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Lecture Comments (3)

2 answers

Last reply by: Jason Smith
Thu Jun 25, 2015 12:44 AM

Post by Jason Smith on June 21, 2015

Hi Mr. Cardella. Great lecture. Since the prostate gland surrounds the urethra, do you think that certain toxins in the urine can contribute to prostate cancer? Or is prostate cancer caused by something else entirely? Thanks.

Male Reproductive System

  • External male genitalia structures: penis (crus/body/glans/prepuce) with corpora cavernosa and a corpus spongiosum, scrotum, and testes (or testicles)
  • The gubernaculums testis is a fibromuscular tract that gets male gonads out of the abdomen and into the scrotal sac prior to birth
  • Inside the scrotal sac are muscular layers, connective tissue, the epididymis (for storage of sperm), and the testes
  • Each testis has seminiferous tubules that are involved in spermatogenesis
  • Sperm contain a head (with nucleus and acrosome), a middle piece (with mitochondria), and a flagellum (or tail)
  • The vas deferens (or ductus deferens) takes sperm from the epididymis to meet up with glands that will add seminal fluids
  • The seminal vesicles contribute fructose, prostaglandins, fibrinogen, and alkaline secretions
  • The prostate gland, which encircles the urethra, adds prostatic fluid (seminalplasmin) and acidic secretions
  • The bulbo-urethral glands (or Cowper glands) add fluids to the urethra that help neutralize urinary acids and lubricate the end of the penis
  • Semen contains spermatozoa, seminal fluid, and enzymes
  • Male reproductive disorder/procedure examples: impotence, erectile dysfunction, prostate cancer, and vasectomy
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Is it possible to get a female pregnant without orgasm (ejaculating)?
    • A: Yes, it is possible. Prior to ejaculation it is common for a clear fluid to be seen coming out of the urethra orifice, it’s common name is “pre-cum”. Sperm can be found in this fluid. Though there are not nearly as many spermatozoa in this fluid as in the typical milky-looking ejaculate, it is an unwise method to engage in coitus interruptus (“pulling out”) if that’s your only means of birth control.

Male Reproductive System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • External Genitalia 0:06
    • Penis
    • Corpora Cavernosa
    • Corpus Spongiosum
    • Scrotum
    • Testes
  • Gubernaculum Testis 4:54
    • Contracts in Male Babies
    • Cryptorchidism
  • Inside the Scrotal Sac 7:01
    • Scrotum
    • Cremaster Muscle
    • Epididymis
  • Testis Anatomy 9:50
    • Lobules
    • Septa
    • Efferent Ductule
    • Epididymis
    • Vas Deferens
  • Spermatogenesis 12:02
    • Mitosis
    • Meiosis
    • Spermiogenesis
  • Sperm Anatomy 15:14
    • Head
    • Centrioles
    • Mitochondria
    • Flagellum
  • The Path of Sperm 18:50
    • Testis
    • Epididymis
    • Vas Deferens
    • Accessory Glands
    • Urethra
  • Vas Deferens 21:45
    • Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
    • Peristalsis
  • Seminal Vesicles 23:45
    • Fructose
    • Prostaglandins
    • Fibrinogen
    • Alkaline Secretions
  • Prostate Gland 26:12
    • Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
    • Produces Prostatic Fluid
  • Bulbo-Urethral Gland 27:43
    • Cowper Glands
    • Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
  • Semen 28:45
    • Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
    • Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
  • Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders 29:59
    • Impotence
    • Low Sperm Count
    • Erectile Dysfunction
    • Priapism
    • Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
    • Prostatectomy
    • Prostate Cancer
    • STDs
    • Orchiectomy
    • Vasectomy

Transcription: Male Reproductive System

Hi and welcome back to

This is the lesson on the male reproductive system.0002

If we start with the external genitalia the penis is a major part of the male external genitals.0005

If we divide up in a few different parts the crest is near the base of the penis.0014

If you look at the corpora cavernosa it is specifically the base of them that is inside of the body cavity.0021

It is part of the way that the penis is anchored inside the body.0032

Speaking of the word body, the majority of the penis is the body of the penis which should be all of these regions which varies in length.0037

