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Lecture Comments (5)

4 answers

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Mar 19, 2014 4:12 PM

Post by Jason Dryden on March 16, 2014

1. I'm having a bit of a hard time determining where Innate Complement System falls in terms of Specific and nonspecific defenses.  2. The two pathways of the Innate Classical system, classical and alternative, what are they and where do they fall in terms of specific and nonspecific defenses?

Lymphatic System

  • Functions of the lymphatic system: production, maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes that provide defense against pathogens and foreign substances
  • The lymph network includes: lymph (fluid), lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, lymphoid organs, and lymphocytes
  • Lymphatic vessels are found all throughout the body and they are structurally difference from blood vessels
  • Lymph nodes are small lymphoid organs that purify lymph and store white blood cells
  • The thymus gland helps to promote T-cell formation and function
  • The spleen is an organ that serves as a major checkpoint for your blood stream (white blood cells are found in great abundance)
  • Nonspecific defenses include physical barriers (skin), phagocytic cells, immunological surveillance, interferons, inflammation, fever
  • Specific defenses (immunity) is innate or acquired and involves particular strategies pointed at certain species of bacteria or virus
  • T cells (cytotoxic, helper, or suppressor) are involved in cell-mediated immunity through antigen presentation
  • B cells work through antibody-mediated immunity and they include memory B cells
  • Antibodies are proteins secreted by B cells for attachment to foreign antigens
  • Immune conditions/disorders include allergies, anaphylactic shock, HIV/AIDS, and cancer
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Is there a difference between the lymphatic system and the immune system?
    • A: No, they are the same thing. Another variation on the name is “lymphoid”

Lymphatic System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lymphatic Functions 0:05
    • Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
    • Lymphoid System / Immune System
  • Lymph Network 1:34
    • Lymph
    • Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymph Nodes
    • Lymphoid Organs
    • Lymphocytes
    • Nonspecific Defenses
    • Specific Defenses
  • Lymphatic Vessels 4:06
    • Larger Lymphatic Vessels
    • Lymphatic Capillaries
    • Differ From Blood Capillaries
  • Lymph Nodes 6:51
    • Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
    • Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
  • Thymus 8:58
    • Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
    • Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
  • Spleen 10:43
    • Pulp
    • Red Pulp
    • White Pulp
  • Nonspecific Defenses 13:00
    • Physical Barriers
    • Phagocyte Cells
    • Immunological Surveillance
    • Interferons
    • Inflammation
    • Fever
  • Specific Defenses 18:16
    • Immunity
    • Innate Immunity
    • Acquired Immunity
  • T Cells 23:58
    • Cytotoxic T Cells
    • Helper T Cells
    • Suppressor T Cells
    • Activate T Cells
    • Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
  • Antigen Presentation 27:58
  • B Cells 29:44
    • Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
    • Memory B Cells
  • Antibody Structure 32:46
    • Five Types of Constant Segments
    • Primary vs. Secondary Response
  • Immune Conditions / Disorders 35:35
    • Allergy
    • Anaphylactic Shock
    • Autoimmune Disease
    • HIV / AIDS
    • Cancer
    • Lymphomas
    • Lymphedema
    • Graft Rejection
    • Tonsillitis

Transcription: Lymphatic System

Hi and welcome back to

This is the lesson on lymphatic system.0002

When we look at the functions of lymphatic system basically it involves the production, maintenance,0005

and distribution of lymphocytes which is a major kind of white blood cell.0011

These provide defense of course against infections which we call pathogens as viruses bacteria and fungi even parasitic worms.0016

Even abnormal body cells, your own body cells sometimes get mutations of toxins and something about them as abnormal.0024

Maybe they are turning into cancer cells.0034

You want a certain class of white blood cells to ideally get rid of them as soon as possible.0037

Foreign proteins which are usually associated with some kind of pathogen but not always those can cause problems as well.0042

They are going to be dealing with them.0051

These protective cells are found throughout the bloodstream and lymphatic organs and they can also migrate in the tissues.0052

The amazing thing is scientist have tracked white blood cells changing the shape and0059

squeezing through the border of the endothelial lining of the capillary or blood vessels in general.0067

You are moving in and out of organs.0075

It is amazing to think about them not just being restricted to the bloodstream.0077

They can go to the tissues and deal with infections in there which is great.0081

The lymphatic system is also known as the lymphoid system in certain textbooks and the immune system.0085

