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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Muscular System

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (10)

2 answers

Last reply by: Jessie Carrillo
Thu Oct 27, 2016 9:22 PM

Post by Jessie Carrillo on October 27, 2016

any information in helping to memorize the muscles of the body?

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Mar 23, 2015 4:13 PM

Post by Julia Collings on March 23, 2015

I am unable to access these videos. please help as ai have signed up now to aid revision for upcoming tests :)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Fri Mar 13, 2015 2:40 PM

Post by Andy Pace on March 12, 2015

Was wondering if there is a short answer for this:
How is energy expenditure related to the energy systems in the body?
Does one system expend more energy than the others?
Thanks for any help

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Tue Jun 3, 2014 1:46 PM

Post by Andy Pace on June 3, 2014

What factors affect muscle force production?
thanks-

0 answers

Post by John Wadsworth on March 5, 2014

great chicken-attempting-to-fly demonstration

Muscular System

  • The function of muscles includes movement, maintaining body position, support of soft tissues, regulating entrances and exits of the body, and maintaining body temperature
  • The 3 types of muscle cells (tissues) includes skeletal (striated), smooth, and cardiac muscle
  • Skeletal muscle anatomy involves these terms: fascia, epimysium, fascicles, perimysium, muscle fibers, endomysium, myofibrils, and sarcomeres
  • Sarcomeres are made of groups of myosin, actin, troponin, and tropomyosin
  • The Sliding Filament Theory describes how myosin (thick) filaments move actin (thin) filaments closer together to contract a myofibril
  • Acetylcholine, ATP and Calcium are involved in contracting a muscle
  • Acetylcholinesterase and ATP are needed to relax a muscle
  • Lactic acid forms in muscle tissue when not enough oxygen is available for the energy demands of that tissue
  • Creatine phosphate helps quickly regenerate ATP in a muscle fiber
  • Fast (white) and slow (red) twitch muscle fibers are found in the human body
  • Muscle names in the body are coined by some combination of their function, location, size, and/or orientation
  • Muscles of the head and face include the epicranius, zygomaticus, buccinator, and masseter
  • Muscles of the torso include the deltoid, trapezius, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominus
  • Arm muscles include the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and brachioradialis
  • Leg muscles include the gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius
  • Some muscle conditions/disorders are muscular dystrophy, hernia, tetanus, and compartment syndrome
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Are any smooth muscles controlled voluntarily?
    • A: Smooth muscles are defined as being involuntary. They are found in your skin, lining of the gastrointestinal tract, and in blood vessels. However, some skeletal muscles are controlled involuntarily. One example is the muscles associated with breathing. You don’t have to think consciously about inhaling/exhaling, it happens automatically. Now that you’re reading about breathing, you probably just thought about it!

Muscular System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Functions of Muscles 0:06
    • Movement
    • Maintaining Body Position
    • Support of Soft Tissues
    • Regulating Entrances / Exits
    • Maintaining Body Temperature
  • 3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers) 2:58
    • Skeletal (Striated)
    • Smooth
    • Cardiac
  • Skeletal Muscle Anatomy 5:49
    • Fascia
    • Epimysium
    • Fascicles
    • Perimysium
    • Muscle Fibers
    • Endomysium
    • Myofibrils
    • Sarcomeres
  • Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images 9:32
  • Sarcomere Structure 12:33
    • Myosin
    • Actin
    • Z Line
    • A Band
    • I Band
    • M Line
    • Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
  • Sliding Filament Theory 15:11
    • Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
    • Tropomyosin
    • Troponin
    • Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
    • Image Examples
    • Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
    • Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
    • Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
    • They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
  • Relaxation of Muscles 21:11
    • Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
    • Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
    • ATP Availability
    • Rigor Mortis
  • More on Muscles 26:22
    • Oxygen Debt
    • Lactic Acid
    • Creatine Phosphate
    • Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
  • Muscle Names 32:24
    • 4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
    • Examples
  • Major Muscles 33:51
    • Head
    • Torso
    • Arms
    • Legs
  • Muscular Disorders 45:02
    • Muscular Dystrophy
    • Carpel Tunnel
    • Hernia
    • Ischemia
    • Botulism
    • Polio
    • Tetanus
    • Rotator Buff Injury
    • Mitochondrial Diseases
    • Compartment Syndrome
    • Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva

Transcription: Muscular System

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on the muscular system.0002

There are many functions of muscles the most obvious one is movement.0004

It is not just movement of the body as a whole but all the movement within the body is regulated by the muscles something a simple as blood flow.0010

Within your arteries there are very important muscles for regulating how thin or thick those blood vessels are and0021

that helps distribute the right amount of blood to the particular places in the body that need a slight adjustment.0030

Within the body muscles are very important, the ones that you cannot consciously control.0036