The glands portion of the penis is also known as the head of the penis where the urethral opening is going to be found.0047

And of course through the urethra you are going to have urine and seminal fluids coming out that contain sperm.0055

The previous is also known as the foreskin.0061

This is the same thing as the word foreskin.0064

In this particular diagram they do not do a very good job of showing it.0068

It is not labeled as what I mean.0074

Here it is this outer region here.0076

Here is a sagittal cross section of the penis but on there are some debate as to what about the removal of the foreskin is a good or bad thing.0080

Depending on who you ask it is a controversial topic.0091

In certain religions it is removed right after the baby is born within a few days.0094

Some men elect to do it later on in life but the advantages of getting it removed is that inside of the region between the surface of the glans penis0100

and the inside of the previous you are going to have a material being secreted called smegma.0113

It is a kind of substance that is nutrients for bacterial growth.0120

Bacteria would be attracted to that and you are more at risk for UTI or urinary tract infection.0127

The studies have shown that the foreskin there makes you slightly more at risk for certain viral infections including HIV.0137

Men who have this particular part intact as long as they keep it clean they can reduce those problems of course.0147

One of the disadvantages of getting rid of it from whatever it is that there is actually a loss of sensation 0156

because you are removing some of the skin associated with the head of the glans penis.0162

Men who have got it removed after having sex early on in life are reported that there is some reduction in sensation during sexual intercourse.0169

It is most of the topics that depending on who you ask you are going to hear a various opinions 0179

as to whether or not the removal of that is a good or bad thing.0184

Inside of the body of the penis you are going to see the corpora cavernosa.0187

One of them is called corpus cavernosum.0192

And but there are 2.0195

You cannot see very well from this particular angle but you can see right here is the corpora cavernosa.0197

There are actually 2.0208

It is like 2 tubes running side by side.0209

And then underneath them you would see the one corpus spongiosum.0212

Inside of the corpora cavernosa each one has its own artery.0216

There are a lot of tissue inside of there that will get engorge with blood.0222

Lowering of the blood pressure in an artery is going to get increased blood flow inside of this chamber and that leads to erection.0226

The corpus spongiosum is underneath it.0236

You can see that right here.0241

That is actually inside of there is where you would see the urethral passageway.0247

And then the scrotum, the sac that holds the testes inside of them.0253

It is normal to have 2 testes.0259

Each one is a testis.0261

You can also use the term testicle.0263

The scrotum like I have mention with female reproductive anatomy lesson, scrotum is analogous to the labia on females.0265

And of course the testes are analogous to the ovaries.0274

It is normal for the testes to hang outside of the body cavity.0277

I will mention more about that in the slide later on in this lesson.0281

In turns out that the inside of the human body is 98.2 or 6° whenever it is.0285

That is too hot for a sperm to develop normally.0290

Speaking of which, the gubernaculum testis this is a connective tissue or fibrous tract that exists in developing embryos or fetuses.0295

It connects to gonads to the perotonium.0304

Early on whether you are a male or female as you are developing in the womb the gonads which 0307

will either become ovaries or testes are inside the abdominal cavity.0312

If you are a boy, if you have the xy that equals male then you are going to have stimulation of those gonads 0316

to leave the inside of the body end up in the scrotal sac.0328

During the 7th month in uterus it contracts.0333

In the contraction of it is what gets those gonads to descend down this fibrous tract and end up in the scrotum.0335

By the time the baby is born the gonads are now outside the body cavity in the scrotal sac.0344

Cryptorchidism is failure of the testes to descend.0350

It is normal if you are a female if your xx and no y chromosome.0354

You have the gonads stay put and become ovaries.0360

In some male babies the failure of the testes to descend is a problem because not only is that male going to be infertile 0364

if they do not leave the inside of the abdomen because like I have mentioned in the previous slide sperm cannot develop in that temperature.0376

They need a slightly lower temperature outside the body cavity to develop normally.0382

But also if you keep the testes up there and like let us say the parents are just for some reason okay 0386

with the fact that their male child does not growing up kids.0394

If you leave the gonads there, it is more likely they are going to give the person cancer later on.0397

Those tissues stay in the abdomen and not supposed to be there normally in a man.0405

