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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Male Reproductive System

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (3)

2 answers

Last reply by: Jason Smith
Thu Jun 25, 2015 12:44 AM

Post by Jason Smith on June 21, 2015

Hi Mr. Cardella. Great lecture. Since the prostate gland surrounds the urethra, do you think that certain toxins in the urine can contribute to prostate cancer? Or is prostate cancer caused by something else entirely? Thanks.

Male Reproductive System

  • External male genitalia structures: penis (crus/body/glans/prepuce) with corpora cavernosa and a corpus spongiosum, scrotum, and testes (or testicles)
  • The gubernaculums testis is a fibromuscular tract that gets male gonads out of the abdomen and into the scrotal sac prior to birth
  • Inside the scrotal sac are muscular layers, connective tissue, the epididymis (for storage of sperm), and the testes
  • Each testis has seminiferous tubules that are involved in spermatogenesis
  • Sperm contain a head (with nucleus and acrosome), a middle piece (with mitochondria), and a flagellum (or tail)
  • The vas deferens (or ductus deferens) takes sperm from the epididymis to meet up with glands that will add seminal fluids
  • The seminal vesicles contribute fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen, and alkaline secretions
  • The prostate gland, which encircles the urethra, adds prostatic fluid (seminalplasmin) and acidic secretions
  • The bulbo-urethral glands (or Cowper glands) add fluids to the urethra that help neutralize urinary acids and lubricate the end of the penis
  • Semen contains spermatozoa, seminal fluid, and enzymes
  • Male reproductive disorder/procedure examples: impotence, erectile dysfunction, prostate cancer, and vasectomy
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Is it possible to get a female pregnant without orgasm (ejaculating)?
    • A: Yes, it is possible. Prior to ejaculation it is common for a clear fluid to be seen coming out of the urethra orifice, it’s common name is “pre-cum”. Sperm can be found in this fluid. Though there are not nearly as many spermatozoa in this fluid as in the typical milky-looking ejaculate, it is an unwise method to engage in coitus interruptus (“pulling out”) if that’s your only means of birth control.

Male Reproductive System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • External Genitalia 0:06
    • Penis
    • Corpora Cavernosa
    • Corpus Spongiosum
    • Scrotum
    • Testes
  • Gubernaculum Testis 4:54
    • Contracts in Male Babies
    • Cryptorchidism
  • Inside the Scrotal Sac 7:01
    • Scrotum
    • Cremaster Muscle
    • Epididymis
  • Testis Anatomy 9:50
    • Lobules
    • Septa
    • Efferent Ductule
    • Epididymis
    • Vas Deferens
  • Spermatogenesis 12:02
    • Mitosis
    • Meiosis
    • Spermiogenesis
  • Sperm Anatomy 15:14
    • Head
    • Centrioles
    • Mitochondria
    • Flagellum
  • The Path of Sperm 18:50
    • Testis
    • Epididymis
    • Vas Deferens
    • Accessory Glands
    • Urethra
  • Vas Deferens 21:45
    • Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
    • Peristalsis
  • Seminal Vesicles 23:45
    • Fructose
    • Prostaglandins
    • Fibrinogen
    • Alkaline Secretions
  • Prostate Gland 26:12
    • Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
    • Produces Prostatic Fluid
  • Bulbo-Urethral Gland 27:43
    • Cowper Glands
    • Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
  • Semen 28:45
    • Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
    • Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
  • Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders 29:59
    • Impotence
    • Low Sperm Count
    • Erectile Dysfunction
    • Priapism
    • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
    • Prostatectomy
    • Prostate Cancer
    • STDs
    • Orchiectomy
    • Vasectomy

Transcription: Male Reproductive System

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on the male reproductive system.0002

If we start with the external genitalia the penis is a major part of the male external genitals.0005

If we divide up in a few different parts the crest is near the base of the penis.0014

If you look at the corpora cavernosa it is specifically the base of them that is inside of the body cavity.0021

It is part of the way that the penis is anchored inside the body.0032

Speaking of the word body, the majority of the penis is the body of the penis which should be all of these regions which varies in length.0037

The glands portion of the penis is also known as the head of the penis where the urethral opening is going to be found.0047

