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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Blood Vessels

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (7)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Tue Mar 17, 2015 6:24 PM

Post by Danelle Whisenhunt on March 16, 2015

are capillaries located in the organs, and because of this, veins have a lower level of oxygen because the organs are taken nutrients and oxygen needed?

0 answers

Post by Nadia A on September 17, 2014

Really interesting stuff! Thanks :-)

0 answers

Post by Coco Y on March 1, 2014

~

You are Very good ~

~

0 answers

Post by Coco Y on March 1, 2014

THANK YOU SO MUCH~

I watch your video so many times

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Jan 20, 2014 1:08 PM

Post by Habib Awes on January 19, 2014

1. what is the relationship between structure and funtion of arteries, veins and capillaries?
2. What is the general funtion of the blood vessels mentioned above>
3. why is the lumen of an artery small than of vein?
. why is wall of artery relatively thick than vein?
. why artery have large amount of elastic tissue?
. why vein have pocket valves while arteries doesnt?
. why walls of both artery and vein have collagen?
. why is heart strings made of the same materials found in tendon?

Blood Vessels

  • Blood vessel types: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins
  • There are 3 main layers inside of major blood vessels: tunica externa (adventitia), tunica media, and tunica interna (intima)
  • Artery walls are generally thicker than in veins, and veins have one-way valves but arteries do not
  • Sequence of blood flow: elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arterioles, continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, venules, medium-sized veins, large veins
  • Capillary beds are networks of capillaries that give and receive nutrients with respect to adjacent tissues, and they are regulated by precapillary sphincters
  • Blood pressure is calculated by multiplying cardiac output and peripheral resistance, and it is written as systolic (max pressure) over diastolic (min pressure)
  • Blood is assisted in its return to the heart through skeletal muscle contractions and one-way valve function in veins
  • Blood vessel width/pressure is affected by baroreceptors, ADH, angiotensin II, and EPO
  • Major artery examples: aorta, carotid, brachial, radial arteries
  • Major vein examples: vena cava, jugular, hepatic veins
  • Pulse sounds are most detectable at the carotid, radial, and femoral sites
  • Blood vessel conditions/disorders include hypertension, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and hemorrhaging
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Which blood vessel would bleed out the fastest if cut, the aorta or carotid?
    • A: Definitely the aorta. It’s closer to the contracting left ventricle. The carotid artery has high blood pressure running through it, but not nearly as much as the aorta.

Blood Vessels

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Types of Blood Vessels 0:05
    • Arteries
    • Arterioles
    • Capillaries
    • Venules
    • Veins
  • Vessel Structure 1:21
    • Tunica Externa
    • Tunica Media
    • Tunica Interna
  • Differences Between Arteries and Veins 4:22
    • Artery Walls are Thicker
    • Veins Have Valves
    • From Artery to Capillary
    • From Capillary to Vein
  • Capillary Bed 11:11
    • Between Arterioles and Venules
    • Precapillary Sphincters
  • Distribution of Blood 12:17
    • Systematic Venous System
    • Systematic Arterial System
    • Pulmonary Circuit
    • Heart
    • Systematic Capillaries
  • Blood Pressure 14:35
    • Cardiac Output
    • Peripheral Resistance
    • Systolic / Diastolic
  • Return of Blood Through Veins 20:37
    • Valves
    • Skeletal Muscle Contractions
  • Regulation of Blood Vessels 22:50
    • Baroreceptor Reflexes
    • Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Angiotensin II
    • Erythropoietin
  • Arteries / Vein Examples 26:54
    • Aorta
    • Carotid
    • Brachial
    • Femoral
    • Vena Cava
    • Jugular
    • Brachial
    • Femoral
    • Hepatic Veins
  • Pulse Sounds 29:19
    • Carotid
    • Radial
    • Femoral
    • Popliteal
    • Temporal
    • Dorsalis Pedis
  • Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders 31:29
    • Hyper / Hypotension
    • Arteriosclerosis
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Edema
    • Aneurysm
    • Hemorrhage
    • Thrombus
    • Pulmonary Embolism
    • Varicose Veins
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Angiogenesis

Transcription: Blood Vessels

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on blood vessels.0002

When we look at the blood vessels in the human body there are several types.0004

Arteries are the blood vessels that take blood out of the heart.0009

They tend to be faint, they tend to be very strong, very tough because you got a lot of blood shooting through them so they need to be.0013