We look at this lymph tissue the reason why it is called the lymphatic system lymph is the fluid of the system circulating around the body.0093

This is one of the least talked about systems in terms of people’s general knowledge of it.0104

But it is one of the more important ones because without lymph and without screening process in your tissues you get sick way more often.0111

People still do get sick but even some of the common cold the reason why you get better within a few days is because of your lymphatic system.0120

The lymph is just a fluid of it analogous to plasma of blood but the precise amount of proteins in it.0131

The precise makeup of lymph is slightly different than plasma.0139

That is found all throughout these regions.0142

The lymphatic vessel is what is actually moving the lymph through the parts of the body.0144

These vessels you are going to hear more about them later on lesson.0151

Similar to blood vessels there are some differences.0154

Lymph nodes are these little circular pockets that you see through out here.0157

You will see more pictures later on.0162

The lymph nodes are kind of like miniature lymph organs, little blue collections of lymph fluid and where some white blood cells hang out.0164

The lymphoid organ is a little bit bigger we are talking about organs like the adenoids or tonsils.0172

Thymus gland is behind sternum and then the spleen this organ that is tucked under next to the stomach.0179

Those have a lot to do with helping out with the lymphatic system.0186

And then lymphocytes these are the cells the white blood cells of the lymphatic system.0190

Later on we will be talking about nonspecific defenses vs. specific defenses.0196

Acquired immunity vs. Passive immunity.0201

Nonspecific defense is the general things your body does regardless of foreign invaders or 0204

what abnormal thing is present to combat that situation, things like a fever.0210

Fevers can happen regardless of having some kind of a bacterial infection in your respiratory tract or viral infection in the respiratory tract.0215

The fever is going to happen with either.0224

Specific defenses is for the specific bacteria that has entered your white blood cells are going to do 0226

something very particular to combat that certain virus entering your body.0232

A very particular thing is going to happen.0238

Those are the specific defenses to combat a particular invasion.0239

When we look at the lymphatic vessels we are going from thickest to smallest.0245

It is like saying from arteries to arterials to capillaries but in this case major lymphatic vessels these are the deepest ones 0253

just like arteries are going to be deeper than capillaries.0260

Major lymphatic vessels these are going to be deeper and they are going to branch off into small lymphatic vessels 0268

and finally into lymphatic capillaries.0274

Basically the large lymphatic vessels contain valves for maintaining normal lymph flow.0277

It is similar to the reason why veins in your circulatory system or cardiovascular system are allowing blood to continue to go in one direction.0283

It is a same thing here.0291

The reason why you have valves in lymphatic vessels is because you do not want your lymph, your lymphatic fluids to be pooling in one area.0292

That can cause something called lymphedema which I am going to talk more in the end.0301

You want to keep the drainage of this lymph constant and you do not want it to build up in any one area.0305

The valves assist with keeping that unidirectional flow.0313

Lymphatic capillaries are present in almost every tissue in the body, almost every tissue.0316

That is amazing to think about because lymphatic capillaries are kind of like assisting your bloodstream in screening out the harmful things.0322

It is doing like the security checkpoints in a sense.0334

It is great that these tiny little capillaries containing this lymph fluid are associated with virtually every tissue.0339

They do differ, the vessels from blood capillaries because they originate as pockets not as continues tubes.0347

If you think about how blood moves around the body it is a continuous tubular network and 0354

the origin of the red blood cells is going to be from typically bone marrow.0360

But your lymph originates in little pockets and drains out.0365

These little pockets is where you are producing the lymph fluid and then it is exiting out constantly and kept going that direction thanks to the valves.0370

They typically do have a larger diameter than the blood vessels but thinner walls.0380

Also the endothelial cells of these lymphatic vessels overlap.0386

If you look at the end of the endothelial lining of blood cells those cells are flush with each other.0391

They are directly adjacent not like this.0397

You are going to see some overlapping endothelial cells if you zoomed in really close on a micro graph 0400

or a microscopic picture of the lymphatic vessels, the inner lining.0406

These lymph nodes these are the smaller for organs that vary in size depending on which you are looking.0410

Some of them are 1mm in diameter some are 25mm on diameter which is quite large.0417

Most are concentrated in neck, armpits, and groin.0425

You generally do not think about them until when you are sick.0428

The reason why the doctor would like to feel this area of your neck if you are claiming that you have some kind of cough 0432

that will go away or sore throat is there really checking whether not your lymph nodes are swollen here.0438