They will end up removing them.0410

If they cannot get them to descend naturally.0413

That effectively would make that male a sterile.0416

Inside the scrotal sac if we are looking with the superficial parts of course is the scrotum itself is made up of the skin 0419

on the outside with hair associated with that.0431

Dartus muscle and the scrotal fascia.0433

The dartus muscle is one of the muscles that has to do with maintaining the testicles or the testes in the right area 0436

in terms of getting the amount of heat they need or reducing the amount of heat they are exposed to.0447

Normal relaxed tone in a dartus muscle is what makes that wrinkled look of the scrotal sac.0452

The scrotal fascia is a deep to that muscle and that is a kind of like a sheath around the testes.0461

The scrotum is anterior to anus and posterior to the base of the penis in between.0467

The cremaster muscle is a bit deeper associated with the scrotum.0474

It contracts during intercourse or in response to decreased temperature in the scrotum.0479

If a male is into a colder environments it could be cold water like pool or in the ocean you are going to get an automatic reaction 0485

that causes the scrotum to contract muscle inside of it, pull the testes up closer to the body cavity and it is going to warm them.0494

It has to do with maintaining sperm health and you do not want them to die off.0503

Another thing is just stroking the inside of a male thigh actually would stimulate cremaster muscles 0509

to contract slightly and raise the testicles up closer to the body cavity.0516

The epididymis is a coiled tube inside of the scrotum associated with where sperm are made.0523

You are going to hear more about the semineferous tubules where the sperm develop.0531

But this is a coiled tube that holds recently developed spermatozoa.0535

They hang out there until ejaculation happens so they are ready to be released into the urethra inevitably.0539

The functions of the epididymis are several things.0547

You can adjust fluid composition or amount within this part of the testes.0550

It is also a recycling center for damaged spermatozoa.0557

If sperm have been made and they got damage.0560

Maybe they were not made correctly or some errors in their structure.0564

They will get broken down and the parts that are suitable, the macromolecules associated 0569

with making a sperm can be recycled to make new sperm.0575

It stores and protects spermatozoa and helps facilitate the development until 0578

they are ready to be moved on to the vas deferens and the urethra out the body.0584

The anatomy of one testis that is a singular for testes, if we looked at one here at Gray's anatomy picture 0590

you can see that there all these sections here and they are called lobules.0598

They are separated by septa or you can say septum.0604

These lobules contain a vast branching of semineferous tubules that end up feeding into the epididymis.0613

These tubules within the lobules are about 80cm in length and that is incredible to think about because 80cm is very long.0625

There are not a lot of space in here so they are tightly coiled.0635

This is where sperm are produced in the semineferous tubules.0640

If you look down one tube.0644

Here is a cross section to one of these semineferous tubules in one lobule.0648

Along the edge you see what are called nurse cells and the stem cells spermatogonia associated with making sperm.0655

Spermatogonia undergo cell divisions to make sperm.0665

As you go slightly deeper eventually get to the lumen or the space within the semineferous tubules 0669

and these recently made sperm are going to go through the lumen through these ducts feeding into the epididymis.0675

The epididymis here is right here.0684

The epididymis connects to a tube called the ductus deferens or vas deferens that 0686

would send them to meet up with the rest of semens can be produced.0690

The septa like I have mentioned has divided the lobules.0695

Efferent ductile those are the ducts that get the sperm out of the lobules into the epididymis.0699

Keep in mind that there is an epididymis associated with each of the testes and there is a vas deferens on each side as well.0709

Here they label it ductus deferens it is also known as the vas deferens.0716

Spermatogenesis is the making of sperm analogous to oogenesis in females.0721

There are three main parts on similar to how was in females.0729

Mitosis has stopped initially.0733

Mitosis is just regular cell division maintains the same chromosome count making identical copies in the daughter cells.0735

Mitosis happens with the spermatogonia and as those cells are made, those cells eventually go through meiosis to make spermatocytes.0744

Meiosis is where you reduce the chromosome number in half to get that 23 number.0756

23 in sperm + 23 in egg = 46.0761

Making a new diploid number in that zygote, that first cell of life.0764

Spermiogenesis is the last part of it.0768

That is where the products of meiosis those haploid cells actually become full fledged sperm with spermatogenesis.0770