For instance, muscles control whether or not my hair is standing straight up or my pores are closed or they are relaxed like they are now.0041

Those are muscles that we do not think about because we do not have to think about it consciously to make it work.0049

There are voluntary muscles also known as skeletal muscles and this would fall under smooth or cardiac muscles.0057

We will talk more about that in the future.0068

Maintaining body position, just sitting I have bunch of muscles that are contracted and relaxed.0071

If I adjust my position then I am changing which muscles are relaxed and contracted.0079

Supportive soft tissues, if you think about the abdominal muscles even if you do not have a 6 pack,0084

having all the muscles right here is the next best thing to have bones there.0093

If we had bones there it would be a little different in terms of how we move this part of this chest but supportive soft tissues,0099

having muscles here adjacent to the most fragile vital organs of the intestine variety is very important.0105

Regulating entrances and exits.0115

Not just the mouth but the connection between the esophagus and the stomach.0118

At the bottom of the tube that gets food to the stomach you have the lower esophageal sphincter.0123

Sphincter is a round muscular doorway and that helps regulate food going to the stomach.0128

There is also a sphincter on the bottom of the stomach that helps regulate how much food0135

is going to the small intestine for further break down and absorption of nutrients.0141

Another one is the anal sphincter, that regulates when or where you are going to defecate.0146

Maintaining body temperature.0152

Shivering is something that is going to help you not freeze to death.0155

Shivering is a bunch of quick contractions and relaxations that you do not have conscious control over but it is important0163

because it will raise you body temperature a bit by having all of that muscular movement.0170

The 3 major types of muscle cells or muscles fibers0178

You can call every individual muscle cell fiber that has a bunch of protein fibers jam packed in it.0182

We can refer to the major muscles in the body as being skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.0190

The cells within each of those can be called skeletal, smooth, or cardiac.0196

This image here this is skeletal or striated muscles.0201

Striations are these little lines.0207

If you look carefully, this is a skeletal muscle fiber and you can see that when you look at each one of them there0210

are these tiny lines that are perpendicular to the orientation of the fiber.0218

These little lines you can call striations and we will get into that more in the future.0223

These blue things here they are nuclei.0230

Each one is an individual nucleus and it is very typical for muscles to be multi nucleated or having more than one nucleus in a single cell.0234

There is a lot going on, having some additional nuclei to help coordinate all of those muscular movements.0242

This picture here is smooth muscles.0250

It looks smooth to the touch almost like if you touch it, it would not be bumpy.0253

It would be smooth.0258

Those are involuntary.0259

You do not have conscious control over smooth muscles.0262

Like I have mentioned before, the muscles that are inside of the artery, the arrector pili muscle of the skin, the muscles in the organs of the body.0264

You cannot consciously contract your stomach, small intestine, it happens by your brain regulating it but not your conscious brain.0270

It is good to have not to think about those things.0283

Smooth muscle is a little bit different in structure.0287

These are involuntary muscles.0290

Cardiac is found in one place of the body it is the heart muscles.0293

The muscles fiber of the heart also is not a voluntary thing.0298

You can voluntary do thing to elevate your heart rate but your heart rate is going to be adjusted based on your body’s need for blood.0303

What is this mean?0312

It means intercoagulated disk.0314

This here is and itercoagulated disk, here is one cardiac muscle.0317

You will see them connect looks a little bit different than the skeletal or striated muscle.0322

Also a classic look at cardiac muscle histology looking at this microscope images, you will see little spaces.0331

Those little spaces help facilitate the electric flow through out those cardiac muscle fibers to initiate heart beats.0340

When we look at the average skeletal muscles and the reason why it is called that is because it is attached to bone.0346

There are major terms that you need to be familiar with.0356

Number 1 here that is a bone.0358

Number 8 this is not a ligament because it is muscle attached to bone not bone attached to bone, in this case we will call this a tendon.0361

That is one of many forms of a connective tissue.0373

When we look at the muscle body as a whole, and there is a cross section here that we could see into the inside of it,0377

fascia is the term for the wrapping around the muscle.0383

Fascia is the muscle as the casing is to sausage.0388

It is kind of a weird example but that clear casing of sausages is like how fascia is to muscle.0393

It is a connective tissue that is keeping it all wrapped together as one unit.0399

Just underneath that you are going to see connective tissue called epimysium.0406

Epi means the outermost typically.0411

All of these white stuff around the outside that is epimysium.0415

Epimysium is a connective tissue that surrounding all of these little bundles called fascicles.0424

Number 6 is labeling 1 fascicle.0430

Here is a fascicle.0434

Basically fascicles are bundles of muscle fibers.0436

Each one of these little red tubular units that we are seeing a cross section of these are each of the muscle cells or muscle fibers.0445