If the lymph nodes are inflamed and a little bit puffy in this area that tells you that your lymph nodes are working overtime.0444

The inflammation of those regions means you are probably combating or fighting against some kind of infection.0452

They are also going to be looking in the armpits and the groin region.0458

But they are scattered throughout they just tend to be more concentrated in these regions.0463

The lymph nodes they function like a kitchen’s water filter in terms of filtering out bad stuff before it ends up going back into the bloodstream.0467

It purifies the lymph that fluid that is associated with lymphatic system before it enters into veins.0479

Macrophages which mean a giant eaters and a kind of white blood cell, 0486

in the lymphatic sinuses pockets of the lymphatic system engulf or swallow foreign bodies like antigens.0491

We will talk more antigens later which are presented to lymphocytes.0498

This process here the antigens presenting them into the lymphocytes that is a major part of0501

you enabling your white blood cells to know what the bacteria has on it with the virus has on in terms of protein structure 0510

and being able to identify quickly and kick its butt.0518

Get rid of it on your body.0522

This is a little drawing of the pelvic region near the groin and you can see all these little brown circular objects 0523

these are lymph node scattered throughout.0532

The lymph nodes are connected to each other by lymphatic vessels.0534

In terms of the larger lymph node organs one of them is the thymus.0539

To hear more about the thymus if you look of the endocrine system lessons I have talk more about the hormone function of the thymus.0543

But here is a more structural information.0550

It is located in the mediastenum posterior to the sternum near the heart.0553

It contains lobules.0557

These lobules they are about 2 mm in diameter.0559

Here is a little cross section so if we took a slice through the thymus and look down to it this is a lobule.0563

Each one has two distinct layers.0575

It is like in the kidney or the adrenal gland once you use the term cortex and medulla.0582

The cortex is the outer region and the medulla is inner. 0589

If you look at the outermost part that is where lymphocytes are dividing.0592

Lymphocytes are making more lymphocytes making lymphocytes.0596

Those daughter cells the products of those mitotic divisions as they move into the medulla that is where they are going to undergo maturation.0600

The T cells and is the specific we are going to talk about here and the way I remember that is thymus starts with the T.0609

T cells mature in the thymus.0614

There is another kind of lymphocyte called B cells we will talk about more later at the end of lesson.0617

T cells as they migrate into the medulla they tend to leave and actually go out into the vessels at about 3 weeks they are ready to go.0622

There are different types of T cells which go over in a bit.0632

Hormones from this gland promote the maturation of lymphocytes specifically the T cells.0635

The spleen and other important but not vital organ it contains the largest amount of lymphoid tissue in the body.0641

It is red because of a large amount of blood flow.0651

The thymus has reddish appearance too but the spleen is much more deep dark red.0654

It is about 12cm long, about 116 g and mass 5.6oz weight.0659

It lies lateral to the stomach on the left between ribs 9 and11.0665

It is like an extra neighbor on a stomach.0670

The stomach is right in this region ribs 9 and 11 that is almost way down because rib 12 is the last pair.0672

It is protected by the bottom of the thoracic cage.0680

This is where those organs that is not a vital organ because sometimes doctors will do a spleenectomy or taking out of the spleen.0684

Let us say you were an accident, you fell on it.0693

A collision in some kind contact sport ruptures the spleen and internal bleeding you got to take it out because that can kill a person.0697

If you do spleenectomy, if it is taken out you can live a perfectly fine life but you are going to be a little bit more susceptible to certain illnesses.0706

Because spleen does assist with lymphatic system in dealing with different infections.0716

There are areas in the spleen called pulp and you can see from this cross section this is a transverse cross section looking down into it.0722

You can see if there are white areas and there are red areas.0733

The red areas is red is because red blood cells that make sense.0737

The white area is where you have that lymphoid section.0744

The area has lot lymphocytes screening the blood that is coming in and dealing with harmful things that do not belong there.0749

It is like the highly controlled security checkpoint area.0760

In general those little lymph nodes they are like little security checkpoints but this is where a lot of security is going on 0763

in terms of locating the harmful stuff that does not belong in your body and get its butt.0773

In terms of the different kinds of defenses we could talk about nonspecific defenses.0780

I mention earlier that the response in terms of your non specific defenses is the same regardless of what is invading.0785

And they also called a nonspecific resistance.0792

One example is physical barriers.0795

If you think about all the layers and parts of your body let us say air has to go through to get into your bloodstream you have a lot of physical barriers.0797

