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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

The Heart

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
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Lecture Comments (18)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Tue Nov 13, 2018 11:44 AM

Post by Maryam Fayyazi on November 12 at 01:33:58 PM

Hello, I have a question about the effects of temperature on the heart rate. In the cold temperature, the activity of cholinesterase enzyme decreases and acetylcholine accumulates hence the heart rate decreases. But what is the reasons for increasing heart rate in the warm temperature?

2 answers

Last reply by: Berry Adams
Sat Jun 24, 2017 2:57 PM

Post by Berry Adams on June 22, 2017

What happens if the period of ventricular filling were increased in duration?

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun May 10, 2015 7:47 PM

Post by Syaza Yasirah on May 9, 2015

Hi Mr Cardella, thank you for posting this lecture of the heart.
I have a question relating to this topic on heart. If a person is fit, does his heart undergo structural and/or functional changes like cardio hypertrophy? And does the heart for such person undergo cellular events wyohich improves his heart's function?

Thank you!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sat Mar 28, 2015 2:08 PM

Post by Emily Wilson on March 28, 2015

One part I didn't particularly like about this lecture was when you said the blood from the pulmonary arteries is bluish. I was under the impression that only the vessels were blue and blood was always red?

2 answers

Last reply by: David Gonzalez
Tue Jan 13, 2015 8:41 PM

Post by David Gonzalez on January 13, 2015

Hi Mr. Cardella, thanks for the great lecture.

Why does the left side of the heart have only a bicuspid valve while the other has a tricuspid valve (speaking from an evolutionary standpoint)? Does it have something to do with the the rate of blood flow? Type of blood (oxygenated vs. deoxygenated), etc.?

Thanks.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Jul 2, 2014 4:42 PM

Post by David Gonzalez on July 2, 2014

Great lecture! I have one question: does the blood in the right ventricle always leave through the pulmonary valve while blood in the left ventricle always leaves trough the aortic valve? And when it leaves, where does it go? Thank you!

0 answers

Post by Neil Gill on March 9, 2014

Crystal clear. Thank you very much.

2 answers

Last reply by: Sandra Egwuonwu
Sun Mar 16, 2014 8:00 PM

Post by Yanet Ortiz on February 25, 2014

in the slide about heart beats and valve you have the  atrioventricular valve are the bicuspid and mitral? is that correct?I think it is tricuspid and mitral!!
thank you for your lectures!! very helpful

The Heart

  • Heart anatomy includes the pericardium, epicardium, myocardium, endocardium, atria, ventricles, coronary arteries, arteries/veins, and fat
  • The sequence of blood flow (beginning with blood returning to the heart from the body): vena cava, right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary valve, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, bicuspid (mitral) valve, left ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, body
  • The heart beat sounds (lubb-dubb) correspond to the atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves closing simultaneously
  • Systole is contraction, diastole is relaxation, and cardiac output is calculated by multiplying stroke volume times heart rate (beats per minute)
  • Cardiac conduction system works via the sinoatrial (SA) node, the atrioventricular (AV) node, the AV bundle, and Purkinje fibers
  • Electrocardiograms (how the electricity within a heart is measured) involve P waves, QRS complexes, and T waves to diagnose arrhythmias
  • Heart conditions/disorders include myocardial infarctions (heart attacks), angina pectoris, fibrillation, and heart murmurs
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Are heart murmurs always deadly?
    • A: No, the severity of a heart murmur varies. Severe ones can be fixed surgically to replace a defective valve with a cadaver valve or pig valve. Other people have minor murmurs and only feel negative effects (fatigue, fainting) when their heart rate is very high.

