Start learning today, and be successful in your academic & professional career. Start Today!

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology

Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Anatomy vs. Physiology0:06
- Anatomy0:17
- Pericardium0:24
- Physiology0:57
- Organization of Matter1:38
- Atoms1:49
- Molecules2:54
- Macromolecules3:28
- Organelles4:17
- Cells5:01
- Tissues5:58
- Organs7:15
- Organ Systems7:42
- Organisms8:26
- Relative Positions8:41
- Anterior vs. Posterior9:14
- Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species11:03
- Superior vs. Inferior11:52
- Examples12:13
- Medial vs. Lateral12:39
- Examples13:01
- Proximal vs. Distal13:36
- Examples13:53
- Superficial Vs. Deep14:57
- Examples15:17
- Body Planes16:07
- Coronal (Frontal) Plane16:38
- Sagittal Plane17:16
- Transverse (Horizontal) Plane17:52
- Abdominopelvic Regions18:37
- 4 Quadrants19:07
- Right Upper Quadrant19:47
- Left Upper Quadrant19:57
- Right Lower Quadrant20:06
- Left Lower Quadrant20:16
- 9 Regions21:09
- Right Hypochondriac21:33
- Left Hypochondriac22:20
- Epicastric Region22:39
- Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar22:59
- Umbilical Region23:32
- Hypogastric (Pubic) Region23:46
- Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region24:10

Tissues

38m 25s

- Intro0:00
- Tissue Overview0:05
- Epithelial Tissue0:27
- Connective Tissue1:04
- Muscle Tissue1:20
- Neural Tissue1:49
- Histology2:01
- Epithelial Tissue2:25
- Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'2:42
- Avascular3:38
- Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors4:43
- Types of Epithelium5:35
- Cell Structure / Shape5:40
- Layers5:46
- Example5:52
- Simple Squamous Epithelium6:39
- Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis6:50
- Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls7:15
- Stratified Squamous Epithelium9:10
- Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction9:20
- Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina9:27
- Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection10:46
- Simple Columnar Epithelium12:02
- Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically12:09
- Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines13:08
- Stratified Columnar Epithelium13:29
- Meant for Protection14:07
- Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra14:14
- Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium14:46
- Meant for Protection / Secretion16:06
- Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi16:25
- Simple Cuboidal Epithelium16:51
- Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption16:56
- Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland17:14
- Stratified Cubodial Epithelium18:18
- Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption18:52
- Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands19:04
- Transitional Epithelium19:15
- Meant for Stretching and Recoil19:17
- Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus20:36
- Glandular Epithelium20:43
- Merocrine21:19
- Apocrine22:58
- Holocrine24:01
- Connective Tissues25:06
- Most Abundant Tissue25:11
- Connect and Bind Together All the Organs25:20
- Connective Tissue Fibers26:13
- Collagen Fibers26:30
- Elastic Fibers27:55
- Reticular Fibers29:58
- Connective Tissue Cells30:52
- Fibroblasts30:57
- Macrophages31:33
- Mast Cells32:49
- Lymphocytes34:42
- Adipocytes35:03
- Melanocytes36:08
- Connective Tissue Examples36:39
- Adipose Tissue36:50
- Tendons and Ligaments37:23
- Blood38:06
- Cartilage38:30
- Bone38:51
- Muscle39:09

Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Functions of the Skin0:07
- Protection0:13
- Absorption0:43
- Secretion1:19
- Heat Regulation1:52
- Aesthetics2:21
- Major Layers3:50
- Epidermis3:59
- Dermis4:45
- Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)5:36
- The Epidermis5:56
- Most Superficial Layers of Skin5:57
- Epithelial6:11
- Cell Types7:16
- Cell Type: Melanocytes7:26
- Cell Type: Keratinocytes9:39
- Stratum Basale10:54
- Helps Form Finger Prints11:11
- Dermis11:54
- Middle Layers of the Skin12:16
- Blood Flow12:20
- Hair13:59
- Glands15:41
- Sebaceous Glands15:46
- Sweat Glands16:32
- Arrector Pili Muscles19:18
- Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal19:57
- Nails21:43
- Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)23:48
- Subcutaneous Layer25:00
- Deepest Part of the Skin25:01
- Composed of Connective Tissue25:04
- Fat Storage25:11
- Blood Flow25:43
- Cuts and Healing26:33
- Step 1: Inflammation26:54
- Step 2: Migration28:46
- Step 3: Proliferation30:39
- Step 4: Maturation31:50
- Burns32:44
- 1st Degree33:50
- 2nd Degree34:38
- 3rd Degree35:18
- 4th Degree36:27
- Rule of Nines36:49
- Skin Conditions and Disorders40:02
- Scars40:06
- Moles41:11
- Freckles/ Birthmarks41:48
- Melanoma/ Carcinoma42:44
- Acne45:23
- Warts47:16
- Wrinkles48:14
- Psoriasis49:12
- Eczema/ Rosacea49:41
- Vitiligo50:19

Skeletal System

19m 30s

- Intro0:00
- Functions of Bones0:04
- Support0:09
- Storage0:24
- Production of Blood1:01
- Protection1:12
- Leverage1:28
- Bone Anatomy1:43
- Spongy Bone2:02
- Compact Bone2:47
- Epiphysis / Diaphysis3:01
- Periosteum3:38
- Articular Cartilage3:59
- Lacunae4:23
- Canaliculi5:07
- Matrix5:53
- Osteons6:21
- Central Canal7:00
- Medullary Cavity7:21
- Bone Cell Types7:39
- Osteocytes7:44
- Osteoblasts8:12
- Osteoclasts8:18
- Bone Movement in Relation to Levers10:11
- Fulcrum10:26
- Resistance10:50
- Force11:01
- Factors Affecting Bone Growth11:24
- Nutrition11:28
- Hormones12:28
- Exercise13:19
- Bone Marrow13:58
- Red Marrow14:04
- Yellow Marrow14:46
- Bone Conditions / Disorders15:06
- Fractures15:09
- Osteopenia17:12
- Osteoporosis17:51
- Osteochondrodysplasia18:22
- Rickets18:43

Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

- Intro0:00
- Axial Skeleton0:05
- Skull0:21
- Hyoid0:25
- Vertebral Column0:29
- Thoracic Cage0:32
- Skull0:35
- Cranium0:42
- Sphenoid0:58
- Ethmoid1:12
- Frontal Bone1:32
- Sinuses1:39
- Sutures2:50
- Parietal Bones3:29
- Sutures3:30
- Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones3:50
- Fontanelles4:17
- Temporal Bones5:00
- Zygomatic Process5:14
- External Auditory Meatus5:43
- Mastoid Process6:07
- Styloid Process6:28
- Mandibular Fossa7:04
- Carotid Canals7:50
- Occipital Bone8:12
- Foramen Magnum8:30
- Occipital Condyle9:03
- Jugular Foramina9:35
- Sphenoid Bone10:11
- Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium10:39
- Connects Cranium to Facial Bones10:51
- Has a Pair of Sinuses11:06
- Sella Turcica11:26
- Optic Canals12:02
- Greater/ Lesser Wings12:19
- Superior View of Cranium Interior12:33
- Ethmoid Bone13:09
- Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity13:16
- Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses13:54
- Maxillae15:29
- Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate15:50
- Palatine Bones16:17
- Nasal Cavity Bones16:55
- Nasal Bones17:07
- Vomer17:43
- Interior Nasal Conchae18:01
- Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull19:03
- More Facial Bones19:45
- Zygomatic Bones19:57
- Lacrimal Bones20:12
- Mandible20:58
- Lower Jaw Bone20:59
- Mandibular Condyles21:05
- Hyoid Bone21:39
- Supports the Larynx21:47
- Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones22:02
- Vertebral Column22:45
- 26 Bones22:49
- There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra23:00
- Vertebral Curvatures24:55
- Cervical25:00
- Thoracic25:02
- Lumbar25:05
- Atlas25:28
- Axis26:20
- Pelvic28:20
- Vertebral Column Side View28:33
- Sacrum/ Coccyx29:29
- Sacrum Has 5 Pieces30:20
- Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces30:43
- Thoracic Cage31:00
- 12 Pairs of Ribs31:05
- Sternum31:30
- Costal Cartilage33:22

Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

- Intro0:00
- Pectoral Girdle0:05
- Clavicles0:25
- Scapulae1:06
- Arms2:47
- Humerus2:50
- Radius3:56
- Ulna4:11
- Carpals4:57
- Metacarpals5:48
- Phalanges6:09
- Pelvic Girdle7:51
- Coxal Bones / Coxae7:57
- Ilium8:09
- Ischium8:16
- Pubis8:21
- Male vs. Female9:24
- Legs10:05
- Femer10:11
- Patella11:14
- Tibia11:34
- Fibula11:52
- Tarsals12:24
- Metatarsals13:03
- Phalanges13:21

Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

- Intro0:00
- Types of Joints0:06
- Synarthrosis0:16
- Amphiarthrosis0:44
- Synovial (Diarthrosis)0:54
- Kinds of Immovable Joints1:09
- Sutures1:15
- Gomphosis2:17
- Synchondrosis2:44
- Synostosis4:59
- Types of Amphiarthroses5:31
- Syndesmosis5:36
- Symphysis6:07
- Synovial Joint Anatomy6:49
- Articular Cartilage7:04
- Joint Capsule7:49
- Synovial Membrane8:27
- Bursae8:48
- Spongy / Compact Bone9:28
- Periosteum10:12
- Synovial Joint Movements10:34
- Flexion / Extension10:41
- Abduction / Adduction10:58
- Supination / Pronation11:58
- Depression / Elevation13:10
- Retraction / Protraction13:21
- Circumduction13:35
- Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)13:56
- Hinge14:04
- Pivot14:53
- Gliding15:15
- Ellipsoid15:57
- Saddle16:29
- Ball & Socket17:14
- Knee Joint17:49
- Typical Synovial Joint Parts18:03
- Menisci18:32
- ACL Anterior Cruciate19:50
- PCL Posterior Cruciate20:34
- Patellar Ligament20:56
- Joint Disorders / Conditions21:45
- Arthritis21:48
- Bunions23:26
- Bursitis24:33
- Dislocations25:23
- Hyperextension26:01

Muscular System

53m 7s

- Intro0:00
- Functions of Muscles0:06
- Movement0:09
- Maintaining Body Position1:11
- Support of Soft Tissues1:25
- Regulating Entrances / Exits1:56
- Maintaining Body Temperature2:33
- 3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)2:58
- Skeletal (Striated)3:21
- Smooth4:11
- Cardiac4:54
- Skeletal Muscle Anatomy5:49
- Fascia6:24
- Epimysium6:47
- Fascicles7:21
- Perimysium7:38
- Muscle Fibers8:04
- Endomysium8:31
- Myofibrils8:49
- Sarcomeres9:20
- Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images9:32
- Sarcomere Structure12:33
- Myosin12:40
- Actin12:45
- Z Line12:51
- A Band13:11
- I Band13:39
- M Line14:10
- Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure14:34
- Sliding Filament Theory15:11
- Explains How Sarcomeres Contract15:14
- Tropomyosin15:24
- Troponin16:02
- Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin17:31
- Image Examples18:35
- Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke19:02
- Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together19:49
- Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin19:59
- They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking20:19
- Relaxation of Muscles21:11
- Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction21:50
- Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum23:59
- ATP Availability24:15
- Rigor Mortis24:45
- More on Muscles26:22
- Oxygen Debt26:24
- Lactic Acid28:29
- Creatine Phosphate28:55
- Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers29:57
- Muscle Names32:24
- 4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation32:27
- Examples32:36
- Major Muscles33:51
- Head33:52
- Torso38:05
- Arms40:47
- Legs42:01
- Muscular Disorders45:02
- Muscular Dystrophy45:08
- Carpel Tunnel45:56
- Hernia47:07
- Ischemia47:55
- Botulism48:22
- Polio48:46
- Tetanus49:06
- Rotator Buff Injury49:54
- Mitochondrial Diseases50:11
- Compartment Syndrome50:54
- Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva51:44

Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

- Intro0:00
- Neuron Function0:06
- Basic Cell of the Nervous System0:07
- Sensory Reception0:31
- Motor Stimulation0:47
- Processing1:07
- Form = Function1:33
- Neuron Anatomy1:47
- Cell Body2:17
- Dendrites2:34
- Axon Hillock3:00
- Axon3:17
- Axolemma3:38
- Myelin Sheaths4:07
- Nodes of Ranvier5:08
- Axon Terminals5:31
- Synaptic Vesicles5:59
- Synapse7:08
- Neuron Varieties9:04
- Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly9:08
- Examples9:11
- Action Potentials10:57
- Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur11:17
- Na+ / K+ Channels11:24
- Threshold12:39
- Like an 'Electric Wave'13:50
- A Neuron At Rest13:56
- Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV14:00
- Lots of Na+ Outside15:44
- Lots of K+ Inside16:15
- Action Potential Steps16:37
- Threshold Reached17:58
- Depolarization18:29
- Repolarization19:38
- Hyperpolarization20:41
- Back to Resting Potential21:05
- Action Potential Depiction21:38
- Intracellular Space21:43
- Extracellular Space21:46
- Saltatory Conduction22:41
- Myelinated Neurons22:49
- Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal23:16
- Leads to the Axon Terminals24:07
- Synapses and Neurotransmitters24:59
- Definition of Synapse25:04
- Definition of Neurotransmitters12:13
- Example26:06
- Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse27:19
- Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob27:28
- Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane27:47
- Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane29:08
- Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase30:20
- Inhibition vs. Excitation30:44
- Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect31:03
- Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result31:13
- Example31:18
- Neurotransmitter Examples34:18
- Norepinephrine34:25
- Dopamine34:52
- Serotonin37:34
- Endorphins38:00

Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

- Intro0:00
- The Brain0:07
- Part of the Central Nervous System1:06
- Contains Neurons and Neuroglia1:22
- Brain Development4:34
- Neural Tube4:39
- At 3 Weeks5:03
- At 6 Weeks6:21
- At Birth8:05
- Superficial Brain Structure10:08
- Grey vs. White Matter10:43
- Convolution11:29
- Gyrus12:26
- Lobe13:16
- Sulcus13:39
- Fissure14:09
- Cerebral Cortex14:31
- The Cerebrum14:57
- The 'Higher Brain'15:00
- Corpus Callosum15:53
- Divided Into Lobes16:16
- Frontal Lobe16:41
- Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization16:50
- Prefrontal Cortex17:09
- Phineas Gage Example17:21
- Primary Motor Cortex19:05
- Broca's Area20:38
- Parietal Lobe21:34
- Primary Somatosensory Cortex21:50
- Wernicke Area24:06
- Imagination and Dreaming25:21
- Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space25:44
- Temporal Lobe26:18
- Auditory Cortex26:24
- Auditory Association Area27:00
- Olfactory Cortex27:35
- Hippocampi27:58
- Occipital Lobe28:39
- Visual Cortex28:42
- Visual Association Area28:51
- Corpus Callosum30:07
- Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum30:09
- Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics30:41
- Example31:34
- Limbic System33:22
- Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage33:32
- Amygdala33:40
- Cingulate Gyrus34:50
- Hippocampus35:57
- Located Within the Temporal Lobes36:21
- Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories36:33
- Patient 'H.M.'39:03
- Basal Nuclei42:30
- Coordination of Learned Movements42:34
- Inhibited by Dopamine43:14
- Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts43:36
- The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum44:11
- Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe44:31
- Ventricles44:41
- Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum44:43
- Generate CSF45:47
- Importance of CSF46:17
- Diencephalon46:39
- Thalamus46:55
- Hypothalamus47:14
- Pineal Gland49:30
- Mesencephalon50:17
- Process Visual / Auditory Data50:38
- Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here50:44
- Maintains Consciousness51:07
- Pons51:15
- Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord51:33
- Significant Role in Dreaming51:52
- Medulla Oblongata51:57
- Interior Part of Brain Stem52:02
- Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers52:16
- Reticular Formation53:17
- Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here53:35
- Cerebellum54:02
- 'Little Brain' in Latin54:04
- Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla54:06
- Arbor Vitae54:29
- Coordinates Motor Function and Balance54:51
- Meninges55:39
- Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord55:41
- Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow55:55
- Brain Disorders / Conditions58:35
- Seizures58:39
- Concussions1:00:11
- Meningitis1:01:01
- Stroke1:01:42
- Hemorrhage1:02:44
- Aphasia1:03:08
- Dyslexia1:03:22
- Disconnection Syndrome1:04:11
- Hydrocephalus1:04:41
- Parkinson Disease1:05:17
- Alzheimer Disease1:05:50

Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

- Intro0:00
- Nervous System Flowchart0:08
- Spinal Cord3:59
- Connect the Body to the Brain4:01
- Central Canal Contains CSF4:59
- Becomes the Cauda Equina5:17
- Motor vs. Sensory Tracts6:07
- Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons7:01
- Motor-Inter-Sensory8:11
- Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root9:07
- Spinal Meninges9:21
- Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic10:28
- Fight or Flight10:51
- Rest and Digest13:01
- Reflexes15:07
- 'Reflex Arc'15:20
- Types of Reflexes17:00
- Nerve Anatomy19:49
- Epineurium20:19
- Fascicles20:27
- Perineurium20:51
- Neuron20:58
- Endoneurium21:06
- Nerve Examples21:43
- Vagus Nerve21:48
- Sciatic Nerve23:18
- Radial Nerve24:04
- Facial Nerves24:14
- Optic Nerves24:28
- Spinal Cord Medical Terms24:42
- Lumbar Puncture24:49
- Epidural Block25:57
- Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions26:50
- Meningitis26:56
- Shingles27:12
- Cerebral / Nerve Palsy28:18
- Hypesthesia28:45
- Multiple Sclerosis29:46
- Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia30:48