What is separating fascicles from each other within a muscle?0458

That is called a perimysium.0462

The perimysium is the intermediate connective tissue.0464

Here there will be perimysium.0469

It is separating fascicles from each other.0478

As I mentioned, fascicles are contained within each muscle fiber.0480

The same thing as muscle cells.0486

Number 4 is labeling 1 muscle fiber.0488

It is like one of those antennas where you pull out a smaller tube from the bigger tube.0495

Here is 1 muscle fiber being pulled out of a fascicle, being pulled out of a muscle as a whole.0502

The last connective tissue that I want to tell you about is endomysium.0510

This little white area that is separating the individual muscle fibers from each other within one fascicle, that is endomysium.0515

Endo typically means inner.0522

That is the inner connective tissue in here.0525

Myofibrils are groups of protein fibers that are found within every muscle fiber.0527

We are getting tinier and tinier here.0539

This is important because in one muscle fiber, you can have billions of protein fibers.0542

It is amazing to think about having all of those protein fibers arranged in individual units is important.0551

That is what myofibrils do.0557

Sarcomeres you cannot see them here but they are individual units that are within a myofibril.0560

Here is a different view of what we are long on the previous slides.0569

This is the same image.0577

Here is a muscle fiber and this is a myofibril.0579

This whole thing, one muscle cell and here is all the myofibrils being pulled out.0585

If we zoom in to one myofibril, here is a super close up, the sarcomere is from here to here.0591

You can see it is tiny but it is one sarcomere.0599

It is from this border to this border.0602

Here is another sarcomere from this border to the next one.0604

This border is often time depicted as a zig zag line and it is also called the Z line.0608

I remember the term Z line because it is usually depicted as zig zag in a lot of textbook images.0615

You will see one a little bit in this presentation.0622

Sarcomere from Z line to Z line.0625

What is inside of the sarcomere?0629

Many different types of protein fibers that help contract and relax muscle as a whole.0631

Here is a look at them.0637

See this in this center, I am going to label them red.0639

I am not going to color the whole thing but all of these are called myosin.0644

There is your myosin filaments and then the thinner ones that are connected these are called actin filaments.0649

You could see that if you look further on the other sarcomeres it is a very repetitive system.0662

Here is a zoom in of what we are looking at here.0672

If you zoom in to that blue set of actin filaments that are all together, up close you can see that it is this little spheres.0676

Each one of these spheres is a unit of actin.0684

You could see it is arranged in a spiral looking shape similar to DNA and there are couple of other proteins on top of that.0687

That are very tiny.0697

Troponin and this strand called tropomyosin.0698

We will get into what the functions of those are a little bit later.0703

Here is another depiction of the myosin filaments.0707

This little clubs often times called the myosin heads and when the myosin heads connect to actin they call it a cross bridge.0711

Basically, we are going to the steps at a moment.0722

It is all about myosin connecting to actin and moving it in.0725

When you move the actin in closer and closer, that causes muscles to be contracted.0730

If I contract my bicep, at a microscopic level you have thousands of these little activities that brings the actin closer to myosin.0736

That is called the sliding filament theory that explains how muscles function.0747

Sarcomere structure.0752

As I have mentioned a second ago, myosin is the larger filament, and here myosin is depicted as blue, they are thicker.0755

Actin is being depicted as red ones, those are the smaller filaments.0763

Here is that term Z line.0769

Imagine the Z line as zig zag.0773

That one is a sarcomere.0775

Here is an actual micrograph, this is an actual picture taking with a microscope.0779

This is computer generated.0784

Z lines that is the border of the sarcomere.0787

A band is basically the width of myosin.0789

A trick to remember that is the A band is darker and thicker.0796

The A band is that length of myosin.0811

I band is the length of the actin that is not overlapping with the myosin.0815

You can think of I band as being light and thinner.0829

You could remember that is the portion of actin filaments there within sarcomeres.0842

The M line is simply what is keeping the myosin together, what is anchoring the myosin in that immovable area and allowing to pull actin.0848

It is that M line, that blue line I just drew is in the H zone within the A band.0863

That is a sarcomere.0869

Here is another depiction of it.0872

You can see that up top, the Z line are farther away and down bottom since we have slight contraction it is farther in.0877

You can see that the difference between these 2 pictures is that there is a shorter sarcomere.0886

When a muscle contracts, every sarcomere within it has gotten less wide because the myosin has pulled in the actin0894

and that microscopic movement has lead to the microscopic movement of the muscle.0903

The sliding filament theory explains in detail how the sarcomere actually contracts.0909

As I have said before, if we look closer at the filaments there are more proteins.0917

Tropomyosin tends to be strand looking.0922

You will see tropomyosin looking like this and let us say that actin is in red.0928

We have all of these red units and they should be the same size.0939

In red is actin and in blue is the tropomyosin.0949

I am going to show you that same image on the next slide to remind you of what it looks like.0954