The Heart

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Heart Anatomy 0:04
    • Pericardium
    • Epicardium
    • Myocardium
    • Endocardium
    • Atria and Ventricles
    • Coronary Arteries
    • Arteries / Veins
    • Fat
  • Sequence of Blood Flow #1 5:06
    • Vena Cava
    • Right Atrium
    • Tricuspid Valve
    • Right Ventricle
    • Pulmonary Valve
    • Pulmonary Arteries
  • Sequence of Blood Flow #2 8:22
    • Lungs
    • Pulmonary Veins
    • Left Atrium
    • Left Ventricle
    • Bicuspid Valve
    • Aortic Valve
    • Aorta
    • Body
  • Simplified Blood Flow Diagram 11:44
  • Heart Beats and Valves 16:09
    • 'Lubb-Dubb'
    • Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
    • Semilunar Valves
  • Systole and Diastole 19:09
    • Systole
    • Diastole
    • Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
    • Cardiac Output
  • Cardiac Cycle 22:59
  • Cardiac Conduction System 24:52
    • Sinoatrial (SA) Node
    • Atrioventricular (AV) Node
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG) 28:46
    • P Wave
    • QRS Complex
    • T Wave
    • Arrhythmias
  • Heart Conditions / Treatments 35:12
    • Myocardial Infarction (MI)
    • Angina Pectoris
    • Pericarditis
    • Coronary Artery Disease
    • Angioplasty
    • Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
    • Tachycardia / Bradycardia
    • Fibrillation
    • Heart Murmur
    • Mitral Valve Prolapse

Transcription: The Heart

Hi and welcome to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on the heart.0001

When we look at the anatomy of the heart there are other several layers we need to consider.0003

The pericardium is technically not the heart itself.0009

What we can see here is it is kind of cutaway.0014

This is pericardium in cutaway is this connective tissue sacked that in a person's thoracic cavity.0017

If you are open them up you would see almost like a ceramic wrap more opaque than that around the entire beating heart.0026

That particular connective tissue sack is not only protecting the heart and giving it some extra layered cushioning but0036

in between the pericardium and the surface of the heart itself is fluid and that is providing lubrication.0045

Think of it as the engine of your car, without oil in the engine with all those moving parts that are met along the middle, it would not quite as well.0051

It would be too much friction.0061

Having that fluid in between the inside of the pericardium and surface of the heart is very important.0062

The epicardium, remember epi means superficial when we are talking about organs in the outside.0068

The epicardium is the actual surface of the heart.0075

It is very thin in terms of the rest of the layers.0078

When we go deeper the myocardium, the thickest layer the heart by far is all that muscle.0082

That cardiac muscle is very thick.0089

If you have ever cut in two of a sheep heart or cow’s heart it will be a lot bigger in some dissection.0092

The myocardium is very thick and it is important.0098

You want it to be strong.0102

You want it to last a lifetime and do the job of making blood move.0103

The endocardium is that inner layer, the deepest layer of the heart tissue.0108

It is very smooth like a slip and slide.0114

A very smooth made up of epithelium and you can call it endothelium because very deep.0117

That is what the blood itself is slipping and sliding along and you want it to be smooth.0122

If the endocardium was rough it would damage or rupture too many red blood cells.0128

You want it to be nice and smooth for this process to work properly.0132

The atria and ventricles are the main chambers of heart.0137

You could see here this is the right atrium, from this view it is hard to see the left atrium.0140

It is over here they say oracle of the left atrium, that is just the corner of it.0145

If we turn the heart slightly you will be able to see the left atrium a lot better.0152

But those are the most superior smaller chambers of the heart.0156

If we go deeper you would see the right and left ventricle larger chambers.0160

The way I keep it straight in terms of right and left is just to keep in mind that this is from the point of view of the person who is heart this the lungs to.0165

From my point of view, if you look at the heart, my left ventricle is on that side and I know it is your right but we got to keep in mind it is from the point of view of this object.0175

That is why even on the left side of the drawing you know this is called the right atrium.0186

The right ventricle would be in here.0191

Just keep that in mind.0194

If you are looking from the posterior side, you are looking from behind then your left would be the same left as the subject.0196

The coronary arteries is a general term for these blood vessels that supply the heart muscle tissue itself with blood.0204

This is an interesting thing to think about.0213

The heart itself needs blood as well.0214

The hearts role is to circulate blood to the entire body, to all the cells that need it.0217