Arterials are like mini arteries that branch off of it.0019

Think of arteries is like free ways and arterials are like off ramps and eventually you get into tiny little residential streets0023

that are often times smaller and take you to all the specific places in the neighborhood.0032

Capillaries are like that.0037

The smallest blood vessels that come off from arteries and physically take blood and oxygen and nutrients inside the blood to the cells that need them.0039

All of those capillaries eventually come together to form venules.0048

The venules are taking that deoxygenated blood which looks more blueish purplish because of hemoglobin changing0055

and you will hear more about that in the blood lessons.0063

The venules take all that blood back onto freeways.0065

You can think of them as on ramps going into the veins that are going to take that blood back to the heart.0070

Veins are also very large but structurally a bit different from arteries.0076

When we look at vessel structure, arteries and veins have these layers.0081

The sizes of the layers relative to each other are different in the veins and arteries but let us cover this in general first.0088

If we start from the most superficial part of these tubes, the tunica externa is that sheath around the outside.0100

Sometimes it is called the tunica adventitia, it just depends on the textbook but they both mean that outer sheath.0104

It is going to be mainly connective tissue.0112

That connective tissue is very tough, very strong, you do not want it to break.0114

You do not want blood leaking out of it.0119

Also that connects tissues important for attaching the arteries and veins to the issues around them.0121

You do not want your veins, your arteries, moving around a bunch.0127

You want that anchored and in place where it is supposed to be.0134

The major arteries and veins in your body they have tissue keeping them in place.0136

And that tissue, those fibers are going to be the attached to the tunica externa.0141

The tunica media, media meaning in the middle is going to be mainly smooth muscle.0147

You can see smooth muscle right here.0154

Smooth muscle is going to be in the tunica media.0156

The reason why there are smooth muscles there, especially in the arteries is you want to be able to relax and constrict or dilate0159

and make smaller of those arteries just to adjust blood flow in the body.0167

Your blood pressure just throughout the day I will tell you more about that in a little bit later in this lesson but you want to be able to manipulate the size of those vessels.0174

Smooth muscles are very important part of the Tunica Media and then more connected tissue fibers specially0184

collagen and elastic fibers are going to allow the size of it to adjust as needed.0189

Finally tunica interna also called tunica intima depending on which textbook that you are looking in.0196

It is the most internal deep part of the arteries and veins and the other blood vessels.0204

And that is going to be where blood itself is moving through.0209

It is like a nice little tubular slide.0214

It is smooth and it is composed of endothelium.0216

The smallest blood vessels, capillaries, they are just endothelium without the other layers.0220

But all the blood vessels have that layer that is meant to shuttle blood through it.0227

Besides the endothelium, in terms of its diameter changes based on how much the smooth muscles are contracting and relaxing.0233

The lumen is the name for the internal part where blood is moving through.0239

The hollow region within the endothelium layer is called a lumen.0242

Actually other organs in the body that have hollow chambers like even the stomach you can say the lumen of the stomach.0249

Lumen in this case is referring to the hollow structure inside of the vessels.0256

When we compare arteries and veins of course the major difference is that arteries take blood away from the heart and veins take blood back to the heart.0261

But structurally there are some differences too.0271

Artery walls are generally thicker and they need to be because if you think about the heart beating blood out of it,0274

arteries are taking that blood that are rocketing through.0282

They need to be able to deal with that high pressure of blood rushing through them.0286

The timing of the veins coming back to the heart, blood pressure is down close to nothing.0291

You do not need to have as thick of a wall.0298

Arteries do need it.0300

The endothelium of arteries gets folded when constricted and this picture does a decent job of showing that.0303

You can see that here is the tunica externa.0309

Here is the smooth muscle the tunica media.0313

You can see that right here this tiny, very thin layer of the tunica interna or tunica intima is kind of folded.0315

You can see those little folds because when arteries constricts, imagine that endothelium cannot just change its size and just stay nice and smooth.0324

It gets folded up when you constrict it.0336

Often times a cross section of an artery, looking down through it, that is currently constricted you will see this folding.0339

You see that these are actually blood cells.0348

They look kind of yellowish but if you really close to these you would see they have kind of a pinkish look.0351

