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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Female Reproductive System

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Aug 12, 2015 3:40 PM

Post by Hatem Qasmieh on August 2, 2015

the lecture is not moving ok. When the video reaches the uterus(3:57), it goes back to the beginning of the lecture...pls advise

Female Reproductive System

  • External female genitalia structures: mons pubis, vulva, vagina, vestibule, clitoris, prepuce, labia minora, labia majora, urethral opening, vestibular glands
  • The vagina is an elastic muscular tube that is a passageway for menstrual fluids, the site of penis insertion for sexual intercourse, and the inferior portion of the passageway for the fetus during labor/birth
  • The uterus (womb) contains a fundus, body, and cervix
  • The uterine layers are the perimetrium, myometrium, and endometrium (which develops and is shed through menstruation)
  • The Fallopian tubes (or oviducts, uterine tubes) move oocytes from the ovaries to aid in the process of fertilization
  • Peristalsis moves oocytes (fertilized or unfertilized) through the oviducts and into the uterus
  • Ovaries produce and release eggs and secrete sex hormones
  • Oogonia undergo meiosis before birth and they finish the meiosis process after the oocyte is fertilized
  • Polar bodies are generated as a result of oogenesis
  • The ovarian and menstrual cycle are regulated through hormone secretion
  • Menarche is the 1st menstruation for a women and menopause is when menstruation gradually comes to an end
  • Mammary glands are responsible for the production and secretion of milk for a baby
  • Female reproductive disorder/procedure examples: endometriosis, STDs, PID, tubal ligation
  • ***NOTE: The phrase “it just takes one sperm” is technically not true. Yes, only one sperm is required for the actual act of fertilization, but the acrosome of one sperm is not enough to penetrate the corona radiata…many sperm heads contribute to the disruption of that outermost layer of cells. After that, a single sperm can be the one that penetrates the zona pellucida.
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Since there are 2 ovaries, is there a predictable pattern for when each one will do ovulation in a given month?
    • A: Ovulation can happen from either ovary. In some women, the ovaries do alternate consistently, but there is no predictable pattern in women in general. Sometimes, both ovaries will ovulate and that can result in fraternal twins if both eggs are fertilized by separate sperm.

Female Reproductive System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • External Genitalia 0:05
    • Mons Pubis
    • Vulva
    • Vagina
    • Clitoris
    • Prepuce
    • Labia Minora
    • Labia Majora
    • Urethra
    • Vestibular Glands
  • Internal Reproductive Organs 3:47
    • Vagina
    • Uterus
    • Fallopian Tubes
    • Ovaries
  • Vagina 4:28
    • Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
    • Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
    • Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
    • Hymen
  • Uterus 7:21
    • Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
    • Anteflexion
    • Anchored by Ligaments
    • Uterine Regions
    • Perimetrium
    • Myometrium
    • Endometrium
  • Fallopian Tubes 13:03
    • Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
    • Infundibulum
    • Ampulla
    • Isthmus
    • Peristalsis
  • Ovaries 16:06
    • Produce Female Gametes
    • Secrete Sex Hormones
    • Ligaments, Artery / Vein
    • Mesovarium
  • Oogenesis Explanation 17:59
    • Ovum Production
    • Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
  • Oogenesis Picture 22:22
  • Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle 25:48
  • Menstruation 33:05
    • Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
    • 1-7 Days
  • Ovarian Cycle 33:48
    • Formation of Primary Follicles
    • Formation of Secondary Follicles
    • Formation of Tertiary Follicles
    • Ovulation
    • Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
  • Menarche and Menopause 35:28
    • Menarche
    • Menopause
  • Mammaries 38:16
    • Breast Tissue
    • Mammary Gland
  • Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders 41:32
    • Amenorrhea
    • Dysmenorrhea
    • Endometriosis
    • STDs
    • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
    • Premature Menopause
    • Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
    • Hysterectomy
    • Tubal Ligation

Transcription: Female Reproductive System

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on the female reproductive system.0002

If we start with the external genitalia and what the parts are called and what they function as.0004

The first one I will mention is the Mons Pubis and that is technically superior to the majority of the external genitalia.0012

Usually it looks like a little bulge that is somewhat anterior/superior to the rest of structures.0020

The vulva this is one of the most misunderstood terms especially because a lot of people refer to the entire female external genitalia as the vagina.0027

That is not true.0039

Vagina is actually the passageway inside of it but the vulva is the term for all of these collective external parts together.0040

This is all the vulva.0047

As I have mentioned a second the vagina is actually the anterior passageway.0049

We talk more about that in a future slide.0055

The vestibule is pretty much like the opening or door way into the vagina.0058

This term has come up in other lessons if you watched the lesson on the sense of smell,0063

the nose the vestibule what you breathe into that section opening through the nostrils into the nose.0068

