeled as O is carbon.0449

There is carbon here and what the leaving out is the H.0453

It just implies that on the other side of this OH is going to be H.0458

The other side of OH is going to be H.0461

The same with over here.0463

If you are wondering why is there stuff missing that is why.0465

Monosaccharides are single sugars.0468

Glucose is the classic one.0470

Disaccharide is a double sugar.0472

We can connect these two glucose to make something called maltose.0475

Maltose is a disaccharide that is where we get malt sugar from.0479

The way it happens is you make a glycosidic linkage which is just a fancy term for a bond between 2monosaccharide.0482

The way you do that is to a dehydration synthesis or dehydration reaction.0492

The way that I remember that term is all you need to do is take water out that is why it is dehydration.0497

Here is an H, here is OH on the next sugar, when these 2 leave together H2O is gone.0505

That is why it is dehydration.0516

In which you left with is this oxygen.0517

If I erase what is left is the water is gone.0518

The way that you get this glycosidic linkage is through that oxygen connection.0525

You are going to have carbon connected to oxygen and then connected over there.0532

Now the angle because the drawing is not precise.0537

That is where you are going to see a glycosidic linkage is you are going to have this oxygen atom linking up the two neighboring sugars.0539

Disaccharides includes maltose, fructose is another one which we are going to find in fruits.0547

There are a lot of other disaccharides.0553

Polysaccharide is when you have bigger sugars.0555

You keep putting little sugar strung together and eventually get things like starch.0560

Examples of polysaccharide.0565

Starch which is the way that plants store sugars.0568

You also have glycogen.0572

Glycogen is how we store sugars in our liver and muscles.0576

Starch and glycogen are both made of lots and lots and lots of glucose.0582

It is the way that the glucose are bonded together is slightly different in terms of the way the glycosidic linkage looks.0586

Another good example of a polysaccharide is chyton.0595

Chyton you are going to find that in the exoskeleton of arthropods and also in the cell walls of fungi.0603

You also can use chyton to make surgical threads that you can sew up something surgically and they actually will dissolve.0610

Those chyton threads will decompose eventually which is cool.0621

Dehydration synthesis is how you get 2 sugars together.0626

The opposite like if I were to break these 2 sugars apart is called a hydrolysis and that is made of hydro and lysis.0631

Hydro means water and lysis means a breaking apart or splitting apart.0638

Water splitting them apart and it is the opposite of the dehydration reaction we just run over that.0644

If water left to connector these 2, water going in can also do the opposite.0647

It can separate them.0653

Sugars are water soluble that is obvious.0654

If you put pieces of bread in water you see them dissolve pretty easily.0657

You only boil pasta or some other noodle it is very obvious that sugars which make up the majority of pasta it is water soluble.0662

It is a polar kind of thing rather than non polar which is the lipid side.0672

The purpose of carbohydrates in general is they are a quick efficient energy source.0677

That is how we get the most of our energy molecules in our cells.0684

ATP is an energy currency that fuels our cells and keeps us alive.0690

The easiest way to get that is breaking down carbohydrates or sugars.0694

We need to talk about aerobic respiration.0697

This is how you actually get energy out of the breakdown of organic molecules and keeping your cells going.0702

It is the process of breaking down carbohydrates or other organic compounds that you can turn0707

into a carbohydrate like molecule with the help of oxygen that is was aerobic about.0714

You need to breathe in oxygen to make ATP or adenosine triphosphate which we will hear more about in the next slide.0719

That is the energy molecule.0725

There are other molecules that are similar but ATP is very common.0727

Most of the process occurs in mitochondria.0731

If you took biology you learn that mitochondria are the powerhouses of the cell that is where you get ATP from typically.0734

If you are eukaryotic like we are.0743

Here is a mitochondria.0746

This is an actual electron microscope taking a picture of mitochondria in human cells.0748

This is sort of your classic computer generated model of what a mitochondria looks like.0756

If you look carefully or closely at this particular diagram you can see that the outside is a double membrane, inner and outer membrane.0761

The inside you have these membranous folds called chrystae.0770

On the inside you have the matrix.0775

You do have this like two sets of membranes here.0777

That is why the space in between the chrystae and the inner part of double membrane on the outside is called the inter membrane space.0781

We are going to cover these parts because aerobic respiration it starts out outside of mitochondria and ends up going in.0789

Speaking of the term mitochondria that is plural.0796

Mitochondrion with on in the end that is singular.0800

The 3 main parts of aerobic respiration using oxygen to breakdown sugar to make ATP is glycolysis0804

which is the initial breakdown of the sugar molecule.0811

The kreb cycle which takes the proxy glycolysis and goes to recycle to help make other molecules0813

that are going to transfer energy in the process.0820

The end of the process is oxidative phosphorylation where we are making a lot of ATP or energy molecule.0822

By the end you are producing approximately 36 ATP.0829

The reason why it is approximate is depending on the conditions inside the cell, that moment sometimes it can be 34 sometimes can be 38.0832

Generally we get 36 ATP from 1 glucose molecule being broken down with pxygen.0840

What is this ATP molecule?0846

ATP is adenosine triphosphate.0850

Here is a model of it.0858

Where does the name come from?0861

This part here you got these 2 rings of carbon with nitrogen as hydrogen is thrown in there.0863

You have adenine.0870

Adenine is a nitrogenous base that you would find in DNA and RNA but here it has nothing to do with genetics.0876

You are using adenine like a placeholder for what is going on here.0885

What is this?0889

This is ribose which is a kind of monosaccharide simple sugar.0891

It is a pentose sugar because it is 5 sided.0901

Adenine, ribose, and then tri phosphates.0905

Here is where their name comes from adenosine.0915

The combination of these 2 adenosine.0923

Instead of saying adenoribose triphosphate.0926

It is adenosine triphosphate.0929

That is where the name comes from.0932

You are going to see the word or abbreviation ADP also on the slide that is when one of these phosphates is gone.0934

It will be diphosphate.0940

ATP is kind of like a charge battery that you can use to power something in a cell.0942

When you go back to ADP adenosine diphosphate the battery has no more juice in a sense.0948

