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For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Aug 12, 2015 3:40 PM

Post by Hatem Qasmieh on August 2, 2015

the lecture is not moving ok. When the video reaches the uterus(3:57), it goes back to the beginning of the lecture...pls advise

Female Reproductive System

  • External female genitalia structures: mons pubis, vulva, vagina, vestibule, clitoris, prepuce, labia minora, labia majora, urethral opening, vestibular glands
  • The vagina is an elastic muscular tube that is a passageway for menstrual fluids, the site of penis insertion for sexual intercourse, and the inferior portion of the passageway for the fetus during labor/birth
  • The uterus (womb) contains a fundus, body, and cervix
  • The uterine layers are the perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium (which develops and is shed through menstruation)
  • The Fallopian tubes (or oviducts, uterine tubes) move oocytes from the ovaries to aid in the process of fertilization
  • Peristalsis moves oocytes (fertilized or unfertilized) through the oviducts and into the uterus
  • Ovaries produce and release eggs and secrete sex hormones
  • Oogonia undergo meiosis before birth and they finish the meiosis process after the oocyte is fertilized
  • Polar bodies are generated as a result of oogenesis
  • The ovarian and menstrual cycle are regulated through hormone secretion
  • Menarche is the 1st menstruation for a women and menopause is when menstruation gradually comes to an end
  • Mammary glands are responsible for the production and secretion of milk for a baby
  • Female reproductive disorder/procedure examples: endometriosis, STDs, PID, tubal ligation
  • ***NOTE: The phrase “it just takes one sperm” is technically not true. Yes, only one sperm is required for the actual act of fertilization, but the acrosome of one sperm is not enough to penetrate the corona radiata…many sperm heads contribute to the disruption of that outermost layer of cells. After that, a single sperm can be the one that penetrates the zona pellucida.
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Since there are 2 ovaries, is there a predictable pattern for when each one will do ovulation in a given month?
    • A: Ovulation can happen from either ovary. In some women, the ovaries do alternate consistently, but there is no predictable pattern in women in general. Sometimes, both ovaries will ovulate and that can result in fraternal twins if both eggs are fertilized by separate sperm.

Female Reproductive System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • External Genitalia 0:05
    • Mons Pubis
    • Vulva
    • Vagina
    • Clitoris
    • Prepuce
    • Labia Minora
    • Labia Majora
    • Urethra
    • Vestibular Glands
  • Internal Reproductive Organs 3:47
    • Vagina
    • Uterus
    • Fallopian Tubes
    • Ovaries
  • Vagina 4:28
    • Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
    • Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
    • Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
    • Hymen
  • Uterus 7:21
    • Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
    • Anteflexion
    • Anchored by Ligaments
    • Uterine Regions
    • Perimetrium
    • Myometrium
    • Endometrium
  • Fallopian Tubes 13:03
    • Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
    • Infundibulum
    • Ampulla
    • Isthmus
    • Peristalsis
  • Ovaries 16:06
    • Produce Female Gametes
    • Secrete Sex Hormones
    • Ligaments, Artery / Vein
    • Mesovarium
  • Oogenesis Explanation 17:59
    • Ovum Production
    • Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
  • Oogenesis Picture 22:22
  • Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle 25:48
  • Menstruation 33:05
    • Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
    • 1-7 Days
  • Ovarian Cycle 33:48
    • Formation of Primary Follicles
    • Formation of Secondary Follicles
    • Formation of Tertiary Follicles
    • Ovulation
    • Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
  • Menarche and Menopause 35:28
    • Menarche
    • Menopause
  • Mammaries 38:16
    • Breast Tissue
    • Mammary Gland
  • Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders 41:32
    • Amenorrhea
    • Dysmenorrhea
    • Endometriosis
    • STDs
    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    • Premature Menopause
    • Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
    • Hysterectomy
    • Tubal Ligation

Transcription: Female Reproductive System

Hi and welcome back to

This is the lesson on the female reproductive system.0002

If we start with the external genitalia and what the parts are called and what they function as.0004

The first one I will mention is the Mons Pubis and that is technically superior to the majority of the external genitalia.0012

Usually it looks like a little bulge that is somewhat anterior/superior to the rest of structures.0020

The vulva this is one of the most misunderstood terms especially because a lot of people refer to the entire female external genitalia as the vagina.0027

That is not true.0039

Vagina is actually the passageway inside of it but the vulva is the term for all of these collective external parts together.0040

This is all the vulva.0047

As I have mentioned a second the vagina is actually the anterior passageway.0049

We talk more about that in a future slide.0055

The vestibule is pretty much like the opening or door way into the vagina.0058

This term has come up in other lessons if you watched the lesson on the sense of smell,0063

the nose the vestibule what you breathe into that section opening through the nostrils into the nose.0068