Troponin is more a globular looking protein.0959

I will write this in green ovals.0964

What happens is when you want to contract a muscle, you have neurotransmitters from the end of the axon and that will make more sense when we cover the nervous system in future lessons.0969

If the end of the neuron, the end of the bunch of nerves coming to a muscle, you have a neurotransmitter, a sigma molecule.0982

In this case it is acetylcholine.0991

It stimulates the muscle to contract.0993

The acetylcholine docks on the surface of the muscle which is called the sarcolema.0995

That in turn unleashes a bunch of calcium ions.1000

You have calcium reserves rather not just in bone.1004

Calcium is extremely important for muscle function.1008

There is this reserve like a giant dam, a giant reservoir of calcium.1012

It is called the sarcoplasmic reticulum.1019

If you take basic biology, the sarcoplasmic reticulum is like the endoplasmic reticulum or ER of the cell that is modified for muscles purposes.1021

The sarcoplasmic reticulum is the ER and within those membranes is fold you have a huge reserve of calcium.1031

Once the neurotransmitter from the nervous system docks, the flag gates open and calcium is dumped into the myofibrils.1040

All those units in a muscle that have the proteins.1047

Calcium I am going to use yellow to depict what calcium is.1051

Calcium is little charged ions, they dock on troponin.1056

What happens is once calcium binds to troponin it shifts.1065

It moves and causes a shift in tropomyosin because if you think about a troponin, it is directly attached to these blue strands that are wrapped around actin.1070

If troponin moves, it pulls on tropomyosin.1082

Once tropomyosin shifts, it exposes these areas on actin that are called binding sites.1085

A lot of textbooks make it look like the binding sites like a pimiento on the olive of actin.1093

That is a funny way to think of it.1100

Once tropomyosin shifts, the little pimiento, the binding site is exposed on actin and that allows myosin to connect to it.1102

We will look to that at the next slide.1112

Here we go.1114

You can see tropomyosin here is covering all those binding sites.1117

Once calcium binds to troponin, it moves that and tropomyosin is all the way and then these guys, the heads of myosin can attach.1123

They can do what is called the power stroke which is when you are getting down to business in terms of contracting a muscle.1135

Once the actin binding sites are exposed, you can see that myosin heads dock and they make a power stroke.1141

On the myosin heads you have parts of ATP.1151

It is not connected as ATP.1158

If you are not familiar with that term, it is an energy molecule that is very common in cells.1160

It is made up of 2 pieces.1165

ADP adenosinedyphosphate and phosphate.1167

Imagine my hands are the myosin heads, it may dock on actin they do call the power strokes.1170

Imagine I am docking on actin and when I go like this I am pulling in actin.1178

Visibly pulling it closer, making those Z lines come closer together.1185

Actin filaments are pulled together and then once you have done the power stroke to let go1189

and have it come back in position and go back, you need to have a fresh ATP molecule power it to take it off.1195

In order to take off that head that is made of power stroke, take it off of actin you need ATP.1206

You need a fresh energy molecule and then took that back in position.1213

Or I say recock back into position for another docking.1217

The ATP, the energy supply by it, by breaking apart, it gets it back into position.1221

Imagine that happening thousands of times in a second, it is amazing to think about this happening1227

but it makes sense because every power stroke is going to shorten a sarcomere by .5%.1234

Imagine how small a sarcomere is.1244

One power stroke pulling in of actin by myosin it does not even adjusted by 1%.1246

You have that attached, power stroke come off, re cock it, it is doing that just to do that simple contraction.1252

Just to do contraction of muscles.1258

There is a lot of going on to power that contraction and make that filament slide together.1263

How do you relax that muscle?1270

This is the opposite of contraction.1274

Relaxation is a passive process.1276

I have just told you about contraction of muscle, that is very active.1279

We needed this domino effect, a neurotransmitter making calcium come out to the muscle fibers, myofibrils more specifically attaching to this protein.1282

Relaxation of a muscle is just once does particular dominoes are no longer falling, relaxation can happen.1295

Some of the dominoes that are required to make contraction happen, one of them is the neurotransmitter.1304

If you end stimulation at the neuromuscular junction, that is what we are seeing here.1311

Number 1 is showing you the terminal end of an axon, the end of the neuron that is going to stimulate this muscle.1317

Here this membrane, the purple one, that is the surface of the muscle you can call the sarcolema.1323

This whole thing here is the neuromuscular junctions that is connecting your nervous system to your muscular system.1332

These little pinkish looking dots they are called synaptic vesicles.1338

Number 3 this is equal to synaptic vesicles.1344

They each contain neurotransmitters in this case would be acetylcholine.1354

To get the whole process started, those end up doing exocytosis.1359

They fuse with the edge here and dump those transmitters out into the space called the synapse.1364