The other analogy I have heard is of like a rubber band.0955

If I stretched rubber band that is ATP and if I let it go goes back to ADP.0959

To stretch it back again you are going to add that third phosphate.0963

You do see AMP in cells as well adenosine monophosphate but I we are going to talk a lot about how you get ATP from ADP in the next few slide.0966

Like I have said it is the energy currency of a cell.0977

You can spend it in terms of powering anything that requires energy.0979

ATP is broken down into that adenosine diphosphate + the other phosphate.0985

When ATP breaks apart you get these two.0991

That is a release of energy.0993

That is how you spend the currency.0996

To get it back you got to put these back together that requires energy to attach them back together.0998

And that is how you get ATP.1004

Up here when you break it down that is an extra conic reaction.1005

Here will be the input of energy.1009

Amazingly the average muscle cell which is doing a lot of work in a typical day doing a lot of movement,1013

the average muscle cell produces 10,000,000 ATP molecules per second if it is working.1020

It is amazing to think about.1026

That is mind boggling that a microscopic cell is producing millions and millions of these molecules every seconds to keep it going.1028

The start of aerobic respiration is glycolysis.1036

The word glycolysis, glyco meaning sugar and lysis meaning breakdown.1041

Like the word lysosome.1050

It is one of those organelles in a cell that break stuff down like foreign bodies, pathogens, waste.1051

In this case we are breaking apart a sugar.1060

Glucose is usually the one.1063

Pyruvate is what you get the end here.1065

That is 3 carbon, half of glucose in a sense and it occurs in the cytoplasm.1067

I have read that the average glucose molecule does not easily fit into mitochondria.1075

It is broken down into these two which then enter the mitochondria to finish the aerobic respiration process.1081

Let me take you through step by step to simplify it.1088

Phase 1, the way are looking at here is these lavender, magenta, or purple dot these represents carbons.1092

We are focusing on the carbons of glucose.1101

Glucose contains 6 carbons.1103

What you are not seeing here is the H and O and that is fine because we are concentrating on the carbon count here.1105

To initially get a start they call the energy investment phase and you have to invest 2 ATP.1111

ATP that is usable energy.1118

The phosphates come off of it to give you 2 ADP.1120

You could see in the next shot these little yellow dots they are inorganic phosphates that is why it PI not pi like ¼.1125

This is inorganic phosphate and they came from these 2 ATP molecules.1135

Then you get a splitting of this glucose in half.1140

Now G3P stands for glycoceride triphosphate.1145

You do not need to know that.1150

You now have half of sugar with phosphate attached to it and half of sugar attached to it.1151

The next thing that happens is some of the hydrogen are stripped off of this.1157

You will end up getting what is called ADH.1163

Initially you have something that is called AD+.1171

I will explain this.1173

An AD+ is like electron carrier.1176

Think of it as a boat or shuttle for electrons and when it takes them somewhere and electrons go into a reaction.1180

The flow of electrons can power the making of ATP eventually at the end.1189

This is a kind of investing to get way more ATP way at the end.1194

An ADP+ when electrons or hydrogen which contains electrons comes on to it, you get NADH.1200

This is like the powered NAD+ that is going to dump its electrons later on.1207

You make this in the next few parts of aerobic respiration for the payoff of – H1214

will give up the H proton and electrons to help make a lot of ATP in the end.1220

The next thing that happens is you have a vacancy here.1226

Remember carbon always likes to have 4 bonds.1229

Something is left, the bond is gone and there are free phosphates around they are put into place here.1232

Now you have these little halves of glucose each with 2 phosphates.1241

The great thing is in the next step is where you get some payoff.1246

This is an energy investment and you want to invest 2 but at the end you get 4 ATP and it comes from attaching these 4 phosphates onto 4 ADP.1251

You will get 4 ATP.1267

The great thing is 4 ATP more than what we invest in initially.1268

4 ATP – 2 is still a net gain, total gain of 2 ATP.1274

Just breaking down sugar is a little energy itself.1280

We will break it a lot more later on.1284

In addition to the making of a net gain of 2 ATP, the 2 adh is you also have 2 pyruvates also called pyruvic acid.1286

These 2 pyruvates each undergo a slight modification and enter what is called the kreb cycle.1297

2 krebs cycles happen.1303

One cycle for each of these to continue the process of aerobic respiration.1306

These pyruvates they are going to go in the mitochondria.1309

The kreb cycle also known as the citric acid cycle because the first part of the cycle involves the making of citric acid.1313

A scientist named Kreb is the one who named it in after his self.1322

The kreb cycle you can sometimes see it labeled as TCA cycle or the citric acid cycle.1327

These are interchangeable.1339

Pyruvate gets modified into what is called acetyl- coA.1341

CoA stands for coenzyme A.1345

It is shuttling this acetyl to the kreb cycle which is in the mitochondrial matrix.1347

If you remember from the previous image here is a mitochondria if we look to cross section of it.1353

The kreb cycles they are happening in here.1363

The mitochondrial matrix which is within that chrystae.1369

The glycolysis stuff happen outside here.1374

They happen in the cytoplasm.1379

Those pyruvates come in and those little action going on here the krebs cycle galore.1380

It takes 2 pyruvates, attaches them to a 4 carbon molecule called oxilo acetate1386

and then eventually breaks that down to citric acid down to make more electron carriers.1393

We can take little ATP out of it.1399

What initially happens let us use red for the carbon.1401

Here is pyruvate and eventually you are going to get this out of it.1408

What happens is pyruvate is modified to make this little acetyl and what happens is you get coenzyme A.1421

This helps modify and take pyruvate into the kreb cycle.1439

One sits here by the way.1443

The little blue box leaves and goes it picks up another pyruvate.1445

The other little pieces that happen here is you do make some NADH.1449

In addition to CO2 leaving that is how you get from pyruvate with 3 carbons to this little acetyl which is attached to acetyl coA.1460

That is how you get one less carbon as CO2 leaves.1474

Guess what happens to that CO2?1478

We exhale it.1480

You are going to see a couple CO2 leave in the kreb cycle as well.1482

That is waste that you cannot breathe out.1486

It is waste from the process of breaking down sugar.1488

Here is basically what happens.1491

This is how it gets modified to give you the acetyl which is helps to get modified from the coA.1493