The vestibule is just the tissue like a doorway to the vagina.0077

The clitoris is superior/slightly anterior to the vaginal opening.0083

The clitoris is actually analogous to the male penis.0089

When this particular individual tissue of female is developing in the womb hormonal differences0092

is what stimulate the clitoris to not become a penis or vice versa.0099

Typically yes it is not large as the penis but it serves a similar function in the sense that it has a lot to with sexual arousal.0103

The amount of nerve endings on the control regions are very similar to the nerve endings in the entire penis on male.0111

During sexual contact or sexual intercourse the clitoris is going to become erect and engorge with blood flow that makes it more sensitive.0119

The prepuce is the contour hood and that is analogous to the foreskin on a male.0129

It covers the clitoris when it becomes erect and actually because we are obvious from underneath that hood.0139

The labia minora is lying in the vaginal opening.0149

The labia majora are on the outside of the labia minora.0154

These areas, the labia are analogous to the scrotum on a male.0158

To the particular image will become a male and the gonads which on a female will be internal0163

would have been stimulated to come down here and end up in the scrotal sac.0169

On a female the labia serves a similar function in the sense that they are also very sensitive and may get engorge with blood,0173

blood flow to become more sensitive during sexual intercourse.0182

But of course are not holding gonads.0186

Urethra is technically a part of the urinary system but we have to mention it because it is right in this area.0188

You will see here is external urethral orifice.0194

Orifice is just a body hole, opening in the outside or coming into the body and that is actually very close to the vagina but on a different passageway.0197

Urine is going to come out of that of course.0208

The vestibular glands lining the vaginal region keep the opening the vagina moist and the vagina itself moist.0210

The vestibular glands are going to make more secretions during arousal and during sexual intercourse.0220

We look internally at reproductive organs yes the vagina is internal0227

because it is the passageway from the opening in the vulva all the way up to the uterus.0232

The uterus also known as the womb has a few different parts.0237

One of them is the cervix.0240

The cervix is labeled here is a separate structure but technically it is the most inferior part of the uterus.0242

It is the doorway into out of the uterus.0249

The fallopian tubes have a few other names and I will mention those later.0252

Those connect the uterus to the ovaries.0255

The ovaries are the egg producers, those make the ovum just like the testes or testicles in a man would make sperm.0258

Let us start with the vagina in terms of the details regarding these internal reproductive structures.0268

It is an elastic muscular tube that extends between the vestibule and that opening or doorway into the vagina0274

and the cervix which is that most inferior part of the uterus.0282

It is typically 7.5 and 9 cm long that varies depending on the size of the woman and the diameter varies.0287

The other thing that is variable is how much it expands of course during sexual intercourse0295

the vagina is going to change in size and needs to be elastic for that reason.0300

But even more so during birth.0305

When a baby is coming through the area it needs to be flexible.0307

Three major functions of the vagina is a passageway for elimination of menstrual fluids.0312

Once a month when menstruation happen the vagina is the passageway for which that part of the endometrial lining will be shed.0317

And more details will come up later on in this lesson about that.0328

It receives the penis during sexual intercourse.0331

It forms the inferior portion of the birth canal.0333

The baby is going to be coming out through this passageway before entering the world.0336

The hymen, this blocks the entrance of the vagina until it tears.0342

This separates the vagina from that vestibule opening.0346

The hymen is epithelial tissue.0350

It has blood flow into that particular part of it.0353

The hymen will be broken during sexual intercourse when an individual loses her virginity.0356

But often times when woman loses her virginity there is not a break in hymen and blood loss there0364

because you can actually break the hymen much before, like years before losing virginity.0372

There is a lot of ways that can happen just sports like physical activity, stretching.0379

It can happen while riding a bike.0384

It can even happen by using tampons.0386

The hymen is sometimes broken prior sexual intercourse but it is this temporary protective covering in front of the vagina.0389

Here is a mid sagittal cross section straight through this part.0400

The bottom part of the female pelvic area and you can see that a lot of the structures I already have mentioned here.0407

Here would be the labia, you have the vagina here, this passageway is the bladder and the urethra.0413

Here is the vagina leading up into the uterus.0421

You can actually see one of the ovaries here and fallopian tube.0425

This of course is the bottom parts or ending part of the large intestine and you are going to get the rectum and anus.0429

When we look at the uterus in terms of what it is made of and what it is doing.0439

It provides protection and nutritional support and waste removal for embryo.0445

The nutritional support part in terms of the details about that we will mention more in the next lesson after0449

the male reproductive system on the development of an embryo.0458

What happens during those nine months inside the womb.0462

You are going to get at the placenta and the umbilical cord connected to the baby.0465

