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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Lymphatic System

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (5)

4 answers

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Mar 19, 2014 4:12 PM

Post by Jason Dryden on March 16, 2014

1. I'm having a bit of a hard time determining where Innate Complement System falls in terms of Specific and nonspecific defenses.  2. The two pathways of the Innate Classical system, classical and alternative, what are they and where do they fall in terms of specific and nonspecific defenses?

Lymphatic System

  • Functions of the lymphatic system: production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes that provide defense against pathogens and foreign substances
  • The lymph network includes: lymph (fluid), lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs, and lymphocytes
  • Lymphatic vessels are found all throughout the body and they are structurally difference from blood vessels
  • Lymph nodes are small lymphoid organs that purify lymph and store white blood cells
  • The thymus gland helps to promote T-cell formation and function
  • The spleen is an organ that serves as a major checkpoint for your blood stream (white blood cells are found in great abundance)
  • Nonspecific defenses include physical barriers (skin), phagocytic cells, immunological surveillance, interferons, inflammation, fever
  • Specific defenses (immunity) is innate or acquired and involves particular strategies pointed at certain species of bacteria or virus
  • T cells (cytotoxic, helper, or suppressor) are involved in cell-mediated immunity through antigen presentation
  • B cells work through antibody-mediated immunity and they include memory B cells
  • Antibodies are proteins secreted by B cells for attachment to foreign antigens
  • Immune conditions/disorders include allergies, anaphylactic shock, HIV/AIDS, and cancer
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Is there a difference between the lymphatic system and the immune system?
    • A: No, they are the same thing. Another variation on the name is “lymphoid”

Lymphatic System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lymphatic Functions 0:05
    • Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
    • Lymphoid System / Immune System
  • Lymph Network 1:34
    • Lymph
    • Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymph Nodes
    • Lymphoid Organs
    • Lymphocytes
    • Nonspecific Defenses
    • Specific Defenses
  • Lymphatic Vessels 4:06
    • Larger Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymphatic Capillaries
    • Differ From Blood Capillaries
  • Lymph Nodes 6:51
    • Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
    • Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
  • Thymus 8:58
    • Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
    • Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
  • Spleen 10:43
    • Pulp
    • Red Pulp
    • White Pulp
  • Nonspecific Defenses 13:00
    • Physical Barriers
    • Phagocyte Cells
    • Immunological Surveillance
    • Interferons
    • Inflammation
    • Fever
  • Specific Defenses 18:16
    • Immunity
    • Innate Immunity
    • Acquired Immunity
  • T Cells 23:58
    • Cytotoxic T Cells
    • Helper T Cells
    • Suppressor T Cells
    • Activate T Cells
    • Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
  • Antigen Presentation 27:58
  • B Cells 29:44
    • Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
    • Memory B Cells
  • Antibody Structure 32:46
    • Five Types of Constant Segments
    • Primary vs. Secondary Response
  • Immune Conditions / Disorders 35:35
    • Allergy
    • Anaphylactic Shock
    • Autoimmune Disease
    • HIV / AIDS
    • Cancer
    • Lymphomas
    • Lymphedema
    • Graft Rejection
    • Tonsillitis

Transcription: Lymphatic System

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on lymphatic system.0002

When we look at the functions of lymphatic system basically it involves the production, maintenance,0005

and distribution of lymphocytes which is a major kind of white blood cell.0011

These provide defense of course against infections which we call pathogens as viruses bacteria and fungi even parasitic worms.0016

Even abnormal body cells, your own body cells sometimes get mutations of toxins and something about them as abnormal.0024

Maybe they are turning into cancer cells.0034

You want a certain class of white blood cells to ideally get rid of them as soon as possible.0037

Foreign proteins which are usually associated with some kind of pathogen but not always those can cause problems as well.0042

They are going to be dealing with them.0051

These protective cells are found throughout the bloodstream and lymphatic organs and they can also migrate in the tissues.0052

The amazing thing is scientist have tracked white blood cells changing the shape and0059

squeezing through the border of the endothelial lining of the capillary or blood vessels in general.0067

You are moving in and out of organs.0075

It is amazing to think about them not just being restricted to the bloodstream.0077

They can go to the tissues and deal with infections in there which is great.0081

The lymphatic system is also known as the lymphoid system in certain textbooks and the immune system.0085

We look at this lymph tissue the reason why it is called the lymphatic system lymph is the fluid of the system circulating around the body.0093