And of course through the urethra you are going to have urine and seminal fluids coming out that contain sperm.0055

The previous is also known as the foreskin.0061

This is the same thing as the word foreskin.0064

In this particular diagram they do not do a very good job of showing it.0068

It is not labeled as what I mean.0074

Here it is this outer region here.0076

Here is a sagittal cross section of the penis but on there are some debate as to what about the removal of the foreskin is a good or bad thing.0080

Depending on who you ask it is a controversial topic.0091

In certain religions it is removed right after the baby is born within a few days.0094

Some men elect to do it later on in life but the advantages of getting it removed is that inside of the region between the surface of the glans penis0100

and the inside of the previous you are going to have a material being secreted called smegma.0113

It is a kind of substance that is nutrients for bacterial growth.0120

Bacteria would be attracted to that and you are more at risk for UTI or urinary tract infection.0127

The studies have shown that the foreskin there makes you slightly more at risk for certain viral infections including HIV.0137

Men who have this particular part intact as long as they keep it clean they can reduce those problems of course.0147

One of the disadvantages of getting rid of it from whatever it is that there is actually a loss of sensation0156

because you are removing some of the skin associated with the head of the glans penis.0162

Men who have got it removed after having sex early on in life are reported that there is some reduction in sensation during sexual intercourse.0169

It is most of the topics that depending on who you ask you are going to hear a various opinions0179

as to whether or not the removal of that is a good or bad thing.0184

Inside of the body of the penis you are going to see the corpora cavernosa.0187

One of them is called corpus cavernosum.0192

And but there are 2.0195

You cannot see very well from this particular angle but you can see right here is the corpora cavernosa.0197

There are actually 2.0208

It is like 2 tubes running side by side.0209

And then underneath them you would see the one corpus spongiosum.0212

Inside of the corpora cavernosa each one has its own artery.0216

There are a lot of tissue inside of there that will get engorge with blood.0222

Lowering of the blood pressure in an artery is going to get increased blood flow inside of this chamber and that leads to erection.0226

The corpus spongiosum is underneath it.0236

You can see that right here.0241

That is actually inside of there is where you would see the urethral passageway.0247

And then the scrotum, the sac that holds the testes inside of them.0253

It is normal to have 2 testes.0259

Each one is a testis.0261

You can also use the term testicle.0263

The scrotum like I have mention with female reproductive anatomy lesson, scrotum is analogous to the labia on females.0265

And of course the testes are analogous to the ovaries.0274

It is normal for the testes to hang outside of the body cavity.0277

I will mention more about that in the slide later on in this lesson.0281

In turns out that the inside of the human body is 98.2 or 6° whenever it is.0285

That is too hot for a sperm to develop normally.0290

Speaking of which, the gubernaculum testis this is a connective tissue or fibrous tract that exists in developing embryos or fetuses.0295

It connects to gonads to the perotonium.0304

Early on whether you are a male or female as you are developing in the womb the gonads which0307

will either become ovaries or testes are inside the abdominal cavity.0312

If you are a boy, if you have the xy that equals male then you are going to have stimulation of those gonads0316

to leave the inside of the body end up in the scrotal sac.0328

During the 7th month in uterus it contracts.0333

In the contraction of it is what gets those gonads to descend down this fibrous tract and end up in the scrotum.0335

By the time the baby is born the gonads are now outside the body cavity in the scrotal sac.0344

Cryptorchidism is failure of the testes to descend.0350

It is normal if you are a female if your xx and no y chromosome.0354

You have the gonads stay put and become ovaries.0360

In some male babies the failure of the testes to descend is a problem because not only is that male going to be infertile0364

if they do not leave the inside of the abdomen because like I have mentioned in the previous slide sperm cannot develop in that temperature.0376

They need a slightly lower temperature outside the body cavity to develop normally.0382

But also if you keep the testes up there and like let us say the parents are just for some reason okay0386

with the fact that their male child does not growing up kids.0394

If you leave the gonads there, it is more likely they are going to give the person cancer later on.0397

Those tissues stay in the abdomen and not supposed to be there normally in a man.0405