Vision

58m 38s

- Intro0:00
- Accessory Structures of the Eye0:04
- Eyebrows0:15
- Eyelids1:22
- Eyelashes2:11
- Skeletal Muscles3:33
- Conjunctiva3:56
- Lacrimal Glands4:50
- Orbital Fat6:45
- Outer (Fibrous) Tunic7:24
- Sclera8:01
- Cornea8:46
- Middle (Vascular) Tunic10:27
- Choroid10:37
- Iris12:25
- Pupil14:54
- Lens15:18
- Ciliary Bodies16:51
- Suspensory Ligaments17:45
- Vitreous Humor18:13
- Inner (Neural)Tunic19:31
- Retina19:40
- Photoreceptors20:38
- Macula21:32
- Optic Disc22:48
- Blind Spot Demonstration23:34
- Lens Function25:28
- Concave25:48
- Convex26:58
- Clear Image28:11
- Accommodation Problems28:31
- Emmetropia28:32
- Myopia30:46
- Hyperopia32:00
- Photoreceptor Structure34:15
- Rods34:32
- Cones35:06
- Bipolar Cells37:32
- Inner Segment38:28
- Outer Segment38:43
- Pigment Epithelium41:11
- Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe41:58
- Stereoscopic Vision42:02
- Optic Nerves43:32
- Optic Chiasm44:25
- Optic Tract46:28
- Occipital Lobe46:58
- Vision Disorders / Conditions48:03
- Myopia / Hyperopia48:10
- Cataracts49:11
- Glaucoma50:22
- Astigmatism52:14
- Color Blindness53:12
- Night Blindness54:51
- Scotomas55:19
- Retinitis Pigmentosa55:46
- Detached Retina56:06

Hearing

36m 57s

- Intro0:00
- External Ear0:04
- Auricle0:22
- External Acoustic Meatus1:49
- Hair2:32
- Ceruminous Glands3:04
- Tympanic Membrane3:53
- Middle Ear5:31
- Tympanic Cavity5:47
- Auditory Tube5:50
- Auditory Ossicles7:52
- Tympanic Muscles9:19
- Auditory Ossicles12:02
- Inner Ear13:06
- Cochlea13:23
- Vestibule13:30
- Semicircular Canals13:36
- Cochlea13:57
- Organ of Corti14:44
- Vestibular Duct15:03
- Cochlear Duct15:11
- Tympanic Duct15:20
- Basilar Membrane16:30
- Tectorial Membrane17:02
- Hair Cells17:17
- Nerve Fibers20:54
- How Sounds Are Heard21:30
- Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum22:10
- Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated22:23
- Stapes Vibrates Oval Window22:31
- Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn22:35
- Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane22:46
- Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes23:24
- Frequency and Decibels23:30
- Frequency Deals with Pitch23:36
- Decibels Deal with Loudness25:30
- Vestibule27:54
- Contains the Utricle and Saccule28:22
- Maculae29:29
- Semicircular Canals31:05
- 3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions31:12
- Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions31:28
- Each Contains an Ampulla31:49
- Hearing Conditions / Disorders33:20
- Conductive Deafness33:24
- Tinnitus34:05
- Otitis Media34:51
- Motion Sickness35:19
- Ear Infections36:31

Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

- Intro0:00
- Nasal Anatomy0:05
- The Nose0:11
- Nasal Cavity0:58
- Olfaction3:27
- Sense of Smell3:28
- Olfactory Epithelium4:58
- Olfactory Receptors7:23
- Respond to Odorant Molecules7:24
- Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells8:25
- Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations9:07
- Anatomy of Taste12:41
- Tongue12:45
- Pharynx / Larynx14:11
- Salivary Glands14:31
- Papilla Structure16:56
- Gustatory Cells17:39
- Taste Hairs18:04
- Transitional Cells18:28
- Basal Cells18:33
- Nerve Fibers18:48
- Taste Sensations19:06
- Sweet19:49
- Salty20:16
- Bitter20:28
- Sour20:46
- Umami20:31
- Water22:07
- PTC23:11
- Touch25:00
- Nociceptors25:08
- Mechanoreceptors25:14
- Nociceptors26:30
- Sensitive To…26:41
- Fast vs. Slow Pain28:12
- Mechanoreceptors31:15
- Tactile Receptors31:21
- Baroreceptors35:20
- Proprioceptors36:07

The Heart

45m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Heart Anatomy0:04
- Pericardium0:11
- Epicardium1:09
- Myocardium1:24
- Endocardium1:49
- Atria and Ventricles2:18
- Coronary Arteries3:25
- Arteries / Veins4:14
- Fat4:31
- Sequence of Blood Flow #15:06
- Vena Cava5:24
- Right Atrium6:18
- Tricuspid Valve6:26
- Right Ventricle6:49
- Pulmonary Valve7:14
- Pulmonary Arteries7:35
- Sequence of Blood Flow #28:22
- Lungs8:24
- Pulmonary Veins8:26
- Left Atrium8:36
- Left Ventricle9:00
- Bicuspid Valve9:08
- Aortic Valve10:15
- Aorta10:23
- Body11:20
- Simplified Blood Flow Diagram11:44
- Heart Beats and Valves16:09
- 'Lubb-Dubb'16:19
- Atrioventricular (AV) Valves16:47
- Semilunar Valves17:04
- Systole and Diastole19:09
- Systole19:14
- Diastole19:23
- Valves Respond to Pressure Changes20:29
- Cardiac Output21:36
- Cardiac Cycle22:59
- Cardiac Conduction System24:52
- Sinoatrial (SA) Node25:44
- Atrioventricular (AV) Node27:12
- Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)28:46
- P Wave29:10
- QRS Complex30:14
- T Wave31:23
- Arrhythmias32:14
- Heart Conditions / Treatments35:12
- Myocardial Infarction (MI)35:14
- Angina Pectoris36:23
- Pericarditis38:07
- Coronary Artery Disease38:26
- Angioplasty38:47
- Coronary Artery Bypass Graft39:53
- Tachycardia / Bradycardia40:51
- Fibrillation41:54
- Heart Murmur43:22
- Mitral Valve Prolapse44:53