This is one of the least talked about systems in terms of people’s general knowledge of it.0104

But it is one of the more important ones because without lymph and without screening process in your tissues you get sick way more often.0111

People still do get sick but even some of the common cold the reason why you get better within a few days is because of your lymphatic system.0120

The lymph is just a fluid of it analogous to plasma of blood but the precise amount of proteins in it.0131

The precise makeup of lymph is slightly different than plasma.0139

That is found all throughout these regions.0142

The lymphatic vessel is what is actually moving the lymph through the parts of the body.0144

These vessels you are going to hear more about them later on lesson.0151

Similar to blood vessels there are some differences.0154

Lymph nodes are these little circular pockets that you see through out here.0157

You will see more pictures later on.0162

The lymph nodes are kind of like miniature lymph organs, little blue collections of lymph fluid and where some white blood cells hang out.0164

The lymphoid organ is a little bit bigger we are talking about organs like the adenoids or tonsils.0172

Thymus gland is behind sternum and then the spleen this organ that is tucked under next to the stomach.0179

Those have a lot to do with helping out with the lymphatic system.0186

And then lymphocytes these are the cells the white blood cells of the lymphatic system.0190

Later on we will be talking about nonspecific defenses vs. specific defenses.0196

Acquired immunity vs. Passive immunity.0201

Nonspecific defense is the general things your body does regardless of foreign invaders or0204

what abnormal thing is present to combat that situation, things like a fever.0210

Fevers can happen regardless of having some kind of a bacterial infection in your respiratory tract or viral infection in the respiratory tract.0215

The fever is going to happen with either.0224

Specific defenses is for the specific bacteria that has entered your white blood cells are going to do0226

something very particular to combat that certain virus entering your body.0232

A very particular thing is going to happen.0238

Those are the specific defenses to combat a particular invasion.0239

When we look at the lymphatic vessels we are going from thickest to smallest.0245

It is like saying from arteries to arterials to capillaries but in this case major lymphatic vessels these are the deepest ones0253

just like arteries are going to be deeper than capillaries.0260

Major lymphatic vessels these are going to be deeper and they are going to branch off into small lymphatic vessels0268

and finally into lymphatic capillaries.0274

Basically the large lymphatic vessels contain valves for maintaining normal lymph flow.0277

It is similar to the reason why veins in your circulatory system or cardiovascular system are allowing blood to continue to go in one direction.0283

It is a same thing here.0291

The reason why you have valves in lymphatic vessels is because you do not want your lymph, your lymphatic fluids to be pooling in one area.0292

That can cause something called lymphedema which I am going to talk more in the end.0301

You want to keep the drainage of this lymph constant and you do not want it to build up in any one area.0305

The valves assist with keeping that unidirectional flow.0313

Lymphatic capillaries are present in almost every tissue in the body, almost every tissue.0316

That is amazing to think about because lymphatic capillaries are kind of like assisting your bloodstream in screening out the harmful things.0322

It is doing like the security checkpoints in a sense.0334

It is great that these tiny little capillaries containing this lymph fluid are associated with virtually every tissue.0339

They do differ, the vessels from blood capillaries because they originate as pockets not as continues tubes.0347

If you think about how blood moves around the body it is a continuous tubular network and0354

the origin of the red blood cells is going to be from typically bone marrow.0360

But your lymph originates in little pockets and drains out.0365

These little pockets is where you are producing the lymph fluid and then it is exiting out constantly and kept going that direction thanks to the valves.0370

They typically do have a larger diameter than the blood vessels but thinner walls.0380

Also the endothelial cells of these lymphatic vessels overlap.0386

If you look at the end of the endothelial lining of blood cells those cells are flush with each other.0391

They are directly adjacent not like this.0397

You are going to see some overlapping endothelial cells if you zoomed in really close on a micro graph0400

or a microscopic picture of the lymphatic vessels, the inner lining.0406

These lymph nodes these are the smaller for organs that vary in size depending on which you are looking.0410

Some of them are 1mm in diameter some are 25mm on diameter which is quite large.0417

Most are concentrated in neck, armpits, and groin.0425

You generally do not think about them until when you are sick.0428

The reason why the doctor would like to feel this area of your neck if you are claiming that you have some kind of cough0432

that will go away or sore throat is there really checking whether not your lymph nodes are swollen here.0438

If the lymph nodes are inflamed and a little bit puffy in this area that tells you that your lymph nodes are working overtime.0444