They will end up removing them.0410

If they cannot get them to descend naturally.0413

That effectively would make that male a sterile.0416

Inside the scrotal sac if we are looking with the superficial parts of course is the scrotum itself is made up of the skin0419

on the outside with hair associated with that.0431

Dartus muscle and the scrotal fascia.0433

The dartus muscle is one of the muscles that has to do with maintaining the testicles or the testes in the right area0436

in terms of getting the amount of heat they need or reducing the amount of heat they are exposed to.0447

Normal relaxed tone in a dartus muscle is what makes that wrinkled look of the scrotal sac.0452

The scrotal fascia is a deep to that muscle and that is a kind of like a sheath around the testes.0461

The scrotum is anterior to anus and posterior to the base of the penis in between.0467

The cremaster muscle is a bit deeper associated with the scrotum.0474

It contracts during intercourse or in response to decreased temperature in the scrotum.0479

If a male is into a colder environments it could be cold water like pool or in the ocean you are going to get an automatic reaction0485

that causes the scrotum to contract muscle inside of it, pull the testes up closer to the body cavity and it is going to warm them.0494

It has to do with maintaining sperm health and you do not want them to die off.0503

Another thing is just stroking the inside of a male thigh actually would stimulate cremaster muscles0509

to contract slightly and raise the testicles up closer to the body cavity.0516

The epididymis is a coiled tube inside of the scrotum associated with where sperm are made.0523

You are going to hear more about the semineferous tubules where the sperm develop.0531

But this is a coiled tube that holds recently developed spermatozoa.0535

They hang out there until ejaculation happens so they are ready to be released into the urethra inevitably.0539

The functions of the epididymis are several things.0547

You can adjust fluid composition or amount within this part of the testes.0550

It is also a recycling center for damaged spermatozoa.0557

If sperm have been made and they got damage.0560

Maybe they were not made correctly or some errors in their structure.0564

They will get broken down and the parts that are suitable, the macromolecules associated0569

with making a sperm can be recycled to make new sperm.0575

It stores and protects spermatozoa and helps facilitate the development until0578

they are ready to be moved on to the vas deferens and the urethra out the body.0584

The anatomy of one testis that is a singular for testes, if we looked at one here at Gray's anatomy picture0590

you can see that there all these sections here and they are called lobules.0598

They are separated by septa or you can say septum.0604

These lobules contain a vast branching of semineferous tubules that end up feeding into the epididymis.0613

These tubules within the lobules are about 80cm in length and that is incredible to think about because 80cm is very long.0625

There are not a lot of space in here so they are tightly coiled.0635

This is where sperm are produced in the semineferous tubules.0640

If you look down one tube.0644

Here is a cross section to one of these semineferous tubules in one lobule.0648

Along the edge you see what are called nurse cells and the stem cells spermatogonia associated with making sperm.0655

Spermatogonia undergo cell divisions to make sperm.0665

As you go slightly deeper eventually get to the lumen or the space within the semineferous tubules0669

and these recently made sperm are going to go through the lumen through these ducts feeding into the epididymis.0675

The epididymis here is right here.0684

The epididymis connects to a tube called the ductus deferens or vas deferens that0686

would send them to meet up with the rest of semens can be produced.0690

The septa like I have mentioned has divided the lobules.0695

Efferent ductile those are the ducts that get the sperm out of the lobules into the epididymis.0699

Keep in mind that there is an epididymis associated with each of the testes and there is a vas deferens on each side as well.0709

Here they label it ductus deferens it is also known as the vas deferens.0716

Spermatogenesis is the making of sperm analogous to oogenesis in females.0721

There are three main parts on similar to how was in females.0729

Mitosis has stopped initially.0733

Mitosis is just regular cell division maintains the same chromosome count making identical copies in the daughter cells.0735

Mitosis happens with the spermatogonia and as those cells are made, those cells eventually go through meiosis to make spermatocytes.0744

Meiosis is where you reduce the chromosome number in half to get that 23 number.0756

23 in sperm + 23 in egg = 46.0761

Making a new diploid number in that zygote, that first cell of life.0764

Spermiogenesis is the last part of it.0768

That is where the products of meiosis those haploid cells actually become full fledged sperm with spermatogenesis.0770