Blood Vessels

39m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Types of Blood Vessels0:05
- Arteries0:09
- Arterioles0:19
- Capillaries0:38
- Venules0:55
- Veins1:16
- Vessel Structure1:21
- Tunica Externa1:39
- Tunica Media2:29
- Tunica Interna3:18
- Differences Between Arteries and Veins4:22
- Artery Walls are Thicker4:34
- Veins Have Valves6:07
- From Artery to Capillary6:38
- From Capillary to Vein9:39
- Capillary Bed11:11
- Between Arterioles and Venules11:23
- Precapillary Sphincters11:30
- Distribution of Blood12:17
- Systematic Venous System12:36
- Systematic Arterial System13:23
- Pulmonary Circuit13:36
- Heart13:46
- Systematic Capillaries13:53
- Blood Pressure14:35
- Cardiac Output15:07
- Peripheral Resistance15:24
- Systolic / Diastolic16:37
- Return of Blood Through Veins20:37
- Valves21:00
- Skeletal Muscle Contractions21:30
- Regulation of Blood Vessels22:50
- Baroreceptor Reflexes22:57
- Antidiuretic Hormone23:31
- Angiotensin II24:40
- Erythropoietin24:57
- Arteries / Vein Examples26:54
- Aorta26:59
- Carotid27:13
- Brachial27:23
- Femoral27:27
- Vena Cava27:38
- Jugular27:48
- Brachial28:04
- Femoral28:09
- Hepatic Veins29:03
- Pulse Sounds29:19
- Carotid29:27
- Radial29:53
- Femoral30:39
- Popliteal30:47
- Temporal30:52
- Dorsalis Pedis31:10
- Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders31:29
- Hyper / Hypotension31:33
- Arteriosclerosis33:05
- Atherosclerosis33:35
- Edema33:58
- Aneurysm33:34
- Hemorrhage35:38
- Thrombus35:50
- Pulmonary Embolism36:44
- Varicose Veins36:54
- Hemorrhoids37:46
- Angiogenesis39:06

Blood

41m 25s

- Intro0:00
- Blood Functions0:04
- Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones0:09
- Regulate pH0:30
- Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury1:02
- Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins1:12
- Regulate Body Temperature1:21
- Blood Components1:59
- Erythrocytes2:34
- Thrombocytes2:50
- Leukocytes3:07
- Plasma3:17
- Blood Cell Formation6:55
- Red Blood Cells8:16
- Shaped Like Biconcave Discs8:25
- Enucleated9:08
- Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work10:03
- Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin10:32
- Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs12:03
- RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture12:15
- Hemoglobin is Broken Down12:23
- Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs14:38
- Blood Transfusions #115:02
- A Blood15:29
- B Blood17:28
- AB Blood19:27
- O Blood20:53
- Rh Factor21:54
- Blood Transfusions #224:31
- White Blood Cells25:33
- Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream25:46
- Amoeboid Movement26:06
- Most Do Phagocytosis26:57
- Granulocytes27:25
- Neutrophils27:44
- Eosinophils28:11
- Basophils29:20
- Agranulocytes29:37
- Monocytes29:49
- Lymphocytes30:30
- Platelets32:42
- Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur33:04
- Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels33:11
- Contraction to Reduce Clot Size33:22
- Hemostasis33:40
- Vascular Phase33:53
- Platelet Phase34:30
- Coagulation Phase35:15
- Fibrinolysis36:12
- Blood Conditions / Disorders36:29
- Hemorrhage36:41
- Thrombus36:48
- Embolism36:59
- Anemia37:14
- Sickle Cell Disease38:04
- Hemophilia39:19
- Leukemia40:47

Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

- Intro0:00
- Functions of the Respiratory System0:05
- Moves Air In and Out of Body0:37
- Protects the Body from Dehydration0:50
- Produce Sounds2:00
- Upper Respiratory Tract #12:15
- External Nares2:34
- Vestibule2:42
- Nasal Septum3:02
- Nasal Conchae4:06
- Upper Respiratory Tract #24:43
- Nasal Mucosa4:53
- Pharynx6:01
- Larynx8:34
- Epiglottis8:48
- Glottis9:03
- Cartilage9:27
- Hyoid Bone12:09
- Ligaments13:04
- Vocal Cords13:15
- Sound Production13:41
- Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds13:43
- Males Have Longer Cords15:32
- Speech =Phonation + Articulation15:41
- Trachea16:42
- 'Windpipe'17:42
- Respiratory Epithelium18:45
- Bronchi and Bronchioles20:56
- Primary - Secondary - Tertiary21:41
- Smooth Muscles22:29
- Bronchioles22:46
- Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction23:42
- Alveoli24:30
- Air Sacks Within the Lungs24:39
- Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network27:24
- Surfactant28:47
- Lungs30:40
- Lobes30:48
- Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer31:35
- Spongy Appearance32:11
- Surrounded by Membrane32:28
- Pleura32:52
- Parietal Pleura32:59
- Visceral Pleura33:38
- Breathing Mechanism35:27
- Diaphragm35:32
- Intercostal Muscles38:21
- Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing39:10
- Forced Breathing39:44
- Respiratory Volumes41:33
- Partial Pressures of Gases46:02
- Major Atmospheric Gases46:14
- Diffusion47:00
- Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In48:37
- Respiratory Conditions / Disorders51:21
- Asthma51:25
- Emphysema52:57
- Lung Cancer53:45
- Laryngitis / Bronchitis54:25
- Cystic Fibrosis55:38
- Decompression Sickness56:29
- Tuberculosis57:31
- SIDS59:10
- Pneumonia1:00:00
- Pneumothorax1:01:07
- Carbon Monoxide Poisoning1:01:21

