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Lecture Comments (7)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Tue Mar 17, 2015 6:24 PM

Post by Danelle Whisenhunt on March 16, 2015

are capillaries located in the organs, and because of this, veins have a lower level of oxygen because the organs are taken nutrients and oxygen needed?

0 answers

Post by Nadia A on September 17, 2014

Really interesting stuff! Thanks :-)

0 answers

Post by Coco Y on March 1, 2014


You are Very good ~


0 answers

Post by Coco Y on March 1, 2014


I watch your video so many times

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Jan 20, 2014 1:08 PM

Post by Habib Awes on January 19, 2014

1. what is the relationship between structure and funtion of arteries, veins and capillaries?
2. What is the general funtion of the blood vessels mentioned above>
3. why is the lumen of an artery small than of vein?
. why is wall of artery relatively thick than vein?
. why artery have large amount of elastic tissue?
. why vein have pocket valves while arteries doesnt?
. why walls of both artery and vein have collagen?
. why is heart strings made of the same materials found in tendon?

Blood Vessels

  • Blood vessel types: arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins
  • There are 3 main layers inside of major blood vessels: tunica externa (adventitia), tunica media, and tunica interna (intima)
  • Artery walls are generally thicker than in veins, and veins have one-way valves but arteries do not
  • Sequence of blood flow: elastic arteries, muscular arteries, arterioles, continuous capillaries, fenestrated capillaries, venules, medium-sized veins, large veins
  • Capillary beds are networks of capillaries that give and receive nutrients with respect to adjacent tissues, and they are regulated by precapillary sphincters
  • Blood pressure is calculated by multiplying cardiac output and peripheral resistance, and it is written as systolic (max pressure) over diastolic (min pressure)
  • Blood is assisted in its return to the heart through skeletal muscle contractions and one-way valve function in veins
  • Blood vessel width/pressure is affected by baroreceptors, ADH, angiotensin II, and EPO
  • Major artery examples: aorta, carotid, brachial, radial arteries
  • Major vein examples: vena cava, jugular, hepatic veins
  • Pulse sounds are most detectable at the carotid, radial, and femoral sites
  • Blood vessel conditions/disorders include hypertension, atherosclerosis, aneurysm, and hemorrhaging
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Which blood vessel would bleed out the fastest if cut, the aorta or carotid?
    • A: Definitely the aorta. It’s closer to the contracting left ventricle. The carotid artery has high blood pressure running through it, but not nearly as much as the aorta.

Blood Vessels

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Types of Blood Vessels 0:05
    • Arteries
    • Arterioles
    • Capillaries
    • Venules
    • Veins
  • Vessel Structure 1:21
    • Tunica Externa
    • Tunica Media
    • Tunica Interna
  • Differences Between Arteries and Veins 4:22
    • Artery Walls are Thicker
    • Veins Have Valves
    • From Artery to Capillary
    • From Capillary to Vein
  • Capillary Bed 11:11
    • Between Arterioles and Venules
    • Precapillary Sphincters
  • Distribution of Blood 12:17
    • Systematic Venous System
    • Systematic Arterial System
    • Pulmonary Circuit
    • Heart
    • Systematic Capillaries
  • Blood Pressure 14:35
    • Cardiac Output
    • Peripheral Resistance
    • Systolic / Diastolic
  • Return of Blood Through Veins 20:37
    • Valves
    • Skeletal Muscle Contractions
  • Regulation of Blood Vessels 22:50
    • Baroreceptor Reflexes
    • Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Angiotensin II
    • Erythropoietin
  • Arteries / Vein Examples 26:54
    • Aorta
    • Carotid
    • Brachial
    • Femoral
    • Vena Cava
    • Jugular
    • Brachial
    • Femoral
    • Hepatic Veins
  • Pulse Sounds 29:19
    • Carotid
    • Radial
    • Femoral
    • Popliteal
    • Temporal
    • Dorsalis Pedis
  • Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders 31:29
    • Hyper / Hypotension
    • Arteriosclerosis
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Edema
    • Aneurysm
    • Hemorrhage
    • Thrombus
    • Pulmonary Embolism
    • Varicose Veins
    • Hemorrhoids
    • Angiogenesis