The inflammation of those regions means you are probably combating or fighting against some kind of infection.0452

They are also going to be looking in the armpits and the groin region.0458

But they are scattered throughout they just tend to be more concentrated in these regions.0463

The lymph nodes they function like a kitchen’s water filter in terms of filtering out bad stuff before it ends up going back into the bloodstream.0467

It purifies the lymph that fluid that is associated with lymphatic system before it enters into veins.0479

Macrophages which mean a giant eaters and a kind of white blood cell,0486

in the lymphatic sinuses pockets of the lymphatic system engulf or swallow foreign bodies like antigens.0491

We will talk more antigens later which are presented to lymphocytes.0498

This process here the antigens presenting them into the lymphocytes that is a major part of0501

you enabling your white blood cells to know what the bacteria has on it with the virus has on in terms of protein structure0510

and being able to identify quickly and kick its butt.0518

Get rid of it on your body.0522

This is a little drawing of the pelvic region near the groin and you can see all these little brown circular objects0523

these are lymph node scattered throughout.0532

The lymph nodes are connected to each other by lymphatic vessels.0534

In terms of the larger lymph node organs one of them is the thymus.0539

To hear more about the thymus if you look of the endocrine system lessons I have talk more about the hormone function of the thymus.0543

But here is a more structural information.0550

It is located in the mediastenum posterior to the sternum near the heart.0553

It contains lobules.0557

These lobules they are about 2 mm in diameter.0559

Here is a little cross section so if we took a slice through the thymus and look down to it this is a lobule.0563

Each one has two distinct layers.0575

It is like in the kidney or the adrenal gland once you use the term cortex and medulla.0582

The cortex is the outer region and the medulla is inner.0589

If you look at the outermost part that is where lymphocytes are dividing.0592

Lymphocytes are making more lymphocytes making lymphocytes.0596

Those daughter cells the products of those mitotic divisions as they move into the medulla that is where they are going to undergo maturation.0600

The T cells and is the specific we are going to talk about here and the way I remember that is thymus starts with the T.0609

T cells mature in the thymus.0614

There is another kind of lymphocyte called B cells we will talk about more later at the end of lesson.0617

T cells as they migrate into the medulla they tend to leave and actually go out into the vessels at about 3 weeks they are ready to go.0622

There are different types of T cells which go over in a bit.0632

Hormones from this gland promote the maturation of lymphocytes specifically the T cells.0635

The spleen and other important but not vital organ it contains the largest amount of lymphoid tissue in the body.0641

It is red because of a large amount of blood flow.0651

The thymus has reddish appearance too but the spleen is much more deep dark red.0654

It is about 12cm long, about 116 g and mass 5.6oz weight.0659

It lies lateral to the stomach on the left between ribs 9 and11.0665

It is like an extra neighbor on a stomach.0670

The stomach is right in this region ribs 9 and 11 that is almost way down because rib 12 is the last pair.0672

It is protected by the bottom of the thoracic cage.0680

This is where those organs that is not a vital organ because sometimes doctors will do a spleenectomy or taking out of the spleen.0684

Let us say you were an accident, you fell on it.0693

A collision in some kind contact sport ruptures the spleen and internal bleeding you got to take it out because that can kill a person.0697

If you do spleenectomy, if it is taken out you can live a perfectly fine life but you are going to be a little bit more susceptible to certain illnesses.0706

Because spleen does assist with lymphatic system in dealing with different infections.0716

There are areas in the spleen called pulp and you can see from this cross section this is a transverse cross section looking down into it.0722

You can see if there are white areas and there are red areas.0733

The red areas is red is because red blood cells that make sense.0737

The white area is where you have that lymphoid section.0744

The area has lot lymphocytes screening the blood that is coming in and dealing with harmful things that do not belong there.0749

It is like the highly controlled security checkpoint area.0760

In general those little lymph nodes they are like little security checkpoints but this is where a lot of security is going on0763

in terms of locating the harmful stuff that does not belong in your body and get its butt.0773

In terms of the different kinds of defenses we could talk about nonspecific defenses.0780

I mention earlier that the response in terms of your non specific defenses is the same regardless of what is invading.0785

And they also called a nonspecific resistance.0792

One example is physical barriers.0795

If you think about all the layers and parts of your body let us say air has to go through to get into your bloodstream you have a lot of physical barriers.0797