The vestibule is just the tissue like a doorway to the vagina.0077

The clitoris is superior/slightly anterior to the vaginal opening.0083

The clitoris is actually analogous to the male penis.0089

When this particular individual tissue of female is developing in the womb hormonal differences0092

is what stimulate the clitoris to not become a penis or vice versa.0099

Typically yes it is not large as the penis but it serves a similar function in the sense that it has a lot to with sexual arousal.0103

The amount of nerve endings on the control regions are very similar to the nerve endings in the entire penis on male.0111

During sexual contact or sexual intercourse the clitoris is going to become erect and engorge with blood flow that makes it more sensitive.0119

The prepuce is the contour hood and that is analogous to the foreskin on a male.0129

It covers the clitoris when it becomes erect and actually because we are obvious from underneath that hood.0139

The labia minora is lying in the vaginal opening.0149

The labia majora are on the outside of the labia minora.0154

These areas, the labia are analogous to the scrotum on a male.0158

To the particular image will become a male and the gonads which on a female will be internal0163

would have been stimulated to come down here and end up in the scrotal sac.0169

On a female the labia serves a similar function in the sense that they are also very sensitive and may get engorge with blood,0173

blood flow to become more sensitive during sexual intercourse.0182

But of course are not holding gonads.0186

Urethra is technically a part of the urinary system but we have to mention it because it is right in this area.0188

You will see here is external urethral orifice.0194

Orifice is just a body hole, opening in the outside or coming into the body and that is actually very close to the vagina but on a different passageway.0197

Urine is going to come out of that of course.0208

The vestibular glands lining the vaginal region keep the opening the vagina moist and the vagina itself moist.0210

The vestibular glands are going to make more secretions during arousal and during sexual intercourse.0220

We look internally at reproductive organs yes the vagina is internal0227

because it is the passageway from the opening in the vulva all the way up to the uterus.0232

The uterus also known as the womb has a few different parts.0237

One of them is the cervix.0240

The cervix is labeled here is a separate structure but technically it is the most inferior part of the uterus.0242

It is the doorway into out of the uterus.0249

The fallopian tubes have a few other names and I will mention those later.0252

Those connect the uterus to the ovaries.0255

The ovaries are the egg producers, those make the ovum just like the testes or testicles in a man would make sperm.0258

Let us start with the vagina in terms of the details regarding these internal reproductive structures.0268

It is an elastic muscular tube that extends between the vestibule and that opening or doorway into the vagina0274

and the cervix which is that most inferior part of the uterus.0282

It is typically 7.5 and 9 cm long that varies depending on the size of the woman and the diameter varies.0287

The other thing that is variable is how much it expands of course during sexual intercourse0295

the vagina is going to change in size and needs to be elastic for that reason.0300

But even more so during birth.0305

When a baby is coming through the area it needs to be flexible.0307

Three major functions of the vagina is a passageway for elimination of menstrual fluids.0312

Once a month when menstruation happen the vagina is the passageway for which that part of the endometrial lining will be shed.0317

And more details will come up later on in this lesson about that.0328

It receives the penis during sexual intercourse.0331

It forms the inferior portion of the birth canal.0333

The baby is going to be coming out through this passageway before entering the world.0336

The hymen, this blocks the entrance of the vagina until it tears.0342

This separates the vagina from that vestibule opening.0346

The hymen is epithelial tissue.0350

It has blood flow into that particular part of it.0353

The hymen will be broken during sexual intercourse when an individual loses her virginity.0356

But often times when woman loses her virginity there is not a break in hymen and blood loss there0364

because you can actually break the hymen much before, like years before losing virginity.0372

There is a lot of ways that can happen just sports like physical activity, stretching.0379

It can happen while riding a bike.0384

It can even happen by using tampons.0386

The hymen is sometimes broken prior sexual intercourse but it is this temporary protective covering in front of the vagina.0389

Here is a mid sagittal cross section straight through this part.0400

The bottom part of the female pelvic area and you can see that a lot of the structures I already have mentioned here.0407

Here would be the labia, you have the vagina here, this passageway is the bladder and the urethra.0413

Here is the vagina leading up into the uterus.0421

You can actually see one of the ovaries here and fallopian tube.0425

This of course is the bottom parts or ending part of the large intestine and you are going to get the rectum and anus.0429

When we look at the uterus in terms of what it is made of and what it is doing.0439

It provides protection and nutritional support and waste removal for embryo.0445

The nutritional support part in terms of the details about that we will mention more in the next lesson after0449

the male reproductive system on the development of an embryo.0458

What happens during those nine months inside the womb.0462

You are going to get at the placenta and the umbilical cord connected to the baby.0465