Transcription: Blood Vessels

Hi and welcome back to

This is the lesson on blood vessels.0002

When we look at the blood vessels in the human body there are several types.0004

Arteries are the blood vessels that take blood out of the heart.0009

They tend to be faint, they tend to be very strong, very tough because you got a lot of blood shooting through them so they need to be.0013

Arterials are like mini arteries that branch off of it.0019

Think of arteries is like free ways and arterials are like off ramps and eventually you get into tiny little residential streets 0023

that are often times smaller and take you to all the specific places in the neighborhood.0032

Capillaries are like that.0037

The smallest blood vessels that come off from arteries and physically take blood and oxygen and nutrients inside the blood to the cells that need them.0039

All of those capillaries eventually come together to form venules.0048

The venules are taking that deoxygenated blood which looks more blueish purplish because of hemoglobin changing 0055

and you will hear more about that in the blood lessons.0063

The venules take all that blood back onto freeways.0065

You can think of them as on ramps going into the veins that are going to take that blood back to the heart.0070

Veins are also very large but structurally a bit different from arteries.0076

When we look at vessel structure, arteries and veins have these layers.0081

The sizes of the layers relative to each other are different in the veins and arteries but let us cover this in general first.0088

If we start from the most superficial part of these tubes, the tunica externa is that sheath around the outside.0100

Sometimes it is called the tunica adventitia, it just depends on the textbook but they both mean that outer sheath.0104

It is going to be mainly connective tissue.0112

That connective tissue is very tough, very strong, you do not want it to break.0114

You do not want blood leaking out of it.0119

Also that connects tissues important for attaching the arteries and veins to the issues around them.0121

You do not want your veins, your arteries, moving around a bunch.0127

You want that anchored and in place where it is supposed to be.0134

The major arteries and veins in your body they have tissue keeping them in place.0136

And that tissue, those fibers are going to be the attached to the tunica externa.0141

The tunica media, media meaning in the middle is going to be mainly smooth muscle.0147

You can see smooth muscle right here. 0154

Smooth muscle is going to be in the tunica media.0156

The reason why there are smooth muscles there, especially in the arteries is you want to be able to relax and constrict or dilate 0159

and make smaller of those arteries just to adjust blood flow in the body.0167

Your blood pressure just throughout the day I will tell you more about that in a little bit later in this lesson but you want to be able to manipulate the size of those vessels.0174

Smooth muscles are very important part of the Tunica Media and then more connected tissue fibers specially 0184

collagen and elastic fibers are going to allow the size of it to adjust as needed.0189

Finally tunica interna also called tunica intima depending on which textbook that you are looking in.0196

It is the most internal deep part of the arteries and veins and the other blood vessels.0204

And that is going to be where blood itself is moving through.0209

It is like a nice little tubular slide.0214

It is smooth and it is composed of endothelium.0216

The smallest blood vessels, capillaries, they are just endothelium without the other layers.0220

But all the blood vessels have that layer that is meant to shuttle blood through it.0227

Besides the endothelium, in terms of its diameter changes based on how much the smooth muscles are contracting and relaxing.0233

The lumen is the name for the internal part where blood is moving through.0239

The hollow region within the endothelium layer is called a lumen.0242

Actually other organs in the body that have hollow chambers like even the stomach you can say the lumen of the stomach.0249

Lumen in this case is referring to the hollow structure inside of the vessels.0256

When we compare arteries and veins of course the major difference is that arteries take blood away from the heart and veins take blood back to the heart.0261

But structurally there are some differences too.0271

Artery walls are generally thicker and they need to be because if you think about the heart beating blood out of it, 0274

arteries are taking that blood that are rocketing through.0282

They need to be able to deal with that high pressure of blood rushing through them.0286

The timing of the veins coming back to the heart, blood pressure is down close to nothing.0291

You do not need to have as thick of a wall.0298

Arteries do need it.0300

The endothelium of arteries gets folded when constricted and this picture does a decent job of showing that.0303

You can see that here is the tunica externa.0309

Here is the smooth muscle the tunica media.0313

You can see that right here this tiny, very thin layer of the tunica interna or tunica intima is kind of folded.0315

You can see those little folds because when arteries constricts, imagine that endothelium cannot just change its size and just stay nice and smooth.0324

It gets folded up when you constrict it.0336

Often times a cross section of an artery, looking down through it, that is currently constricted you will see this folding.0339