But the heart itself does not get blood it will not get the nourishment.0224

It will not get the sugars and gas as it needs to be able to keep providing the sugars and gases to the rest of the body.0227

The coronary arteries are very important.0235

You have blood flow coming out of the inside that is called the aorta to get all of that blood inside of those muscle fibers.0237

If you get a clog, if you get a blockage in the coronary arteries you get a heart attack.0247

There are arteries and veins coming out from the top portion, the superior portion of heart.0254

The major one is the aorta, that is the major artery that sending blood to the body and then there are veins as well.0259

We will get to those in more detail on future slides in this lesson.0267

Lastly fat, all of this yellow stuff that is lipid, that is fat.0270

You are going to see it on the surface of the heart.0276

You are also going to see it around the outside of our heart especially around the pericardium as a cushioning.0278

You want to cushion it in the thoracic cavity.0284

It is a very precious organ.0287

You do not want to get damaged.0289

Having some of fat is a nice little buffer, cushion.0290

The fat on the outside here, I want you to think this person is unhealthy.0294

It is normal to have some fat on the outside.0298

The fat you do not want is inside the coronary arteries.0300

We look at how blood flows to the heart.0304

It should be a one way trip meaning one way street is a better way to say it.0310

You do not want backflow.0317

We will talk more later about what the backflow is and how that happens.0319

When we start with blood coming back from the body into the heart, it is the Vena Cava that is taking blood from above the heart from below the heart back into it.0323

You want the blood going back in the heart so it can send it to the lungs where you can exhale CO2 as accumulated in the blood.0334

And get O2 back in the blood and send them back out to the body.0341

The vena cava is here and here.0344

You can see it on the right side of the heart.0349

Remember the right is actually your left when looking at this person's heart.0351

This is the inferior Vena Cava which is taking the oxygenated blood.0355

It has more of a blue look to it, from all of those veins that are below the heart taking all that back into this chamber0359

and this is the superior Vena Cava taking the oxygenated blood from the areas above heart into this chamber.0369

This is the right atrium.0378

Once blood enters the right atrium there is a little door way that separates this chamber from the right ventricle.0380

This doorway is called the tricuspid valve because when you look down on this valve, these are flaps that open and close.0387

It looks like this kind of like a Mercedes symbol.0393

This is a cuspid and all these flaps there are 3 of them that is why it is a tricuspid valve.0400

The right ventricle is the larger chamber.0408

If that tricuspid valves opens and this chamber contracts or squeezes, blood is going to enter into here.0412

You can see that associated with each of the valves are these little strands called corti tenamae.0419

I will tell you more about those in a bit.0424

Once blood enters the right ventricle and in the right ventricle squeezes it is going to shoot it out through the pulmonary valve.0426

The word pulmonary always has to do with lungs.0433

This valve is going to be allowing blood to pass through it and then eventually go on to the lungs.0436

The pulmonary arteries are those blood vessels that are taking blood to left and right lung.0442

You can see that there are two parts of it.0447

It is like a fork in the road.0450

This goes to the left and this goes to the right.0451

Arteries are always leaving the heart.0454

It is taking blood away from the heart.0459

I have heard students have misconception for it and I used to have misconception as a student that arteries are red, veins are blue.0461

In the systemic circuit going to and from the body that is true but it is flipped in the lungs.0467

When you take blood away from the heart to the lungs it is actually bluish because it is lacking oxygen.0474

When you go to the lungs and pick up oxygen and take the blood back to the heart those veins have a red blood.0481

Remember arteries are always leaving the heart, veins going to the heart.0488

The lungs are the next destination.0494

Let us go to the next slide to see the rest of the sequence on the left side of the heart.0497

The sequence of blood flow from the lungs back to the heart is going to take oxygenated blood.0502

See this pink arrow through the left pulmonary vein and to the right pulmonary vein into this chamber over here.0509

This is the left atrium.0517

This little red guy here looks like it is coming into the right side of the heart.0519

If you look carefully this particular vein coming from the right lung goes just behind these other blood vessels and does connector right here to the interior of the left atrium.0524