Nurse cells help make that happen.0778

Like I have mentioned in the previous slide nurse cells are found in the seminiferous tubules.0781

Some things they do.0786

They maintain the blood testes barrier and that is a way to protect sperm from certain items in the blood0787

that you do not want entering into these parts of the testes.0794

They support cell division both mitosis and meiosis and spermiogenesis outfitting them0799

with a flagellum and making them motile meaning able to move.0806

And then also nurse cells are secreting a few different chemicals.0810

Inhibin is a hormone that can inhibit sperm production.0815

As sperm production rises in terms of how many sperm are made, inhibin will be released more as a way to keep it in check.0823

You do want too many sperm being produced but you want just the right amount.0834

The next one ADP stands for androgen binding protein.0838

If you remember from the hormone lessons, androgens are typically male sex hormone.0844

Andorgen binding protein from nurse cells actually makes it more likely that androgens male sex hormones are going to hang out0853

in the semineferous tubules and that helps encourage healthy normal sperm production.0861

MIF this is something that actually prevents a male from becoming female in uterus.0867

Even in uterus you have action within the gonads to make a male and MIF will prevent the development of the uterus in uterine tubes.0878

It turns out that if MIF is not secreted inside of developing baby in uterus that baby is0891

more likely to not get the descend of the gonads down to the gubernaculums.0900

They will stay up inside of the abdomen and not be born with that healthy and normal look that male baby would have.0904

What is a sperm made of if you look at it?0913

Let us start with the front part of the head is where the nucleus that important nucleus is held.0918

The head has a nucleus just like any other cell in the body except the nucleus of a sperm should have number of chromosomes 23.0926

It turns out that sperm are going to have as its sex chromosome either a Y or an X so what is inside this X or Y.0934

About half of sperm have an X and half of a Y0944

The reason why is a healthy normal male has X and Y as his sex chromosomes.0948

When meiosis happens half of the sperm are going to get the X half and at the Y.0956

The sperm is what determines the sex the baby.0961

The eggs are always supposed to have an X sex chromosome but sometimes errors happen with that.0964

I will discuss more about that in the developments lessons in terms of embryology.0971

In front of the nucleus you can see it is kind of yellowish green color wrapping around the front of a nucleus that is most of what the head of the sperm is.0976

It is a nucleus in that head but the front of it is the acrosome.0989

Sometimes it is called an acrosomal sac.0993

The acrosomes from the head has enzymes that are great at dissolving the barrier to the outside of the egg,0999

the ovum that the sperm wants to fertilize.1007

That outside part called the zona placeta the acrosome once the head makes contact with it,1010

it helps the head dig its way in there and eventually fertilize the egg.1015

The neck of the sperm is a very tiny part but that is we are going to get centrioles.1019

And they are in yellow here.1030

If you have taken biology centrioles are those anchors for microtubules that are going to be pulling on chromosomes.1031

The centrioles they are left over from when this sperm was made in addition to other sperm to the process of meiosis.1040

The neck is a very tiny portion and you are going to find centrioles there.1048

Props just one that is why it is a centriole.1051

Mid piece or middle piece is another name you can come across.1055

The mid piece or middle piece right here, massive amounts of mitochondria that is what you are finding all throughout here.1062

Why mitochondria need it?1072

Quite simply because the sperm has a long journey and it needs to be moving the flagellum to get there to get to its destination the fallopian tubes.1074

That requires a lot of energy and if you are from biology mitochondria make ATP1083

that is an energy molecule that will power the flagellum and make it do its motions.1089

It is not like a cilium.1097

It is more of a twisty turning kind of corkscrew motion and without mitochondria here you are not to get the power to the flagellum.1100

The tail one of the most classic parts of the sperm that people are familiar with is the flagellum.1109

This is the only normal cell in the human body that is outfitted with a flagellum.1117

You would not find a flagella in a female body unless she is recently had sex from a male.1123

The path of sperm, if we kind of review what we have talked about so far and a sneak preview of what is coming up.1129

The testes or testicle is where they are made again and they end up in the epididymis.1138