The waste removal has to happen there too.0469

The baby is getting his food through the umbilical cord and waste removal through that particular part.0472

The baby starts out as an embryo and then once it gets to that week 9 of your pregnancy the term fetus is used until it is born.0478

It is a pear shaped organ you can see it is like an inverted pair about 7.5 cm long and a diameter of about 5 cm.0486

That is going to be when it is not containing a baby of course.0496

As the baby develops inside of the cavity of this uterus it is going to expand a great deal.0502

The uterus has anti flexion meaning that the bottom or inferior portion of the uterus bends anteriorly towards the vaginal passageway.0509

About 20% of adult women it has it is called retroflection which means it is actually bending slightly backwards.0525

slightly is posterior which has no negative medical consequences as far as we know.0533

If that particular woman gets pregnant sometime during her pregnancy the uterus ends up0538

bending in the anteflexion way towards the front which is a good thing.0544

I would assume because the baby needs to be pointed out in the right direction during labor pains and labor contractions.0549

The uterus is anchored by ligaments.0557

There is a wide variety of ligaments in future pictures.0560

In this particular lesson you are going to see more shots of the ligaments.0563

One of them is called the broad ligament.0565

It looks like a giant almost like a Serrano wrap kind of blanket all around the uterus and connect to the fallopian tubes and the ovaries.0567

Other ligaments are the round ligaments, the utero sacra ligament.0577

Some of the ligaments around the uterus keeping it in place.0584

It is somewhat posterior to the pelvis cavity very close to the pelvic bones.0587

Uterine regions if you talk about the different parts of this uterus, the fundus like in the stomach is the top parts of0596

the uterus that is actually kind of above where the fallopian tubes start.0605

Most of the uterus is the body.0609

This entire portion here is the body.0612

You can see right here it is says cavity of body.0614

The cervix is that most inferior part like a muscular doorway in or out of the uterus.0616

During sexual intercourse and when semen or sperm are traveling up in here, the sperm are going to end up going through the cervical region0625

traveling all the way up to the uterus and into the fallopian tubes to meet an ovum and fertilize if they can.0637

When a woman is pregnant it is very important the cervix is strong in terms of keeping the baby in here and protected until it is time be born.0644

A second slide of the uterus, when we look at the different layers in the tissue of the uterine lining,0654

similar to those terms with the heart you got prei, myo, and endo.0662

Peri is the outermost or most superficial layer around the outside of the uterus.0668

If we saw uterus just by itself you are looking at the perimetrium that is where those ligaments are going to be attached to.0673

The myometrium is the thickest layer just like in the heart the myocardial was the thickest layer.0678

If we zoom into it, all of those uterine muscles.0683

They need to be strong for numerous reasons.0688

You do want that to be protective walls developing and then when it is time to be born0690

you need to have a great deal of strong contractions there to get the baby out.0695

The myometrium is all that muscular lining.0701

The endometrium that is going to change over time throughout the menstrual cycle you0704

are going to get sometimes less endometrium and more endometrium.0709

The build up of the endometrial lining is in preparation for possible fertilization, possible baby being developed inside of uterus.0714

Eventually the placenta comes from out of their etc.0723

If there is no fertilization the endometrial lining is shed that causes the period or menses.0727

There are 2 layers or zones inside the endometrium.0733

The basilar zone is a bit superficial closer to the myometrium and connected to the basilar zone you have the functional zone.0739

The functional zone is what is going to be varied in terms of its thickness.0752

Because of these uterine glands found in the functional zone throughout part of this cycle that we are going to talk about later in lesson.0756

You will get a buildup of endometrium.0765

If fertilization does not happen and that wall be shed and then it starts all over again.0767

The uterine glands once again will create more tissue in preparation for the inevitable fertilization that is going to happen.0775

The fallopian tubes are also called the ovary ducts or uterine tubes, all 3 of the terms are acceptable.0782

Fallopia has some root to Greek mythology.0790

They are about 13 cm long, a very thin that the passageway inside of them, the lumen of the fallopian tubes is just mm.0793

They connect the ovaries to the uterus.0804

This is a great picture in terms of the angles in which the fallopian tubes are found.0806

Here is that fundus of the uterus, body of the uterus, and here is the cervix.0811

Here is the fallopian tubes one on each side.0815

On here is a ligament connecting the ovaries to the uterus.0818

Here are the ovaries.0823

They are hollow muscular tubes and there are 3 main segments.0824

The infundibulum is the ending region in terms of being farthest away from the uterus.0829

The infundibulae would be each of these and connected to the infundibulae region is what is called fimbria.0837

Fimbria are right here.0844

They look like little fleshy little fingers almost, connected to the ovary and where ovulation happen.0849