Blood passing through that atrium into the left ventricle is going to go through once in another valve that prevents backflow.0538

And that valve is called the bicuspid valve because this particular valve has only two cusp not 3.0546

A nickname for this valve is the mitral valve.0554

I will explain why.0559

The mitral valve is the same thing as the bicuspid valve.0561

Someone who named this knew this was very creative in terms of imagination.0565

They thought that this valve reminded them of a maître.0569

And a maître is one of those bishop or pope’s hats.0572

He may be familiar with this and one of these kinds of hats.0576

There is the blue skull cap part and here is the guy.0583

Any ways, those two parts of the hat is something about has reminded them of that.0586

You can call bicuspid or mitral valve.0596

In text books they refer to both terms.0598

That particular valve is controlling backflow so that when this left ventricle squeezes, when it contracts you do not want blood going backwards.0602

You want it to be going out through the aorta.0613

There is a valve that prevents blood from going back and left atrium wanted to reach this blood vessel.0616

The left ventricle when it squeezes blood goes through this particular valve here.0623

It is hard to see but there are also has 3 cusps.0627

The aortic valve is going to lead to the aorta, the largest, strongest artery in terms of its thickness in the body.0630

The aorta in the average person is about the thickness of a garden hose.0639

Picture a garden hose right there looping above your heart, that is crazy to think about.0643

You want it to be tough and strong because blood is rocketing out of the heart through that.0649

You do not want to tear.0655

It is very unlikely that the aorta is going to tear because it is so strong but severe traumas and with a car accident could tear it.0656

A tear in the aorta could cause someone to die very quickly because of the amount of blood0665

that would be coming out will be quite a lot in terms of on how quickly would exits that blood vessel.0672

The body is the next destination.0678

You can see that the aorta it has these little arteries that come out from the top of the superiorly taking blood to the arms,0681

Taking blood up into the head, and then the rest of the blood goes down was called the descending aorta which goes behind the heart.0690

It is going to split up into all the major arteries going to the rest of the body.0698

I have this simplified blood flow diagram that I drew because when we look at the heart and how twisting and turning it is,0702

sometimes it is hard to remember what leads to what.0710

I am going to give you some hints and abbreviations here that will help.0714

I will use blue for the left side.0717

Keep in mind this is a boxy depiction.0719

This is not anatomically accurate in terms of the space involved in terms of the angles and such.0724

But the sequence is going to be the same.0731

Here is the superior Vena Cava.0735

Here is the inferior Vena Cava.0738

As we taking blueblood, deoxygenated blood back into the heart that is why I am using blue here so they both lead into here.0742

Here is the right atrium.0751

This little doorway is the tricuspid valve that leads into the larger chamber that is inferior to the right atrium, the right ventricle.0755

Here is a hint for remembering what side the tricuspid valve is on.0769

TV RV, you can watch TV in your RV.0773

That is a way you can remember it.0779

The tricuspid valve is providing backflow from the right ventricle into the right atrium.0782

Since this is taking blood to the lungs because it is blue we want to get that oxygen back.0788

You can call this the pulmonary valve.0794

The blood is going this way to the pulmonary valve leads to the pulmonary arteries because it is taking blood away from the heart.0799

Here is the left pulmonary artery and here is the right pulmonary artery.0810

That blood goes to the lungs gets through the CO2 in it so that you can exhale it.0824

Picks up the oxygen and when oxygen attaches to hemoglobin which you are going to hear more about in the blood lessons, it becomes red.0829

How do we get back in the heart?0835

We are now on the superior left side.0840

This would be the left pulmonary vein and over here because it is going behind the heart into this region of the atrium.0843

This would be the right pulmonary vein.0856

And both of those blood vessels lead into the left atrium.0862

Remember this one was not tricuspid like over here.0870

It only has 2 cusps so this is the bicuspid valve also known as the mitral valve.0874

Down here is the left ventricle, this is the largest chamber in the heart.0880

It is slightly larger than the right ventricle depending on what anatomical image you see with cross sections through it.0889