I will highlight some of these for you, the epididymis.1146

From the epididymis they are going to end up in the vas deferens.1155

I am going to use yellow for this.1160

This is also called the ductus deferens.1161

Here they use the word vas deferens.1163

I tend to use vas deferens instead of ductus deferens because the term vasectomy1165

which we are going to hear more about later in the lesson is when surgically the vas deferens is clicked.1169

Here is the vas deferens in yellow.1176

That yellow is hard to see1180

Let us do it in green.1182

Here is it goes out of the scrotal sac inside the abdomen all the way here and then you are going to get little accessory glands on the way to the urethra.1188

Keep in mind that this is the bladder.1202

Here is the urethra.1204

You are going to get the vas deferens or ductus deferens all the way here1207

and then once it comes in contact with the urethra that is the end of it.1213

Associated with the ductus deferens or vas deferens you have got several accessory glands.1216

The first is the seminal vesicles.1222

Here is the first kind of gland that is a major contributor to semen.1224

The seminal vesicle adds some fluid to the passageway.1232

The prostate gland is also going to add some fluid.1241

The prostate gland is actually surrounding the urethra.1251

You could see it is just inferior to the bladder.1254

The ductus deferens goes through it and then it adds some fluids to form more semen.1258

The prostate gland is kind of has looking to chestnut.1266

And then in purple is the bulbo urethra gland and also called cowper’s gland.1269

You can see right here there are 2 near the base of the penis.1276

You can see that there that last little set of contributors that is going to end up in the urethra1282

and coming of the penis during sexual stimulation or inter course.1288

And urethra that is the last passageway.1293

Urine also goes out through but during intercourse urine is not to be going out it is going to be semen.1295

The vas deferens also called ductus deferens, each one is about 40 to 45 cm long.1304

It takes sperm from the epididymis that is plural for epididymis.1312

The epididymis to the ejaculatory duct which is right next to where the urethra is and meets with the vas deferens portion.1317

It runs adjacent to the bladder as we saw on previous slide and passes by accessory glands,1327

the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the cowper’s glands.1335

In the vas deferens you can see a thick layer of smooth muscles in the walls that is what actually gets sperm out of the testes1340

all the way through this tract and to receive those additional secretions from glands.1348

Peristalis we have seen this term couple a lot.1354

It is those wavelike muscular contractions in the tube that encourages the movement of the sperm.1357

And amazingly the vas deferens can store sperm in it for several months.1361

It is more typical for sperm be stored in the epididymis.1366

They can gradually creep up in the vas deferens that is why even after a vasectomy when you cut the connection1370

that takes sperm from the testes through that tube to meets eventually with urethra you can still have a chance of impregnating a woman1377

because even though you have prevented sperm from leaving the testes you can have sperm remaining in the vas deferens.1391

The doctor will tell you to wait awhile for having unprotected sex.1399

I have heard stories and even like months or year after vasectomy it is possible to get a female pregnant.1403

It is rare because the amount of sperm that are hanging out in the vas deferens is a lot less1411

than the amount that is released through the average ejaculation but all it takes is one sperm.1417

Seminal vesicles is also called seminal glands.1426

They are between the posterior part of the bladder and the rectum.1429

They contribute about 60% of semen volume so most the semen volume is thanks to seminal vesicles.1433

You could see here is the vas deferens and remember its goes through the prostate, here is the urethra.1441

The prostate is the area we actually see the urethra and vas deferens connecting.1448

The seminal vesicles right here is going to be actually contributing these items.1458

First fructose that is a sugar.1465

Fructose is added to the mixture and which includes mostly sperm at this point because it is like food for the journey.1470

Sperm have those mitochondria without being supplied sugars they are not to be able to make the ATP the powers there flagellum.1478

Fructose is like food for the journey.1489

Prostaglandins actually help create muscular contractions in the male and female.1491

Why a female?1497

After having sexual intercourse it make some more likely that the sperm are going to get ready to go if certain contractions1498

are stimulated in the internal anatomy of a female reproductive system.1505

Prostaglandins are little hormones that help do that.1509

Fibrinogen we saw that with on the bloodstream.1513

And fibrinogen is a chemical that with certain enzymes we turn into fibrin in whichever can make a blood clot.1517