The waste removal has to happen there too.0469

The baby is getting his food through the umbilical cord and waste removal through that particular part.0472

The baby starts out as an embryo and then once it gets to that week 9 of your pregnancy the term fetus is used until it is born.0478

It is a pear shaped organ you can see it is like an inverted pair about 7.5 cm long and a diameter of about 5 cm.0486

That is going to be when it is not containing a baby of course.0496

As the baby develops inside of the cavity of this uterus it is going to expand a great deal.0502

The uterus has anti flexion meaning that the bottom or inferior portion of the uterus bends anteriorly towards the vaginal passageway.0509

About 20% of adult women it has it is called retroflection which means it is actually bending slightly backwards.0525

slightly is posterior which has no negative medical consequences as far as we know.0533

If that particular woman gets pregnant sometime during her pregnancy the uterus ends up0538

bending in the anteflexion way towards the front which is a good thing.0544

I would assume because the baby needs to be pointed out in the right direction during labor pains and labor contractions.0549

The uterus is anchored by ligaments.0557

There is a wide variety of ligaments in future pictures.0560

In this particular lesson you are going to see more shots of the ligaments.0563

One of them is called the broad ligament.0565

It looks like a giant almost like a Serrano wrap kind of blanket all around the uterus and connect to the fallopian tubes and the ovaries.0567

Other ligaments are the round ligaments, the utero sacra ligament.0577

Some of the ligaments around the uterus keeping it in place.0584

It is somewhat posterior to the pelvis cavity very close to the pelvic bones.0587

Uterine regions if you talk about the different parts of this uterus, the fundus like in the stomach is the top parts of0596

the uterus that is actually kind of above where the fallopian tubes start.0605

Most of the uterus is the body.0609

This entire portion here is the body.0612

You can see right here it is says cavity of body.0614

The cervix is that most inferior part like a muscular doorway in or out of the uterus.0616

During sexual intercourse and when semen or sperm are traveling up in here, the sperm are going to end up going through the cervical region0625

traveling all the way up to the uterus and into the fallopian tubes to meet an ovum and fertilize if they can.0637

When a woman is pregnant it is very important the cervix is strong in terms of keeping the baby in here and protected until it is time be born.0644

A second slide of the uterus, when we look at the different layers in the tissue of the uterine lining,0654

similar to those terms with the heart you got prei, myo, and endo.0662

Peri is the outermost or most superficial layer around the outside of the uterus.0668

If we saw uterus just by itself you are looking at the perimetrium that is where those ligaments are going to be attached to.0673

The myometrium is the thickest layer just like in the heart the myocardial was the thickest layer.0678

If we zoom into it, all of those uterine muscles.0683

They need to be strong for numerous reasons.0688

You do want that to be protective walls developing and then when it is time to be born0690

you need to have a great deal of strong contractions there to get the baby out.0695

The myometrium is all that muscular lining.0701

The endometrium that is going to change over time throughout the menstrual cycle you0704

are going to get sometimes less endometrium and more endometrium.0709

The build up of the endometrial lining is in preparation for possible fertilization, possible baby being developed inside of uterus.0714

Eventually the placenta comes from out of their etc.0723

If there is no fertilization the endometrial lining is shed that causes the period or menses.0727

There are 2 layers or zones inside the endometrium.0733

The basilar zone is a bit superficial closer to the myometrium and connected to the basilar zone you have the functional zone.0739

The functional zone is what is going to be varied in terms of its thickness.0752

Because of these uterine glands found in the functional zone throughout part of this cycle that we are going to talk about later in lesson.0756

You will get a buildup of endometrium.0765

If fertilization does not happen and that wall be shed and then it starts all over again.0767

The uterine glands once again will create more tissue in preparation for the inevitable fertilization that is going to happen.0775

The fallopian tubes are also called the ovary ducts or uterine tubes, all 3 of the terms are acceptable.0782

Fallopia has some root to Greek mythology.0790

They are about 13 cm long, a very thin that the passageway inside of them, the lumen of the fallopian tubes is just mm.0793

They connect the ovaries to the uterus.0804

This is a great picture in terms of the angles in which the fallopian tubes are found.0806

Here is that fundus of the uterus, body of the uterus, and here is the cervix.0811

Here is the fallopian tubes one on each side.0815

On here is a ligament connecting the ovaries to the uterus.0818

Here are the ovaries.0823

They are hollow muscular tubes and there are 3 main segments.0824

The infundibulum is the ending region in terms of being farthest away from the uterus.0829

The infundibulae would be each of these and connected to the infundibulae region is what is called fimbria.0837

Fimbria are right here.0844

They look like little fleshy little fingers almost, connected to the ovary and where ovulation happen.0849