The classic look of a red blood cell.0357

The endothelium varies gets folded when constricted, it does not really happen in veins.0360

You do not notice that.0365

And then veins have valves and arteries do not.0366

Similar to the valves of the heart.0370

The valve that connect the chambers and up to the blood vessels coming out of the heart they are like little flaps that are kind of preventing back flow.0373

As blood goes to veins going back to the heart, you prevent blood from going backwards by having valves.0381

The arteries do not structurally need valves because the pressure coming out of a heart is keeping blood flowing in the proper direction through arteries.0389

When we look at sequence from artery to capillary, and capillary to vein, we look at this all the blood that is leaving the heart it is going to start off often in the elastic arteries.0397

They are the major arteries coming out of the heart.0408

The aorta, the a pulmonary trunk that splits into the 2 pulmonary that is going to each lung, the carotid arteries.0410

The major arteries in our body they are called elastic arteries.0418

They are very tough and have a high amount of blood pressure through them.0421

Next up as you get into ever so slightly smaller arteries branching off from there, they are called the muscular arteries.0426

The muscular layer in there is a little bit more significant because that is where you have major changes in the size of the artery.0433

The size of your aorta does not really change however the size of your brachial artery changes.0441

The size of the arteries taking blood to other parts of your body does need to change occasionally, throughout the day it happens.0449

The muscular layer in there is a little bit thicker to accommodate that change.0456

All the arteries branch off into arterials that just mean mini arteries.0461

And then into what is called continuous capillaries.0466

This is a zoom in of a continuous capillary.0469

The way I like to think of it is, you know those metal antennae where you take out the parts of the antenna so that you can extended it.0472

It is like smaller metal tubes inside bigger metal tubes.0482

That is a way to think about artery to arterial to capillary because in arterial you are actually not going to have a tunica externa.0487

Most arterials if you look at them in themselves is smooth muscle wrapped around the epithelium.0498

As if you remove that inner tube from out of the thicker tube of the artery.0504

When you get to capillary it is like just endothelium by itself.0510

You actually do not have the smooth muscles wrapper on the capillaries.0515

It is just that internal layer.0518

You are looking at just endothelial cells.0519

I have read that some capillaries are so thin that you have a single endothelial cell wrapped around like this and only one red blood cell at a time can move through.0522

That is super tiny super microscopic fascinating thing to think about.0534

Continuous capillaries get their name because each endothelial cell,0538

I am going to draw a line around one of these in case you cannot see it.0542

That is an endothelial cell and there is another endothelial cell.0545

You can find them almost like a mosaic pattern around the tube.0550

The way that nutrients and gases move across the capillaries because this is the spot we are going to be doing that.0554

The way that glucose and little amino acids exit the capillary is through the little connections between the endothelial cells.0561

Same with the gases, oxygen, and CO2, etc are moving back and forth to the borders of these endothelial cells.0569

Next up when you look from capillary to vein, the fenestrate capillary looks very similar to the continuous capillary.0577

The difference is in the endothelial cells you actually see the holes.0589

These little holes in the cells themselves, these passageways and fenestrate means window.0594

These little windows actually help increase the rate at which water and solutes, little charged particles charge ions enter and exit.0602

It is just like slightly different structured capillary.0615

All of these capillaries lead into the venules which are basically like tiny veins.0618

You are not going to see as thick as a muscular layer in venules.0625

That is very hard to see.0630

It is very thin.0630

You do not have the muscular thickness in a vein also.0632

When you go into medium size veins leading back into large veins, you are still going to have a very solid ficatunica externa on the outside.0636

But when you compare the size of the smooth muscle in an artery to the size or thickness of the smooth muscle in a vein, it is not quite the same.0643

You do not have that highly sort of high velocity blood running through veins.0654

You do not have as much manipulation of vein size to this point.0661

But the way that you are able to get blood back to the heart I am going to mention it in a little bit.0665

Capillary beds when we zoom into what is going on in that capillary network that is between arterials and venules,0671

it is all of the tiny little blood vessels that are allowing nutrients and gases to exit and the wastes to come in to take back to the heart.0681

The amazing thing is that pre capillary sphincters or little muscular doorways leading to these different parts of the network open and close to regulate flow.0690