You see that these are actually blood cells.0348

They look kind of yellowish but if you really close to these you would see they have kind of a pinkish look.0351

The classic look of a red blood cell.0357

The endothelium varies gets folded when constricted, it does not really happen in veins.0360

You do not notice that.0365

And then veins have valves and arteries do not.0366

Similar to the valves of the heart.0370

The valve that connect the chambers and up to the blood vessels coming out of the heart they are like little flaps that are kind of preventing back flow.0373

As blood goes to veins going back to the heart, you prevent blood from going backwards by having valves.0381

The arteries do not structurally need valves because the pressure coming out of a heart is keeping blood flowing in the proper direction through arteries.0389

When we look at sequence from artery to capillary, and capillary to vein, we look at this all the blood that is leaving the heart it is going to start off often in the elastic arteries.0397

They are the major arteries coming out of the heart.0408

The aorta, the a pulmonary trunk that splits into the 2 pulmonary that is going to each lung, the carotid arteries.0410

The major arteries in our body they are called elastic arteries.0418

They are very tough and have a high amount of blood pressure through them.0421

Next up as you get into ever so slightly smaller arteries branching off from there, they are called the muscular arteries.0426

The muscular layer in there is a little bit more significant because that is where you have major changes in the size of the artery.0433

The size of your aorta does not really change however the size of your brachial artery changes.0441

The size of the arteries taking blood to other parts of your body does need to change occasionally, throughout the day it happens.0449

The muscular layer in there is a little bit thicker to accommodate that change.0456

All the arteries branch off into arterials that just mean mini arteries.0461

And then into what is called continuous capillaries.0466

This is a zoom in of a continuous capillary.0469

The way I like to think of it is, you know those metal antennae where you take out the parts of the antenna so that you can extended it.0472

It is like smaller metal tubes inside bigger metal tubes.0482

That is a way to think about artery to arterial to capillary because in arterial you are actually not going to have a tunica externa.0487

Most arterials if you look at them in themselves is smooth muscle wrapped around the epithelium.0498

As if you remove that inner tube from out of the thicker tube of the artery.0504

When you get to capillary it is like just endothelium by itself.0510

You actually do not have the smooth muscles wrapper on the capillaries.0515

It is just that internal layer.0518

You are looking at just endothelial cells.0519

I have read that some capillaries are so thin that you have a single endothelial cell wrapped around like this and only one red blood cell at a time can move through.0522

That is super tiny super microscopic fascinating thing to think about.0534

Continuous capillaries get their name because each endothelial cell,0538

I am going to draw a line around one of these in case you cannot see it.0542

That is an endothelial cell and there is another endothelial cell.0545

You can find them almost like a mosaic pattern around the tube.0550

The way that nutrients and gases move across the capillaries because this is the spot we are going to be doing that.0554

The way that glucose and little amino acids exit the capillary is through the little connections between the endothelial cells.0561

Same with the gases, oxygen, and CO2, etc are moving back and forth to the borders of these endothelial cells.0569

Next up when you look from capillary to vein, the fenestrate capillary looks very similar to the continuous capillary.0577

The difference is in the endothelial cells you actually see the holes.0589

These little holes in the cells themselves, these passageways and fenestrate means window.0594

These little windows actually help increase the rate at which water and solutes, little charged particles charge ions enter and exit.0602

It is just like slightly different structured capillary.0615

All of these capillaries lead into the venules which are basically like tiny veins.0618

You are not going to see as thick as a muscular layer in venules.0625

That is very hard to see.0630

It is very thin. 0630

You do not have the muscular thickness in a vein also.0632

When you go into medium size veins leading back into large veins, you are still going to have a very solid ficatunica externa on the outside.0636

But when you compare the size of the smooth muscle in an artery to the size or thickness of the smooth muscle in a vein, it is not quite the same.0643

You do not have that highly sort of high velocity blood running through veins.0654

You do not have as much manipulation of vein size to this point.0661

But the way that you are able to get blood back to the heart I am going to mention it in a little bit.0665

Capillary beds when we zoom into what is going on in that capillary network that is between arterials and venules, 0671

it is all of the tiny little blood vessels that are allowing nutrients and gases to exit and the wastes to come in to take back to the heart.0681