This joins in with 4 carbon molecule to give you another ACS.1499

This is citrate or citric acid.1517

It is the same citric acid you would find in citrus fruits but that we are producing this constantly1524

every second of every day of our life on kreb cycles.1530

The cool thing about remembering the sequence here is that the first two steps are identical in terms of what ends up happening.1533

By the way these are all catalyzed.1549

They help to occur from enzyme.1551

These are enzyme catalyzed reactions.1556

They do not all just happen naturally but this breakdown does happen on assisted.1558

There are others enzymes, proteins that help all these things happen in sequence.1563

The first step is that CO2 leaves and guess what happens again in the second step, CO2 leaves.1570

We will eventually get down to the 4 carbon molecule again.1579

It is not quite the same as this because some other things will be stripped off of this molecule.1583

You can see that once you get to this point no more CO2 is leaving because1588

at the end here we have to come back regenerate this 4 carbon molecule.1592

The first two steps also you make some NADH.1596

The more NADH you make the more AT inevitably will be produced at the end.1606

Those 2 steps in the beginning is basically the same.1615

Next thing that happens is you make an ATP.1621

I am simplifying this a bit.1631

ADP comes over and gains a phosphate to become ATP.1634

Where is the phosphate come from?1639

There is a molecule GDP that helps us get the phosphate in a place so there are actually few little mini steps here that I am crossing over.1643

The end result from this part of the cycle is you get the production of 1 ATP.1654

Each kreb cycle does give you another ATP.1659

Next step we make something called FADH2.1664

FADH2 is very similar to NADH.1668

The hydrogen that fad gain is going to dump off in the last part of aerobic respiration to get a lot of ATP.1672

By the way, fab and NAD+ what those stand for.1682

I do not remember they are long names and that is why we have abbreviations for them.1688

Fad also a electron proton carrier.1694

Now it is carrying that stuff and strip them off of this molecule.1698

One more step and then we are home free.1703

Next that happen is you get one more NADH.1711

We are going to add up the products, the stuff that we take away from this.1716

We would not count this is a product even though we are leftover with this 4 carbon molecule because it needs to go back into the kreb cycle.1722

It is something that taking away from cycle.1731

What we are taking away is how many NADH is 3.1734

You could count this as well.1740

A lot of people refer to this as the intermediate step between glycolysis and kreb cycle but you do get few NADH.1743

You get 1 ATP, 1 FADH, 2 CO2.1750

This is a waste product, what is the product nonetheless.1757

Kreb cycle is an important step in the process of aerobic respiration.1760

We are going to chrystae in the mitochondria to actually make a load of ATP.1768

Oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative you may think O because of oxygen.1775

That is fine if you want to remember that but the oxidative part when you oxidize something you are breaking it apart.1782

Electrons are coming off of it.1790

When you reduce something electron are gained.1791

Oxidation reduction or reduce reactions is another way to put it.1795

We have learned those in chemistry.1799

If you get those mixed up, remember that since electrons are negatively charged, when you say something is reduced you are adding electron.1801

More negatives reduce it in terms of like a number line.1810

Oxidative or oxidation that has to do with the opposite.1814

On you actually are breaking some parts.1821

NADH and FADH2 they are oxidized in this process.1824

They lose what they have gained when they were reduced.1827

End up helping to make a lot of ATP and that is phosphorylation.1830

When you are adding phosphates to something you are phosphorylating it.1835

You are phosphorylating ADP to make a lot of ATP.1839

All of these NADH and FADH2 that were made in glycolysis or kreb cycle you actually use them here.1845

You can see that here is our NADH that was made in mitochondria matrix.1852

This is a simplified version of the chrystae membrane.1855

It is just a rectangle here but typically you will see it kind of weavy.1859

All along the chrystae the membrane in the mitochondria you are going to have these proteins embedded in the chrystae in the membrane.1866

They are going to be shuttling along electrons and what happens to the protons is all these H+ is a proton.1876

NADH gave up protons so does FADH2 and they go across the membrane into the inter membrane space.1883

You get a buildup of all kinds of protons here.1895

What is happening is basically like diffusion of protons in a sense.1904

It is going to be happening.1912

And they actually nickname it is keeney osmosis.1913

Keeney osmosis is a fancy term for the flow of protons that is going to end up going through this ATP syntase to make a lot of ATP.1917

Electron transport chain is the other part that happens here.1925

I am going to use blue to highlight that.1929

All along here you get electrons.1933

The final destination of electrons is going to be oxygen.1936

They call oxygen gas here and then finally we hear about oxygen on aerobic respiration.1942

They call oxygen gas here the final electron acceptor.1948

It also technically is accepting protons too because you are not making water.1951

It is the opposite of photosynthesis.1956

Those synthesis water is broken down to give electrons, protons, and oxygen gas.1959

Here it is the opposite.1964

Oxygen gas is accepting these electrons moving through and then you get water.1965

The water that is produced through anaerobic respiration is not enough to hydrate a human being.1971

I have heard that some animals in extremely air dry conditions can go for days without drinking water.1977

For them the amount of water that they are producing in aerobic respiration is enough to keep them hydrated.1985

That is not true for us.1991

Water is a product of aerobic respiration.1993

What happens to the protons?1995

The protons buildup in here and they are going to be fueling directly making an ATP.1997

It is like water flowing through a water wheel.2002

The water turns the wheel and then you end up getting something being powered.2004

The flow of electrons do ATP syntheses.2009

It is kind of like a turbine that spins.2012

As it spins it helps attach phosphates to ATP and you get a load of ATP, close to 30 ATP from doing this.2014

And that is amazing to consider because we got a net gain of 2 from glycolysis.2027

We got a total of 2 from the 2 krebs cycles.2035

The vast majority of ATP you are making during oxidative phosphorylation.2039

Once you have NAD+ left over and fad that is going to go back and into the citric acid cycle.2043

Some of it will exit on mitochondria.2052

There is probably actually are enough NAD+ inside the mitochondria for glycolysis but nonetheless the point is that the cycles keep going.2055

As long as you are supplying glucose, sugar, and oxygen, you going to keep having aerobic respiration occurring.2063

What happens when there is not enough oxygen called anaerobic respiration after glycolysis?2071