You have parts of this capillary bed where blood is just consistently flowing.0701

You have other sections that will occasionally lessen blood flow there and it is based on individual needs.0706

You can shunt blood meaning direct blood in very specific ways to certain tissues more than others depending on need.0712

If you have a need in a certain organ for more blood at that time you can physically manipulate what parts of the capillary beds0723

are going to be having slightly more blood flow than others.0732

It is a nice adaptation to have.0734

The distribution of blood in the body when we look at where blood is percentage wise in the specific arteries and in sections of your body,0736

it is amazing to see these percentages because most of the blood in any given moment is actually in your veins in the Venus system .0746

Systemic venus system means all of the veins are not associated directly with the lungs.0755

There is the systemic circuit and then there is the pulmonary circuit.0760

The pulmonary circuit is all the blood vessels going to and from the lungs because pulmonary means lungs.0764

In the systemic venus system, we look at venules, medium sized veins, and the large veins like the Vena Cava, the jugular vein.0769

Most of the blood, percentage wise is in there.0776

Think about how blood is rocketing out of the heart every second of your life.0781

Blood does not hang around in the major arteries for very long.0787

It tends to pool in the Venus system and then gradually is brought back into the hearts and that it can be re rocketed back into the body.0791

In the systemic arterial system you look at the major arteries approximately 13% of your total blood volume is located in the aorta, brachial artery, femoral artery, etc.0802

Pulmonary circuit is all of those arteries and veins associated with the lungs even all the capillary is slightly less than 10% of your total blood volume is located in there.0814

The heart about 7%.0826

Blood do not stick around in the heart for very long.0829

In the system capillaries, all of the capillaries amazingly all through out your body other than the lungs 7% and that might seem really low.0832

Keep in mind that capillaries are very narrow, very thin, oftentimes microscopic blood vessels.0841

Here is an amazing fact, if you took just the capillaries, every single capillary in your body, even the capillaries of the pulmonary circuit and you cut them all up,0849

and put them into end to end in one solid line.0859

It would be over 25,000 miles long which can almost stretch around the earth.0863

That is incredible to think about.0870

There is a lot going on in our body.0873

Blood pressure is something that it is typical for an ENT or paramedic and doctor or nurse to measure.0874

How do we get the numbers above it?0884

What does it mean?0887

When you put on the blood pressure cuff, the sphygmomanometer is the proper term with the valve and engage and all that stuff.0888

You get a certain number and I will tell you how to get that in a second.0896

The actual blood pressure calculation is cardiac output × peripheral resistance.0898

Reminder of what cardiac output is that stroke volume, the amount of blood exiting the heart with each ventral contraction in ml × heart rate.0904

How many times the heart contracting per minute?0915

That is going to give you the amount of blood that is exiting your heart.0919

Peripheral resistance has to do with how narrow the blood vessels that the blood is being shot through.0923

The more constriction the tinier we make the blood vessel, the more the resistance.0930

Think about a hose, if you have a hose and water is coming out and you want the water to come out a lot faster0937

you put your thumb or finger in front of the opening and you make the opening smaller and it goes out at a hire velocity.0944

It is the same concept.0951

The more the constriction the higher resistance that means the more the blood is pushing against the sides and in rocketing much faster through.0953

Those two together are going to determine blood pressure.0965

One way that blood pressure can rise is just by having the blood vessels narrow.0970

Your heart rate stays the same but if your blood vessels narrowed and get tinier that is going to increase your blood pressure.0976

Conversely your blood pressure could go up if your blood vessels stay the same diameter but your heart increases.0982

It is both.0990

If your heart rate goes up to its volume or peripheral resistance, any of these things can make blood pressure go up.0992

The two numbers are systolic and diastolic.0997

Remember if you saw the heart lessons systole is contraction of the ventricles.1001

You can also have systole of the atria.1007

Here we are talking about ventricles because the ventricles contracting are getting that blood out from the blood vessels.1009

Systole has to do with that highest level of pressure.1014

The systolic pressure has to do with the ventricular contractions, what kind of pressures is that producing in the arteries.1018

Diastolic is the opposite and that is the lowest number that relates to the relaxation of ventricles.1025

Healthy or some of the common blood pressure you hear about is 120/80 that is the systolic number over the diastolic number.1031