Think about the air you breathe in terms of dust getting caught in the hairs of your nostrils,0807

in the mucous membranes of your nasal mucosa, then you swallow it sometimes.0813

It goes into the stomach was very acidic it is probably you can not survive that.0819

If it is not being swallowed it is actually being inhaled down into the trachea and bronchi etc.0823

You have got those cilia that are sweeping out mucus.0831

You have got lymphatic patrols of the different alveolar bundles.0834

There so many physical barriers that has to pass before it finally gets into the bloodstream.0841

Physical barriers regardless of what you are being exposed to virus, bacteria, fungus, there is a lot that you have protecting your body.0848

Phagocyte cells you have white blood cells patrolling the body whose job it is to just swallowed stuff that does not belong there.0855

The classic example is monocytes, they are analogous to macrophages.0863

Macrophages tend to be like restricted to certain areas outside of the bloodstream but monocytes costly patrolling0868

and is swallowing up stuff that does not belong there.0875

Phagocytosis is the surrounding of some foreign body or even large molecule by wrapping the plasma membranes around it0879

and bringing in little vesicle and attacking and kill it.0888

Immunological surveillance this is pretty much equal to what the natural killer cells are doing in K cells.0893

Natural killer cells.0903

These are white blood cells whose job it is to kill your own body cells that are becoming abnormal.0909

This happens all the time.0918

There are some people out there who are smokers - 40, 50, 60 years or more and never get cancer.0920

They just die of a heart attack in their 90’s or older.0929

How do they get a cancer?0933

It could be that they have genetic factors making their natural killer cells just really awesome at their job.0935

Anytime it is an abnormal cell growth happened in the respiratory tract and natural killer cells and it did in the blood.0941

Just destroy it before it turns to cancer.0947

Some people natural killer cells are not doing the best job and may tend to be more susceptible to cancerous growths occurring.0949

This is a way that you keep body cells and check if there are not doing with their suppose to do.0958

Interferons these are chemicals that actually make it harder for something like a virus to keep spreading0964

and actually will make cells in the region where the virus is less susceptible to getting that virus coming into them.0973

Interferons regardless of what kind of virus infection you are exposed to these secretions,0981

these peptides is protein bits, they are going to make it so that you are more likely defeat the virus.0988

Inflammation whether it is allergy, bacteria, virus, inflammation is your immune system response to swelling.0996

If something is in your bloodstream that does not belong there, there is the stimulation to expand the blood vessels in an area,1007

get more of blood flow in terms of volume and that is get more white blood cells to the area.1015

And the more white blood cells go to the area more like it is going to get rid of an infection quickly.1020

Fever, fevers happen very uncomfortable but serves a purpose.1025

Here is the Celsius scale.1032

Normal immune defense of person in Fahrenheit is going to be a different number.1034

37° Celsius that is 98.6 is a lot people say as normal.1039

My normal is 98.2.1046

Some people might be 98.3 as the normal base line but regardless of where you are1048

in 98° range your regular body temperatures is about 37° Celsius.1054

If it gets up into high 37 or 38° 39° C you are talking a fever.1060

That usually means that you are sick of something substantial.1067

The fever why does it happen why is my body heat go up?1072

It makes it hard for the virus or bacteria to spread in that hotter environment.1076

It does serve a purpose even though it causes of some discomfort and sweating a lots and it is just not pleasant it does serve a purpose.1082

There are medications that will reduce your fever but still unable white blood cells to get the job done.1089

Specific defenses depending on the particular type of pathogen you are going to have very specific kinds of reactions to that.1096

This is known as immunity when you become immune to something that we are talking about specific defense.1105

This is the coordinated activities of B cells and T cells two major types of lymphocytes.1110

Here are the two kinds of immunity, innate immunity it means you born with it.1116

You are born with the ability to react to different things that you are exposed to.1122

You cannot change that, that is based on genetics.1129

A lot of immunity is acquired.1132

It is picked up just by living.1134

Just by you being exposed to different pathogens or foreign bodies.1136

When we talk about acquired immunity what you gain as life goes on.1140

You can talk about active acquire immunity vs. Passive acquired immunity.1146

Active acquired immunity is how do you naturally acquire?1151

A good example of that is think about a baby that has just been born and they get exposed to something some germ.1155