We will talk about ovulation in a little bit.0860

The releasing of an egg into the fallopian tube and there is actually a slight space or gap between0861

the fimbria which makes the wavelike motions like this in the surface of the ovary.0868

They have taking some amazing videos of the inside of this region.0873

When ovulation happens for a very short period of time the egg gets released what is called secondary oocyte.0878

We will get to that in a bit.0889

It looks like it is suspended in air for very short amount of time as it goes from the ovary into the fallopian tubes.0890

The fimbrae those wavelike movements of those kind of help draw and accepting that unfertilized egg.0898

The ampulla is right here.0906

The isthmus is that thinner connecting region right here.0909

Here is the isthmus of each fallopian tube.0916

Peristalsis you have seen this where before if you look at the other lessons.0920

You have seen peristalsis in the digestive tract, the esophagus, the small intestine, etc.0926

It is wavelike muscular contractions that are going to be happening in the fallopian tube0931

to help draw the egg into parts of fallopian tube that are a little bit closer to the uterus.0936

Typically when an egg is fertilized it is going to happen somewhere in the fallopian tube.0944

It is possible that happens in the uterus but more often than not it is going to happen in the fallopian tubes.0950

What gets that egg into this region, into the isthmus?0955

It is peristaltic contractions in the muscular lining of the fallopian tubes.0959

The ovaries of women are typically born 2 are paired almond shaped organs near the lateral walls of the pelvis.0965

This is a good image from Gray's anatomy.0975

Here is an ovary.0977

Here is a ligament connecting the uterus.0978

Like I have mention before, here is that broad ligament that is laid over all these internal female reproductive structures.0980

It does look like a slightly see through but a little bit opaque blanket.0988

The 2 main functions and the reason in one of them is a bit more obvious is the production of female gametes or unfertilized eggs.0996

They are called oocytes.1005

Secretion of sex hormones.1006

Without ovaries making estrogen and progesterone and these female hormones you are not getting1009

a female characteristics what makes females as adults look different than men.1017

You are also not going to get the ovarian cycle.1023

You are not going to get the menstrual cycle.1026

The amount of sex hormones that are made and secreted from the ovaries are going to initiate those normal female events during ovarian cycle.1028

Ligaments, arteries, veins.1038

You are going to have ligaments for anchoring the ovary to the surrounding tissues.1040

Artery, vein, whether we are talking about the uterus, the fallopian tubes, or ovaries, you are going to see significant blood flow to all of these.1045

It is extremely important.1052

You have blood flow to all the tissues in the body.1054

It is amazing when you actually look at the images that have all the blood vessels associated with here.1056

The mesovarium is a specific region of connective tissues that I want to mention.1063

It is right in here.1068

The mesovarium is this connective tissue that helps keep the ovary anchored in place next to the fallopian tube that it is near.1070

Oogenesis is the making of eggs for receiving sperm.1081

An ovum which is a technical term for an egg, the production of those begins before a female baby is born.1087

I am not talking about the mother who is pregnant with a baby.1095

I am taking about the baby's eggs.1100

The process starts while she is in uterus amazingly.1102

It is very different with men.1106

Males do not start producing spermatocytes or sperm until puberty.1107

They are born with the stem cells they need in the testes the amazing thing is that this actually starts in uterus for females.1113

The oogonia those are the stem cells that are making eggs and in males they are called spermatogonia.1122

Oogonia at the stem cells in a female ovary specifically undergo mitosis.1130

If you took biology regular cell division that is making identical copies, making clones, they undergo mitosis1137

to make where called primary oocytes between the 37th month.1144

And primary oocytes are still diploid.1148

If you look up that term and check out a biology textbook a diploid means having the pairs of chromosomes.1153

The diploid number for humans is 46 but the inevitable egg the finalized egg that you want to get fertilize by sperm1162

yet have half the number from chromosomes because you are making half a human with that egg.1169

The other half comes from the sperm.1174

We need to take a primary oocyte and go to mitosis.1176

Reduce that chromosome number in half to get 23 chromosomes.1180

Sperms have 23 chromosomes and if we add those together with fertilization you get 46 again back to the diploid number.1183

The oogonia undergo mitosis to make primary oocytes between the 3rd and 7th month in uterus, inside of the of the womb.1191

Meiosis begins from these oocytes but stops.1199

It is arrested in pro phase 1.1204

It does begin but when a female is born she does not have all those finalize eggs yet.1207

They are all arrested or paused in pro phase 1.1215

Each one of them will get restarted the cycle began again to finish meiosis to get to what is called the secondary oocyte.1218

When puberty begins that is when it starts up again.1228

Meiosis will resume you will get metaphase 1, anaphase 1, so on and so forth.1232