This is the range of pressure and whenever arteries you are measuring and usually has to do with an artery like the brachial artery.1040

Put on a sphygmomanometer in this part of the arm.1048

The first thing you do is attach the cuff, this band with Velcro on it and you have this gauge here that tells you the numbers and little bulb that you squeeze.1053

You close the valve and then when you squeeze you are putting air in the cuff and gradually it tightens.1064

What you are doing is you are tightening it so much and you would go above of something like 160 or 170.1071

You want to go above what you think the blood pressure is going to be because you want to make it so pressurize that you actually temporarily stop blood flow through that artery.1079

And then you gradually open up the valve.1088

You let the air escape and you gradually let the cuff just relaxed and the first time in the stethoscope that in the stethoscope, the little pad is going to be resting on the artery.1090

The first time you hear a heart beat you look at the gauge and whenever number it is, let us say it is 134 that is systolic1100

because that is the amount of pressure it took for blood to conquer the pressure that you are exerting on here.1108

Whenever there is just slightly more blood pressure to physically push blood through compared to the pressure you were applying on here1115

that tells you the max pressure running for that blood vessel.1125

If it is 120 that is healthy.1128

If it is 170 that is pretty high.1130

A really high blood pressure like that tells you that this person probably has a narrowing of arteries and that is not good in the long run in terms of a heart attack risk.1134

You continue this process of listening, dropping the pressure, that little needle is going to keep falling on this gauge.1143

And the last moment you hear a heart beat let us say when the needle reaches 80 that tells you the diastolic.1152

That is the lowest amount of pressure going through the blood vessel.1159

It could be 60.1163

It could be 92.1164

In the distance between the systolic and diastolic tells doctors a lot about your blood pressure, heart health, etc.1166

120/80 that is normal.1174

Very few people are going to experience that blood pressure throughout the day.1178

Since I have been talking to you on camera my blood pressures probably higher.1182

Yes I am sitting down which tends to make blood pressure drop a little bit but I'm doing a lot of activity gesticulating and moving of my mouth and such.1187

My blood pressure is probably higher.1198

Throughout the day blood pressure changes.1200

You can take your blood pressure in one instance sitting down and it can be 124/78 and then you can feel like you have done nothing in that change in behavior then 5 minutes later it can be 132/86.1203

Your blood pressure does fluctuate based on your needs at those moments throughout the day.1218

Typically when you stand up, when you do more, your blood vessels are going to constrict a bit to help rocket blood a little faster to the skeletal muscles.1223

That certainly depends on the person and depends on what you are doing.1232

How does blood get back through the veins?1236

If you have a lot less blood pressure by the time you get to veins because you are far away from the heart.1242

How does blood get from the bottom of your body, from all the way down in your feet back into your heart?1247

Since veins do not have that thick muscular layer it is going to be another way to do it.1253

One of the ways is the valves.1258

The valves in the veins they prevent blood from going back.1260

And you can see from this here, this little circle say it is open.1264

Blood is going to go through and the valves just take close shot so that the blood that is above it cannot go back down.1267

You want to keep it going back up to the heart especially in the Vena Cava, that is a long journey and inferior Vena Cava back to the right atrium.1276

Another way to do is skeletal muscle contractions.1285

Your veins tend to be next to skeletal muscles and when you move your legs, move your arms, you are contracting or relaxing skeletal muscles that are neighboring these veins.1288

And the skeletal muscle contractions and relaxations they kind of squeeze on the veins and a physically pushes blood back through1300

and past the valves and then it pushes it farther and farther up.1309

This is why being physically active in moving around is important.1313

You may have notice that if you are sitting on an airplane for 5 hours and you do not do much you are going to feel sore.1317

And that is not good for you.1325

You are more likely to get a clot if you keep joints in one fixed position for a while because they will be certain arteries and veins that had been kind of compressed like squeezing a straw.1326

You can get not proper circulation.1340

They recommend that after a long flight, let us say you are going 18 hours to other continents, get up a few times and walk around the cabin of the plane.1342

Get that blood flowing really efficiently.1351

People who do not do a physical activity throughout their life are going to tend to have circulatory problems whether it is edema or other problems with blood pressure, etc.1354