We will talk about ovulation in a little bit.0860

The releasing of an egg into the fallopian tube and there is actually a slight space or gap between0861

the fimbria which makes the wavelike motions like this in the surface of the ovary.0868

They have taking some amazing videos of the inside of this region.0873

When ovulation happens for a very short period of time the egg gets released what is called secondary oocyte.0878

We will get to that in a bit.0889

It looks like it is suspended in air for very short amount of time as it goes from the ovary into the fallopian tubes.0890

The fimbrae those wavelike movements of those kind of help draw and accepting that unfertilized egg.0898

The ampulla is right here.0906

The isthmus is that thinner connecting region right here.0909

Here is the isthmus of each fallopian tube.0916

Peristalsis you have seen this where before if you look at the other lessons.0920

You have seen peristalsis in the digestive tract, the esophagus, the small intestine, etc.0926

It is wavelike muscular contractions that are going to be happening in the fallopian tube0931

to help draw the egg into parts of fallopian tube that are a little bit closer to the uterus.0936

Typically when an egg is fertilized it is going to happen somewhere in the fallopian tube.0944

It is possible that happens in the uterus but more often than not it is going to happen in the fallopian tubes.0950

What gets that egg into this region, into the isthmus?0955

It is peristaltic contractions in the muscular lining of the fallopian tubes.0959

The ovaries of women are typically born 2 are paired almond shaped organs near the lateral walls of the pelvis.0965

This is a good image from Gray's anatomy.0975

Here is an ovary.0977

Here is a ligament connecting the uterus.0978

Like I have mention before, here is that broad ligament that is laid over all these internal female reproductive structures.0980

It does look like a slightly see through but a little bit opaque blanket.0988

The 2 main functions and the reason in one of them is a bit more obvious is the production of female gametes or unfertilized eggs.0996

They are called oocytes.1005

Secretion of sex hormones.1006

Without ovaries making estrogen and progesterone and these female hormones you are not getting1009

a female characteristics what makes females as adults look different than men.1017

You are also not going to get the ovarian cycle.1023

You are not going to get the menstrual cycle.1026

The amount of sex hormones that are made and secreted from the ovaries are going to initiate those normal female events during ovarian cycle.1028

Ligaments, arteries, veins.1038

You are going to have ligaments for anchoring the ovary to the surrounding tissues.1040

Artery, vein, whether we are talking about the uterus, the fallopian tubes, or ovaries, you are going to see significant blood flow to all of these.1045

It is extremely important.1052

You have blood flow to all the tissues in the body.1054

It is amazing when you actually look at the images that have all the blood vessels associated with here.1056

The mesovarium is a specific region of connective tissues that I want to mention.1063

It is right in here.1068

The mesovarium is this connective tissue that helps keep the ovary anchored in place next to the fallopian tube that it is near.1070

Oogenesis is the making of eggs for receiving sperm.1081

An ovum which is a technical term for an egg, the production of those begins before a female baby is born.1087

I am not talking about the mother who is pregnant with a baby.1095

I am taking about the baby's eggs.1100

The process starts while she is in uterus amazingly.1102

It is very different with men.1106

Males do not start producing spermatocytes or sperm until puberty.1107

They are born with the stem cells they need in the testes the amazing thing is that this actually starts in uterus for females.1113

The oogonia those are the stem cells that are making eggs and in males they are called spermatogonia.1122

Oogonia at the stem cells in a female ovary specifically undergo mitosis.1130

If you took biology regular cell division that is making identical copies, making clones, they undergo mitosis1137

to make where called primary oocytes between the 37th month.1144

And primary oocytes are still diploid.1148

If you look up that term and check out a biology textbook a diploid means having the pairs of chromosomes.1153

The diploid number for humans is 46 but the inevitable egg the finalized egg that you want to get fertilize by sperm1162

yet have half the number from chromosomes because you are making half a human with that egg.1169

The other half comes from the sperm.1174

We need to take a primary oocyte and go to mitosis.1176

Reduce that chromosome number in half to get 23 chromosomes.1180

Sperms have 23 chromosomes and if we add those together with fertilization you get 46 again back to the diploid number.1183

The oogonia undergo mitosis to make primary oocytes between the 3rd and 7th month in uterus, inside of the of the womb.1191

Meiosis begins from these oocytes but stops.1199

It is arrested in pro phase 1.1204

It does begin but when a female is born she does not have all those finalize eggs yet.1207

They are all arrested or paused in pro phase 1.1215

Each one of them will get restarted the cycle began again to finish meiosis to get to what is called the secondary oocyte.1218

When puberty begins that is when it starts up again.1228

Meiosis will resume you will get metaphase 1, anaphase 1, so on and so forth.1232