That is an example of how a baby can naturally acquire active immunity1164

The baby's sucking on something that have germs on it will introducing that bacteria from that toy whenever they had in their mouth,1169

that is going to allow their white blood cells to identify what this is.1179

we will be able to prevent it spreading in the future.1184

Just being exposed to some stuff into environment.1186

Induced active immunity is vaccinations.1189

If you get immunization is another term for it.1193

A lot of kids these days are immunized against chickenpox.1196

When I was a baby they did have that on wide distribution in terms of getting a shot that gets rid of the chickenpox thing in the future.1199

I got chicken pox when I was about 7 or 8 and the chances are I will not get it again because I have cells1207

that have retained in memory of what the chicken pox like.1218

If I am exposed to it from someone in my environment I'm not going to get sick.1221

However some people do get some chicken pox more than once because sometimes the second exposure,1226

the genetics of that particular chicken pox virus was slightly different so that it is not quite the same signaling that your body is used to.1231

You might got sick on second time.1242

But if you have been vaccinated you have been exposed to dead viruses.1245

It is look like exposing your body to the non active form of virus they look at the proteins that thing is made of.1252

And able to retain a memory of what that is like.1259

If you are exposed to the live active virus from somebody touching you then you are probably not to get sick.1261

Here is another example of vaccinations.1269

I found this image and I am not sure the exact year but it is probably from the 60’s when smallpox was still an epidemic.1271

They will not be vaccinated this year against smallpox.1280

They say that smallpox is that the eradicated1285

As I believe the late 70’s, the CDC's for disease control they had for years doing this campaign1290

when they are trying to distribute smallpox vaccine all over the globe.1297

Places like Africa and Asia and Europe and etc. and even here in United States.1301

And then we get to the point were enough people been vaccinated so that they will get not get sick of smallpox.1305

The people who currently have smallpox are no longer spreading it to others.1310

The people with smallpox once they have passed away the smallpox has no humans to be inside of and pass along to other individuals.1315

We now consider this to be eradicated.1324

There are smallpox samples in labs around the globe and hopefully they stay there and not expose to anybody.1328

Because we do not vaccinate people against this any more.1336

We do vaccinate with a lot of other kinds of things that are still out there.1339

Now moving on to passive acquire immunity.1344

One example of a passive acquire immunity in terms of it actually acquired is when you are a baby getting antibodies from your mom.1346

It is not the actual surface of the virus or surface of the bacteria you are getting antibodies either1357

through the placental connection which you are going to hear more about in embryological lessons.1365

But the placenta is how baby gets its blood.1370

I'm doing this to my fingers because there are these connections that allow the mother’s blood going into the placental side1373

that goes with the baby into umbilical cords of a baby gets that oxygen nutrients while it is developing.1384

Sometimes you can have antibodies crossing to the placental barrier.1389

The baby is born with antibodies against some kind of bacteria on it is amazing thing about.1393

Also breast milk contains have antibodies coming out from the mother to the breast milk into the baby's body to naturally acquired passive immunity.1401

And then induced passive immunity would be something like you can actually inject antibodies into somebody1411

rather than injecting the surface of a virus or something like that.1419

Rabies, if somebody may have been exposed to the rabies you can inject antibodies into the person's bloodstream1424

to help them deal with a particular infection.1433

T cells what are these guys?1438

They are responsible for cell mediated immunity meaning not based on antibodies.1440

This is triggering cells to know how to conquer and defeat some kind of infection.1447

Cytotoxic T cells are one of a kind T cells these are just going up to places where there are the viruses and bacteria1453

in the peripheral tissues like in the layers of your skin and parts of your liver.1464

They will migrate in those areas and just destroy and the eaten up and destroy them.1471

And that is why it is called cytotoxic because they have certain packages, little vesicles1476

and call them lysosomes that contains enzymes that are designed to help like eat up and destroy some kind of virus and bacteria.1484

That helper T cells that is why it is called helper T cells is without their signaling other T cells and B cells and other lymphocyte will not be successful.1491

Helper T cells is the main kind of cell that HIV or AIDS is going to invade and destroy.1501

Suppressor T cells are the opposite of T cells are doing.1508

Helper T cells the opposite of this one because helper T cells there helping out T cells1512

and B cells in terms of stimulating to do their job.1519

Suppressor T cells they tell them back off and they will be responsible for stimulating into kind of hold back and not have as many cell divisions.1521

If an infection is over and defeated suppressor T cells are going to turn off that reaction.1533