Digestive System

59m 28s

- Intro0:00
- Functions of the Digestive System0:05
- Ingestion0:09
- Mechanical Breakdown0:15
- Digestion0:33
- Secretion0:59
- Absorption1:22
- Excretion1:33
- Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)1:38
- Mouth2:13
- Pharynx2:18
- Esophagus2:20
- Stomach2:29
- Small Intestine2:33
- Large Intestine2:41
- Rectum2:49
- Anus2:51
- Oral Cavity (Mouth)2:53
- Salivary Glands2:58
- Saliva3:59
- Tongue5:04
- Teeth5:28
- Hard Palate / Soft Palate5:42
- Teeth6:19
- Deciduous Teeth9:27
- Adult Teeth9:56
- Incisors10:14
- Cuspids10:42
- Bicuspids11:07
- Molars11:27
- Swallowing14:06
- Tongue14:19
- Pharyngeal Muscles14:57
- Soft Palate15:05
- Epiglottis15:23
- Esophagus16:41
- Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'16:54
- Mucosa18:28
- Submucosa18:30
- Muscular Layers18:54
- Stomach #119:58
- Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme20:42
- 4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa21:27
- 4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus22:51
- Stomach #224:43
- Rugae25:20
- Gastric Pits25:54
- Gastric Glands26:04
- Gastric Juice26:24
- Gastrin, Ghrelin28:18
- Small Intestine29:07
- Digestion and Absorption29:09
- Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum29:46
- Peristalsis29:57
- Intestinal Villi30:22
- Vermiform Appendix32:53
- Vestigial Structure!33:40
- Appendicitis / Appendectomy35:40
- Large Intestine36:04
- Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces36:20
- Ascending Colon37:10
- Transverse Colon37:16
- Descending Colon37:22
- Sigmoid Colon37:36
- Rectum and Anus37:48
- Rectum37:51
- Anus38:38
- Hemorrhoids39:24
- Accessory Organs41:13
- Liver41:26
- Gall Bladder41:28
- Pancreas41:30
- Liver41:40
- Metabolism43:21
- Glycogen Storage43:34
- Waste Product Removal44:42
- Bile Production44:50
- Vitamin Storage45:04
- Breakdown of Drugs45:25
- Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation46:24
- Synthesis of Plasma Proteins47:05
- Removal of Hormones47:19
- Removal of Antibodies47:31
- Removal of RBCs48:07
- Removal / Storage of Toxins48:21
- Gall Bladder48:50
- Stores Bile Made by Liver48:53
- Common Hepatic Duct49:24
- Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum49:31
- Pancreas51:28
- Pinkish-Gray Organ51:45
- Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers52:05
- Digestive Conditions / Disorders52:50
- Gastritis52:54
- Ulcers53:03
- Gallstones54:09
- Cholera54:51
- Hepatitis55:14
- Jaundice55:31
- Cirrhosis56:34
- Constipation56:52
- Diarrhea57:23
- Lactose Intolerance57:37
- Gingivitis58:24

Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

- Intro0:00
- Metabolism Basics0:06
- Metabolism0:10
- Catabolism0:58
- Anabolism1:12
- Nutrients2:45
- Carbohydrates2:57
- Lipids3:01
- Proteins3:04
- Nucleic Acids3:23
- Vitamins3:54
- Minerals4:32
- Carbohydrate Structure5:13
- Basic Sugar Structure5:42
- Monosaccharides7:48
- Disaccharides7:54
- Glycosidic Linkages8:07
- Polysaccharides9:17
- Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis10:27
- Water Soluble10:55
- Energy Source11:18
- Aerobic Respiration11:39
- Glycolysis13:25
- Krebs Cycle13:34
- Oxidative Phosphorylation13:44
- ATP Structure and Function14:08
- Adenosine Triphosphate14:11
- ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P16:26
- ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP16:39
- Glycolysis17:18
- Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate17:42
- Occurs in the Cytoplasm17:55
- Phase I18:13
- Phase II19:01
- Phase III20:27
- Krebs Cycle21:54
- Citric Acid Cycle21:57
- Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'22:23
- Oxidative Phosphorylation29:36
- Anaerobic Respiration34:33
- Lactic Acid Fermentation34:52
- Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis36:05
- Gluconeogenesis37:36
- Glycogenesis39:16
- Glycogenolysis39:27
- Lipid Structure and Function39:58
- Fats40:00
- Non-Polar41:42
- Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis42:02
- Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats43:18
- Saturated Fats43:22
- Unsaturated Fats44:30
- Lipid Catabolism46:11
- Lipolysis46:17
- Beta-Oxidation46:56
- Lipid Synthesis48:17
- Lipogenesis48:21
- Lipoproteins48:51
- Protein Structure and Function51:48
- Made of Amino Acids51:59
- Water-Soluble52:23
- Support53:03
- Movement53:23
- Transport53:34
- Buffering53:49
- Enzymatic Action54:01
- Hormone Synthesis54:13
- Defense54:24
- Amino Acids54:56
- 20 Different 'R Groups'54:59
- Essential Amino Acids55:19
- Protein Structure56:54
- Primary Structure56:59
- Secondary Structure57:29
- Tertiary Structure58:28
- Quaternary Structure59:20
- Vitamins59:40
- Fat-Soluble1:01:46
- Water-Soluble1:02:15
- Minerals1:04:01
- Functions1:04:14
- Examples1:04:51
- Balanced Diet1:05:39
- Grains1:05:52
- Vegetables and Fruits1:06:00
- Dairy1:06:36
- Meat/ Beans1:06:54
- Oils1:07:52
- Nutrition Facts1:08:44
- Serving Size1:08:55
- Calories1:09:50
- Fat-Soluble1:10:45
- Cholesterol1:13:04
- Sodium1:13:58
- Carbohydrates1:14:26
- Protein1:16:01

Endocrine System

44m 37s

- Intro0:00
- Hormone Basics0:05
- Hormones0:38
- Classes of Hormones2:22
- Negative vs. Positive Feedback3:22
- Negative Feedback3:25
- Positive Feedback5:16
- Hypothalamus6:20
- Secretes Regulatory Hormones7:18
- Produces ADH and Oxycotin7:44
- Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands7:57
- Anterior Pituitary Gland8:27
- Prolactin9:16
- Corticotropin9:39
- Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone9:47
- Gonadotropins9:52
- Growth Hormone11:04
- Posterior Pituitary Gland12:29
- Antidiuretic Hormone12:38
- Oxytocin13:37
- Thyroid Gland Anatomy15:16
- Two Lobes United by an Isthmus15:44
- Contains Follicles16:04
- Thyroid Gland Physiology16:50
- Thyroxine17:04
- Triiodothyroine17:36
- Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology18:52
- Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)19:13
- Adrenal Gland Anatomy20:09
- Contains Cortex and Medulla21:00
- Adrenal Cortex Physiology21:40
- Aldosterone22:12
- Glucocorticoids22:35
- Androgens23:18
- Adrenal Medulla Physiology23:53
- Epinephrine24:06
- Norepinephrine24:12
- Fight or Flight24:22
- Contribute to…24:32
- Kidney Hormones26:11
- Calcitriol26:20
- Erythropoietin27:00
- Renin27:45
- Pancreas Anatomy28:18
- Exocrine Pancreas29:07
- Endocrine Pancreas29:22
- Pancreas Physiology29:50
- Glucagon29:57
- Insulin30:54
- Somatostatin31:50
- Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology32:10
- Contains Pinealocytes32:33
- Produces Melatonin32:59
- Thymus Anatomy / Physiology34:17
- Max Size Before Puberty34:49
- Secrete Thymosins35:18
- Gonad Hormones35:45
- Testes35:51
- Ovaries36:20
- Endocrine Conditions / Disorders37:28
- Diabetes Type I and II37:32
- Diabetes Type Insipidus39:25
- Hyper / Hypoglycemia40:01
- Addison Disease40:28
- Hyper / Hypothyroidism41:00
- Cretinism41:30
- Goiter41:59
- Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism42:39
- IDD Iodized Salt43:30