Nurse cells help make that happen.0778

Like I have mentioned in the previous slide nurse cells are found in the seminiferous tubules.0781

Some things they do.0786

They maintain the blood testes barrier and that is a way to protect sperm from certain items in the blood 0787

that you do not want entering into these parts of the testes.0794

They support cell division both mitosis and meiosis and spermiogenesis outfitting them 0799

with a flagellum and making them motile meaning able to move.0806

And then also nurse cells are secreting a few different chemicals.0810

Inhibin is a hormone that can inhibit sperm production.0815

As sperm production rises in terms of how many sperm are made, inhibin will be released more as a way to keep it in check.0823

You do want too many sperm being produced but you want just the right amount.0834

The next one ADP stands for androgen binding protein.0838

If you remember from the hormone lessons, androgens are typically male sex hormone.0844

Andorgen binding protein from nurse cells actually makes it more likely that androgens male sex hormones are going to hang out 0853

in the semineferous tubules and that helps encourage healthy normal sperm production.0861

MIF this is something that actually prevents a male from becoming female in uterus.0867

Even in uterus you have action within the gonads to make a male and MIF will prevent the development of the uterus in uterine tubes.0878

It turns out that if MIF is not secreted inside of developing baby in uterus that baby is 0891

more likely to not get the descend of the gonads down to the gubernaculums.0900

They will stay up inside of the abdomen and not be born with that healthy and normal look that male baby would have.0904

What is a sperm made of if you look at it?0913

Let us start with the front part of the head is where the nucleus that important nucleus is held.0918

The head has a nucleus just like any other cell in the body except the nucleus of a sperm should have number of chromosomes 23.0926

It turns out that sperm are going to have as its sex chromosome either a Y or an X so what is inside this X or Y.0934

About half of sperm have an X and half of a Y0944

The reason why is a healthy normal male has X and Y as his sex chromosomes.0948

When meiosis happens half of the sperm are going to get the X half and at the Y.0956

The sperm is what determines the sex the baby.0961

The eggs are always supposed to have an X sex chromosome but sometimes errors happen with that.0964

I will discuss more about that in the developments lessons in terms of embryology.0971

In front of the nucleus you can see it is kind of yellowish green color wrapping around the front of a nucleus that is most of what the head of the sperm is.0976

It is a nucleus in that head but the front of it is the acrosome.0989

Sometimes it is called an acrosomal sac. 0993

The acrosomes from the head has enzymes that are great at dissolving the barrier to the outside of the egg, 0999

the ovum that the sperm wants to fertilize.1007

That outside part called the zona placeta the acrosome once the head makes contact with it, 1010

it helps the head dig its way in there and eventually fertilize the egg.1015

The neck of the sperm is a very tiny part but that is we are going to get centrioles.1019

And they are in yellow here.1030

If you have taken biology centrioles are those anchors for microtubules that are going to be pulling on chromosomes.1031

The centrioles they are left over from when this sperm was made in addition to other sperm to the process of meiosis.1040

The neck is a very tiny portion and you are going to find centrioles there.1048

Props just one that is why it is a centriole.1051

Mid piece or middle piece is another name you can come across.1055

The mid piece or middle piece right here, massive amounts of mitochondria that is what you are finding all throughout here.1062

Why mitochondria need it?1072

Quite simply because the sperm has a long journey and it needs to be moving the flagellum to get there to get to its destination the fallopian tubes.1074

That requires a lot of energy and if you are from biology mitochondria make ATP 1083

that is an energy molecule that will power the flagellum and make it do its motions.1089

It is not like a cilium.1097

It is more of a twisty turning kind of corkscrew motion and without mitochondria here you are not to get the power to the flagellum. 1100

The tail one of the most classic parts of the sperm that people are familiar with is the flagellum.1109

This is the only normal cell in the human body that is outfitted with a flagellum.1117

You would not find a flagella in a female body unless she is recently had sex from a male.1123

The path of sperm, if we kind of review what we have talked about so far and a sneak preview of what is coming up.1129

The testes or testicle is where they are made again and they end up in the epididymis.1138