T cells must be exposed to an antigen.1540

Antigen is usually some kind of a protein or proteinaceus surface molecule.1544

If you look at a plasma membrane there are little proteins sticking out the surface of them.1552

Those are antigens.1556

Bacteria are going to have antigens on them.1557

Viruses they have antigens on them even of the surface of a parasitic worm is that certain proteins that unique that species.1560

The reason why I say abnormal plasma membrane proteins is it is abnormal to you.1568

You have your own particular proteins in the surface of all your cells based on your genetics unique to your body.1572

Even your brother even your parents are going to have slightly different proteins.1579

The introduction of abnormal membrane proteins in your body that is antigens.1584

Your body will respond to those antigens with T cells butt kicking abilities.1590

The major histo compatibility complex proteins are MHC proteins would allow your body to identify friendly cells vs. abnormal cells.1596

Friendly cells meaning your own normal body cells.1604

Abnormal cells meaning virus.1608

It is a cell but viruses, bacteria cells, parasitic cells.1612

This has a certain protein compositions certain kinds of antigens that are not normal.1617

MHC proteins actually present for antigens.1622

You are going to see a demonstration of that in a little bit that MHC proteins they will present an abnormal antigen.1626

Let us say a cell that invaded by a virus and that virus is actively making new viruses.1634

It is using the machinery of that whole cell to make a bunch new viruses.1641

That means they are making a bunch of abnormal proteins to your body, they are virus proteins.1645

The MHC see will actually take antigens and present them outside the cell and like a flag.1651

Like a little of white flag that tells help us.1657

That means some T cells you are going to notice that they are exposed to antigen and signal other ones that we have a problem here.1663

There are abnormal proteins on cell that means there some kind of on invasion from foreign bodies.1671

Here is this antigen presentation I was just trying to act out for you.1677

Here is a cell that is been invaded.1682

Let us say it is been invaded by a virus.1685

This is the antigen presenting cell MHC or major historical compatibility complex proteins.1686

You have a couple different classes of MHC but this MHC is going to take antigens1692

and be like if look here it is when they say immature T cell currently inactive.1698

The T cell that is looking for these abnormal antigen presentations rather than a white flag saying like a red flag.1705

We have a problem here.1714

This immature T cell once it comes in contact with that antigen then it is going to become activated.1716

This is going to tell chemically other cells to cause cell divisions that are going to tell other T cells this is what you are going do.1724

A helper T cell it is going to secrete things like interferon.1733

The interferons are those particular chemicals peptide based chemicals that are going to signal cells that we some kind of viral invasion be ready for this.1742

Cytotoxic T cells these are the ones that are going around and actively eating up all of these other cells that are going to have a similar antigen presentation.1755

Even if the virus is just invaded one cell, that virus is going to bust out here and invade thousands of other cells.1765

It was not for these cytotoxic T cells eaten up the ones with the abnormal antigens you have a problem and that virus could destroy tissues.1774

B cells, this is another kind of lymphocyte.1783

These are responsible for the antibody kind of side of the story.1788

Responsible for antibody mediated immunity.1792

Antibodies if you watch the blood lessons from before those are like y shaped looking proteins that will attach to antigens.1795

The body, your body has millions of these populations B cells.1804

Each kind of B cell has its own antibody molecules matching certain classes of bacteria.1809

Activated when they receive the OK from a helper T cell.1818

Remember in the previous slide about signaling when they have a problem here.1825

A helper T cell is going to be activated when there is in need for antibodies.1831

If there is no need then you knock it out the activation.1837

More about antibodies in a bit.1840

Memory B cells these are similar to the class of T cells that is able to retain a memory in terms of the antigens and even introduce to.1842

These retain a memory on how to make antibodies.1851

When you are vaccinated in something, the reason why a vaccination sometimes last like 10 years1855

is memory B cells can live up to 20 years in your body that same cell.1862

I mean compare to red blood cells, red blood cells will live like a maybe 2 months.1868

Memory B cells last decades.1872

It sometimes needs a booster shot.1876

I was vaccinated against meningitis over 10 years ago.1879

A doctor tells me I need the meningitis vaccine because the B cells in my body that were able to retain a memory1883

of what that meningitis actually looks like on the surface of the antigens or what antibodies matched it maybe they are all dead.1891

I need to introduce reintroduce the vaccine to my body to enable the new memory B cells to retain antibody making ability.1899

B cells in general I remember antibody B cell, so I remember that antibodies with the B come from B cells.1909