Moving skeletal muscles helps get that blood through veins.1364

Regulation of blood vessels in terms of peripheral resistance is how much they are constricted or relaxed.1369

You are able to notice without even thinking about it through baroreceptor reflexes.1376

In the carotid sinuses and aortic sinuses, in the physical blood vessel of the carotid arteries going up into your head1382

and the aorta taking blood into the heart, you have the ability to notice the amount of pressure going through those particular arteries.1392

That communicates with your brain and depending on what is going on with the needs are, those signals can stimulate some manipulation of your blood pressure.1401

For instance, anti diuretic hormone or ADH is one of those of hormones that is going to keep water in your body so that you are not urinating as much.1410

Now the way that ADH actually plays a role is if there is a drop in blood volume, for instance let us say you have an internal bleeding.1426

It will be terrible to have but if you have internal bleeding where blood is exiting blood vessels that would stimulate your brain because of a drop in the pressure.1435

It is going to stimuli release of ADH so that you actually will constrict the vessels so that you do not have as quite as much blood going in that area and exiting1444

because of this hemorrhaging because the blood leaving the blood vessels.1459

If there is a drop in blood volume also if you are dehydrated, if you do not have enough water in your body you are going to have less blood in your body1463

and that is going to stimulate the release of ADH so that you are not urinating those fluids out.1471

Angiotensin 2 can actually have a lot to do with ADH levels as well.1477

That can stimulate the release of ADH but when you are thirsty, angiotensin 2 has a lot to do with blood pressure manipulation.1483

If you are thirsty you probably do not have as much fluid in your body you are supposed to have.1492

Erythropoietin is basically a hormone that relates to the production of red blood cells.1497

Erythropoietin is going to stimulate the making of red blood cells and they are going to come out of your bone marrow into your blood vessels.1505

And that is supposed to happen every second of every day but the rate at which Erythropoietin is causing to produce red blood cells is going to vary.1514

If you have too much red blood cells your blood is physically thicker.1521

There is going to be more stuff pushing on the inside of your arteries and veins.1527

That is going to increase the blood pressure.1533

The same thing about Erythropoietin is that certain pharmaceutical companies have made drugs that assist with this process of making red blood cells.1536

My daddy used to work for a company that made a drug that causes you as a patient to produce way more red blood cells than you normally would.1545

They made it for kidney dialysis patients.1554

It is always important for them.1557

But if you are a cyclist, in the cycling world or another kind of sports that involve a lot of endurance, you can do what is called blood doping.1559

It is not recommended by doctors and there is obviously ethical and moral problems with that.1573

But blood doping was on the news, when cyclists are using this drug when they are perfectly healthy and do not need more red blood cells,1577

they are adding more red blood cells to their blood vessels so that they can have more endurance.1589

The more red blood cells, the more oxygen you are carrying around your body the more oxygen you can supply to your skeletal muscles.1595

The problem with that is the thicker blood overtime can cause health problems.1600

You are more likely to clot.1605

You are more likely to have some bad health problems happening from abusing them.1607

Here are some examples of arteries and veins.1612

There are so many I am just going to highlight a few them.1616

The aorta has come up a lot, that is the major thickest largest artery coming out from the left ventricle taking oxygenated blood all over the body.1619

That branches off into slightly smaller arteries like the carotid arteries.1629

These carotid arteries are taking oxygenated blood up into your brain.1634

You can feel your carotid artery pulse right over here.1639

The brachial arteries are major artery going through each arm and in the femoral artery corresponding to the word femur.1642

The femoral artery, these red ones right here.1650

They are taking oxygenated blood into the legs.1653

On the other side you have major veins the Vena Cava.1656

I have already mentioned this, the Vena Cava, the inferior Vena Cava, and the superior Vena Cava take deoxygenated blood into the right side of the heart.1659

The jugular veins those are taking deoxygenated blood back to the heart from the head.1668

You may have heard about getting hit at the jugular, that is aimed in the neck region.1675

The brachial veins correspond to the arterial word brachial veins and femoral veins.1683

They are just going to do the exact opposite in terms of directional flow taking deoxygenated blood back.1690

More often than not you are going to see veins being more superficial than arteries.1696

Arteries tend to be deeper and it is a good thing.1702

An arterial bleed is going to be more likely to result in death or loss of a limb or loss of the life of the tissue because arteries have blood rocketing through them.1705