I will highlight some of these for you, the epididymis.1146

From the epididymis they are going to end up in the vas deferens.1155

I am going to use yellow for this.1160

This is also called the ductus deferens.1161

Here they use the word vas deferens.1163

I tend to use vas deferens instead of ductus deferens because the term vasectomy 1165

which we are going to hear more about later in the lesson is when surgically the vas deferens is clicked.1169

Here is the vas deferens in yellow.1176

That yellow is hard to see1180

Let us do it in green.1182

Here is it goes out of the scrotal sac inside the abdomen all the way here and then you are going to get little accessory glands on the way to the urethra. 1188

Keep in mind that this is the bladder.1202

Here is the urethra.1204

You are going to get the vas deferens or ductus deferens all the way here 1207

and then once it comes in contact with the urethra that is the end of it.1213

Associated with the ductus deferens or vas deferens you have got several accessory glands.1216

The first is the seminal vesicles.1222

Here is the first kind of gland that is a major contributor to semen.1224

The seminal vesicle adds some fluid to the passageway.1232

The prostate gland is also going to add some fluid.1241

The prostate gland is actually surrounding the urethra.1251

You could see it is just inferior to the bladder.1254

The ductus deferens goes through it and then it adds some fluids to form more semen.1258

The prostate gland is kind of has looking to chestnut.1266

And then in purple is the bulbo urethra gland and also called cowper’s gland.1269

You can see right here there are 2 near the base of the penis.1276

You can see that there that last little set of contributors that is going to end up in the urethra 1282

and coming of the penis during sexual stimulation or inter course.1288

And urethra that is the last passageway.1293

Urine also goes out through but during intercourse urine is not to be going out it is going to be semen.1295

The vas deferens also called ductus deferens, each one is about 40 to 45 cm long.1304

It takes sperm from the epididymis that is plural for epididymis.1312

The epididymis to the ejaculatory duct which is right next to where the urethra is and meets with the vas deferens portion.1317

It runs adjacent to the bladder as we saw on previous slide and passes by accessory glands, 1327

the seminal vesicles, the prostate gland, and the cowper’s glands.1335

In the vas deferens you can see a thick layer of smooth muscles in the walls that is what actually gets sperm out of the testes 1340

all the way through this tract and to receive those additional secretions from glands.1348

Peristalis we have seen this term couple a lot.1354

It is those wavelike muscular contractions in the tube that encourages the movement of the sperm.1357

And amazingly the vas deferens can store sperm in it for several months.1361

It is more typical for sperm be stored in the epididymis.1366

They can gradually creep up in the vas deferens that is why even after a vasectomy when you cut the connection 1370

that takes sperm from the testes through that tube to meets eventually with urethra you can still have a chance of impregnating a woman 1377

because even though you have prevented sperm from leaving the testes you can have sperm remaining in the vas deferens.1391

The doctor will tell you to wait awhile for having unprotected sex.1399

I have heard stories and even like months or year after vasectomy it is possible to get a female pregnant.1403

It is rare because the amount of sperm that are hanging out in the vas deferens is a lot less 1411

than the amount that is released through the average ejaculation but all it takes is one sperm.1417

Seminal vesicles is also called seminal glands.1426

They are between the posterior part of the bladder and the rectum.1429

They contribute about 60% of semen volume so most the semen volume is thanks to seminal vesicles.1433

You could see here is the vas deferens and remember its goes through the prostate, here is the urethra.1441

The prostate is the area we actually see the urethra and vas deferens connecting.1448

The seminal vesicles right here is going to be actually contributing these items.1458

First fructose that is a sugar.1465

Fructose is added to the mixture and which includes mostly sperm at this point because it is like food for the journey.1470

Sperm have those mitochondria without being supplied sugars they are not to be able to make the ATP the powers there flagellum.1478

Fructose is like food for the journey.1489

Prostaglandins actually help create muscular contractions in the male and female.1491

Why a female?1497

After having sexual intercourse it make some more likely that the sperm are going to get ready to go if certain contractions 1498

are stimulated in the internal anatomy of a female reproductive system.1505

Prostaglandins are little hormones that help do that.1509

Fibrinogen we saw that with on the bloodstream.1513

And fibrinogen is a chemical that with certain enzymes we turn into fibrin in whichever can make a blood clot.1517