The amazing thing is that pre capillary sphincters or little muscular doorways leading to these different parts of the network open and close to regulate flow.0690

You have parts of this capillary bed where blood is just consistently flowing.0701

You have other sections that will occasionally lessen blood flow there and it is based on individual needs.0706

You can shunt blood meaning direct blood in very specific ways to certain tissues more than others depending on need.0712

If you have a need in a certain organ for more blood at that time you can physically manipulate what parts of the capillary beds 0723

are going to be having slightly more blood flow than others.0732

It is a nice adaptation to have.0734

The distribution of blood in the body when we look at where blood is percentage wise in the specific arteries and in sections of your body, 0736

it is amazing to see these percentages because most of the blood in any given moment is actually in your veins in the Venus system .0746

Systemic venus system means all of the veins are not associated directly with the lungs.0755

There is the systemic circuit and then there is the pulmonary circuit.0760

The pulmonary circuit is all the blood vessels going to and from the lungs because pulmonary means lungs.0764

In the systemic venus system, we look at venules, medium sized veins, and the large veins like the Vena Cava, the jugular vein.0769

Most of the blood, percentage wise is in there.0776

Think about how blood is rocketing out of the heart every second of your life.0781

Blood does not hang around in the major arteries for very long.0787

It tends to pool in the Venus system and then gradually is brought back into the hearts and that it can be re rocketed back into the body.0791

In the systemic arterial system you look at the major arteries approximately 13% of your total blood volume is located in the aorta, brachial artery, femoral artery, etc.0802

Pulmonary circuit is all of those arteries and veins associated with the lungs even all the capillary is slightly less than 10% of your total blood volume is located in there.0814

The heart about 7%.0826

Blood do not stick around in the heart for very long.0829

In the system capillaries, all of the capillaries amazingly all through out your body other than the lungs 7% and that might seem really low.0832

Keep in mind that capillaries are very narrow, very thin, oftentimes microscopic blood vessels.0841

Here is an amazing fact, if you took just the capillaries, every single capillary in your body, even the capillaries of the pulmonary circuit and you cut them all up,0849

and put them into end to end in one solid line.0859

It would be over 25,000 miles long which can almost stretch around the earth.0863

That is incredible to think about.0870

There is a lot going on in our body.0873

Blood pressure is something that it is typical for an ENT or paramedic and doctor or nurse to measure.0874

How do we get the numbers above it?0884

What does it mean?0887

When you put on the blood pressure cuff, the sphygmomanometer is the proper term with the valve and engage and all that stuff.0888

You get a certain number and I will tell you how to get that in a second.0896

The actual blood pressure calculation is cardiac output × peripheral resistance.0898

Reminder of what cardiac output is that stroke volume, the amount of blood exiting the heart with each ventral contraction in ml × heart rate.0904

How many times the heart contracting per minute?0915

That is going to give you the amount of blood that is exiting your heart.0919

Peripheral resistance has to do with how narrow the blood vessels that the blood is being shot through.0923

The more constriction the tinier we make the blood vessel, the more the resistance.0930

Think about a hose, if you have a hose and water is coming out and you want the water to come out a lot faster 0937

you put your thumb or finger in front of the opening and you make the opening smaller and it goes out at a hire velocity.0944

It is the same concept.0951

The more the constriction the higher resistance that means the more the blood is pushing against the sides and in rocketing much faster through.0953

Those two together are going to determine blood pressure.0965

One way that blood pressure can rise is just by having the blood vessels narrow.0970

Your heart rate stays the same but if your blood vessels narrowed and get tinier that is going to increase your blood pressure.0976

Conversely your blood pressure could go up if your blood vessels stay the same diameter but your heart increases.0982

It is both.0990

If your heart rate goes up to its volume or peripheral resistance, any of these things can make blood pressure go up.0992

The two numbers are systolic and diastolic.0997

Remember if you saw the heart lessons systole is contraction of the ventricles.1001

You can also have systole of the atria.1007

Here we are talking about ventricles because the ventricles contracting are getting that blood out from the blood vessels.1009

Systole has to do with that highest level of pressure.1014

The systolic pressure has to do with the ventricular contractions, what kind of pressures is that producing in the arteries.1018

Diastolic is the opposite and that is the lowest number that relates to the relaxation of ventricles.1025