If you go through meiosis 2, prophase 2, metaphase 2, etc. To make the haploid 23 chromosomes secondary oocytes.1239

The amazing thing is meiosis is not completely finished.1249

It actually stopped I believe in metaphase 2 of meiosis.1254

Once it is fertilized, once a sperm comes into contact with that outer region of the egg called the zona placeda,1260

once that sperm makes its way in then the eggs will finish it now.1267

They will finish meiosis to receive this sperm and the nuclear parts the DNA combines to make what is called the zygote.1273

It is the first cell of new life.1282

It is just amazing how meiosis it is very drawn out in terms of it been getting in uterus1285

and completing a completely completed when an egg is fertilized.1293

What are these polar bodies?1300

You are going to see in the next slide what these are all about.1302

These are kind of like the leftover daughter cells of meiosis that are not meant to be fertilized.1305

The amazing thing about meiosis every time it happens you making those sex sells you get 4 daughter cells.1313

What happens in a man that one stem cell is going to make 4 sperm that all being functional.1318

But in a female 3 of the 4 cells are not functional.1324

You end up making one large ovum or secondary oocyte.1330

The other 3 are off to the side and they are not meant to be fertilized.1335

Let us look at the next slide.1341

Here is little picture of how oogenesis happens.1342

Here is your a primary oocyte that is going to end of going through meiosis to make haploid cells.1346

In this particular picture here is the nucleus and these 4 dots represent chromosomes.1353

We are to assume that the diploid numbers 4 chromosomes here.1358

This is the centrosome which contains centrioles.1362

They help attach little protein filaments to the chromosomes and help pull them apart to separate them.1367

Here is the primary oocyte and it is going to start that meiosis process.1374

Here are the doubled because if you took biology you know that the chromosome number is double prior to division.1380

We have 8 dots and then you get the first division.1389

Here is the first polar body meaning that from the first meiotic part of meiosis division you get one of these, this is not going to be a fertilized egg.1393

It is not meant to be.1404

This one will go through another division to help make your mature ovum.1405

I mentioned that the secondary oocyte is what is released from the ovary.1411

This is what is going to come in contact with the sperm and inevitably when the sperm comes in contact with it1418

you are going to get that final part of meiosis being done to make the mature ovum.1423

You could see after this next cell division we are done to 2 chromosomes.1430

If you compare that to what we started out with initially we have the diploid here 4.1434

Here is the haploid number 2 chromosomes.1439

The sperm that ends up going in here.1441

Hopefully that has 2 chromosomes if all went well with making sperm and we get the diploid number again when they fuse for fertilization.1445

Here are those polar bodies.1453

Textbooks will tell you that sometimes there is 3 polar bodies and sometimes 2.1455

It depends on the splitting of cytoplasm but I have read 3 happens a lot of time.1459

Here are 3 polar bodies.1467

The size is actually slightly exaggerated here.1469

I have seen other images real micrographs where the polar bodies are significantly smaller.1471

One of the theories about why it exist and why make 4 each from each meiosis.1477

Why only make 1?1483

If you look at what an ovum contributes to that first cell of life, that zygote, it has pretty much all the cytoplasm.1485

All that stuff outside the nucleus it is going to have mitochondria, ER, golgi apparatus, all those other organelles.1494

It is almost as if the cytoplasm that could have been here is kind of siphoned into this one.1503

It is getting enough cytoplasm in there so that when the sperm comes in and the sperm does contributing a nucleus1509

just DNA there is not a lot going on in the head of the sperm.1517

This particular ovum got all the other organelles that are needed to maintain a new life.1520

If you look into mitochondrial inheritance every human being on earth what is supposed to happen is get your mitochondria for mom not from dad.1525

When we look at the developmental lesson in terms of how embryology happens I will mention1534

why is that you are not going to get sperm from the paternal side.1540

Those polar bodies they disintegrate.1544

Here is the ovarian/ menstrual cycle and let me explain what these letters stand for and what the parts have to do with.1549

At the top here, this is a histological kind of representation of what is happening in the ovary in terms of the follicle developing.1556

That is why this is not F here, this is the follicular phase.1567

On here is the egg been released through what is called ovulation.1570

What is leftover of this follicle this kind of nourishing part in the ovary that helps the egg develop this called the corpus luteum.1574

We will talk about what happens to that corpus luteum depending on if fertilization happens this will either remain or will disintegrate.1582

Here is temperature I will come back to that in a bit.1590

This is a little hormone tracker in terms of the relative amounts of hormones.1593

The higher the line is the more hormones of that particular type you can see in the bloodstream.1600

This O stands for ovulation.1605

Here is the luteal part of the ovarian cycle.1607

M stands for menses which is where woman has a period.1617

Here are the days, here is the day tracker 1 through 28 that is the approximate length of the whole cycle.1617