Why is it here? 1525

It will make a semen clot in the female and it further improves the chances of a fertilizing the female.1526

Fibrinogen will be turned into fibrin inside the female to make a semen clot.1537

And the alkaline secretions.1545

Alkaline means basic rather than acidic.1546

Why alkaline secretions from the seminal vesicles?1549

Because the inside of a female vagina is typically acidic and that kind of environment could kill sperm.1551

Alkaline secretions help neutralize the acidity inside of the vagina and protect the sperm.1560

The overall ph of semen is slightly basic.1566

Prostate gland it is around an organ about 4 cm in diameter earlier it is about the size and look of a chestnut.1571

It encircles the posterior portion of the urethra.1582

Remember the vas deferens comes into these area you can see that right here the ampulla of ductus deferens and both sides.1585

Here the prostate in this image in Gray's anatomy has been cut so you can see where the urethra is.1594

Here is the ejaculatory duct that is helping to expel semen through this region.1601

It has gland inside that secrete fluid and there are smooth muscles surrounding it.1608

Smooth muscle in the prostate gland their contractions actually help push those fluids into the urethra.1613

It produces what is called prostatic fluid and that is about 20 to 30% of semen.1621

One of the other particular chemical inside is a seminal plasmin.1627

Which actually makes it less likely that a males to get UTI.1631

Actually studies show this helps prevent urinary tract infections and has kind a like an antibiotic effect.1639

It is ever so slightly acidic the prostatic fluid but remember like even though it is slightly acidic here 1645

the alkalinity or the basic nature of what comes from the seminal vesicles has more the contribution.1653

Because semen as a whole is alkaline.1660

The bulbo urethra gland is actually two of them bulbo urethra glands also called cowper’s glands.1662

You will see some textbooks use the term cowpers glands name after Dr. Cowper.1670

This pair is located at the base of the penis near the crest of the penis.1675

After you go through those other accessory glands this is the last additive added to semen.1680

Diameter is less than 10mm. Very tiny and they secrete a thick alkaline once again basic mucus this helps neutralize urinary acids1690

Because urine typically acidic.1698

You want to make sure that the urine left over in urethra does not have a harmful effect on the sperm that will travel to that same passageway.1701

It helps neutralize urinary acids and helps lubricate the glans penis.1709

It helps lubricate the surface of that during sexual intercourse and prepare the penis to receive semen going through it.1716

Semen what is in it? 1725

Well typical ejaculate is about 2 to 5 mm of course that varies from different males having different amounts of ejaculate.1728

What is inside of it?1737

It contains sperm.1738

You can also call spermatozoa.1740

Hundreds of millions are typical and the average semen ejaculation they say that there are about 100,000,000 per milliliter.1742

That is why you hear that there are about 300 or 400,000,000 inside the average of ejaculate because if this is the average amount released.1753

Let us say a man releases 3.5 ml you can approximate this is about 350,000,000 million sperm.1761

Seminal fluid that is the rest of the stuff that was added from those of different accessory gland.1768

Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, cowpers gland and enzymes.1774

Many of functions of this enzyme.1779

One of these enzymes actually converts fibrinogen into fibrin to make that a seminal clot.1782

In these enzymes also can help protect sperm on the way of by keeping bacteria from affecting the midway.1789

Male reproductive conditions and disorders.1798

Impotence is the inability to maintain an erection.1802

Low sperm count is sometimes associated that other not always associated together.1808

Impotence inability to maintain an erection and of course certain medications can help of that.1816

Low sperm count, there are various reasons why this can happen.1823

It could be trauma, it could be certain drugs, it could be malnutrition, and a lot of reasons why low sperm count.1829

When it happen the doctor to tell you more about that.1837

But low sperm count it might not be as low as you might be thinking.1838

Remember from the average ejaculate were talking about the hundreds 1,000,000 sperm1842

Somebody who is releasing let say a couple 100,000 sperm that is a low sperm count not even a million.1846

It still sounds a lot but as they go through the female reproductive tract a lot of the sperm are going to get swallowed up by white blood cells.1853