You have to get these neurotransmitters to stop docking if you want to stop contracting a muscle.1370

That is the first thing that used to happen.1380

If we are talking acetylcholine with making muscles get stimulated, there is an enzyme that can be in the synapse to break down the neurotransmitter.1382

It is called acetyl cholinesterase.1392

In the side note, there is a pesticide that works by inhibiting is acetyl cholinesterase.1394

The enzyme that is supposed to get rid of all these green stimulators, if you let that enzyme work then we you sprayed it on an insect,1407

Let us say that with this insect that I am making motion with my legs, all of a sudden I am going to prolong the contraction and I am going to twitch to death.1415

I can no longer relax muscles and then re contract them if you are not allowing the break down or getting rid of these neurotransmitter to stimulate muscles.1425

Remember that calcium is released from a reserve down here called the sarcoplasmic reticulum.1435

If you get the calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum, into their reservoir, that is another key point, you got to get the calcium out of the muscles.1443

Also, ATP is a key to relaxing muscles because remember when the myosin heads attach to actin1453

and it did a power stroke, the key of getting them off of actin is ATP.1461

If there is no ATP left in the muscle, you are not going to be able to let myosin off of that and let it go1467

and you have to let go to let the Z lines go back to normal and to let the whole muscle relax.1475

Rigor mortis applies to this.1481

Rigor mortis is when a dead body is divided aboard.1484

Why is that happen?1489

Any position that an animal is diced in, there are certain muscles that are going to be contracted position and muscles that are relaxed.1490

For instance, when my arm is down, my biceps muscle here is relaxed, but this is contracted.1500

If I die in this position, there is a lot of residual ATP that is left over the muscle that I have already generated in preparation for future events.1506

Even if the heart stops beating and the brain stops working, there is still some ATP left over.1516

After several hours, that is done and you did not make anymore because you are dead.1522

Once there is no more ATP you can no longer move.1528

If I wanted to move this on a dead body, if there is no ATP to let go of myosin off of actin, it is not going to be like their like a statue.1532

It is not going to let go without the ATP.1545

You may ask what this rigor mortis just permanently lasts, no.1547

After about 24 hours up to 72 hours later after death, you are going to get certain enzymes being released1552

that break down is just part of death that break down those proteins especially along the Z lines1561

and such that are going to just dissolve myofibrils to the point where the body is breaking down.1568

Once that happens, rigor mortis is no longer in effect.1576

More on muscles.1580

Oxygen debt, you know that if you are just sitting here like I am it is going well in terms of oxygen in using it.1584

If I go to a long distance run or sprint, your heart will start beating more and you are going to start breathing more because you try to get more oxygen to your muscles.1596

You are trying to get increase blood flow to your muscles.1606

The key to making that ATP molecule is you got to break down sugars through glycolisis.1613

This is something you learn in basic biology.1620

You break down the sugars and then the products call pirovic acid from glycolisis, you send to the mitochondria1622

which is quite abundant in the muscles because they are doing so much using of energy or ATP.1629

You use oxygen to finish what is called aerobic respiration, the process of using oxygen to get a lot of ATP out of sugar molecule.1637

If I am running really fast, even though I maybe breathing a lot more oxygen,1646

eventually what I am asking my muscles to do is exceeding the amount of ATP that is available to my muscle.1652

What is going to start happening is if I do not have enough ATP and I do not have quite enough oxygen available at that moment to make more ATP,1660

instead of pirovic acid from glycolisis going to the mitochondria, it is going to be turned into what is called lactic acid.1672

That oxygen debt as a result of me not having quite enough of the raw materials to make more ATP, I am going to make lactic acid as a part of anaerobic respiration.1680

That is that burning sensation you get your muscles.1693

Sprinting hard once around the track, most of people are going to feel that burning sensation unless you are an Olympic athlete.1696

That is lactic acid being generated.1702

Studies have shown that the lactic acid being generated can stimulate you to inhale even more oxygen1706

to try to get that lactic acid out of the muscle and get it back to pirovic acid.1714

The liver can turn lactic acid to pirovic acid and you can use that once you slow down and start making lactic acid and that burning sensation will go away.1719

Creatine phosphate this is something that is naturally available in human bodies.1733

Everybody has it and it is like an assistant to making more ATP.1740

If you do in a moments time not have enough generated ATP or you are having trouble quickly1745

attaching phosphates back into ADP, creatine phosphate has phosphates to give up.1753

It can quickly remake ATP at a moments notice as an assistant.1759

I know some people will take creatine supplements.1763

It works for some people but I would caution people relying on creatine powders to assist work outs because taking too much of it does not mean you are using all of it.1769

A lot of it could be coming out of your urine because you have creatine phosphate that is readily available1782

and a healthy person who is eating well and exercising correctly does not need that supplement.1790