If you go through meiosis 2, prophase 2, metaphase 2, etc. To make the haploid 23 chromosomes secondary oocytes.1239

The amazing thing is meiosis is not completely finished.1249

It actually stopped I believe in metaphase 2 of meiosis.1254

Once it is fertilized, once a sperm comes into contact with that outer region of the egg called the zona placeda,1260

once that sperm makes its way in then the eggs will finish it now.1267

They will finish meiosis to receive this sperm and the nuclear parts the DNA combines to make what is called the zygote.1273

It is the first cell of new life.1282

It is just amazing how meiosis it is very drawn out in terms of it been getting in uterus1285

and completing a completely completed when an egg is fertilized.1293

What are these polar bodies?1300

You are going to see in the next slide what these are all about.1302

These are kind of like the leftover daughter cells of meiosis that are not meant to be fertilized.1305

The amazing thing about meiosis every time it happens you making those sex sells you get 4 daughter cells.1313

What happens in a man that one stem cell is going to make 4 sperm that all being functional.1318

But in a female 3 of the 4 cells are not functional.1324

You end up making one large ovum or secondary oocyte.1330

The other 3 are off to the side and they are not meant to be fertilized.1335

Let us look at the next slide.1341

Here is little picture of how oogenesis happens.1342

Here is your a primary oocyte that is going to end of going through meiosis to make haploid cells.1346

In this particular picture here is the nucleus and these 4 dots represent chromosomes.1353

We are to assume that the diploid numbers 4 chromosomes here.1358

This is the centrosome which contains centrioles.1362

They help attach little protein filaments to the chromosomes and help pull them apart to separate them.1367

Here is the primary oocyte and it is going to start that meiosis process.1374

Here are the doubled because if you took biology you know that the chromosome number is double prior to division.1380

We have 8 dots and then you get the first division.1389

Here is the first polar body meaning that from the first meiotic part of meiosis division you get one of these, this is not going to be a fertilized egg.1393

It is not meant to be.1404

This one will go through another division to help make your mature ovum.1405

I mentioned that the secondary oocyte is what is released from the ovary.1411

This is what is going to come in contact with the sperm and inevitably when the sperm comes in contact with it1418

you are going to get that final part of meiosis being done to make the mature ovum.1423

You could see after this next cell division we are done to 2 chromosomes.1430

If you compare that to what we started out with initially we have the diploid here 4.1434

Here is the haploid number 2 chromosomes.1439

The sperm that ends up going in here.1441

Hopefully that has 2 chromosomes if all went well with making sperm and we get the diploid number again when they fuse for fertilization.1445

Here are those polar bodies.1453

Textbooks will tell you that sometimes there is 3 polar bodies and sometimes 2.1455

It depends on the splitting of cytoplasm but I have read 3 happens a lot of time.1459

Here are 3 polar bodies.1467

The size is actually slightly exaggerated here.1469

I have seen other images real micrographs where the polar bodies are significantly smaller.1471

One of the theories about why it exist and why make 4 each from each meiosis.1477

Why only make 1?1483

If you look at what an ovum contributes to that first cell of life, that zygote, it has pretty much all the cytoplasm.1485

All that stuff outside the nucleus it is going to have mitochondria, ER, golgi apparatus, all those other organelles.1494

It is almost as if the cytoplasm that could have been here is kind of siphoned into this one.1503

It is getting enough cytoplasm in there so that when the sperm comes in and the sperm does contributing a nucleus1509

just DNA there is not a lot going on in the head of the sperm.1517

This particular ovum got all the other organelles that are needed to maintain a new life.1520

If you look into mitochondrial inheritance every human being on earth what is supposed to happen is get your mitochondria for mom not from dad.1525

When we look at the developmental lesson in terms of how embryology happens I will mention1534

why is that you are not going to get sperm from the paternal side.1540

Those polar bodies they disintegrate.1544

Here is the ovarian/ menstrual cycle and let me explain what these letters stand for and what the parts have to do with.1549

At the top here, this is a histological kind of representation of what is happening in the ovary in terms of the follicle developing.1556

That is why this is not F here, this is the follicular phase.1567

On here is the egg been released through what is called ovulation.1570

What is leftover of this follicle this kind of nourishing part in the ovary that helps the egg develop this called the corpus luteum.1574

We will talk about what happens to that corpus luteum depending on if fertilization happens this will either remain or will disintegrate.1582

Here is temperature I will come back to that in a bit.1590

This is a little hormone tracker in terms of the relative amounts of hormones.1593

The higher the line is the more hormones of that particular type you can see in the bloodstream.1600

This O stands for ovulation.1605

Here is the luteal part of the ovarian cycle.1607

M stands for menses which is where woman has a period.1617

Here are the days, here is the day tracker 1 through 28 that is the approximate length of the whole cycle.1617