Think about the air you breathe in terms of dust getting caught in the hairs of your nostrils, 0807

in the mucous membranes of your nasal mucosa, then you swallow it sometimes.0813

It goes into the stomach was very acidic it is probably you can not survive that.0819

If it is not being swallowed it is actually being inhaled down into the trachea and bronchi etc.0823

You have got those cilia that are sweeping out mucus.0831

You have got lymphatic patrols of the different alveolar bundles.0834

There so many physical barriers that has to pass before it finally gets into the bloodstream.0841

Physical barriers regardless of what you are being exposed to virus, bacteria, fungus, there is a lot that you have protecting your body.0848

Phagocyte cells you have white blood cells patrolling the body whose job it is to just swallowed stuff that does not belong there.0855

The classic example is monocytes, they are analogous to macrophages.0863

Macrophages tend to be like restricted to certain areas outside of the bloodstream but monocytes costly patrolling 0868

and is swallowing up stuff that does not belong there.0875

Phagocytosis is the surrounding of some foreign body or even large molecule by wrapping the plasma membranes around it 0879

and bringing in little vesicle and attacking and kill it.0888

Immunological surveillance this is pretty much equal to what the natural killer cells are doing in K cells.0893

Natural killer cells.0903

These are white blood cells whose job it is to kill your own body cells that are becoming abnormal.0909

This happens all the time.0918

There are some people out there who are smokers - 40, 50, 60 years or more and never get cancer.0920

They just die of a heart attack in their 90’s or older.0929

How do they get a cancer?0933

It could be that they have genetic factors making their natural killer cells just really awesome at their job.0935

Anytime it is an abnormal cell growth happened in the respiratory tract and natural killer cells and it did in the blood.0941

Just destroy it before it turns to cancer.0947

Some people natural killer cells are not doing the best job and may tend to be more susceptible to cancerous growths occurring.0949

This is a way that you keep body cells and check if there are not doing with their suppose to do.0958

Interferons these are chemicals that actually make it harder for something like a virus to keep spreading 0964

and actually will make cells in the region where the virus is less susceptible to getting that virus coming into them.0973

Interferons regardless of what kind of virus infection you are exposed to these secretions, 0981

these peptides is protein bits, they are going to make it so that you are more likely defeat the virus.0988

Inflammation whether it is allergy, bacteria, virus, inflammation is your immune system response to swelling.0996

If something is in your bloodstream that does not belong there, there is the stimulation to expand the blood vessels in an area, 1007

get more of blood flow in terms of volume and that is get more white blood cells to the area.1015

And the more white blood cells go to the area more like it is going to get rid of an infection quickly.1020

Fever, fevers happen very uncomfortable but serves a purpose.1025

Here is the Celsius scale.1032

Normal immune defense of person in Fahrenheit is going to be a different number.1034

37° Celsius that is 98.6 is a lot people say as normal.1039

My normal is 98.2.1046

Some people might be 98.3 as the normal base line but regardless of where you are 1048

in 98° range your regular body temperatures is about 37° Celsius.1054

If it gets up into high 37 or 38° 39° C you are talking a fever.1060

That usually means that you are sick of something substantial.1067

The fever why does it happen why is my body heat go up?1072

It makes it hard for the virus or bacteria to spread in that hotter environment.1076

It does serve a purpose even though it causes of some discomfort and sweating a lots and it is just not pleasant it does serve a purpose.1082

There are medications that will reduce your fever but still unable white blood cells to get the job done.1089

Specific defenses depending on the particular type of pathogen you are going to have very specific kinds of reactions to that.1096

This is known as immunity when you become immune to something that we are talking about specific defense.1105

This is the coordinated activities of B cells and T cells two major types of lymphocytes.1110

Here are the two kinds of immunity, innate immunity it means you born with it.1116

You are born with the ability to react to different things that you are exposed to.1122

You cannot change that, that is based on genetics.1129

A lot of immunity is acquired.1132

It is picked up just by living.1134

Just by you being exposed to different pathogens or foreign bodies.1136

When we talk about acquired immunity what you gain as life goes on.1140

You can talk about active acquire immunity vs. Passive acquired immunity.1146

Active acquired immunity is how do you naturally acquire?1151

A good example of that is think about a baby that has just been born and they get exposed to something some germ.1155