In the long journey they can get damaged.1862

They can end up going where they are not supposed to be going.1865

There are also reasons that sperm fail on their way to try to find the egg but if you have a sperm count 1868

that is in the tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands that is considered low.1875

Depending how low it is they will consider the man infertile but it is not impossible for him to have a child.1878

Remember it only takes just 1 to fertilize an egg but the chances of that 1 making it when your count is that low is very low likelihood.1885

Erectile dysfunction is associated with being impotent but erectile dysfunction is a little bit different 1896

because you will have men with no problems on maintaining erection early on in life.1903

It typically as you get older it is more likely going to experience erectile dysfunction.1910

There are lots of reasons for that.1916

Some of it is the drop in testosterone from the testes that can relate to it.1918

Stress and enlarged prostate gland can actually have a negative impact the ability to maintain an erection or get an erection.1923

A priapism is a prolonged erection that lasts more than 6hrs.1931

That is not normal.1939

There are lots of reasons why priapism can happen.1941

One of them is actually spinal cord damage.1943

Getting a severe injury to the spinal cord can create a lot of vasodilation that is associated with priapism.1946

You have to go to the emergency room to get this taken care of because having excessive blood flow in the penis 1956

for that long can have negative long-term consequences.1965

But that is how an erection happens.1968

It is vasodilation getting a lot more blood flow in that region that is what makes the penis stiff.1971

Benign prostatic hypertrophy is the fancy term for saying the prostate is getting enlarged.1978

It is fairly normal in men over the age of 50 to get a slightly enlarged prostate.1985

The effects of getting older and it is similar to what I have mentioned with ED, drop in testosterone, certain dietary factors can have a lot to do with it.1991

The blood pressure has a lot to do with it.2004

But this is a gradual enlargement of the prostate and there are lots of medical procedures 2007

where they can go in through the urethra and remove some of that tissue to help with this particular condition if it gets to be too much.2012

If it is not too much of a growth and you actually have what they would call malignant tumors inside their rather than benign means it is not grown rapidly.2022

Malignancy inside of it will actually result in probably getting a prostatectomy that is a removal of the prostate gland.2030

That would be to prevent something like prostate cancer from spreading.2039

The success of the prostate removal it depends how early you catch it.2043

On somebody who has had the cancer developing inside the prostate for a while if it moves into the lymphatic tissue 2049

and the cancer spreads to other parts of the body, the vital organs that likelihood of survival is going to be a lot lower.2057

Prostate cancer is one of those cancers that impacts a lot of elderly men.2065

STD’s there are a lot about it with the female reproductive system.2070

There are bacterial ones.2074

There are viral ones.2076

Some have cures others do not like the herpes virus is not curable but there are medications 2077

that can lower the amount of alperin you get on a yearly basis.2082

Orchiectomy is removal of the testes.2086

It is not normal to remove testes from men but this would have to happen if like I mentioned earlier 2091

if the gonads do not descend on the gubernaculum in a baby whose developing in the uterus.2098

They would have to remove them so they will not become cancerous eventually.2104

A vasectomy is what a man will do to get fixed.2109

Unlike with dogs or other animals that they just remove the testes, 2113

that will be cruel to a man because you get male sex hormones from the testes.2118

You want to maintain an active healthy sex life if you are a man but if you do not want to have kids a vasectomy is where it is an outpatient procedure.2125

They do not need to put the man under full anesthesia.2134

That can take 20 to 30 minutes to do.2137

They will inject a local anesthetic meaning going into the scrotal region and injecting numbing substances 2139

and they will go and cut through the scrotum.2148

Then sneak through the vas deferens that is why it is called a vasectomy or the ductus deferens.2151

They will sneak through it and cauterize the ends which prevents the sperm from going through the vas deferens all the way into the urethra.2156

A man will still produce sperm as the normally do.2164

The sperm has nowhere to go.2168

They will keep getting produced and die then recycle the parts.2170

A man can maintain a normal sex life because the percentage that sperm are in semen is quite low.2174

I have heard 10% or less of semen is actually sperm.2181

They will still have a normal ejaculate but you are less likely to impregnate a person when you get a vasectomy.2184

Thank you for watching