Glycolysis does not require oxygen.2079

There is no oxygen involve there.2082

After glycolysis which is the initial breakdown of sugar.2083

If enough 02 was not available, pyruvates undergo fermentation.2086

What we do as animals or human being specifically is lactic acid fermentation.2092

There is also alcohol fermentation which we take advantage of when we make alcohol beverages or even when we bake bread.2098

Yeast do alcoholic fermentation.2105

We do lactic acid fermentation.2109

Lactic acid is formed after glycolysis if there are no O2.2111

That causes a burning sensation in our muscles if we go for a long run or do a lot of intense activity in a short amount of time.2115

Being out of breath and you get that burning sensation in your muscles it is lactic acid.2123

The more active you are like if you are an olympic athlete you probably not feel lactic acid burn2127

because the efficiency of your body has been improved over years.2134

Lactic acid research has shown that it make sense that it will slow you down when your muscles hurt.2138

What lactic acid also does in your bloodstream is stimulates you to breathe more, to take more breaths which is going to get more 02 in.2147

That inevitably you will be able to stop doing an anaerobic respiration and go back to aerobic once you have got little rest.2156

Fermentation specifically the lactic acid variety produces only ATP from glycolysis, no additional ATP happen for fermentation.2164

That means that anaerobic respiration as a whole the total on ATP is just making of 2.2175

There is on kreb cycle.2182

There is no oxidative phosphorylation.2184

There is no making of ATP during this fermentation process.2185

Here is lactic acid fermentation, glucose initially.2189

Glycolysis happens and you to get the 2 pyruvates or pyruvic acid.2193

Here is the real fermentation part.2198

Nad is regenerated.2200

It is the opposite of what happened in a glycolysis because we need NADH.2202

NADH form from glycolysis gives back the H as it gained to make NAD+ again.2207

Once you add that stuff from NADH back to pyruvate you will end up getting to lactic acid or lacatate.2216

That is what causes that burning sensation in your muscles.2227

You can do anaerobic respiration for your muscles no problem.2230

Anaerobic respiration in your brain that is a problem.2236

Your brain without enough oxygen gas for several minutes can result in brain death.2239

Something like your muscles can deal with anaerobic respiration.2246

Other tissues their demand for oxygen is even more.2249

I have mentioned earlier that you can have other organic molecules be broken apart for energy beside sugar.2257

Of sugars is a classic one that is broken down but you can make glucose through gluconeogenesis from other organic precursors.2266

You can take lactic acid and make glucose out of it.2276

You probably need 2 lactic acid because lactic acid has 3 carbons.2280

Glycerol which is a part of lipids has a similar, getting the name glycolysis, glucose, glycerol, it also has 3 carbons.2287

You can take amino acids.2299

The way they take amino acids or the building blocks of proteins and make glucose out of it is deamination.2300

You are taking off what is called amino group which makes it an amino acid.2306

Deamination is one example of how gluconeogenesis can happen.2310

You are taking an amino acid here and through the enzyme and adding water you will end up getting NH3.2315

This right here is an amino group on amino acid taken off.2324

This resembles a sugar much more.2329

It can easily enter somewhere in that aerobic respiration process.2333

Sometimes you are modifying it to make glucose.2337

You can also sometimes modify a molecule so it can become acetyl and go straight into the kreb cycle.2341

And either way gluconeogenesis is a way that you will end up getting energy through aerobic respiration from other organic molecules.2347

Glycogenesis would be making glycogen, a huge polysaccharide, storage sugar from ADP glucose, the monosaccharide.2355

The opposite glycogenolysis, lysis is the breakdown.2365

This is the breakdown of glycogen to make glucose.2372

Here we are making the storage molecule.2375

Here we are breaking apart the storage molecule.2377

Insulin is a hormone that get sugars out of your bloodstream and packaged away as glycogen.2380

Glycogenesis what happened thanks to insulin.2386

Glycogenolysis is what happens thanks to glucagon which you will hear more about in the endocrine system lessons.2388

Lipids structure and function their called fats.2398

A classic example is triglycerides.2401

You can have a fat that is not a triglyceride like cholesterol.2404

That is also a lipid, a fatty substance but triglycerides is a classic one that you hear a lot about in textbooks.2409

What is a triglyceride made of?2417

It is made up of glycerol attached to 3 fatty acids that is where triglyceride comes from.2419

Glycer from that word glycerol, tri 3 fatty acid chains attached to it.2425

The glycerol similar to a sugar here is the glycerol portion right here.2429

You will see the 3 carbons, hydrogen attached to it and initially they have little OH here that is what is the term ol like alcohol, they have OH.2439

Hydroxide attachment.2451

What happens to the H?2453

When you attach the 3 fatty acids on here, that reaction makes it so that actually is just oxygen attached to a carbon.2454

Remember from before with those ring structures, the ring shape of the glucose, at the corners here the shorthand version is these are carbons.2464

What is attached to the carbons?2474


The name for these fatty acid chains which I am going to use red for is hydrocarbon chains.2477

Here is fatty acid chain and here is a fatty acid chain.2483

They can vary in length depending on the precise fatty acid chain is attaching to because they are all different names.2488

You get different triglycerides.2498

Lipids are non polar, opposite of water.2501

They are not soluble in water.2504

Just drizzling oil like vegetable oil in a pan of water, it is easy to see that they do not like mixing together.2506

This is the only organic compound as a whole that is always non polar.2514

What are these for?2520

Energy source, insulation, and hormones synthesis.2522

You actually can get a heck of a lot energy out of the lipid molecule.2525

Per gram you can take more ATP out of it than sugars actually.2530

Insulation, think about all the lipids under your skin at the lowest parts or deepest parts of your integumentary system.2534

It is a cushioning.2543

It is also insulatory in terms of helping to keep you warm.2544

Hormone synthesis there are some hormones without fat in your body you would not be able to make.2548

Estrogen is an example.2555

That is why women who end up having a very low body fat percentage sometimes their menstrual cycle will stop completely.2557

Because they stopped making enough estrogen to keep it going.2567

Overtime that is not very healthy.2571

One more thing before we move on.2577

Here you will see an additional line and this is a double bond.2580

The double bonds here make little kinks in the fatty acid chains.2585

And that is going to come up a little bit with the difference between a saturated fats vs. Unsaturated fats.2590