Healthy or some of the common blood pressure you hear about is 120/80 that is the systolic number over the diastolic number.1031

This is the range of pressure and whenever arteries you are measuring and usually has to do with an artery like the brachial artery.1040

Put on a sphygmomanometer in this part of the arm.1048

The first thing you do is attach the cuff, this band with Velcro on it and you have this gauge here that tells you the numbers and little bulb that you squeeze.1053

You close the valve and then when you squeeze you are putting air in the cuff and gradually it tightens.1064

What you are doing is you are tightening it so much and you would go above of something like 160 or 170.1071

You want to go above what you think the blood pressure is going to be because you want to make it so pressurize that you actually temporarily stop blood flow through that artery.1079

And then you gradually open up the valve.1088

You let the air escape and you gradually let the cuff just relaxed and the first time in the stethoscope that in the stethoscope, the little pad is going to be resting on the artery.1090

The first time you hear a heart beat you look at the gauge and whenever number it is, let us say it is 134 that is systolic 1100

because that is the amount of pressure it took for blood to conquer the pressure that you are exerting on here.1108

Whenever there is just slightly more blood pressure to physically push blood through compared to the pressure you were applying on here 1115

that tells you the max pressure running for that blood vessel.1125

If it is 120 that is healthy.1128

If it is 170 that is pretty high.1130

A really high blood pressure like that tells you that this person probably has a narrowing of arteries and that is not good in the long run in terms of a heart attack risk.1134

You continue this process of listening, dropping the pressure, that little needle is going to keep falling on this gauge.1143

And the last moment you hear a heart beat let us say when the needle reaches 80 that tells you the diastolic.1152

That is the lowest amount of pressure going through the blood vessel.1159

It could be 60.1163

It could be 92.1164

In the distance between the systolic and diastolic tells doctors a lot about your blood pressure, heart health, etc. 1166

120/80 that is normal.1174

Very few people are going to experience that blood pressure throughout the day.1178

Since I have been talking to you on camera my blood pressures probably higher.1182

Yes I am sitting down which tends to make blood pressure drop a little bit but I'm doing a lot of activity gesticulating and moving of my mouth and such.1187

My blood pressure is probably higher.1198

Throughout the day blood pressure changes.1200

You can take your blood pressure in one instance sitting down and it can be 124/78 and then you can feel like you have done nothing in that change in behavior then 5 minutes later it can be 132/86.1203

Your blood pressure does fluctuate based on your needs at those moments throughout the day.1218

Typically when you stand up, when you do more, your blood vessels are going to constrict a bit to help rocket blood a little faster to the skeletal muscles.1223

That certainly depends on the person and depends on what you are doing.1232

How does blood get back through the veins?1236

If you have a lot less blood pressure by the time you get to veins because you are far away from the heart.1242

How does blood get from the bottom of your body, from all the way down in your feet back into your heart?1247

Since veins do not have that thick muscular layer it is going to be another way to do it.1253

One of the ways is the valves.1258

The valves in the veins they prevent blood from going back.1260

And you can see from this here, this little circle say it is open.1264

Blood is going to go through and the valves just take close shot so that the blood that is above it cannot go back down.1267

You want to keep it going back up to the heart especially in the Vena Cava, that is a long journey and inferior Vena Cava back to the right atrium.1276

Another way to do is skeletal muscle contractions.1285

Your veins tend to be next to skeletal muscles and when you move your legs, move your arms, you are contracting or relaxing skeletal muscles that are neighboring these veins.1288

And the skeletal muscle contractions and relaxations they kind of squeeze on the veins and a physically pushes blood back through 1300

and past the valves and then it pushes it farther and farther up.1309

This is why being physically active in moving around is important.1313

You may have notice that if you are sitting on an airplane for 5 hours and you do not do much you are going to feel sore.1317

And that is not good for you.1325

You are more likely to get a clot if you keep joints in one fixed position for a while because they will be certain arteries and veins that had been kind of compressed like squeezing a straw.1326

You can get not proper circulation.1340

They recommend that after a long flight, let us say you are going 18 hours to other continents, get up a few times and walk around the cabin of the plane.1342

Get that blood flowing really efficiently.1351

People who do not do a physical activity throughout their life are going to tend to have circulatory problems whether it is edema or other problems with blood pressure, etc.1354