That is an example of how a baby can naturally acquire active immunity 1164

The baby's sucking on something that have germs on it will introducing that bacteria from that toy whenever they had in their mouth, 1169

that is going to allow their white blood cells to identify what this is.1179

we will be able to prevent it spreading in the future.1184

Just being exposed to some stuff into environment.1186

Induced active immunity is vaccinations.1189

If you get immunization is another term for it.1193

A lot of kids these days are immunized against chickenpox.1196

When I was a baby they did have that on wide distribution in terms of getting a shot that gets rid of the chickenpox thing in the future.1199

I got chicken pox when I was about 7 or 8 and the chances are I will not get it again because I have cells 1207

that have retained in memory of what the chicken pox like.1218

If I am exposed to it from someone in my environment I'm not going to get sick.1221

However some people do get some chicken pox more than once because sometimes the second exposure, 1226

the genetics of that particular chicken pox virus was slightly different so that it is not quite the same signaling that your body is used to.1231

You might got sick on second time.1242

But if you have been vaccinated you have been exposed to dead viruses.1245

It is look like exposing your body to the non active form of virus they look at the proteins that thing is made of.1252

And able to retain a memory of what that is like.1259

If you are exposed to the live active virus from somebody touching you then you are probably not to get sick.1261

Here is another example of vaccinations.1269

I found this image and I am not sure the exact year but it is probably from the 60’s when smallpox was still an epidemic.1271

They will not be vaccinated this year against smallpox.1280

They say that smallpox is that the eradicated 1285

As I believe the late 70’s, the CDC's for disease control they had for years doing this campaign 1290

when they are trying to distribute smallpox vaccine all over the globe.1297

Places like Africa and Asia and Europe and etc. and even here in United States.1301

And then we get to the point were enough people been vaccinated so that they will get not get sick of smallpox.1305

The people who currently have smallpox are no longer spreading it to others.1310

The people with smallpox once they have passed away the smallpox has no humans to be inside of and pass along to other individuals.1315

We now consider this to be eradicated.1324

There are smallpox samples in labs around the globe and hopefully they stay there and not expose to anybody.1328

Because we do not vaccinate people against this any more.1336

We do vaccinate with a lot of other kinds of things that are still out there.1339

Now moving on to passive acquire immunity.1344

One example of a passive acquire immunity in terms of it actually acquired is when you are a baby getting antibodies from your mom.1346

It is not the actual surface of the virus or surface of the bacteria you are getting antibodies either1357

through the placental connection which you are going to hear more about in embryological lessons.1365

But the placenta is how baby gets its blood.1370

I'm doing this to my fingers because there are these connections that allow the mother’s blood going into the placental side 1373

that goes with the baby into umbilical cords of a baby gets that oxygen nutrients while it is developing.1384

Sometimes you can have antibodies crossing to the placental barrier.1389

The baby is born with antibodies against some kind of bacteria on it is amazing thing about.1393

Also breast milk contains have antibodies coming out from the mother to the breast milk into the baby's body to naturally acquired passive immunity.1401

And then induced passive immunity would be something like you can actually inject antibodies into somebody 1411

rather than injecting the surface of a virus or something like that.1419

Rabies, if somebody may have been exposed to the rabies you can inject antibodies into the person's bloodstream 1424

to help them deal with a particular infection.1433

T cells what are these guys?1438

They are responsible for cell mediated immunity meaning not based on antibodies.1440

This is triggering cells to know how to conquer and defeat some kind of infection.1447

Cytotoxic T cells are one of a kind T cells these are just going up to places where there are the viruses and bacteria 1453

in the peripheral tissues like in the layers of your skin and parts of your liver.1464

They will migrate in those areas and just destroy and the eaten up and destroy them.1471

And that is why it is called cytotoxic because they have certain packages, little vesicles 1476

and call them lysosomes that contains enzymes that are designed to help like eat up and destroy some kind of virus and bacteria.1484

That helper T cells that is why it is called helper T cells is without their signaling other T cells and B cells and other lymphocyte will not be successful.1491

Helper T cells is the main kind of cell that HIV or AIDS is going to invade and destroy.1501

Suppressor T cells are the opposite of T cells are doing.1508

Helper T cells the opposite of this one because helper T cells there helping out T cells 1512

and B cells in terms of stimulating to do their job.1519

Suppressor T cells they tell them back off and they will be responsible for stimulating into kind of hold back and not have as many cell divisions.1521

If an infection is over and defeated suppressor T cells are going to turn off that reaction.1533