Saturated vs. Unsaturated fats.2597

Saturated fats have no double bonds in the hydrocarbon chains.2601

When you do not have the double bonds in a chain of hydrocarbon.2606

They are just carbon with HS attached all over it.2611

If you have double bonds you do not get little kinks.2615

The double bond that can make it bend.2618

They are all flat.2621

When they are flat I like to think of it as like this.2622

This textbook all of these pages, the hundreds of pages are all very flat with respect to each other.2628

They are not bent or folded and it is easy to close the book and make it very dense.2634

Think of a lot of saturated fats as being that way.2640

Saturated fats are typically solid at room temperature like butter.2645

Why is butter solid?2651

It is because of the saturated fat that will end up getting from a typically animal tissue.2653

If you have a lot of the saturated fats stacked closely together they will be denser.2658

They will be more solid.2664

Unlike unsaturated fats which have at least one double bond in hydrocarbon chains and the double bonds make it kink.2665

Here is the example that is used for that.2675

Here is a flat piece of paper which like I have said earlier if they are saturated fats they can be stacked closely together.2677

But imagine I make it bend like this.2683

These representing those double bonds causing kinks in the chains.2686

If I lay a bunch of these on top of each other it is hard to make them densely compacted.2690

That is why unsaturated fats tend to be liquid at room temperature like this olive oil.2695

Do not get me wrong, olive oil that is why oils can have a little bit of a saturated fat in them but nowhere near as much as butter.2703

You are going to see more unsaturated fats in oils from plants.2712

Typically liquid at room temperature like vegetable oils.2716

What does this has to do with health?2721

The higher unsaturated fat you have in your diet the less like it you are going to get plaques developing in your artery specifically coronary arteries.2722

That is where you are getting a heart attack.2733

If you have a diet high in saturated fat the amount of saturated fat flowing through your bloodstream in addition that stuff like cholesterol,2735

you are more likely get fatty streaks of fats on the inside of those blood vessels.2742

Overtime plaques can develop that cause the width of that artery to get more narrow.2749

The more narrow, the less blood flow and inevitably that affects your heart in a negative way.2758

Keeping in saturated fats down in your diet is important.2763

Unsaturated fats they are a good thing.2767

Lipid catabolism.2771

Catabolism is a breakdown.2773

Lipolysis is the breakdown of lipids for energy use.2775

When we take a triglyceride and break it apart what happens to the glycerol is converted to pyruvate which also has 3 carbons like glycerol.2782

It enters the krebs cycle.2792

Modified pyruvate becomes acetyl coa and enters kreb cycle.2794

Fatty acids are processed by enzymes to make acetyl coa.2799

You can actually chop of the fatty acid into lots of different acetyl coa because fatty acids can be like 40 carbons long sometimes or less.2803

Beta-oxidation related to those fatty acids.2815

When you take fatty acids and you break them down into 2 carbon fragments to make this.2818

Something amazing happens in terms of the amount of ATP from 118 carbon fatty acid chain.2824

You can actually get 144 ATP from just that one chain.2833

That is more than from glucose.2839

You might wonder why is our body just use fats way more than sugar, it was more efficient.2842

The speed at which breakdown of a sugar happens is way faster.2849

If you are taking in sugars and lipids your body will use some of those lipids to break down into making ATP.2855

But the ease at which sugars broken down to make ATP is the reason why our body tends to rely on that more.2867

A common misconception of diets is people will just have hardly any fat intake but their intake of sugar may be too high.2873

When your body will take that excess sugar and it can store it as fat.2883

You got to you watch your diet not just looking at no fat where your calories are coming from as a whole.2889

In terms of making lipids, lipogenesis is the origin of lipids that is the building of molecules.2896

Some fatty acids though cannot be built in terms of a string together that chain and2907

attaching to glycerol and they are called essential fatty acids like linoleic acid.2914

Those you have to get your diet.2923

You are not making them on your own.2925

The others like lipoproteins, the name says it all, it is a lipid protein complex.2927

When we look at lipoproteins, the first one is actually made in your intestinal epithelium.2934

As you eat fats in the lining of your intestine you are going to make these microns.2940

You know too much of this your amount of lipid molecules in your bloodstream may be too high.2950

Inevitably you will end up storing too many fats in your adipose tissue which is at the deepest part of your integumentary system.2958

Next up we have these four.2966

These 4 all are made in the liver unlike the chylamicrons.2968

Very low density lipoproteins if you look at the sequence of these down the LDL.2973

LDL and HDL are going to have slightly more percentage of protein involved.2980

Very low density lipoproteins, lipoproteins they are important in terms of producing molecules, shuttling molecules.2987

When we look at LDL and HDL you may have heard about these in terms of good and bad cholesterol.3000

LDL are known as bad cholesterol and then HDL are the good cholesterol.3009

If you get a blood panel done in terms of testing your cholesterol level like maybe your cholesterol level is 116 which is very healthy.3018

On but you may not have a celebration of that if you are LDL percentage of that is really high compared to your HTL.3029

That is why in addition to the total number you get for cholesterol levels they also want a look at what is the HDL number and what is the LDL number.3040

The reason why low density lipoproteins are called bad cholesterol is because this is the3048

kind of a protein that takes lipids to your peripheral tissues like into the bloodstream into your tissues.3055

If you are doing too much of that the cholesterol levels in your bloodstream.3062

HDL is the opposite in the sense that high density lipoproteins they take fats out of your bloodstream for the sense of storage.3068

That is why the bad is bad and good is good.3083

Depending on the person this is not the best term to use because somebody could have an HDL level that is actually too high.3086

Just because your LDL is high does not mean you are going to have a heart attack soon.3096

Those are the general terms that people look at in terms of measuring HDL vs. LDL.3101

On to proteins, this is the most abundant organic compound in the body like I said earlier in the lesson.3107

They took all the water out of the body, protein is the next most abundant substance.3114

The building blocks of proteins are amino acids and like sugars and lipids the way that3118

you put together amino acids is a dehydration synthesis.3126

The way that you break them apart is hydrolysis.3130

It is the same with attaching those 3 fatty acids to the glycerol.3133

Those dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis terms are applicable here as well.3137