Moving skeletal muscles helps get that blood through veins.1364

Regulation of blood vessels in terms of peripheral resistance is how much they are constricted or relaxed.1369

You are able to notice without even thinking about it through baroreceptor reflexes.1376

In the carotid sinuses and aortic sinuses, in the physical blood vessel of the carotid arteries going up into your head 1382

and the aorta taking blood into the heart, you have the ability to notice the amount of pressure going through those particular arteries.1392

That communicates with your brain and depending on what is going on with the needs are, those signals can stimulate some manipulation of your blood pressure.1401

For instance, anti diuretic hormone or ADH is one of those of hormones that is going to keep water in your body so that you are not urinating as much.1410

Now the way that ADH actually plays a role is if there is a drop in blood volume, for instance let us say you have an internal bleeding.1426

It will be terrible to have but if you have internal bleeding where blood is exiting blood vessels that would stimulate your brain because of a drop in the pressure.1435

It is going to stimuli release of ADH so that you actually will constrict the vessels so that you do not have as quite as much blood going in that area and exiting 1444

because of this hemorrhaging because the blood leaving the blood vessels.1459

If there is a drop in blood volume also if you are dehydrated, if you do not have enough water in your body you are going to have less blood in your body 1463

and that is going to stimulate the release of ADH so that you are not urinating those fluids out.1471

Angiotensin 2 can actually have a lot to do with ADH levels as well.1477

That can stimulate the release of ADH but when you are thirsty, angiotensin 2 has a lot to do with blood pressure manipulation.1483

If you are thirsty you probably do not have as much fluid in your body you are supposed to have.1492

Erythropoietin is basically a hormone that relates to the production of red blood cells.1497

Erythropoietin is going to stimulate the making of red blood cells and they are going to come out of your bone marrow into your blood vessels.1505

And that is supposed to happen every second of every day but the rate at which Erythropoietin is causing to produce red blood cells is going to vary.1514

If you have too much red blood cells your blood is physically thicker.1521

There is going to be more stuff pushing on the inside of your arteries and veins.1527

That is going to increase the blood pressure.1533

The same thing about Erythropoietin is that certain pharmaceutical companies have made drugs that assist with this process of making red blood cells.1536

My daddy used to work for a company that made a drug that causes you as a patient to produce way more red blood cells than you normally would.1545

They made it for kidney dialysis patients.1554

It is always important for them.1557

But if you are a cyclist, in the cycling world or another kind of sports that involve a lot of endurance, you can do what is called blood doping.1559

It is not recommended by doctors and there is obviously ethical and moral problems with that.1573

But blood doping was on the news, when cyclists are using this drug when they are perfectly healthy and do not need more red blood cells, 1577

they are adding more red blood cells to their blood vessels so that they can have more endurance.1589

The more red blood cells, the more oxygen you are carrying around your body the more oxygen you can supply to your skeletal muscles.1595

The problem with that is the thicker blood overtime can cause health problems.1600

You are more likely to clot.1605

You are more likely to have some bad health problems happening from abusing them.1607

Here are some examples of arteries and veins.1612

There are so many I am just going to highlight a few them.1616

The aorta has come up a lot, that is the major thickest largest artery coming out from the left ventricle taking oxygenated blood all over the body.1619

That branches off into slightly smaller arteries like the carotid arteries.1629

These carotid arteries are taking oxygenated blood up into your brain.1634

You can feel your carotid artery pulse right over here.1639

The brachial arteries are major artery going through each arm and in the femoral artery corresponding to the word femur.1642

The femoral artery, these red ones right here.1650

They are taking oxygenated blood into the legs.1653

On the other side you have major veins the Vena Cava.1656

I have already mentioned this, the Vena Cava, the inferior Vena Cava, and the superior Vena Cava take deoxygenated blood into the right side of the heart.1659

The jugular veins those are taking deoxygenated blood back to the heart from the head.1668

You may have heard about getting hit at the jugular, that is aimed in the neck region.1675

The brachial veins correspond to the arterial word brachial veins and femoral veins.1683

They are just going to do the exact opposite in terms of directional flow taking deoxygenated blood back.1690

More often than not you are going to see veins being more superficial than arteries.1696