Once you get to 28 you are going to loop back to day 1 of the next cycle.1623

Depending on the month sometimes it only will last 22 days.1627

Sometimes it can be 32 days.1631

Sometimes women think they are pregnant because they are late meaning their period has not come as quickly as expected.1633

Things in your diet, stressing your life, other environmental factors can have an impact on the hormones and regulations cycle.1640

Sometimes the menses or menstruation can happen sooner or later than expected.1650

Looking at the top one more time, when we look at days 1 through about 13, this is follicular development.1656

In the next slide you are going to see the primary follicles, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle as the days go on this is nourished.1664

You see a gradual increase in estrogen that is what OE means here.1672

Here is estrogen as the hormone levels of estrogen increase you get development of this follicle which contains the egg.1676

Once you get to about day 14 when estrogen levels are peaking in you get was called luteinizing hormone.1687

It is actually LH or luteinizing hormone that peak here directly corresponds to ovulation.1696

Once you get enough of this being secreted from up top, remember if you look at the endocrine lessons LH comes from the pituitary gland.1705

But it has a big impact on the ovary.1715

Once you get peak in LH and FSH has something to do with it, follicle stimulating hormone you get ovulation.1717

Having sexual intercourse near ovulation times is going to maximize chances of sperm successfully meeting an egg.1726

That is ready and waiting for it.1734

Because ovulation is that day when the egg is released into the fallopian tube.1736

It takes many hours for sperm to actually make the way all the way up there.1741

Oftentimes when people are trying to conceive a child they will have sexual intercourse day 14, 15, 16.1747

Hope that is going to happen because look at temperature here.1755

This is celsius 1° jump is more significant than it would be on a Fahrenheit scale.1758

36° to 37 you see that once you get to ovulation temperature gets really close to it to 37° C as if the female has a fever.1764

A couple who is trying to get pregnant they will take the females temperature daily until they show a rise and then it is a good sign tissues ovulating.1776

That is something that shows the time is right.1786

The other hormones here you got progesterone here.1789

This black line is progesterone.1794

You can see that there is a correlation between progesterone rise and the thickening of this endometrial layer.1796

Down here this is showing you the relative thickness of the endometrium of the uterus.1805

All of this here and here has a lot more to do with the ovaries.1809

Here is development of the follicle and the ovary.1815

Here is hormones impacting the ovaries or being secreted from the ovaries and here we are looking at the uterus lining.1817

Notice that once ovulation has happened there is a significant increase in the thickness of the endometrium.1824

It is due to those endometrial glands or uterine glands.1831

You finally get to this point where if fertilization has happened and keep in mind that this thickening1835

is in preparation for fertilization because the baby is going to come down.1843

The ball of cells rather this early embryos is going to come down in the uterus, anchor itself1849

in the endometrial lining of the placenta then it is going to develop, etc.1854

If you get far enough through to the day 20 something and you do not have fertilization what is happening is this corpus luteum.1857

This leftover part from the follicle.1869

It stays for a while and is secreting progesterone.1871

If fertilization does not happen this ends up disintegrating.1876

The disintegration of the corpus luteum corresponds to the drop in progesterone and that corresponds to menses happening.1882

Once you get to day 28 that is the end of the cycle.1891

If fertilization did not happen you are going to shed that endometrial layer.1894

It will get built up again the next month.1898

Typically a period or menstruation happens over the course of 1 to 7 days.1900

If we switch it up and say fertilization happen, the corpus luteum is going to make progesterone1906

but this will not drop once you get to this point in time if fertilization had actually happened this has been fertilized.1916

There is certain hormones coming from that fertilized egg which is now basically an embryo1925

that is going to encourage progesterone to be maintained and to continue increase.1934

This would be maintained and develop further.1939

And that is important.1943

You want this endometrial line to not be sloughed off, not be let go because they fertilization has occurred.1944

You want to have the nourishing ability in the uterus for the baby.1951

This will actually stay.1955

One of the reasons why in the first trimester or the first 3 months of pregnancy woman gets morning sickness1957

is she is used to the drop in hormones here and rise again in the next month.1962

If progesterone and estrogens keep rising and maintain during early pregnancy that hormone change1968

can create a nauseating kind of feeling in some women.1975

Not all women but it just depends.1979

Here is the ovarian/menstrual cycle.1982

Menstruation if an oocyte or secondary oocyte is not fertilized, the developed thickening endometrial lining is shed.1986

We saw that after day 28 it gets sloughed off.1994

That is a fancy term for being shed out of the vagina.1999

Only the functional zone is sloughed off.2004

Remember there is that basilar layer that helps develop a functional zone.2006

That is what is shed.2015

Like I have said earlier typically the last 27 days this is a tampon that is going to help absorb the part that shed.2017