They are water soluble as a whole.3143

What I mean by that is your protein as a whole this is a computer generated model of a protein structure, this thing as a whole is ok with water.3145

The whole thing would be considered water soluble.3153

But there are some amino acids that would be inside of this potentially that are non polar.3156

There are 20 amino acids in nature.3162

Some of them are non polar.3165

The majority is ok with water.3167

Many functions that is why in one of the first slides of the lesson I said that proteins are arguably the most important because they do so much.3169

You cannot live without carbohydrates and lipids or nucleic acids but check all things that proteins do.3177

Support, in terms of on a cellular level the cytoskeleton that is keeping inside a cell stabilize is made up of protein.3183

In terms of the connective tissue in your body that supporting organs as a whole supporting your body as a whole it is made of proteins and protein fibers.3193

Movements, movement with in a cell.3202

Movements of your body as a whole happen because of protein.3205

Your muscle proteins allow you to move.3210

It is extremely important.3213

Transport, not only shuttling molecules through the bloodstream like attached to a protein.3214

Hemoglobin is a classic example that is a protein.3220

But also transport in and out of cells, membrane proteins, channel proteins.3224

Buffering, if it was not for proteins certain molecules would have greater ability to harm you in terms of a PH levels.3229

Buffering is very important.3238

Enzymatic action, enzymes, there are millions of enzymes and they all are made of proteins.3240

They are protein molecules that help a reaction along.3248

Hormones synthesis there a lot of proteins in your body designed just for making hormones.3252

One of them would be epinephrine adrenaline made up of protein.3259

Defense, one example of that would be antibodies.3264

Antibodies which target bacteria or foreign invaders in your body.3268

Those are made of protein.3272

I want to show you this image that is going to come up in a second in terms of the different structural levels of protein.3274

You can have these little helical shaped protein parts and you can have little sheets that are pleated.3283

There are a lot of different shapes you can get from the structural parts of proteins.3291

Amino acids there are 20 different ones in nature and there are 20 different R groups.3297

This is a variable R, sometimes it will be an H there.3302

Sometimes it can be called benzene ring.3308

Sometimes it can be LH.3310

All these different R groups here that make the 20 amino acids different from each other.3313

The majority of amino acids can be synthesized in the human body.3319

The others are considered as essential amino acids.3322

Just like with lipids earlier essential amino acids you need to take in within your diet.3324

Peptide bonds hold amino acids together.3330

Once again it is a dehydration synthesis.3334

This is the amino group, I saw the A here and thought differently.3340

They call it acid up here but I have seen this more in textbooks they are called a carboxo group is the name for this.3348

CO2H you can abbreviate it as that.3359

That is the carboxo group.3364

An OH on that and then if you look at the amino group over here that makes water.3368

When these 2 leave it is a dehydration synthesis.3373

Let me erase this and show you how the peptide bond forms.3379

It is going to be between the nitrogen of 1 amino acid and the carbon of the caroboxo with the next and vice versa.3384

This carboxo group carbon is going to be linked to nitrogen of the neighboring amino acid.3397

You can get an amino acid chain made up of what is called peptide bonds.3402

Amino acid chains are also called polypeptides for that reason is a bunch of peptide bonds stringing together amino acids.3406

Protein structures.3415

4 basic levels of protein structure.3416

The primary structure is like I have mention a second ago.3418

Amino acids chains, just a stringing together amino acids that is your most basic small little protein.3422

That is what you are seeing here.3429

I know this is in Chinese but this is a really long amino acid chain.3430

That is a primary structure and they are zooming into these 4 showing you what amino acids they are.3434

Ceistein, serine, lucine, phenylalanine and whatever other amino acids here.3439

That is your primary structure.3446

Secondary structure you saw some of them in that previous image.3448

When you make bonds between the atoms that are on these amino acids and make some kind of shape,3453

out of that amino acid chain like that specific shape might be a helix.3460

That shape might be a beta pleated sheet like pleats in pants.3466

It is the same concept in terms of like have little folds that is how you get the secondary structures.3475

You get a lot of different kinds of shaped proteins, different protein functions by having different combinations of helixes, beta pleated sheets.3484

Sometimes they are called alpha helixes.3494

The point is that bond between the different parts of these secondary structures is how you get from primary to secondary.3497

Tertiary structures if I take a bunch of secondary structures and put them together and have them bond3507

in a way and are acting in a way or it is now a bigger and more functional protein.3512

That is how you get tertiary, the third level.3517

The interactions from the polypeptides and the surrounding fluid near it as well as R group.3519

The specific amino acid chain with in the secondary structure once you put them together3525

that is going to impact your tertiary structure.3531

Especially from a kind of bond called disulfide bonds or disulfide bridges.3533

If we had these 2 attached to one another and there was sulfur helping connect them that is3538

how you would get this disulfide bond between the secondary structures to make the tertiary structure.3546

And finally taking tertiary structures and bring them together you get a full fledge protein.3552

By full pledged protein I mean something like hemoglobin which is in red blood cells or something like catalyst which is an enzyme in the liver.3559

The quaternary structure is how you get your complete protein with a certain shape matching whenever it is supposed to do.3568

Whether it is a catalyzing reaction or structural protein.3574

We are done to proteins.3578

Vitamins, what are vitamins?3581

They are required as a vital nutrients in limited amounts.3584

In your daily intake of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, trace amounts of vitamins are sometimes all it is required.3588

Some people will take a multi vitamin daily.3598

Some doctors will joke that you just paying for expensive urine.3601

When it comes into the urinary system lessons you will see more about that.3606

But the reason why they say that is these vitamins, I am listing a few of them.3610

If you have a well balance diet and you are taking in enough vegetables and whole grains, etc., different protein sources well.3615

You are going to get these vitamins in reasonable amounts in your body3625

and you may already be excreting some of them out via urine as waste.3630

People who have low balanced diet and are taking a multivitamin every day they do not necessarily need it.3634

If it helps you sleep at night then do it.3639

We look at vitamins in terms of their structure, some of them are fat soluble meaning not water soluble3641

and others are polar meaning they do dissolve easily in water.3649

Vitamin A actually helps for epithelium in your body which is found in virtually every organ.3659