Depending on how interior or posterior they are sometimes the right ventricle will appear larger depending on what angle and what part of heart you are cutting through.0897

But left ventricle is slightly bigger than the right ventricle.0906

The blood flow comes in here, comes through here, and then it is going to go up.0910

Once the left ventricle contracts, this is the aortic valve and that takes blood into the aorta.0918

The blood going through here, if you kind of think the aorta comes up and has that little loop that goes down,0929

this looks like an A if you look at how the left pulmonary artery goes in front of it.0945

It is a nice way to remember that A for aorta, that major blood vessel taking oxygenated blood into the entire body.0952

There are also arteries that branch off from the top.0960

There is a simplified blood flow diagram for you.0964

When we look at the heart beats and the valves and in how the actual sound of a heart corresponds to the valves closing and opening,0968

a lot of textbooks will refer to be the lubb dubb and the sound is actually corresponding to the valves closing.0977

The first sound is actually these valves closing.0989

The lubb is these 2.1002

These are known as atrioventricular valves or AV valves.1005

A way to remember that is they are separating the atria and the ventricles.1008

Atria ventricles so it is atrioventricular valves separates the A and V that is why they are AV valves.1012

Bicuspid or mitral or bicuspid and tricuspid.1019

The other 2, the pulmonary valve and the aortic valve are semilunar valves named after a half moon term.1022

The semilunar valves are these two and so these close together and these close together and you can see that when the AV valves are open these are going to be closed.1032

When these are open these are going to close.1042

This picture by the way, for which one is it is the aortic valve but the tricuspid and pulmonary valves are very similar.1045

Think of it this way.1054

The lubb start with the valves that happened kind of first in terms of thinking about blood coming in.1057

Remember blood coming into the heart neither side, it is going to pass through these valves first.1069

Think about them closing first in terms of the sequence of lubb and dubb.1075

Because these 2 closes for that first sound, they close when the ventricles squeeze.1081

Why do they close when the ventricle squeeze because if you are matching blood pooling into these parts the walls just compact together.1090

You want blood to go which way, this way and this way, not back.1099

You do not want it to go backwards into the atria.1107

When this contracts these too, the bicuspid and tricuspid or AV valves have to close.1109

Conversely when these are relaxed and you want blood coming out of the atria down to the ventricles so you want these to be open.1116

You also want these to be close that time because you have just squeezed blood out of the ventricles1127

and you want it to stay on its way into the lungs and outside the body in these blood vessels.1132

You have to have that coordinated opening and closing.1139

Systole and diastole.1143

When we look at the terms systole that is basically saying contraction.1151

When the ventricles contract they are in ventricular systole.1156

Diastole is the opposite.1162

When the ventricles relax it is what you call diastole.1164

When ventricular contraction or systole is happening you are going to get the atria doing the opposite and vice versa.1168

You can use the term atrial systole and atrial diastole.1176

It is contraction vs. Relaxation.1181

The chambers are going to relax when they are ready to receive blood.1185

Think about the ventricles.1188

When they have just shot blood out of the heart they then need to be ready to accept blood from the atria1189

so they are going to relax and open up to get the blood pooling in there.1195

Once again it is systole.1199

The way that I keep this straight is blood pressure terms like the blood pressure 120/80 that is systolic/diastolic.1201

That higher number corresponds to higher pressure contraction.1210

Systole that higher number 120 or whatever the systolic number of blood pressure would be for a person is going to be a higher number1215

because it is contraction rather than that relaxations which is going to be lower pressure.1223

The valves will response to the pressure changes.1228

I told you I would tell you more about those little tendons.1231

There are little white strands associated with the valves as they open and close.1234

As ventricular pressure rises, as they contract above the atrial pressure that causes the AV valves to be pushed close.1240

When the ventricles relax and expand that pulls on those little white tendons that are called cordae tendonae.1250

Remember tendons connect muscle and bone.1267

These are a little a bit different than your average tendon because it is connecting valves, part of the endothelium of the heart1270

to other parts of endothelium that are all connected to the myocardium or the heart muscle itself.1278