If we refer back to that particular chart we have looked earlier.2027

The ovarian menstrual cycle.2034

To summarize the steps that is happening within the ovary you can divide it into the follicular phase,2035

pre ovulation days 1 -13 approximately and the luteal phase there was that L part.2041

Follicular phase is day 1-13.2048

Day 14 is ovulation.2052

Luteal phase was about 15 -28.2054

This is post ovulation.2057

The steps we saw at the top part of the chart, formation of the primary follicles can happen early on2059

in the follicular phase that turns into secondary follicles.2067

Finally the tertiary follicle is what is ready to release that aid from out of it and that occurrence is ovulation.2070

Once ovulation happens that secondary oocyte is in the fallopian tube rolling along and waiting for a sperm to come up to it if it happens.2080

After that formation and degeneration of the corpus luteum.2092

The formation and development of corpus luteum corresponds to the thickening of the endometrial lining through progesterone.2096

It is going to degenerate if fertilization does not happen.2105

If fertilization does happen you are not going to get the degeneration.2108

The important thing about it not degenerating when pregnancy has occurred is you do not want another oocyte being released.2112

When pregnancies happen the ovaries stop ovulation for that 9 month period.2120

Menarche and menopause.2127

The first menses, the first period a woman has is called menarche.2130

That is usually around age 10-12.2135

The textbook I have looked in said 11-12 but I just did it 10-12 because over the last 20 years a lot of research is showing2138

that when women are having their first period earlier and earlier compared to the past.2145

There are a lot of explanations why it is happening.2152

There are some theories that hormone treatment of our foods, certain chemicals in our diet are triggering menses to happen earlier in some young women.2154

It can happen prior to this.2167

There are girls will get the first period when they are 8.2169

Some of it is genetics, from your parents in terms of influencing one that is going to happen during puberty.2172

There might be environmental triggers as well.2179

Menopause is kind of the opposite of menarche meaning it is when menstrual cycle2182

is finally coming to an end in terms of having monthly menstruation.2191

Menopause usually occurs between age 45 and 55.2196

That varies as well.2201

Some women will get early menopause even in their 30’s.2203

That is weird though.2207

45 and 55 is typically the primetime for this happening.2209

You get a drop in hormones being secreted from the ovaries that has a big impact on menopause occurring.2214

One of the symptoms is hot flashes which may have heard of.2222

The hormone changes in a woman's body and another chemical factors can make her feel like2226

it is really hot during certain times of the day even when it is not.2233

She might be in a room with a bunch of other people who are not going to menopause and it is 21° C in the room but she feels really hot and sweaty.2237

That is one of the symptoms of menopause.2247

There are treatments for menopause.2248

Some of it is hormone treatments like taking supplements that mimic the action of estrogen2250

but you should talk to your doctor for doing that because there is a slightly higher risk of getting certain cancers2255

from that estrogen treatment during menopause.2262

Here are a couple other reminders of what we talked about.2265

Here is mostly internal anatomy of the female reproductive system.2268

Here is the superior portion of the vagina, uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary.2275

Here is another simpler version of hormones associate with the ovarian/menstrual cycle and endometrial lining that builds up2279

and will be shed or maintained depending on whether not pregnancy has happened.2290

When we look at breast tissue of female that is one of a typical few characteristics having breasts more so than a man.2297

As a breast tissue you have got a pectoral fat pad which is most of the contributor to breasts being larger on a female rather than a man.2306

On so that fat pad is a underneath the skin of course.2316

The nipple and areola are two different structures.2321

The nipple is that often times projected part of the breast and that is meant to be projected because2323

they had something for the baby to latch onto with the mouth to receive milk.2331

The areola is the region surrounding the nipple like a concentric melanated portion.2338

It is either a bit more red or brown depending on the female and the surrounding skin.2347

The areola is surrounding the nipple that projection.2353

The mammary gland itself inside you have a vast network of lobes.2358

All of these parts here look like little sacs, these are lobes that help to produce the milk.2364

You do have glandular structures in here to which milk is made.2372

It comes into the lumen of the lobes here.2377

The lactiferous ducts would be that yellow, these right here.2382

Here are the ducts, when we looked at ducts at the gallbladder they are like little tubes that help carry a hormone2390

or substance using from some kind of glandular secretion.2399

In this case it is milk.2402

The lactiferous sinuses are these regions.2404

All the ducts pour into the sinuses and of course the sinuses are filled with milk and then once the baby latches on and2411

start suckling you are going to get milk coming of the sinuses through that opening in the nipple.2421