Why is it here?1525

It will make a semen clot in the female and it further improves the chances of a fertilizing the female.1526

Fibrinogen will be turned into fibrin inside the female to make a semen clot.1537

And the alkaline secretions.1545

Alkaline means basic rather than acidic.1546

Why alkaline secretions from the seminal vesicles?1549

Because the inside of a female vagina is typically acidic and that kind of environment could kill sperm.1551

Alkaline secretions help neutralize the acidity inside of the vagina and protect the sperm.1560

The overall ph of semen is slightly basic.1566

Prostate gland it is around an organ about 4 cm in diameter earlier it is about the size and look of a chestnut.1571

It encircles the posterior portion of the urethra.1582

Remember the vas deferens comes into these area you can see that right here the ampulla of ductus deferens and both sides.1585

Here the prostate in this image in Gray's anatomy has been cut so you can see where the urethra is.1594

Here is the ejaculatory duct that is helping to expel semen through this region.1601

It has gland inside that secrete fluid and there are smooth muscles surrounding it.1608

Smooth muscle in the prostate gland their contractions actually help push those fluids into the urethra.1613

It produces what is called prostatic fluid and that is about 20 to 30% of semen.1621

One of the other particular chemical inside is a seminal plasmin.1627

Which actually makes it less likely that a males to get UTI.1631

Actually studies show this helps prevent urinary tract infections and has kind a like an antibiotic effect.1639

It is ever so slightly acidic the prostatic fluid but remember like even though it is slightly acidic here1645

the alkalinity or the basic nature of what comes from the seminal vesicles has more the contribution.1653

Because semen as a whole is alkaline.1660

The bulbo urethra gland is actually two of them bulbo urethra glands also called cowper’s glands.1662

You will see some textbooks use the term cowpers glands name after Dr. Cowper.1670

This pair is located at the base of the penis near the crest of the penis.1675

After you go through those other accessory glands this is the last additive added to semen.1680

Diameter is less than 10mm. Very tiny and they secrete a thick alkaline once again basic mucus this helps neutralize urinary acids1690

Because urine typically acidic.1698

You want to make sure that the urine left over in urethra does not have a harmful effect on the sperm that will travel to that same passageway.1701

It helps neutralize urinary acids and helps lubricate the glans penis.1709

It helps lubricate the surface of that during sexual intercourse and prepare the penis to receive semen going through it.1716

Semen what is in it?1725

Well typical ejaculate is about 2 to 5 mm of course that varies from different males having different amounts of ejaculate.1728

What is inside of it?1737

It contains sperm.1738

You can also call spermatozoa.1740

Hundreds of millions are typical and the average semen ejaculation they say that there are about 100,000,000 per milliliter.1742

That is why you hear that there are about 300 or 400,000,000 inside the average of ejaculate because if this is the average amount released.1753

Let us say a man releases 3.5 ml you can approximate this is about 350,000,000 million sperm.1761

Seminal fluid that is the rest of the stuff that was added from those of different accessory gland.1768

Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, cowpers gland and enzymes.1774

Many of functions of this enzyme.1779

One of these enzymes actually converts fibrinogen into fibrin to make that a seminal clot.1782

In these enzymes also can help protect sperm on the way of by keeping bacteria from affecting the midway.1789

Male reproductive conditions and disorders.1798

Impotence is the inability to maintain an erection.1802

Low sperm count is sometimes associated that other not always associated together.1808

Impotence inability to maintain an erection and of course certain medications can help of that.1816

Low sperm count, there are various reasons why this can happen.1823

It could be trauma, it could be certain drugs, it could be malnutrition, and a lot of reasons why low sperm count.1829

When it happen the doctor to tell you more about that.1837

But low sperm count it might not be as low as you might be thinking.1838

Remember from the average ejaculate were talking about the hundreds 1,000,000 sperm1842

Somebody who is releasing let say a couple 100,000 sperm that is a low sperm count not even a million.1846

It still sounds a lot but as they go through the female reproductive tract a lot of the sperm are going to get swallowed up by white blood cells.1853