Fast and slow twitch fibers.1796

Fast twitch fibers tend to be white in appearance and your classic looking muscle is a slow twitch fiber that is red.1798

I like to think about ducks versus chicken with this.1812

If you look at a chicken breast, that is white meat.1819

Ducks tend to have dark meat.1822

When you look at how a chicken moves the reason why it has a lot more white fibers here is because think about a chicken trying to fly, it is flapping its wings quickly.1826

That is thanks to fast twitch fibers.1839

You and I have a lot of fast twitch fibers in the hand region.1842

Think about how quickly we can blink our eyelids and parts of our feet.1846

You are going to have areas in the body with a lot more fast twitch fibers.1852

In some areas you are going to have more slow twitch fibers.1856

Slow twitch is not a bad thing.1859

A cow, a duck, they have greater proportions of slow twitch fibers than chickens.1861

It suits these animals and suits us for very specific purposes.1870

A slow twitch fiber you cannot move as fast but is load bearing.1874

You are able to exert yourself with those fibers and do work.1880

It might not be as fast but are able to lifting and push on things.1886

Thanks to slow twitch fibers.1891

I have heard that in parts of Europe, some families will have tests run on their certain daughter to determine1893

if genetically they have slightly more slow twitch fibers or fast twitch fibers than an average human being.1901

We are all the same species but within our species you can have slight variations in slight percentage of slow twitch fiber available in your body versus fast twitch.1908

If you do a test that is confirming that maybe it has .2% more slow twitch fibers or .2% more fast twitch fibers.1919

You might think maybe my trial is more suited towards genetically or more suited towards long distance running.1929

It is still not widely used but that is an interesting test to do.1937

When it comes to naming muscles, there is a combination of 4 characteristics that is used in naming a muscle.1942

Function, location, size, and orientation.1951

Here are some examples.1954

The pectoralis major, the major muscle of the upper chest.1956

Pectoralis is the region, this is the pectoral region or location.1960

Major here means it is big and large.1966

It is the size term.1970

Pectoralis major is a combination of the location and size naming.1972

Orbicularis oris, orbicularis comes from the fact that it orbits so that is the orientation of it.1977

It is how it sits on the part of your body.1986

Oris comes from oral.1989

This is partially function and partially location but the orbicularis oris is here on your lips.1991

It is a circular orbiting kind of muscle and it is in the oral cavity.1999

This long one flexor digitorium superficialis that helps you flex your digits.2005

It is a more superficial muscle compared to some other ones.2015

That is function kind of naming.2018

That is a location kind of naming.2022

That is also an orientation kind of naming because it is more superficial than deep.2024

This is the head, we will quickly go through this.2030

Here is the epicranius.2035

It is right in the front or top of the cranial part of the head.2037

I have heard this is called epicranius frontalis because it is right in the frontal bone.2044

The missed on the back I have heard it is called epicranius occipitalis because that is the occipital bone.2049

What is this in here?2055

Those are called aponeurosis.2058

Aponeurosis is a connective tissue that connects muscle to muscle.2060

You will also find them in between the abdominal muscles those are aponeurosis as well.2063

The termporalis muscle is here on the temple and that is an accessory muscle or synergist with this.2067

I am going to skip ahead just briefly.2077

The masseter muscle is here and this masseter muscle is the main jaw muscle to bring your mandible up.2081

The masseter is similar to mastication or chewing.2092

The masseter muscle is the prime mover or the main mover for this action.2097

If you put your finger here and clench you can feel that there is a contraction going on at your temple.2105

The term synergist or accessory muscle could be used to say the prime mover for lifting up your jaw2113

is the masseter muscle but there is a slight contraction here with the temple muscle.2121

The antagonist or opposite mover to the masseter is whatever that is lowering your jaw.2128

If the prime mover for moving your jaw up is the masseter, here is the platysma.2137

Platy means flat, this muscle has some flatness to it.2146

The platysma looks big than in this image.2152

When you open your mouth or let your jaw fall, your platysma is contracting but the masseter has to relax.2155

That is the importance of the terms prime mover antagonist.2165

It is the same with your biceps versus your triceps.2170

If I am going like this, this is the prime mover and this is the antagonist doing the opposite.2172

Orbicularis occuli, it is what allows you to blink.2178

It is similar to the naming of orbicularis oris but since it is the ocular area of the eye, it has that name.2187

Zygomaticus has it name because this is named after its location.2203

It is attached to the zygomaticus bone.2215

You can thank the zygomaticus for smiling because you can see where it is located.2218

It pulls up on the edges of your lips.2225

The orbicularis oris mentioned earlier is right here and that allows you to do this.2229