I have mention with the endocrine system lessons about hormones in terms of just the mother hearing the baby cry can trigger lactation.2427

It can trigger milk coming out of the nipple just from the baby crying.2441

And stress levels, nutrition, in terms of what kind of diet the female is on during breast feeding can have impact on the production.2446

If a woman is stress enough she can actually stop making milk completely.2455

There are formulas out there you can buy instead of breastfeeding that have a good nutritional content for the baby.2461

The doctors will tell you that nothing really beats breast milk.2469

Breast milk is the natural way to nurture a child not only is it nutritious but it does have something that have to do with bonding there.2473

You do get antibodies and immune benefits that go into the baby's body through breast milk.2482

Female reproductive conditions and disorders.2491

Amenorrhea is basically you not having a period.2494

You are not having menses occur.2501

This either means that a young girl has not had her first menstrual cycle prior to the ages 16.2503

It could mean that an adult who has been menstruating about every month it makes stops in her.2513

There are various reasons why this can happen.2520

Amenorrhea can happen if a woman is anorexic or having a very low lipid count,2523

the fat in the body makes it impossible to have the menstrual cycle keep going.2531

You actually make a lot of sex hormones from fat in your body.2537

If you are not taking enough fat and if your way to fit in terms of body fat percentage that can stop the periods.2541

Dysmenorrhea is actually painful menstruation.2547

There are treatments for that to relieve the symptoms.2554

Endometriosis is a really crazy kind of disorder.2559

Endometriosis is abnormal development of endometrium, that inner lining in the uterus outside of the uterus.2563

It usually happen somewhere else in the pelvis.2571

It can happen in the ovary portion.2573

It could even happen in the fallopian tubes but endometriosis can make a woman infertile.2576

It is possible but there are lots of treatment options.2583

It is very painful when it happens.2586

Endometriosis is something that can be fixed.2587

STD’s there are a lot of sexually transmitted diseases out there.2591

Of course gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, etc. And they can have a huge impact on female health and her ability to conceive a child.2595

HPV the human papilloma virus or the virus that causes genital warts can actually lead to certain cancers.2604

There are vaccines out there for that.2614

Pelvic inflammatory disease is a massive swelling of the fallopian tube region specifically.2616

This is something that can be treated if it is like a bacteria that is causing PID.2623

It can make a woman infertile if that is not treated.2630

Premature menopause there are lots of reasons that can happen.2634

It could be certain drugs a female is taking, lack of nutrition, environmental factors having effect on hormones.2639

The premature menopause if you are having the stoppage of menstrual cycle prior2649

to being in your 40’s that would be considered premature menopause.2653

Here are 3 major cancers that face women especially middle aged older woman.2658

Ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and breast cancer.2665

I do not mean to say that young women are immune to these things but these if not treated are deadly.2668

Cervical cancer has been linked to HPV and there is a vaccine that makes a woman not get sick because are not get HPV.2676

And then you are less likely to get cervical cancer.2691

A lot of cervical cancers are linked to that virus not all of them.2693

It is possible to get a cancer of the cervix without the virus.2697

Ovarian cancer if it is caught early enough they will remove the ovaries entirely and2701

because removing ovaries means you are going to be producing less estrogen and progesterone.2708

Hormone supplements can replace what you are losing there.2714

Breast cancer getting mammograms is a great way to lower the risk of getting a breast cancer.2719

If there is some kind of growth they will remove it.2726

Sometimes removal of the entire breast has to happen as a safety precaution.2730

Hysterectomy is removal of the uterus.2736

A hysterectomy is going to mean that you are infertile.2739

You cannot hold the baby anymore.2744

Hysterectomy if there are abnormal growths in the uterus a lot of fibroids could potentially cause health concerns in the female.2746

Or if there is growths that will be malignant they look to be like you might be having uterine cancer.2759

They will remove it.2765

It is unfortunate that a woman cannot have kids but better that than death.2766

Tubal ligation is how woman gets fixed.2771

If the man wants to stop having kids they will do what is called a vasectomy which we will talk more about in the next lesson.2777

Tubal ligation is much more serious kind of operation because you have to put the woman2784

under full anesthesia because you have to go inside the abdominal cavity.2790

They will go in and they physically cut the fallopian tubes, sought the ends meaning seal off, like burn the edges shut.2794

An egg will be particular would be released in the ovary but a sperm will not be able to meet it in the fallopian tube.2804

It is a way that a woman can stop the chances of getting pregnant but it does have a slight risk of fatality.2810

Every surgery where you are being put under anesthesia come with that risk.2819

With a man it is an out patient procedure meaning it is very simple.2824

They do local anesthetic.2828

It takes 30 minutes or less.2829

Tubal ligation is an option for women who want to stop having children.2831

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2836

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