Urinary System

35m 8s

- Intro0:00
- Functions of the Urinary System0:05
- Removes Metabolic Waste0:14
- Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure0:31
- Regulates Plasma Concentrations0:49
- Stabilize Blood pH1:04
- Conserves Nutrients1:42
- Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System1:51
- Kidneys1:58
- Ureters2:17
- Urinary Bladder2:25
- Urethra2:34
- Kidney Anatomy2:47
- Renal Cortex4:21
- Renal Medulla4:41
- Renal Pyramid5:00
- Major / Minor Calyx5:36
- Renal Pelvis6:07
- Hilum6:18
- Blood Flow to Kidneys6:41
- Receive Through Renal Arteries7:11
- Leaves Through Renal Veins9:08
- Regulated by Renal Nerves9:21
- Nephrons9:27
- Glomerulus10:21
- Bowman's Capsule10:42
- Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)11:31
- Loop of Henle11:42
- Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)12:01
- Glomerular Filtration12:40
- Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated12:47
- Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space13:47
- Important Nutrients13:57
- Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)14:25
- Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli14:47
- Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma15:26
- Loop of Henle16:28
- Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions17:09
- Concentrate Tubular Fluid17:20
- Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)17:28
- Differs From the PCT17:39
- Three Basic Processes17:59
- Collecting System18:35
- Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption18:52
- Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct19:04
- Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx19:20
- Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis19:26
- Summary of Urine Formation19:35
- Filtration19:40
- Reabsorption20:04
- Secretion20:35
- Urine21:15
- Urea21:31
- Creatinine21:55
- Uric Acid22:09
- Urobilin22:23
- It's Sterile!23:43
- Ureters24:55
- Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder25:00
- Three Tissue Layers25:17
- Peristalsis25:38
- Urinary Bladder26:08
- Temporary Reservoir for Urine26:12
- Rugae26:44
- Trigone26:59
- Internal Urethral Sphincter27:10
- Urethra27:48
- Longer in Males than Females28:00
- External Urethral Sphincter28:46
- Micturition29:14
- Urinary Conditions / Disorders29:47
- Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)29:50
- Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)30:26
- Kidney Dialysis31:47
- Glomerulonephritis33:29
- Incontinence34:25

Lymphatic System

44m 23s

- Intro0:00
- Lymphatic Functions0:05
- Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes0:08
- Lymphoid System / Immune System1:26
- Lymph Network1:34
- Lymph1:40
- Lymphatic Vessels2:26
- Lymph Nodes2:37
- Lymphoid Organs2:54
- Lymphocytes3:11
- Nonspecific Defenses3:25
- Specific Defenses3:47
- Lymphatic Vessels4:06
- Larger Lymphatic Vessels4:40
- Lymphatic Capillaries5:17
- Differ From Blood Capillaries5:47
- Lymph Nodes6:51
- Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin7:05
- Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter7:52
- Thymus8:58
- Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla9:18
- Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes10:36
- Spleen10:43
- Pulp12:04
- Red Pulp12:19
- White Pulp12:25
- Nonspecific Defenses13:00
- Physical Barriers13:18
- Phagocyte Cells14:17
- Immunological Surveillance14:55
- Interferons16:05
- Inflammation16:37
- Fever17:07
- Specific Defenses18:16
- Immunity18:31
- Innate Immunity18:41
- Acquired Immunity19:04
- T Cells23:58
- Cytotoxic T Cells24:14
- Helper T Cells24:52
- Suppressor T Cells25:09
- Activate T Cells25:40
- Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)26:37
- Antigen Presentation27:58
- B Cells29:44
- Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity29:50
- Memory B Cells30:44
- Antibody Structure32:46
- Five Types of Constant Segments33:45
- Primary vs. Secondary Response34:51
- Immune Conditions / Disorders35:35
- Allergy35:38
- Anaphylactic Shock37:17
- Autoimmune Disease38:34
- HIV / AIDS39:06
- Cancer40:51
- Lymphomas42:02
- Lymphedema42:21
- Graft Rejection42:48
- Tonsillitis43:23

Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

- Intro0:00
- External Genitalia0:05
- Mons Pubis0:12
- Vulva0:29
- Vagina0:51
- Clitoris1:23
- Prepuce2:10
- Labia Minora2:29
- Labia Majora2:35
- Urethra3:09
- Vestibular Glands3:30
- Internal Reproductive Organs3:47
- Vagina3:51
- Uterus3:57
- Fallopian Tubes4:13
- Ovaries4:19
- Vagina4:28
- Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids5:13
- Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse5:31
- Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal5:34
- Hymen5:42
- Uterus7:21
- Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo7:25
- Anteflexion8:30
- Anchored by Ligaments9:18
- Uterine Regions9:57
- Perimetrium10:56
- Myometrium11:19
- Endometrium11:44
- Fallopian Tubes13:03
- Oviducts / Uterine Tubes13:04
- Infundibulum13:49
- Ampulla15:07
- Isthmus15:12
- Peristalsis15:21
- Ovaries16:06
- Produce Female Gametes16:37
- Secrete Sex Hormones16:47
- Ligaments, Artery / Vein17:18
- Mesovarium17:45
- Oogenesis Explanation17:59
- Ovum Production18:08
- Oogonia Undergo Mitosis18:44
- Oogenesis Picture22:22
- Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle25:48
- Menstruation33:05
- Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds33:08
- 1-7 Days33:37
- Ovarian Cycle33:48
- Formation of Primary Follicles34:20
- Formation of Secondary Follicles34:28
- Formation of Tertiary Follicles34:30
- Ovulation34:37
- Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum34:52
- Menarche and Menopause35:28
- Menarche35:30
- Menopause36:24
- Mammaries38:16
- Breast Tissue38:18
- Mammary Gland39:19
- Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders41:32
- Amenorrhea41:35
- Dysmenorrhea42:29
- Endometriosis42:40
- STDs43:11
- Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)43:37
- Premature Menopause43:55
- Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers44:20
- Hysterectomy45:37
- Tubal Ligation46:12

Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

- Intro0:00
- External Genitalia0:06
- Penis0:09
- Corpora Cavernosa3:10
- Corpus Spongiosum3:57
- Scrotum4:15
- Testes4:21
- Gubernaculum Testis4:54
- Contracts in Male Babies5:34
- Cryptorchidism5:50
- Inside the Scrotal Sac7:01
- Scrotum7:08
- Cremaster Muscle7:54
- Epididymis8:43
- Testis Anatomy9:50
- Lobules10:03
- Septa11:35
- Efferent Ductule11:39
- Epididymis11:50
- Vas Deferens11:53
- Spermatogenesis12:02
- Mitosis12:14
- Meiosis12:37
- Spermiogenesis12:48
- Sperm Anatomy15:14
- Head15:19
- Centrioles17:01
- Mitochondria17:37
- Flagellum18:29
- The Path of Sperm18:50
- Testis18:58
- Epididymis19:05
- Vas Deferens19:16
- Accessory Glands19:57
- Urethra21:33
- Vas Deferens21:45
- Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct21:53
- Peristalsis22:35
- Seminal Vesicles23:45
- Fructose24:25
- Prostaglandins24:51
- Fibrinogen25:13
- Alkaline Secretions25:45
- Prostate Gland26:12
- Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles26:49
- Produces Prostatic Fluid27:02
- Bulbo-Urethral Gland27:43
- Cowper Glands27:48
- Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus28:13
- Semen28:45
- Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL28:48
- Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes28:58
- Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders29:59
- Impotence30:02
- Low Sperm Count30:24
- Erectile Dysfunction31:36
- Priapism32:11
- Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy32:58
- Prostatectomy33:39
- Prostate Cancer33:59
- STDs34:30
- Orchiectomy34:47
- Vasectomy35:10

Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Development Overview0:05
- Fertilization0:13
- Embryological Development0:23
- Fetal Development1:14
- Postnatal Development1:25
- Maturity1:36
- Fertilization Overview1:39
- 23 Chromosomes2:23
- Occurs a Day After Ovulation3:44
- Forms a Zygote4:16
- Oocyte Activation4:33
- Block of Polyspermy4:51
- Completion of Meiosis II6:05
- Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism6:26
- Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center7:04
- Cleavage8:14
- Day 08:25
- Day 18:35
- Day 29:10
- Day 39:12
- Day 49:21
- Day 69:29
- Implantation11:03
- Day 811:10
- Initial Implantation11:15
- Lacunae11:27
- Fingerlike Villi11:38
- Gastrulation12:39
- Day 1212:48
- Ectoderm14:06
- Mesoderm14:17
- Endoderm14:44
- Extraembryonic Membranes16:17
- Yolk Sac16:28
- Amnion17:28
- Allantois18:05
- Chorion18:27
- Placenta19:28
- Week 519:50
- Decidua Basalis20:08
- Cavity21:20
- Umbilical Cord22:20
- Week 4 Embryo23:01
- Forebrain23:35
- Eye23:46
- Heart23:54
- Pharyngeal Arches24:02
- Arm and Leg Buds24:53
- Tail25:56
- Week 8 Embryo26:33
- Week 12 Fetus27:36
- Ultrasound28:26
- Image of the Fetus28:28
- Sex Can Be Detected28:54
- Week 40 Fetus29:46
- Labor31:10
- False Labor31:16
- True Labor31:38
- Dilation32:02
- Expulsion33:21
- Delivery33:49
- Delivery Problems33:57
- Episiotomy34:02
- Breech Birth34:39
- Caesarian Section35:41
- Premature Delivery36:12
- Conjoined Twins37:34
- Embryological Conditions / Disorders40:00
- Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia40:07
- Miscarriage41:04
- Induced Abortions41:37
- Ectopic Pregnancy41:47
- In Vitro Fertilization43:03
- Amniocentesis44:01
- Birth Defects45:15

Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

- Intro0:00
- Ethanol0:06
- Made from Alcohol Fermentation0:20
- Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol1:40
- Other Alcohols3:06
- Ethanol Metabolism3:33
- Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde3:38
- Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate4:01
- Factors Affecting the Pace4:24
- Sex and Sex Hormones4:33
- Body Mass5:30
- Medications5:59
- Types of Alcoholic Beverages6:07
- Hard Alcohol6:14
- Wine6:51
- Beer6:56
- Mixed Drinks8:17
- Alcohol's Immediate Effects8:55
- Depressant9:12
- Blood Alcohol Concentration9:31
- 100 mg/ dL = 0.1%10:19
- 0.0510:48
- 0.111:29
- 0.211:56
- 0.312:52
- Alcohol's Effects on Organs13:45
- Brain13:59
- Heart14:09
- Stomach14:20
- Liver14:31
- Reproductive System14:37
- Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication14:54
- Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol14:57
- Passing Out16:27
- Binge Drinking17:50
- Hangovers18:40
- Alcohol Tolerance18:51
- Acetaldehyde19:10
- Dehydration19:40
- Congeners20:34
- Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream21:26
- Alarming Statistics22:26
- Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone22:33
- Society's Most Expensive Health Problem22:40
- Affects All Physiological Tissues22:15
- Women Drinking While Pregnant23:57
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)24:06
- Genetics24:26
- Health Problems Related to Alcohol24:57
- Alcohol Abuse25:01
- Alcohol Poisoning25:20
- Alcoholism26:14
- Fatty Liver26:46
- Cirrhosis27:13

Loading...

This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.

For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology

For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology

Next Lecture

Previous Lecture

0 answers

Post by Bryan Cardella on September 13, 2014

NOTE: Sometimes a tertiary structure can also be a "full-fledged protein", meaning it's a single, long polypeptide with interacting R-groups. If multiple tertiary structures are put together then it's the more complex quaternary structure (like hemoglobin)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella

Mon Nov 25, 2013 10:29 AM

Post by Fletcher Paddison on November 23, 2013

In glucose ring synthesis you say carbon #1 binds to carbon #6. To my knowledge it is carbon #1 acting as the electrophile when the oxygen on carbon #5 nucleophilic attacks it. Thus, carbon #1 links to carbon #5