When stimulated these memory B cells will divide differentiate and secrete massive amounts of antibodies.1918

Let us say I do get a booster shot for meningitis.1930

My body's initial response, the primary response to that is going to be a fairly decent immune response.1934

If you compare that to the time that I am actually introduced to the live active meningitis pathogen, the secondary response is a flood of antibodies.1942

It is like this is our chance we got an invader we know how to kicks his butt.1955

That secrete millions antibodies.1959

That is how you would not be sick with the meningitis.1961

Thanks to that vaccination.1963

What are the antibodies look like?1966

These are proteins secreted by B cells anti body.1968

For the purpose of attaching to antigens on abnormal cells.1973

Antigens an antibody will match up to it.1977

The reason why happens is because see this little puzzle piece on your pelvis here on this big Y shape.1980

There is a matching of the antigen 2.1988

This is like that lock and key mechanism I mention in previous lessons where the surface of an antigen1993

has unique protein confirmation or protein shape and this matches that.1999

What do the antibodies do?2005

The antibodies that are attaching to some kind of pathogen on the surface of it they are not only helping to market this is a sitting duct and he is beaten up.2007

It also prevents them from further damaging tissues.2017

Antibody serves a few different functions.2022

There are 5 types or classes of antibodies.2025

The reason why we say that is you have got the heavy chain, the blue part here and then the little oranges reddish part is the a light chain.2029

Down here it is always going to be the same but the variable region is due to different kinds of light chains that you are going2040

to add on to modify what the shape of this here on the tops of the y shape.2048

That another nickname for antibodies is immunoglobulins.2054

It is because this is a globular protein its got to be found in your bloodstream and has to do with the immunization.2058

Immunoglobulin that is the IG means.2066

IGG, IDD, these are the 5 different classes of antibodies in terms of the types.2069

In advance classes you have to know like the immunology class to know exactly what these are for.2076

I just want to introduce you to the terms so this is a type of antibody type of anybody and IG’s immunoglobulin.2083

I mention as the previous slide about primary vs. secondary response.2090

Primary response is when you are introduced to a vaccination.2094

The initial flood of antibodies is fairly significant in terms of B cells reaction to it.2098

The secondary response if you are to measure how much of immune response there is in terms of the flood of antibodies this is way bigger.2109

And that is a good thing.2119

That primary response introduction of that pathogenic antigen from the dead pathogen or inactive pathogen2121

is preparing your body for when the real thing could possibly introduce to you.2127

Immune conditions and disorders.2136

An allergy and there is probably a lot of genetics having to do with this.2138

An allergy is an umbrella term for a reaction your body has to some kind of stimulation that is going to irritate your immune system in a sense.2142

I have minor allergies to grass, minor allergies to the pollen, and pet dander.2155

I had a dog growing up.2163

I did not get full on anaphylactic shock or a deadly kind of allergic reaction.2165

All that what happen is I would get a stuffy nose.2171

I have minor allergies to certain allergens, to certain particles that if I inhale them I get a little bit of swelling in the nasal cavity and that is it.2174

Allergies it probably has a lot to do with genetics in terms of how sensitive your body is to these different things on your environment.2186

The irony of allergies is that it is immune system overreact to something that is actually not deadly.2194

Some people are deathly allergic to bee stings.2202

The average person is stung by a bee it is like no big deal.2206

Your body deals with that little amount of venom that is injected into you but not a big deal.2209

Peanut allergies, there is nothing that is a deadly about peanuts but it is the allergic reaction to that chemical that is deadly.2214

Allergies you know that there might be some environmental triggers early on in life that also do with it.2222

We can ignore the potential genetics in terms of why certain people bodies react in a crazy way.2230

Anaphylactic shock is when somebody does have a severe allergic reaction to something like a bee sting or2236

something like even penicillin which comes from certain kind of mold or peanuts like a mention earlier.2244

I have worked with students that were sold deathly allergic to peanuts that just the airborne oils.2252

Some of these kids can even go in older planes where they use hand up peanuts every flights the passengers2258

because the oils from the peanuts are in the fabrics of the seats.2266

Being exposed to those oils causes their body to react so severely that you get massive inflammation all of the body2271

and swelling in areas like the throat could suffocate them completely.2280

And I mentioned on earlier in hormones lessons that from the endocrine system.2283