They are closer to the heart.1718

Venus bleeds are bad too but they tend to be a bit slower.1719

If you look closely at my forearm I have these blood vessels.1724

You can see these blue blood vessels are veins.1729

They are going up a bit more superficially compared to larger veins that are deeper but the ones that you see on the surface of your skin they tend to be veins.1733

And then finally the hepatic veins.1742

The word hepatic is associated with the liver.1744

The word hepatitis is a liver infection.1747

Hepatic veins have to do with taking blood from the liver and they will connect back into the Vena Cava taking blood back to the heart.1749

Pulse sounds when I was trained as an EN there are two classic areas that you take pulses.1758

The first one is the carotid pulse which you can see from this picture.1766

This individual looks unconscious, they probably are because I remember in the classes they said if you come across a patient in the field who is conscious,1769

they are physically looking at you and their surroundings.1780

You do not go for the neck to take the pulse because generally when you reach for someone's neck they get little disturbed by that.1783

Someone who is conscious they recommend you take the radial pulse.1789

Here is where the radial artery is, associated with the radius bone which is on the thumb side almost over here.1793

The proper spot here is if you find the thumb and go just down here, you can feel there is like a little tendon here.1800

It is pretty hard and then right on the side there is a little well that I am finding right here.1809

If I press it a little bit I can feel it.1814

They ask you to use these because there is actually a separate little pulse on your thumb that can be a little confusing if you try to take someone else pulse.1817

Carotid pulse on the side of the larynx if you press it enough I can feel it right now.1826

It is on either side because there are carotid arteries on both sides.1832

There are radial arteries on both hands.1834

The femoral artery you can find the pulse just on the interior or medial side of the thigh.1837

The popliteal pulse that is near the knee corresponding to that artery but the temporal pulse it is kind of odd to think about.1846

Like right here I can actually feel a tiny little pulse because you do have these temporal arteries extending from the carotid ones going through that part of the head.1855

Dorsalis pedis is actually on the foot but the classic to carotid and radial.1869

You are literally hearing the blood shooting corresponding to each contraction of the ventricle.1876

Some blood vessel conditions and disorders.1884

Hypertension and hypotension.1892

Hypertension means high blood pressure.1894

Hypotension low blood pressure.1897

I am slightly hypotensive.1900

On average I have a lower blood pressure than the average person.1902

Typically when I go to the doctor, go to donate blood, the blood pressure reading will be something like 118/76.1906

That very normal for me.1915

In other people that would be very low because they might be hypertensive.1916

Hypertension overtime tends to be worse because the narrowing of the blood vessels overtime is going to make it more likely that you are going to get constricted blood flow to the heart.1921

Formation of a plaque inside the blood vessel is going to further that constriction in terms of getting blood through.1933

Another problem with hypotension though is that the more hypotensive you are the more likely to say you are going to pass out.1941

If I am sitting or laying down for a long time and I get up really fast, my body does not have enough time to adjust adequately1948

to getting the blood vessels constrict enough to shoot blood higher up against gravity.1957

I can get this 1 or 2 second brief blackout.1963

For seconds I cannot see.1967

I have not passed out but if my blood pressure was significantly lower, there would not be quite enough blood going to my head if I stood up fast.1970

Hypertension, hypotension, high and low blood pressure.1980

Arteriosclerosis is the hardening and lessening of the diameter that is in a blood vessel.1984

Overtime from the formation of plaques buildup of fatty tissue, fatty streaks with dead white blood cells that have tried to do with that.1993

It is a progressive process over time.2005

I will tell you more about that with blood.2007

Overtime arteriosclerosis causes a narrowing of arteries.2009

Atherosclerosis is the long-term one where you are my most at risk for having a heart attack or a stroke, the construction of blood flow to the heart or other parts the body.2014

The best ways to avoid this, like you hear all the time is try to have a diet that is lower in saturated fat and stay active.2028

Edema is the pooling of fluids where they do not belong.2036

That is why the circulation because if you are not circulating fluids effectively they are going to pool.2041