You have also heard about the eye thing like carrots is one source of adequate amounts of vitamin A.3661

It is not going to give your sight back like I need glasses.3667

My sight is not going to get better but in terms of keeping your retinal health up there, the retina is very important.3671

Vitamin A is good for that.3678

Vitamin D is not just from diet.3680

You are not going to get milk as your only source of vitamin D or something like that you actually from getting enough sunlight,3684

from enough UV radiation in your skin will make vitamin D.3690

Vitamin D helps to absorb calcium.3694

It is it is for bone growth, for maintenance of bone health as well as joints.3698

Without vitamin D you are not going to get enough calcium absorbed in your blood stream.3703

Vitamin E actually prevents the breakdown of vitamin A and certain fatty acids.3708

Vitamin E not always remembered as much as these two but important.3716

Vitamin K helps with clotting factors.3719

If you do not have vitamin K on your body you are talking some kind of a blood disease potentially forming.3723

We need vitamin K.3731

Water soluble are b1, b2, b5, b6, b12, that is most of the vitamins.3735

You will get these mainly from meat and milk.3739

Some of them from bread like b1 but meat is a common source of these.3744

Not just meat but let us say you are vegan.3751

If you are vegan talk to your doctor about some other sources for these vitamins.3756

If you are completely excluding meat and eggs and so on and milk from your diet.3762

Niacin and folate are important.3766

I have read that folate in a woman who is pregnant early on and before she knows she is pregnant.3769

Folate is extremely important for the development of the embryo in terms of development of the spinal cord especially.3778

Low levels of folate early on in pregnancy make some more likely a baby can be born with something like spinal bifida.3786

Niacin, without niacin you would not be able to make NAD.3792

Early on in the lesson we have talked about NAD+ and ADH, without niacin you are not going to be able to make that3796

and it is a very important molecule in terms of aerobic inspiration.3803

And finely vitamin C here is a picture of vitamin C.3806

Vitamin C you have heard about vitamin C is an important molecule in terms of keeping many different tissues healthy.3809

It is also an antioxidant that helps lower the risk of cancer overtime.3823

Not enough vitamin C will give you scurvy.3826

If you have heard about sailors or pirates 100 years of we are getting scurvy.3829

They start keeping oranges on the ship to prevent that vitamin C deficiency from happening.3834

When we look at minerals, minerals are really tiny, inorganic ions not organic released from electrolytes like NaCl or table salt.3840

You are going to get sodium and chloride out of that.3851

Those are minerals.3852

Functions osmotic balance, keeping the right amounts of water in different parts of the body.3854

Not getting too much on one side or too little on the other or losing water or gaining water.3859

Minerals are important for that, osmotic balance.3864

Tissue maintenance and use.3867

Something as simple as like nerve function.3869

Without the sodium and potassium you are not going to be able to have your neurons functioning properly.3872

Cramps is just the beginning.3879

Enzyme cofactors , some enzymes are not going to work properly without minerals.3881

Some examples.3890

I know you have heard of these sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, iron, zinc, copper.3891

If you do take a multivitamin you are going to find that some of these things can be included.3895

Sweat is one way of that these come out of the body not just through urine3900

but sweating a lot is going to release some of these minerals or electrolytes.3904

That is why people, when someone drink those sports beverages which have sugar in them but sports beverage is used to regenerate that.3909

You know people who get like a muscle cramp they will say eat a banana and the reason why is3919

there is a high amount of potassium in a banana.3924

A muscle cramp may be due to just over use of the muscle or may be due to sweating out some of those minerals.3926

You want to replenish that to get back to normal.3933

In terms of a balanced diet I could talk for a long time about this but I am going to highlight the main things.3939

When you look at food guide pyramid you are going to see different examples of them depending on what source.3945

You are going to see grains making up a lot of what you should take.3951

The whole grains from breads, plant products.3955

Vegetables, speaking of plant products vegetables and fruits not only contain a lot of important vitamins3960

and minerals and national source of sugars but also fiber.3967

They are very important which we are going to discuss in the next slide.3972

Americans in general do not eat enough vegetables and fruits.3975

A lot of people do but in general that is something the average American diet is missing.3979

Studies have shown time and time again that a diet high in fruits and vegetables makes it less likely to develop cancer.3984

Keeping your tissues healthy, antioxidants, etc.3992

Dairy or milk products, some people refused to drink milk products or eat cheese, yogurt, etc.3996

Dairy does provide certain vitamins and minerals that are important.4006

There are other ways to get that.4012

Meat and beans, you do not need meat.4014

I know plenty of vegetarians and vegans were healthy but meat is an easy way4018

to get iron in your body to get essential amino acids in your body.4024

Moderation is key not too much meat .4029

If you are not on meat you are taking in exceeds grains and vegetables, constipation is one problem you are going to have.4032

You are probably going to be malnourished in some way.4038

Beans is a great source of protein as well.4041

Not as much protein is jam packed in meat but beans is a good source of protein.4044

This is actually not your typical food guide pyramid, this is a vegan food guide pyramind.4050

If you look carefully you will see that there are no animal products involved.4056

This is a way that someone who is vegan to keep on top of it in terms of making sure4061

they are getting the right amount of nutrients and vitamins and minerals.4067

Oils you are always going to see at the top in terms of the least amount you should be having per day4071

because it is just a source of a lot of fat that you are going to get any ways from a lot of these particular products.4076

Some people make a mistake and having like a giant salad.4083

Salad itself is nothing wrong with it.4086

Fruits and vegetables and etc. But a salad with a bunch of ranch dressing pour all over it, that is a bad thing with a good thing.4089

Ranch dressing has a lot of oils, saturated fat.4097

You are getting animal products together to make that ranch dressing.4101

That is a source of oils for something like a salad actually might be less healthy than4107

some other option using a vinaigrette dressing or vinegar oil combination.4111

Dressing is going to be a lot lower in the saturated fats and higher in unsaturated fats.4117

Nutrition facts.4125

People see these almost every day in someone will think twice about.4126

If we quickly go through what nutrition facts mean and they are important.4129

Serving size, if you look at the top, whatever package you are looking at here, we got macaroni and cheese.4133