In the long journey they can get damaged.1862

They can end up going where they are not supposed to be going.1865

There are also reasons that sperm fail on their way to try to find the egg but if you have a sperm count1868

that is in the tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands that is considered low.1875

Depending how low it is they will consider the man infertile but it is not impossible for him to have a child.1878

Remember it only takes just 1 to fertilize an egg but the chances of that 1 making it when your count is that low is very low likelihood.1885

Erectile dysfunction is associated with being impotent but erectile dysfunction is a little bit different1896

because you will have men with no problems on maintaining erection early on in life.1903

It typically as you get older it is more likely going to experience erectile dysfunction.1910

There are lots of reasons for that.1916

Some of it is the drop in testosterone from the testes that can relate to it.1918

Stress and enlarged prostate gland can actually have a negative impact the ability to maintain an erection or get an erection.1923

A priapism is a prolonged erection that lasts more than 6hrs.1931

That is not normal.1939

There are lots of reasons why priapism can happen.1941

One of them is actually spinal cord damage.1943

Getting a severe injury to the spinal cord can create a lot of vasodilation that is associated with priapism.1946

You have to go to the emergency room to get this taken care of because having excessive blood flow in the penis1956

for that long can have negative long-term consequences.1965

But that is how an erection happens.1968

It is vasodilation getting a lot more blood flow in that region that is what makes the penis stiff.1971

Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the fancy term for saying the prostate is getting enlarged.1978

It is fairly normal in men over the age of 50 to get a slightly enlarged prostate.1985

The effects of getting older and it is similar to what I have mentioned with ED, drop in testosterone, certain dietary factors can have a lot to do with it.1991

The blood pressure has a lot to do with it.2004

But this is a gradual enlargement of the prostate and there are lots of medical procedures2007

where they can go in through the urethra and remove some of that tissue to help with this particular condition if it gets to be too much.2012

If it is not too much of a growth and you actually have what they would call malignant tumors inside their rather than benign means it is not grown rapidly.2022

Malignancy inside of it will actually result in probably getting a prostatectomy that is a removal of the prostate gland.2030

That would be to prevent something like prostate cancer from spreading.2039

The success of the prostate removal it depends how early you catch it.2043

On somebody who has had the cancer developing inside the prostate for a while if it moves into the lymphatic tissue2049

and the cancer spreads to other parts of the body, the vital organs that likelihood of survival is going to be a lot lower.2057

Prostate cancer is one of those cancers that impacts a lot of elderly men.2065

STD’s there are a lot about it with the female reproductive system.2070

There are bacterial ones.2074

There are viral ones.2076

Some have cures others do not like the herpes virus is not curable but there are medications2077

that can lower the amount of alperin you get on a yearly basis.2082

Orchiectomy is removal of the testes.2086

It is not normal to remove testes from men but this would have to happen if like I mentioned earlier2091

if the gonads do not descend on the gubernaculum in a baby whose developing in the uterus.2098

They would have to remove them so they will not become cancerous eventually.2104

A vasectomy is what a man will do to get fixed.2109

Unlike with dogs or other animals that they just remove the testes,2113

that will be cruel to a man because you get male sex hormones from the testes.2118

You want to maintain an active healthy sex life if you are a man but if you do not want to have kids a vasectomy is where it is an outpatient procedure.2125

They do not need to put the man under full anesthesia.2134

That can take 20 to 30 minutes to do.2137

They will inject a local anesthetic meaning going into the scrotal region and injecting numbing substances2139

and they will go and cut through the scrotum.2148

Then sneak through the vas deferens that is why it is called a vasectomy or the ductus deferens.2151

They will sneak through it and cauterize the ends which prevents the sperm from going through the vas deferens all the way into the urethra.2156

A man will still produce sperm as the normally do.2164

The sperm has nowhere to go.2168

They will keep getting produced and die then recycle the parts.2170

A man can maintain a normal sex life because the percentage that sperm are in semen is quite low.2174

I have heard 10% or less of semen is actually sperm.2181

They will still have a normal ejaculate but you are less likely to impregnate a person when you get a vasectomy.2184

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2193

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