They are going to end up where they do not belong.2046

One example of that is cankles.2048

If you have heard the term cankles, usually it is in older people where their calf muscle, the gastronemius and where it connects with the ankle,2051

it almost looks like their calf and ankle are the same size.2061

That is edema in the leg.2064

That does correspond to lack of proper circulation over time.2067

An aneurysm is when you have a slight tear or break in the wall between where the lumina is, where blood is flowing and2073

then you have blood gradually leaking in to where you have the Tunica Media.2082

That blood will end up pooling here and eventually you will get a little bulge where the tunica externa keeps getting weak because of that excess blood.2088

It will kind of balloon out and eventually aneurysms can burst.2101

And that can cause death depending on where the aneurysm is.2105

Sometimes it happens abruptly.2108

If someone gets an aneurysm within their head that can lead to death very quickly.2110

And there are not a lot of signs that tell you an aneurysm is developing.2116

Oftentimes they are discovered because someone goes in for another health problem if they had chronic headaches or they feel fatigued or something.2120

They will do tests and something like MRI will show that they have aneurism and will do surgery to remove this and repair the blood vessel wall before it bursts.2128

Hemorrhaging has to do with internal bleeding.2137

Having blood leaking out that is a hemorrhage.2142

A burst aneurysm would lead to hemorrhaging and from this is the formation of a blood clot.2145

A blood clot is a solid and some particular blood vessel.2153

A thrombus is supposed to occur when you want to have that clot, when you want to stop blood from exiting a certain spot.2158

But if a thrombus stays that is not a good thing.2167

You want the clot to be disintegrated once you have the repair of that blood vessel wall overtime.2171

Some blood vessels when they do rupture like the major ones, the large ones, they do not repair themselves.2178

That would need emergency surgery.2185

But a thrombus that is an abnormal blood clot and that restrict blood flow.2187

If that thrombus gets dislodged and starts flowing through blood vessels that becomes an embolism and that ends up resulting in an embolism.2194

One example is a pulmonary embolism.2202

If that dislodge blood clot gets caught in part of the lungs that can kill a person.2205

Varicose veins, here is an image here.2211

Here is a normal vein.2214

We got the valves and you got blood flowing properly and this is an image of what that varicose vein looks like when you zoom into it.2217

They tend to be most noticeable on the lower parts of the legs.2226

When you have a weakening of the vein wall and abnormal functioning of the valve.2230

The valves are not working properly, you can end up getting this enlarged, deformed vein.2239

It is not very attractive.2246

Some people get laser surgery to make this not as noticeable.2247

Once again being active and having a healthy diet is going to minimize the chances this is happening but2252

I have heard that there are genetic factors associated with certain people developing varicose veins overtime more than others.2258

Hemorrhoids this would be kind of like varicose veins but in a particular part of a body.2265

If you have an enlargement of blood vessels in the rectum, near the opening of the anus, that is hemorrhoids.2272

One of the ways that happen is when people on the toilet doing number 2 and there had been pushing, over time you are more likely to develop hemorrhoids.2282

Because hemorrhoids is an enlargement of those blood vessels right next to where that fecal matter is coming out.2292

A sign of hemorrhoids is blood on the toilet paper or blood in the toilet.2299

If you want to reduce the chance of getting hemorrhoids or make them better when you do notice that blood is drink more water, eat more fiber2304

because fiber is going to make on your bowel movements, your stool not as hard.2313

It is going to minimize the chance of irritation.2319

Water, more fiber, and stop pushing on the toilet.2322

Take some reading material and just breathe.2326

Just relax and it will come out when it is supposed to come out.2329

Hemorrhoids can be surgically removed but that is an operation some people choose not to get.2332

Like I have said, water, fiber, stop pushing on the toilet that minimize the effect or the occurrence of hemorrhoids.2339

Angiogenesis is the forming of blood vessels.2346

Angiogenesis happens because of tumors.2349

You have a tumor developing in an organ.2353

Interestingly enough a cancerous tumor will secrete certain chemicals or certain compounds that will encourage angiogenesis.2356

And that is one of the evil things that tumors do, when they encourage blood vessels to grow more into them , they end growing more rapidly.2366

That is one of the things the cancer researchers are trying to conquer.2375

Angiogenesis can also naturally happen more so in certain people within the heart.2380

Some people do overtime naturally make blood vessels that bypass a part of a coronary artery that has restricted the blood flow.2385

Thanks for watching www.educator.com.2395

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