Once you get to 28 you are going to loop back to day 1 of the next cycle.1623

Depending on the month sometimes it only will last 22 days.1627

Sometimes it can be 32 days.1631

Sometimes women think they are pregnant because they are late meaning their period has not come as quickly as expected.1633

Things in your diet, stressing your life, other environmental factors can have an impact on the hormones and regulations cycle.1640

Sometimes the menses or menstruation can happen sooner or later than expected.1650

Looking at the top one more time, when we look at days 1 through about 13, this is follicular development.1656

In the next slide you are going to see the primary follicles, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle as the days go on this is nourished.1664

You see a gradual increase in estrogen that is what OE means here.1672

Here is estrogen as the hormone levels of estrogen increase you get development of this follicle which contains the egg.1676

Once you get to about day 14 when estrogen levels are peaking in you get was called luteinizing hormone.1687

It is actually LH or luteinizing hormone that peak here directly corresponds to ovulation.1696

Once you get enough of this being secreted from up top, remember if you look at the endocrine lessons LH comes from the pituitary gland.1705

But it has a big impact on the ovary.1715

Once you get peak in LH and FSH has something to do with it, follicle stimulating hormone you get ovulation.1717

Having sexual intercourse near ovulation times is going to maximize chances of sperm successfully meeting an egg.1726

That is ready and waiting for it.1734

Because ovulation is that day when the egg is released into the fallopian tube.1736

It takes many hours for sperm to actually make the way all the way up there.1741

Oftentimes when people are trying to conceive a child they will have sexual intercourse day 14, 15, 16.1747

Hope that is going to happen because look at temperature here.1755

This is celsius 1° jump is more significant than it would be on a Fahrenheit scale.1758

36° to 37 you see that once you get to ovulation temperature gets really close to it to 37° C as if the female has a fever.1764

A couple who is trying to get pregnant they will take the females temperature daily until they show a rise and then it is a good sign tissues ovulating.1776

That is something that shows the time is right.1786

The other hormones here you got progesterone here.1789

This black line is progesterone.1794

You can see that there is a correlation between progesterone rise and the thickening of this endometrial layer.1796

Down here this is showing you the relative thickness of the endometrium of the uterus.1805

All of this here and here has a lot more to do with the ovaries.1809

Here is development of the follicle and the ovary.1815

Here is hormones impacting the ovaries or being secreted from the ovaries and here we are looking at the uterus lining.1817

Notice that once ovulation has happened there is a significant increase in the thickness of the endometrium.1824

It is due to those endometrial glands or uterine glands.1831

You finally get to this point where if fertilization has happened and keep in mind that this thickening1835

is in preparation for fertilization because the baby is going to come down.1843

The ball of cells rather this early embryos is going to come down in the uterus, anchor itself1849

in the endometrial lining of the placenta then it is going to develop, etc.1854

If you get far enough through to the day 20 something and you do not have fertilization what is happening is this corpus luteum.1857

This leftover part from the follicle.1869

It stays for a while and is secreting progesterone.1871

If fertilization does not happen this ends up disintegrating.1876

The disintegration of the corpus luteum corresponds to the drop in progesterone and that corresponds to menses happening.1882

Once you get to day 28 that is the end of the cycle.1891

If fertilization did not happen you are going to shed that endometrial layer.1894

It will get built up again the next month.1898

Typically a period or menstruation happens over the course of 1 to 7 days.1900

If we switch it up and say fertilization happen, the corpus luteum is going to make progesterone1906

but this will not drop once you get to this point in time if fertilization had actually happened this has been fertilized.1916

There is certain hormones coming from that fertilized egg which is now basically an embryo1925

that is going to encourage progesterone to be maintained and to continue increase.1934

This would be maintained and develop further.1939

And that is important.1943

You want this endometrial line to not be sloughed off, not be let go because they fertilization has occurred.1944

You want to have the nourishing ability in the uterus for the baby.1951

This will actually stay.1955

One of the reasons why in the first trimester or the first 3 months of pregnancy woman gets morning sickness1957

is she is used to the drop in hormones here and rise again in the next month.1962

If progesterone and estrogens keep rising and maintain during early pregnancy that hormone change1968

can create a nauseating kind of feeling in some women.1975

Not all women but it just depends.1979

Here is the ovarian/menstrual cycle.1982

Menstruation if an oocyte or secondary oocyte is not fertilized, the developed thickening endometrial lining is shed.1986

We saw that after day 28 it gets sloughed off.1994

That is a fancy term for being shed out of the vagina.1999

Only the functional zone is sloughed off.2004

Remember there is that basilar layer that helps develop a functional zone.2006

That is what is shed.2015

Like I have said earlier typically the last 27 days this is a tampon that is going to help absorb the part that shed.2017