Serving size 1 cup, you could mass it to get 228g but just that volume measurement 1 cup and there are 2 servings per container.4141

If you could zoom the entire box of mac and cheese, you got to multiply all of these by 2.4150

Some people forget that.4157

They look at the nutrition facts and say it is only 3g of saturated fats, no it is actually 6 because we weigh the whole thing.4158

I have seen this even in bags of chips where people they are going to eat the whole thing.4164

I have seen little bags of chips where it says 2 servings per bag.4172

It is misleading the person.4175

They got to look carefully and they might have to double everything in terms of what is in there.4178

Serving size and servings per container is important.4183

All of these measurements have to do with consuming one serving.4186

Calories per serving it says 250 calories.4189

Calories is a way of measuring amount of energy contained in it.4194

The calories came from fat, sugar, etc.4198

Calories from fat almost half of the calories are from fat.4205

That is important to consider too.4210

There is a law pass in California recently and that makes it where all the franchise restaurants have to put the amount of calories in the menu.4214

I think that is great that people can see that but what they do not have to tell you is the amount of fat calories.4222

Something maybe 100 calories but it might be 70 calories from fat inside of there.4228

It is important to consider what percentage of calories is coming from fat specially if you are trying to lose or watch your weight.4236

When we look at fat, the percent daily value basically means if you are on a 2000 calorie diet4245

which is kind of average the amount of calories you are taking in per day.4251

If you want to have the right amount of fat and cholesterol and carbohydrates by the end of the day pay attention to the percentages.4255

If you have a 12 g of fat from the serving that is only 18% of what you are allowed to have in terms of maintaining healthy balance.4263

You still can go another 82% in terms of what is left.4272

You do not typically see the percentage for protein.4276

Protein needs really depend on your activity in muscular terms and sense but when you look at fat cholesterol sodium4280

they will give you a guide here in terms of the percentage.4289

In general we say 5% or less that is low.4292

If you are looking for a low fat kind of option and you see 20 -30% over here and that is not a low-fat option.4295

Because 20% or more is high.4304

For instance when we look at soup.4306

The sodium levels in soup most cans that you are going to buy in stores, you are looking at like 50, 604308

sometimes even greater percentage of sodium in the soup.4315

They are using that sodium to the flavor it.4318

You got to watch yourself intake.4321

When we look at fats in this yellow section, saturated, trans the total fat 12 g that includes saturated, trans, unsaturated.4323

The different types of unsaturated fats there are polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, they are not listing those here.4333

But I have seen on the different food products they say here is the amount of monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats.4341

Saturated fat is only 25% of the total 3 out of 12.4348

Trans fats are very unhealthy.4356

Some restaurants have decided to completely eliminate trans fats because they have been linked to heart disease.4360

A little bit now and then is not a big deal but if you are watching your cholesterol levels, heart disease risk, trans fat is not good.4365

There are 3 g in this mac and cheese by the time you add all the stuff in.4377

Cholesterol is lipidy, that is a lipid molecule.4382

Cholesterol level is only 8 to 10% of what you allotted per day.4389

If your cholesterol level is high, let us say your total number with a blood panel and your LDL is extremely high.4393

Doctors might say you need to cut on cholesterol.4401

Cut the fried foods, cut ranch dressing, cut the desserts, those things that are tasty because they have cholesterol.4403

People like myself actually make cholesterol a little bit more in my liver than other people.4410

That is a genetic thing from my mom side.4418

I need to watch my cholesterol levels and does not going excessive in eating desserts after a meal.4419

Some people like my brother were more fortunate and he can eat a little bit more healthy than me4426

and have the same cholesterol level because his liver is not cranking out as much as I am.4431

Sodium specifically from salt.4437

Sodium 4 to 7 mg about 20%.4441

You are recommended to have around 2000 mg or 2 g per day.4445

On some doctors even say that is a lot.4449

It depends on the person.4451

If you have high blood pressure and you have physiological problems in terms of your health4452

you want limit your sodium because over time the more salt you take in the more likely is that your blood pressures to go up.4458

Carbohydrates and sugars.4466

We look at sugars there is 31g make sense.4468

There is going to be carbohydrates in the macaroni in terms of the pasta.4472

There is going to be carbohydrates in the milk, cheese, etc.4476

Carbohydrates is 31g that is only 10% of what you are recommended to have every day.4480

You can go 310g.4485

Atkins diet would be one of those diets where your muscles have carbohydrates.4488

That is not a healthy option for everybody.4492

Talk to your doctor first before going into a low carb diet.4494

That is an option for some people to lose weight easier but4497

for most people having some cards in your body every day is a good thing but in moderation.4503

Dietary fiber, that is kind of carb that we do not digest and absorb.4509

It comes from cellulose.4516

Cellulose is in plants.4519

When you eat something like celery vegetation, it is drain for your intestine because you are not absorbing all of that stuff.4521

It is sliding through and it is good in terms of keeping you regular with trips to the bathroom.4530

People who do not have enough fiber in their diet are going to get hard stools and more likely to get constipations.4539

Fibers are good in terms of maintaining intestinal health.4544

Sugars are those digestible sugars.4547

There are 21g of carbohydrates, sugar here might be just simply glucose but you can see 31 total grams of sugars.4550

Protein 5g.4561

Protein is very important in your diet because not only for maintaining muscle mass but you make many molecules from proteins in your body.4562

Those amino acids you do not want to get low on those.4572

You can see at the bottom there is vitamin.4575

Depending on what vitamins are in there, they will list those.4578

Notice that there is no vitamin K listed here.4581

There is no vitamin E listed here and that is because this dish is not a significant source of those vitamins.4583

You can see that if they adjust here, in terms of if your total calorie intake is 2500 since your total calorie intake is more,4588

you can take in more grams of all these different organic nutrients.4596

If you go 3000 you can be able to take more.4599

It depends on your level of activity and your health.4602

Somebody who is an Olympic athlete if they are working out 6 hours per day or more then maybe4605

a 12000 calorie diet is appropriate for them in terms of their metabolic needs.4610

For someone like me who is not an Olympic athlete I think 2500 will be good enough.4615

Thank you for watching www.educator .com.4619