An Epi pen - an epinephrine pen if somebody is at risk of going in a anaphylactic shock from severe allergic reaction2289

they are going to carry around a pen that is close to the size , that is an injection kind of emergency item.2295

It is an epinephrine pen they are injecting adrenaline to constrict the blood vessels and save their life.2304

They still go the hospital.2311

An autoimmune disease is something like a rheumatoid arthritis is an example.2313

That is where unfortunately your white blood cells are attacking healthy tissues.2320

Rheumatoid arthritis overtime you actually have white blood cells attacking joints and in terms of that issue within the joints.2326

Auto immune diseases typically do not have a cure but there are treatments that can help delay the long-term effects of them.2336

HIV, AIDS and HIV is human immunodeficiency virus.2344

AIDS is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.2350

HIV is the actual virus this is a picture of a computer generated image of it.2355

That is a virus that is either enters your body because of sexual fluid exchange or a blood contact blood to blood contact.2361

The ways that people typically get it is unprotected sex, blood transfusions when there is an accident2370

where they did not know that the donor had HIV unfortunately accidental needle sticks, sharing needles with drugs, or tattoos outside of a tattoo parlor.2378

The HIV this virus is really good invading helper T cells and overtime as the virus makes more viruses2389

and invades more helper T cells eventually your white blood cell count gets low enough to point when a person gets AIDS.2399

And that is where ironically you are dying for something like the common cold or chicken pox or pneumonia.2406

Those illnesses that the average person average healthy person can beat.2412

If you have this virus in your white blood cells they are allowing you to beat it is not going to work out.2417

HIV is an RNA virus more specifically a retrovirus.2423

Which means it has RNA and it makes DNA within your cells which is kind of like backwards transcription.2427

If you took biology you may remember that.2435

Eventually I believe there will be the vaccine or cure to AIDS.2437

There are lots of issues in a way of that.2442

The there is a lot of money being poured into it and the time will tell.2445

Cancer I have in here the immune conditions and disorders because cancer is basically cell division out of control.2450

Abnormal cell division.2459

If you have healthy natural killer cells you may not get cancer.2462

You are well until you are 90’s or 100’s even.2469

By then may be a heart attack can kill that person.2473

Cancer could happen in virtually any tissue of the body.2476

Usually it is exposure to carcinogens which are cancer causing chemicals or radiation that causes damage to the DNA that is regulating the cell cycle.2481

If that cell cycle, the regular amount of cell divisions happens out of control that tissue can become a malignant tumor2492

that is going to spread potentially through your lymphatic tissues to other organs and that how cancer killing a person.2501

The western medicine approach typically is radiation projected on the cancers tissue or chemotherapy.2508

There are other methods that people tried to get rid out with cancer.2516

Lymphoma is a disease has to do with abnormalities in terms of your lymphocytes be able to deal with infections.2520

One example is hodgkin's lymphoma but there are many different classes of a lymphomas.2532

The disease that impacts the lymphocytes.2538

Lymphedema is edema of the lymph.2540

I mention edema before with blood circulation but this is to do with the lymphatic vessels.2544

Let say those valves, I have mentioned the valves that keep lymph going in one direction and from pooling.2550

If those valves start being dysfunctional, the pooling of lymph, the backup of lymph can cause a severe swelling in lymph tissue that is lymphedema.2556

Graft rejection if you get an organ donation may be a kidney or a new liver.2566

They will give you immune suppressing drugs to keep your new system from freaking out because remember2573

that MHC thing if those proteins are not exactly as they should be from your normal DNA you are going to get what is called graft rejection.2579

Where are your immune system is going to attack of that newly introduced tissue.2587

And it can be something as simple as a skin graft.2593

Maybe the person was a burn victim and needed skin grafts from a cadaver.2595

Tonsillitis that is an infection of the tonsils.2601

That is when the adenoids, they are like miniature lymphoid organs in the throat region.2605

If you get a lot of throat infections specially as a child, you get a lot of swelling of the tonsils because the swelling2614

is your body's response to that a pathogen in your throat.2625

It could be very comfortable and in really irritating.2628

They will go in and sometimes take out your tonsil through tonsillectomy.2631

It depends on a person.2636

I did not get a tonsillectomy as a kid.2639

I guess I did not get enough tonsillitis to qualify.2641

Taking out the tonsils it is not a vital tissue this just something to of get rid of that annoying swelling and pain.2645

You will still be able to combat that particular pathogen without the tonsils.2655

Thank you for watching educator.com2660

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