If we refer back to that particular chart we have looked earlier.2027

The ovarian menstrual cycle.2034

To summarize the steps that is happening within the ovary you can divide it into the follicular phase,2035

pre ovulation days 1 -13 approximately and the luteal phase there was that L part.2041

Follicular phase is day 1-13.2048

Day 14 is ovulation.2052

Luteal phase was about 15 -28.2054

This is post ovulation.2057

The steps we saw at the top part of the chart, formation of the primary follicles can happen early on2059

in the follicular phase that turns into secondary follicles.2067

Finally the tertiary follicle is what is ready to release that aid from out of it and that occurrence is ovulation.2070

Once ovulation happens that secondary oocyte is in the fallopian tube rolling along and waiting for a sperm to come up to it if it happens.2080

After that formation and degeneration of the corpus luteum.2092

The formation and development of corpus luteum corresponds to the thickening of the endometrial lining through progesterone.2096

It is going to degenerate if fertilization does not happen.2105

If fertilization does happen you are not going to get the degeneration.2108

The important thing about it not degenerating when pregnancy has occurred is you do not want another oocyte being released.2112

When pregnancies happen the ovaries stop ovulation for that 9 month period.2120

Menarche and menopause.2127

The first menses, the first period a woman has is called menarche.2130

That is usually around age 10-12.2135

The textbook I have looked in said 11-12 but I just did it 10-12 because over the last 20 years a lot of research is showing2138

that when women are having their first period earlier and earlier compared to the past.2145

There are a lot of explanations why it is happening.2152

There are some theories that hormone treatment of our foods, certain chemicals in our diet are triggering menses to happen earlier in some young women.2154

It can happen prior to this.2167

There are girls will get the first period when they are 8.2169

Some of it is genetics, from your parents in terms of influencing one that is going to happen during puberty.2172

There might be environmental triggers as well.2179

Menopause is kind of the opposite of menarche meaning it is when menstrual cycle2182

is finally coming to an end in terms of having monthly menstruation.2191

Menopause usually occurs between age 45 and 55.2196

That varies as well.2201

Some women will get early menopause even in their 30’s.2203

That is weird though.2207

45 and 55 is typically the primetime for this happening.2209

You get a drop in hormones being secreted from the ovaries that has a big impact on menopause occurring.2214

One of the symptoms is hot flashes which may have heard of.2222

The hormone changes in a woman's body and another chemical factors can make her feel like2226

it is really hot during certain times of the day even when it is not.2233

She might be in a room with a bunch of other people who are not going to menopause and it is 21° C in the room but she feels really hot and sweaty.2237

That is one of the symptoms of menopause.2247

There are treatments for menopause.2248

Some of it is hormone treatments like taking supplements that mimic the action of estrogen2250

but you should talk to your doctor for doing that because there is a slightly higher risk of getting certain cancers2255

from that estrogen treatment during menopause.2262

Here are a couple other reminders of what we talked about.2265

Here is mostly internal anatomy of the female reproductive system.2268

Here is the superior portion of the vagina, uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary.2275

Here is another simpler version of hormones associate with the ovarian/menstrual cycle and endometrial lining that builds up2279

and will be shed or maintained depending on whether not pregnancy has happened.2290

When we look at breast tissue of female that is one of a typical few characteristics having breasts more so than a man.2297

As a breast tissue you have got a pectoral fat pad which is most of the contributor to breasts being larger on a female rather than a man.2306

On so that fat pad is a underneath the skin of course.2316

The nipple and areola are two different structures.2321

The nipple is that often times projected part of the breast and that is meant to be projected because2323

they had something for the baby to latch onto with the mouth to receive milk.2331

The areola is the region surrounding the nipple like a concentric melanated portion.2338

It is either a bit more red or brown depending on the female and the surrounding skin.2347

The areola is surrounding the nipple that projection.2353

The mammary gland itself inside you have a vast network of lobes.2358

All of these parts here look like little sacs, these are lobes that help to produce the milk.2364

You do have glandular structures in here to which milk is made.2372

It comes into the lumen of the lobes here.2377

The lactiferous ducts would be that yellow, these right here.2382

Here are the ducts, when we looked at ducts at the gallbladder they are like little tubes that help carry a hormone2390

or substance using from some kind of glandular secretion.2399

In this case it is milk.2402

The lactiferous sinuses are these regions.2404

All the ducts pour into the sinuses and of course the sinuses are filled with milk and then once the baby latches on and2411

start suckling you are going to get milk coming of the sinuses through that opening in the nipple.2421