T cells must be exposed to an antigen.1540

Antigen is usually some kind of a protein or proteinaceus surface molecule.1544

If you look at a plasma membrane there are little proteins sticking out the surface of them.1552

Those are antigens.1556

Bacteria are going to have antigens on them.1557

Viruses they have antigens on them even of the surface of a parasitic worm is that certain proteins that unique that species.1560

The reason why I say abnormal plasma membrane proteins is it is abnormal to you.1568

You have your own particular proteins in the surface of all your cells based on your genetics unique to your body.1572

Even your brother even your parents are going to have slightly different proteins.1579

The introduction of abnormal membrane proteins in your body that is antigens.1584

Your body will respond to those antigens with T cells butt kicking abilities.1590

The major histo compatibility complex proteins are MHC proteins would allow your body to identify friendly cells vs. abnormal cells.1596

Friendly cells meaning your own normal body cells.1604

Abnormal cells meaning virus.1608

It is a cell but viruses, bacteria cells, parasitic cells.1612

This has a certain protein compositions certain kinds of antigens that are not normal.1617

MHC proteins actually present for antigens.1622

You are going to see a demonstration of that in a little bit that MHC proteins they will present an abnormal antigen.1626

Let us say a cell that invaded by a virus and that virus is actively making new viruses.1634

It is using the machinery of that whole cell to make a bunch new viruses.1641

That means they are making a bunch of abnormal proteins to your body, they are virus proteins.1645

The MHC see will actually take antigens and present them outside the cell and like a flag.1651

Like a little of white flag that tells help us.1657

That means some T cells you are going to notice that they are exposed to antigen and signal other ones that we have a problem here.1663

There are abnormal proteins on cell that means there some kind of on invasion from foreign bodies.1671

Here is this antigen presentation I was just trying to act out for you.1677

Here is a cell that is been invaded.1682

Let us say it is been invaded by a virus.1685

This is the antigen presenting cell MHC or major historical compatibility complex proteins.1686

You have a couple different classes of MHC but this MHC is going to take antigens 1692

and be like if look here it is when they say immature T cell currently inactive.1698

The T cell that is looking for these abnormal antigen presentations rather than a white flag saying like a red flag.1705

We have a problem here.1714

This immature T cell once it comes in contact with that antigen then it is going to become activated.1716

This is going to tell chemically other cells to cause cell divisions that are going to tell other T cells this is what you are going do.1724

A helper T cell it is going to secrete things like interferon.1733

The interferons are those particular chemicals peptide based chemicals that are going to signal cells that we some kind of viral invasion be ready for this.1742

Cytotoxic T cells these are the ones that are going around and actively eating up all of these other cells that are going to have a similar antigen presentation.1755

Even if the virus is just invaded one cell, that virus is going to bust out here and invade thousands of other cells.1765

It was not for these cytotoxic T cells eaten up the ones with the abnormal antigens you have a problem and that virus could destroy tissues.1774

B cells, this is another kind of lymphocyte.1783

These are responsible for the antibody kind of side of the story.1788

Responsible for antibody mediated immunity.1792

Antibodies if you watch the blood lessons from before those are like y shaped looking proteins that will attach to antigens.1795

The body, your body has millions of these populations B cells.1804

Each kind of B cell has its own antibody molecules matching certain classes of bacteria.1809

Activated when they receive the OK from a helper T cell.1818

Remember in the previous slide about signaling when they have a problem here.1825

A helper T cell is going to be activated when there is in need for antibodies.1831

If there is no need then you knock it out the activation.1837

More about antibodies in a bit.1840

Memory B cells these are similar to the class of T cells that is able to retain a memory in terms of the antigens and even introduce to.1842

These retain a memory on how to make antibodies.1851

When you are vaccinated in something, the reason why a vaccination sometimes last like 10 years 1855

is memory B cells can live up to 20 years in your body that same cell.1862

I mean compare to red blood cells, red blood cells will live like a maybe 2 months.1868

Memory B cells last decades.1872

It sometimes needs a booster shot.1876

I was vaccinated against meningitis over 10 years ago.1879

A doctor tells me I need the meningitis vaccine because the B cells in my body that were able to retain a memory 1883

of what that meningitis actually looks like on the surface of the antigens or what antibodies matched it maybe they are all dead.1891

I need to introduce reintroduce the vaccine to my body to enable the new memory B cells to retain antibody making ability.1899

B cells in general I remember antibody B cell, so I remember that antibodies with the B come from B cells.1909