Arteries tend to be deeper and it is a good thing.1702

An arterial bleed is going to be more likely to result in death or loss of a limb or loss of the life of the tissue because arteries have blood rocketing through them.1705

They are closer to the heart.1718

Venus bleeds are bad too but they tend to be a bit slower.1719

If you look closely at my forearm I have these blood vessels.1724

You can see these blue blood vessels are veins.1729

They are going up a bit more superficially compared to larger veins that are deeper but the ones that you see on the surface of your skin they tend to be veins.1733

And then finally the hepatic veins.1742

The word hepatic is associated with the liver.1744

The word hepatitis is a liver infection.1747

Hepatic veins have to do with taking blood from the liver and they will connect back into the Vena Cava taking blood back to the heart.1749

Pulse sounds when I was trained as an EN there are two classic areas that you take pulses.1758

The first one is the carotid pulse which you can see from this picture.1766

This individual looks unconscious, they probably are because I remember in the classes they said if you come across a patient in the field who is conscious, 1769

they are physically looking at you and their surroundings.1780

You do not go for the neck to take the pulse because generally when you reach for someone's neck they get little disturbed by that.1783

Someone who is conscious they recommend you take the radial pulse.1789

Here is where the radial artery is, associated with the radius bone which is on the thumb side almost over here.1793

The proper spot here is if you find the thumb and go just down here, you can feel there is like a little tendon here.1800

It is pretty hard and then right on the side there is a little well that I am finding right here.1809

If I press it a little bit I can feel it.1814

They ask you to use these because there is actually a separate little pulse on your thumb that can be a little confusing if you try to take someone else pulse.1817

Carotid pulse on the side of the larynx if you press it enough I can feel it right now.1826

It is on either side because there are carotid arteries on both sides.1832

There are radial arteries on both hands.1834

The femoral artery you can find the pulse just on the interior or medial side of the thigh.1837

The popliteal pulse that is near the knee corresponding to that artery but the temporal pulse it is kind of odd to think about.1846

Like right here I can actually feel a tiny little pulse because you do have these temporal arteries extending from the carotid ones going through that part of the head.1855

Dorsalis pedis is actually on the foot but the classic to carotid and radial.1869

You are literally hearing the blood shooting corresponding to each contraction of the ventricle.1876

Some blood vessel conditions and disorders.1884

Hypertension and hypotension.1892

Hypertension means high blood pressure.1894

Hypotension low blood pressure.1897

I am slightly hypotensive.1900

On average I have a lower blood pressure than the average person.1902

Typically when I go to the doctor, go to donate blood, the blood pressure reading will be something like 118/76.1906

That very normal for me.1915

In other people that would be very low because they might be hypertensive.1916

Hypertension overtime tends to be worse because the narrowing of the blood vessels overtime is going to make it more likely that you are going to get constricted blood flow to the heart.1921

Formation of a plaque inside the blood vessel is going to further that constriction in terms of getting blood through.1933

Another problem with hypotension though is that the more hypotensive you are the more likely to say you are going to pass out.1941

If I am sitting or laying down for a long time and I get up really fast, my body does not have enough time to adjust adequately 1948

to getting the blood vessels constrict enough to shoot blood higher up against gravity.1957

I can get this 1 or 2 second brief blackout.1963

For seconds I cannot see.1967

I have not passed out but if my blood pressure was significantly lower, there would not be quite enough blood going to my head if I stood up fast.1970

Hypertension, hypotension, high and low blood pressure.1980

Arteriosclerosis is the hardening and lessening of the diameter that is in a blood vessel.1984

Overtime from the formation of plaques buildup of fatty tissue, fatty streaks with dead white blood cells that have tried to do with that.1993

It is a progressive process over time.2005

I will tell you more about that with blood.2007

Overtime arteriosclerosis causes a narrowing of arteries.2009

Atherosclerosis is the long-term one where you are my most at risk for having a heart attack or a stroke, the construction of blood flow to the heart or other parts the body.2014

The best ways to avoid this, like you hear all the time is try to have a diet that is lower in saturated fat and stay active.2028

Edema is the pooling of fluids where they do not belong.2036

That is why the circulation because if you are not circulating fluids effectively they are going to pool.2041