The buccinators means trumpeter.2243

The buccinators muscle is hidden here.2247

It is just deep to the superficial zygomaticus.2254

Here is that buccinators muscle.2260

It is a slightly different motion with the orbicularis oris.2262

They call it the trumpeter muscle because when you do this and you make that indentation, like you are blowing on a trumpet, that is your buccinators doing there.2266

Those are the main muscles of the head.2280

When we look at the muscle of the torso it is including parts of the tops of the arms but deltoid on this muscular main here is here and here.2283

When you look at the muscle by itself and has a triangular look like delta that is why it is called the deltoid.2300

The trapezius muscle is best viewed from the back but that is what you are seeing here.2308

People who work out their upper back a lot, you can see a bulge here and the trapezius makes up the majority of the upper back.2315

If you use your imagination, it looks like a trapezoid except it does come down to a point near the mid back.2326

That is the trapezius muscle.2334

Pectoralis major was mentioned in the previous slide that is this muscle.2336

You can barely see it in yellow but you know where it is.2343

Next up is external oblique, it is external because it is towards the outside and oblique because it is diagonal in its orientation.2346

Here are your external obliques.2357

Some people focus on those side muscles of the abdominal region when you are doing certain exercises.2361

The latissimus dorsae, latissimus means widest and dorsae those are the wing like muscles that pop at the sides of the back.2371

On a back view, they are quite large next to the trapezius and all of these here is latissimus dorsae.2385

Rectus abdominus is the last one I will tell you about here in the torso.2398

If you look at how the 6 pack is arranged, it is in these little pockets of muscle and they are connected by aponeurosis.2405

Rectus means straight parallel and abdominus is the region.2418

The reason why it is rectus abdominus is when you look closely at the muscle fibers, they are all going straight up and down.2425

It is straight/ diagonal.2435

Here you are looking at the rectus abdominus.2439

The major muscles of the arms, biceps brachial and triceps brachial.2445

The brachial has to do with the fact that we are looking at the arm here.2453

Biceps and triceps, biceps means two heads because when you look at how this muscle is attached up here there are 2 points of attachment or 2 heads.2456

Conversely when you look at the triceps brachial has 3 points of connection that is why it is triceps.2470

Brachial radialis that muscle is right here.2485

From the skeleton lessons, the ulna in the pinky side, the radius is in the thumb side.2492

Since radialis is in the name of this, here is the brachial radialis.2498

Flexor digitorium superficialis that allows you to flex your digits.2507

Me doing this, I am contracting that particular muscle.2514

The major muscles of the legs, gluteus maximus, a lot of people are familiar with it, that is the major butt muscle.2519

It is maximus because it is large.2529

There is gluteus minimus but it is slightly off to the side.2532

Rectus femoris, remember rectus means straight or parallel.2539

Femoris of course is the femur.2548

A lot of people call the front thigh muscle the quadriceps.2551

Quadriceps means foreheads but there are individual muscles there.2558

The rectus femoris is one of the major ones and it comes like that up on the top of the leg.2564

The Sartorius lies on top of that and it has to do with being a tailor.2574

The Sartorius muscle comes along here like a tailor’s thread.2582

I think that is a very interesting name that they gave it.2592

Biceps femoris, biceps means two heads.2596

That is why I am just calling this biceps in anatomy class it is not the full name because they are multi muscles that starts with the names biceps.2602

Biceps brachial, biceps femoris is actually in the hamstring area.2610

You can see here they say hamstrings that is the more common name for the back part of the thigh but the major muscle there is the biceps femoris.2615

Gastronemius is also known as the calf muscle.2630

Here is the gastronemius.2640

You can barely see it here on the side.2645

The calf muscle is attached to your heel, the Achille’s tendon or calcineal tendon.2647

It says tendon calceneus there.2656

The calceneal tendon is that heel bone is called the calceneus and that is a very strong tendon.2660

If you rupture it, it is quite painful and you are not going to be able to walk.2668

The soleus is next toward of the gastronemius.2673

The soleus is more visible when you look at the front.2676

The soleus is right here but you can see it also along the back of the leg.2684

Those are the major muscles of the body.2694

There is a lot more than what I have covered but these are major ones.2697

For some muscular disorders.2701

There a lot of disorders in the muscular system.2703

These are some of the major ones.2706

Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disorder.2708

There are a lot of types of dystrophy but what they have in common is genetically the person is unable to make distrophine.2711

A muscular protein in a proper way.2719

Distrophine makes up less than .5% of muscle tissue.2722

It is a very small percentage of what is going on.2727

There is a lot of actin and myosin, but having distrophine messed up, it throws the whole system into a whack.2730

There is no cure for muscle dystrophy.2737

It is a disease that is very unfortunate.2739

Maybe one day there will be a cure but now there are treatments for it and it is something that you do not think about until there is a problem with it.2742