I have mention with the endocrine system lessons about hormones in terms of just the mother hearing the baby cry can trigger lactation.2427

It can trigger milk coming out of the nipple just from the baby crying.2441

And stress levels, nutrition, in terms of what kind of diet the female is on during breast feeding can have impact on the production.2446

If a woman is stress enough she can actually stop making milk completely.2455

There are formulas out there you can buy instead of breastfeeding that have a good nutritional content for the baby.2461

The doctors will tell you that nothing really beats breast milk.2469

Breast milk is the natural way to nurture a child not only is it nutritious but it does have something that have to do with bonding there.2473

You do get antibodies and immune benefits that go into the baby's body through breast milk.2482

Female reproductive conditions and disorders.2491

Amenorrhea is basically you not having a period.2494

You are not having menses occur.2501

This either means that a young girl has not had her first menstrual cycle prior to the ages 16.2503

It could mean that an adult who has been menstruating about every month it makes stops in her.2513

There are various reasons why this can happen.2520

Amenorrhea can happen if a woman is anorexic or having a very low lipid count,2523

the fat in the body makes it impossible to have the menstrual cycle keep going.2531

You actually make a lot of sex hormones from fat in your body.2537

If you are not taking enough fat and if your way to fit in terms of body fat percentage that can stop the periods.2541

Dysmenorrhea is actually painful menstruation.2547

There are treatments for that to relieve the symptoms.2554

Endometriosis is a really crazy kind of disorder.2559

Endometriosis is abnormal development of endometrium, that inner lining in the uterus outside of the uterus.2563

It usually happen somewhere else in the pelvis.2571

It can happen in the ovary portion.2573

It could even happen in the fallopian tubes but endometriosis can make a woman infertile.2576

It is possible but there are lots of treatment options.2583

It is very painful when it happens.2586

Endometriosis is something that can be fixed.2587

STD’s there are a lot of sexually transmitted diseases out there.2591

Of course gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, etc. And they can have a huge impact on female health and her ability to conceive a child.2595

HPV the human papilloma virus or the virus that causes genital warts can actually lead to certain cancers.2604

There are vaccines out there for that.2614

Pelvic inflammatory disease is a massive swelling of the fallopian tube region specifically.2616

This is something that can be treated if it is like a bacteria that is causing PID.2623

It can make a woman infertile if that is not treated.2630

Premature menopause there are lots of reasons that can happen.2634

It could be certain drugs a female is taking, lack of nutrition, environmental factors having effect on hormones.2639

The premature menopause if you are having the stoppage of menstrual cycle prior2649

to being in your 40’s that would be considered premature menopause.2653

Here are 3 major cancers that face women especially middle aged older woman.2658

Ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer.2665

I do not mean to say that young women are immune to these things but these if not treated are deadly.2668

Cervical cancer has been linked to HPV and there is a vaccine that makes a woman not get sick because are not get HPV.2676

And then you are less likely to get cervical cancer.2691

A lot of cervical cancers are linked to that virus not all of them.2693

It is possible to get a cancer of the cervix without the virus.2697

Ovarian cancer if it is caught early enough they will remove the ovaries entirely and2701

because removing ovaries means you are going to be producing less estrogen and progesterone.2708

Hormone supplements can replace what you are losing there.2714

Breast cancer getting mammograms is a great way to lower the risk of getting a breast cancer.2719

If there is some kind of growth they will remove it.2726

Sometimes removal of the entire breast has to happen as a safety precaution.2730

Hysterectomy is removal of the uterus.2736

A hysterectomy is going to mean that you are infertile.2739

You cannot hold the baby anymore.2744

Hysterectomy if there are abnormal growths in the uterus a lot of fibroids could potentially cause health concerns in the female.2746

Or if there is growths that will be malignant they look to be like you might be having uterine cancer.2759

They will remove it.2765

It is unfortunate that a woman cannot have kids but better that than death.2766

Tubal ligation is how woman gets fixed.2771

If the man wants to stop having kids they will do what is called a vasectomy which we will talk more about in the next lesson.2777

Tubal ligation is much more serious kind of operation because you have to put the woman2784

under full anesthesia because you have to go inside the abdominal cavity.2790

They will go in and they physically cut the fallopian tubes, sought the ends meaning seal off, like burn the edges shut.2794

An egg will be particular would be released in the ovary but a sperm will not be able to meet it in the fallopian tube.2804

It is a way that a woman can stop the chances of getting pregnant but it does have a slight risk of fatality.2810

Every surgery where you are being put under anesthesia come with that risk.2819

With a man it is an out patient procedure meaning it is very simple.2824

They do local anesthetic.2828

It takes 30 minutes or less.2829

Tubal ligation is an option for women who want to stop having children.2831

Thank you for watching