They are going to end up where they do not belong.2046

One example of that is cankles.2048

If you have heard the term cankles, usually it is in older people where their calf muscle, the gastronemius and where it connects with the ankle, 2051

it almost looks like their calf and ankle are the same size.2061

That is edema in the leg.2064

That does correspond to lack of proper circulation over time.2067

An aneurysm is when you have a slight tear or break in the wall between where the lumina is, where blood is flowing and 2073

then you have blood gradually leaking in to where you have the Tunica Media.2082

That blood will end up pooling here and eventually you will get a little bulge where the tunica externa keeps getting weak because of that excess blood.2088

It will kind of balloon out and eventually aneurysms can burst.2101

And that can cause death depending on where the aneurysm is.2105

Sometimes it happens abruptly.2108

If someone gets an aneurysm within their head that can lead to death very quickly.2110

And there are not a lot of signs that tell you an aneurysm is developing.2116

Oftentimes they are discovered because someone goes in for another health problem if they had chronic headaches or they feel fatigued or something.2120

They will do tests and something like MRI will show that they have aneurism and will do surgery to remove this and repair the blood vessel wall before it bursts.2128

Hemorrhaging has to do with internal bleeding.2137

Having blood leaking out that is a hemorrhage.2142

A burst aneurysm would lead to hemorrhaging and from this is the formation of a blood clot.2145

A blood clot is a solid and some particular blood vessel.2153

A thrombus is supposed to occur when you want to have that clot, when you want to stop blood from exiting a certain spot.2158

But if a thrombus stays that is not a good thing.2167

You want the clot to be disintegrated once you have the repair of that blood vessel wall overtime.2171

Some blood vessels when they do rupture like the major ones, the large ones, they do not repair themselves.2178

That would need emergency surgery.2185

But a thrombus that is an abnormal blood clot and that restrict blood flow.2187

If that thrombus gets dislodged and starts flowing through blood vessels that becomes an embolism and that ends up resulting in an embolism.2194

One example is a pulmonary embolism.2202

If that dislodge blood clot gets caught in part of the lungs that can kill a person.2205

Varicose veins, here is an image here.2211

Here is a normal vein.2214

We got the valves and you got blood flowing properly and this is an image of what that varicose vein looks like when you zoom into it.2217

They tend to be most noticeable on the lower parts of the legs.2226

When you have a weakening of the vein wall and abnormal functioning of the valve.2230

The valves are not working properly, you can end up getting this enlarged, deformed vein.2239

It is not very attractive.2246

Some people get laser surgery to make this not as noticeable.2247

Once again being active and having a healthy diet is going to minimize the chances this is happening but 2252

I have heard that there are genetic factors associated with certain people developing varicose veins overtime more than others.2258

Hemorrhoids this would be kind of like varicose veins but in a particular part of a body.2265

If you have an enlargement of blood vessels in the rectum, near the opening of the anus, that is hemorrhoids.2272

One of the ways that happen is when people on the toilet doing number 2 and there had been pushing, over time you are more likely to develop hemorrhoids.2282

Because hemorrhoids is an enlargement of those blood vessels right next to where that fecal matter is coming out.2292

A sign of hemorrhoids is blood on the toilet paper or blood in the toilet.2299

If you want to reduce the chance of getting hemorrhoids or make them better when you do notice that blood is drink more water, eat more fiber 2304

because fiber is going to make on your bowel movements, your stool not as hard.2313

It is going to minimize the chance of irritation.2319

Water, more fiber, and stop pushing on the toilet.2322

Take some reading material and just breathe.2326

Just relax and it will come out when it is supposed to come out.2329

Hemorrhoids can be surgically removed but that is an operation some people choose not to get.2332

Like I have said, water, fiber, stop pushing on the toilet that minimize the effect or the occurrence of hemorrhoids.2339

Angiogenesis is the forming of blood vessels.2346

Angiogenesis happens because of tumors.2349

You have a tumor developing in an organ.2353

Interestingly enough a cancerous tumor will secrete certain chemicals or certain compounds that will encourage angiogenesis.2356

And that is one of the evil things that tumors do, when they encourage blood vessels to grow more into them , they end growing more rapidly.2366

That is one of the things the cancer researchers are trying to conquer.2375

Angiogenesis can also naturally happen more so in certain people within the heart.2380

Some people do overtime naturally make blood vessels that bypass a part of a coronary artery that has restricted the blood flow.2385

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