When stimulated these memory B cells will divide differentiate and secrete massive amounts of antibodies.1918

Let us say I do get a booster shot for meningitis.1930

My body's initial response, the primary response to that is going to be a fairly decent immune response.1934

If you compare that to the time that I am actually introduced to the live active meningitis pathogen, the secondary response is a flood of antibodies.1942

It is like this is our chance we got an invader we know how to kicks his butt.1955

That secrete millions antibodies.1959

That is how you would not be sick with the meningitis.1961

Thanks to that vaccination.1963

What are the antibodies look like?1966

These are proteins secreted by B cells anti body.1968

For the purpose of attaching to antigens on abnormal cells.1973

Antigens an antibody will match up to it.1977

The reason why happens is because see this little puzzle piece on your pelvis here on this big Y shape.1980

There is a matching of the antigen 2.1988

This is like that lock and key mechanism I mention in previous lessons where the surface of an antigen 1993

has unique protein confirmation or protein shape and this matches that.1999

What do the antibodies do?2005

The antibodies that are attaching to some kind of pathogen on the surface of it they are not only helping to market this is a sitting duct and he is beaten up.2007

It also prevents them from further damaging tissues.2017

Antibody serves a few different functions.2022

There are 5 types or classes of antibodies.2025

The reason why we say that is you have got the heavy chain, the blue part here and then the little oranges reddish part is the a light chain.2029

Down here it is always going to be the same but the variable region is due to different kinds of light chains that you are going 2040

to add on to modify what the shape of this here on the tops of the y shape.2048

That another nickname for antibodies is immunoglobulins.2054

It is because this is a globular protein its got to be found in your bloodstream and has to do with the immunization.2058

Immunoglobulin that is the IG means.2066

IGG, IDD, these are the 5 different classes of antibodies in terms of the types.2069

In advance classes you have to know like the immunology class to know exactly what these are for.2076

I just want to introduce you to the terms so this is a type of antibody type of anybody and IG’s immunoglobulin.2083

I mention as the previous slide about primary vs. secondary response.2090

Primary response is when you are introduced to a vaccination.2094

The initial flood of antibodies is fairly significant in terms of B cells reaction to it.2098

The secondary response if you are to measure how much of immune response there is in terms of the flood of antibodies this is way bigger.2109

And that is a good thing.2119

That primary response introduction of that pathogenic antigen from the dead pathogen or inactive pathogen 2121

is preparing your body for when the real thing could possibly introduce to you.2127

Immune conditions and disorders.2136

An allergy and there is probably a lot of genetics having to do with this.2138

An allergy is an umbrella term for a reaction your body has to some kind of stimulation that is going to irritate your immune system in a sense.2142

I have minor allergies to grass, minor allergies to the pollen, and pet dander.2155

I had a dog growing up.2163

I did not get full on anaphylactic shock or a deadly kind of allergic reaction.2165

All that what happen is I would get a stuffy nose.2171

I have minor allergies to certain allergens, to certain particles that if I inhale them I get a little bit of swelling in the nasal cavity and that is it.2174

Allergies it probably has a lot to do with genetics in terms of how sensitive your body is to these different things on your environment.2186

The irony of allergies is that it is immune system overreact to something that is actually not deadly.2194

Some people are deathly allergic to bee stings.2202

The average person is stung by a bee it is like no big deal.2206

Your body deals with that little amount of venom that is injected into you but not a big deal.2209

Peanut allergies, there is nothing that is a deadly about peanuts but it is the allergic reaction to that chemical that is deadly.2214

Allergies you know that there might be some environmental triggers early on in life that also do with it.2222

We can ignore the potential genetics in terms of why certain people bodies react in a crazy way.2230

Anaphylactic shock is when somebody does have a severe allergic reaction to something like a bee sting or 2236

something like even penicillin which comes from certain kind of mold or peanuts like a mention earlier.2244

I have worked with students that were sold deathly allergic to peanuts that just the airborne oils.2252

Some of these kids can even go in older planes where they use hand up peanuts every flights the passengers 2258

because the oils from the peanuts are in the fabrics of the seats.2266

Being exposed to those oils causes their body to react so severely that you get massive inflammation all of the body 2271

and swelling in areas like the throat could suffocate them completely.2280

And I mentioned on earlier in hormones lessons that from the endocrine system.2283