Carpal tunnel might have genetic factor associated with it but in general when it comes to the carpal bones2755

and the muscles here that help you move the fingers, there are these tracks made up of muscles and tendons,2762

nerves and blood vessels that go through the carpal bones to the fingers.2771

People who do a lot of typing, who do a lot of work with their hands, maybe they do arts and stuff,2775

those people would be vulnerable because over use of your fingers for hours can lead to getting carpal tunnel.2785

Carpal tunnel is when you have swelling of the sheets of the connective tissue that is around these units2794

and that is going to be pressing up against your nerves and blood flow,2801

and that swelling in these narrow areas of the carpal bones is going to cause a lot discomforts.2807

It can start out with just tingling but over time it gets worse.2813

Surgeries can help it and there are also a lot of orgonomic devices out there that can help with carpal tunnel.2818

Hernia is when part of an organ is creeping through some connective tissues, some compartment in the body and going to areas where it does not belong.2827

There are few different types of hernia.2840

One is an inguinal hernia that is when a part of your intestine is creeping through the muscular area that separates the discrotal sac from the abdominal cavities.2842

A man who gets an inguinal hernia is very painful.2856

That is from lifting something that is too heavy and that over use of the muscles in that region can cause that organ problem.2861

Ischemia means blood starvation.2874

Anytime you have a cut off of blood to any organ that is an ischemic scenario.2878

When it comes to muscle, muscles require a lot of blood flow to function properly.2888

Bloods being cut off to a muscle, at the very least you are going to get cramping but at the worst you can have cell damage.2892

Botulism is a result of a toxin causing the muscle to not be able to function properly.2901

One of the sources is a bacteria called claustordium-.2908

This is something that is rare to get but when you do get it there is an incubation period that leads to the neuromuscular junctions not functioning properly because of that toxin.2913

Polio comes from the virus and that does eventually cause paralysis.2926

I am sure you are familiar with FDR and that particular disease because of vaccinations2931

you do not see polio in a developed world but is still does exist around the world in certain places.2937

Tetanus is from a bacterial toxin, it can also be known as a lock jaw because what happens is if tetanus gets inside your body,2945

there is an incubation period that leads to that toxin causing muscles to in a frozen contacted position.2956

That is why the lock jaw would happen.2964

There are shots that can help you not get tetanus.2966

The typical scenario is stepping on a rusty nail.2970

You can get tetanus from other sources as well.2975

The rusty nail makes sense because you have this metal object with the tetanus bacteria on it2978

that is getting deep into your tissue into where the muscle is and that can cause the tetanus.2985

Rotator cuff injury when someone who is likely to get rotator cuff injury but anytime you get a tear in the muscles that are surrounding the humerus2993

and allowing you to have that nice ball and socket motion with that joint, that can be a problem.3004

Mitochondrial diseases this is a genetic thing.3010

You have a lot of different proteins in the cellular organelle and the mitochondria that helps shuttle protons, electrons,3013

to where they are supposed to go to help you make ATP.3023

The energy molecule required for muscle to function.3026

If you have a mitochondrial disease, it could be even inherited a certain DNA combination,3029

a certain genotype that causes protein to not be in the proper structure that it should be.3039

That can make it to where maybe you are not making as much ATP as you are supposed to be making in the mitochondria.3045

That can lead to certain problems throughout life.3050

Compartment syndrome is related to ischemia because compartment syndrome is this scenario where if you have a tear in a blood vessel that is in your gastronemius.3054

Your gastronemius is surrounded with fascia and it is in its own little compartment.3068

If you have a bleed in that gastronemius unit, there could be a pressure of all that blood3073

and all that blood just emptying into that compartment can put pressure on the muscle, nerves, other blood vessels.3079

That swelling sometimes has no place to go because of that sheet known as the fascia.3087

That compartment syndrome can cause permanent damage if you go to the hospital and get it taken care of.3093

Probably the most fascinating of all muscular disorders that I have ever heard of is FOP, fibrodysplasia ossificans progresiva.3099

That is depicted in this photograph here.3108

This is a very rare disorder that has genetic factors linked with it.3111

It is when somebody gets FOP gets injured.3117

Let us say, they get a car accident and they get tears in the muscles of their chest, back, and arm.3121

Instead of their body healing that muscle to make muscle again, their body heals that tissue as bone.3129

You have a scenario here where this person, all these injuries they have in their arm and upper back has led to bone to where it does not belong.3138

That is going to lead to not living as long as the average person because these areas are going to constrict breathing in the long run.3150

There are surgeries that they have tried to fix this but if you think what is required for a surgery,3159

you have to go in surgically on a microscopic level damage certain tissues.3166

Just the surgery itself can make the problem worse.3173

There is no current cure for FOP but time will tell.3177

Those are muscular disorders.3183

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.3185

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