An Epi pen - an epinephrine pen if somebody is at risk of going in a anaphylactic shock from severe allergic reaction 2289

they are going to carry around a pen that is close to the size , that is an injection kind of emergency item.2295

It is an epinephrine pen they are injecting adrenaline to constrict the blood vessels and save their life.2304

They still go the hospital.2311

An autoimmune disease is something like a rheumatoid arthritis is an example.2313

That is where unfortunately your white blood cells are attacking healthy tissues.2320

Rheumatoid arthritis overtime you actually have white blood cells attacking joints and in terms of that issue within the joints.2326

Auto immune diseases typically do not have a cure but there are treatments that can help delay the long-term effects of them.2336

HIV, AIDS and HIV is human immunodeficiency virus.2344

AIDS is acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.2350

HIV is the actual virus this is a picture of a computer generated image of it.2355

That is a virus that is either enters your body because of sexual fluid exchange or a blood contact blood to blood contact.2361

The ways that people typically get it is unprotected sex, blood transfusions when there is an accident 2370

where they did not know that the donor had HIV unfortunately accidental needle sticks, sharing needles with drugs, or tattoos outside of a tattoo parlor.2378

The HIV this virus is really good invading helper T cells and overtime as the virus makes more viruses 2389

and invades more helper T cells eventually your white blood cell count gets low enough to point when a person gets AIDS.2399

And that is where ironically you are dying for something like the common cold or chicken pox or pneumonia.2406

Those illnesses that the average person average healthy person can beat.2412

If you have this virus in your white blood cells they are allowing you to beat it is not going to work out.2417

HIV is an RNA virus more specifically a retrovirus.2423

Which means it has RNA and it makes DNA within your cells which is kind of like backwards transcription.2427

If you took biology you may remember that.2435

Eventually I believe there will be the vaccine or cure to AIDS.2437

There are lots of issues in a way of that.2442

The there is a lot of money being poured into it and the time will tell.2445

Cancer I have in here the immune conditions and disorders because cancer is basically cell division out of control.2450

Abnormal cell division.2459

If you have healthy natural killer cells you may not get cancer.2462

You are well until you are 90’s or 100’s even.2469

By then may be a heart attack can kill that person.2473

Cancer could happen in virtually any tissue of the body.2476

Usually it is exposure to carcinogens which are cancer causing chemicals or radiation that causes damage to the DNA that is regulating the cell cycle.2481

If that cell cycle, the regular amount of cell divisions happens out of control that tissue can become a malignant tumor 2492

that is going to spread potentially through your lymphatic tissues to other organs and that how cancer killing a person.2501

The western medicine approach typically is radiation projected on the cancers tissue or chemotherapy.2508

There are other methods that people tried to get rid out with cancer.2516

Lymphoma is a disease has to do with abnormalities in terms of your lymphocytes be able to deal with infections.2520

One example is hodgkin's lymphoma but there are many different classes of a lymphomas.2532

The disease that impacts the lymphocytes.2538

Lymphedema is edema of the lymph.2540

I mention edema before with blood circulation but this is to do with the lymphatic vessels.2544

Let say those valves, I have mentioned the valves that keep lymph going in one direction and from pooling.2550

If those valves start being dysfunctional, the pooling of lymph, the backup of lymph can cause a severe swelling in lymph tissue that is lymphedema.2556

Graft rejection if you get an organ donation may be a kidney or a new liver.2566

They will give you immune suppressing drugs to keep your new system from freaking out because remember 2573

that MHC thing if those proteins are not exactly as they should be from your normal DNA you are going to get what is called graft rejection.2579

Where are your immune system is going to attack of that newly introduced tissue.2587

And it can be something as simple as a skin graft.2593

Maybe the person was a burn victim and needed skin grafts from a cadaver.2595

Tonsillitis that is an infection of the tonsils.2601

That is when the adenoids, they are like miniature lymphoid organs in the throat region.2605

If you get a lot of throat infections specially as a child, you get a lot of swelling of the tonsils because the swelling 2614

is your body's response to that a pathogen in your throat.2625

It could be very comfortable and in really irritating.2628

They will go in and sometimes take out your tonsil through tonsillectomy.2631

It depends on a person.2636

I did not get a tonsillectomy as a kid.2639

I guess I did not get enough tonsillitis to qualify.2641

Taking out the tonsils it is not a vital tissue this just something to of get rid of that annoying swelling and pain.2645

You will still be able to combat that particular pathogen without the tonsils.2655

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