As the pressure changes, because of the contraction and relaxation that is going to open and close the valves because these are attached to those little flaps.1285

Cardiac output you are going to hear more about that in blood pressure, parts of the blood vessel lessons.1294

The cardiac output is a measure of how much blood is physically leaving the heart.1301

Stroke volume is milliliters of blood that leave the heart with each ventricular contraction or ventricular systole.1307

So how much blood is physically leaving.1316

And then of course how often it is leaving?1319

Heart rate we are talking 60 beats per minute which is resting heart rate for all people.1321

Are we talking 130 beats for minute which is when somebody is typically doing some running.1326

It can even be a lot higher than that.1331

Cardiac output can be increased by having just a lot higher heart rate.1334

Just having your heart beat faster the amount of blood coming of the heart would increase of course.1339

If you can increase stroke volume you do not have to have this much of a heart rate increase.1345

How you do you increase blood volume?1350

A lot of exercising.1351

If somebody gets to the part where their heart is super efficient in terms of how much blood can actually squeeze out with each beat,1353

you will find that their resting heart rate tends to drop because when their at rest their body does not need to have as many contractions.1361

Because with each contraction they are actually squeezing a lot more blood.1370

Here is a picture of the cardiac cycle in terms of pressure in the aorta, pressure in the ventricles, how much blood is in the ventricles.1377

This is showing you in ECG Electrocardiogram and then a photocardiogram in terms of the sounds coming out of the heart.1390

Aortic pressure related to ventricular pressure.1398

Let us look at this.1402

When you get the ventricle contracting doing systole that is when you get this blue rise and that corresponds to ejection or letting go of blood out of the ventricles.1403

And that is going to increase the amount of pressure in the aorta because where is this blood going when the ventricle contracts?1416

It is going in the aorta sending the blood to the rest of the body.1423

At the same time when the ventricle squeezes that is why this red line drops.1426

As soon as this rises the amount of blood in the ventricle lessens because that blood is leaving the ventricles.1433

You will see more about this later in the lesson.1441

What is this little bump, all those heart monitors, what is that mean?1444

We are going to get to that in a second.1452

I just wanted to show you how it is all related here in terms of when the ventricles are squeezing and letting blood out of them.1453

At the same time when the ventricles go back to diastole in terms of relaxing the pressure lessens1462

and then once they are open up again and waiting for blood, what is going to happen?1470

Ventricular volume is going to increase because the atria on the top are squeezing blood back in the ventricles and that is going to happen all over again.1475

And this happens in a matter of 2-3 seconds or even less when the heart rate is very fast.1483

When it comes to initiating a heartbeat it is really fascinating within the heart.1490

Automaticity this term here means that this is the one place in the body where electrical signaling happens apart from neurons initiating it.1497

You will get movement of this amazing organ without neurons specifically being inside of it.1509

A misconception some students will have as they think that the cardiac induction system is a bunch of neurons or nerves within the heart.1516

That is not true.1523

There are pathways within the tissue of the heart, within these muscle fiber tracks that died the electricity through it.1525

And that is described as the cardiac conduction system.1534

This describes how electrical signaling makes its way to the heart in a coordinated fashion.1537

We hope it is coordinated.1541

The sinoatrial or AS node is the little blueish purple dot right here.1542

I am going to underline that in blue that is located in the superior wall of the right atrium.1548

This is interesting looking drawing and in this particular shot we cannot see the left atrium very effectively1558

but the left atrium does not have much to do with starting up the heartbeat.1568

This sinoatrial node is extremely important because this is the natural pacemaker of your heart.1573

You may have heard somebody having a pacemaker that is an artificial pacemaker where1579

we have attached electrical device to the heart that helps initiate the heart beat in a proper way.1583

Somebody is having some trouble with their SA node working naturally you then attach a pacemaker to it to keep it in check.1590

This is the natural pacemaker that we are born with.1598

Some people have no trouble with this pacemaker their entire lives.1605

It is doing the proper coordinated well paced set of contractions and relaxations supposed to happen.1610

There is nerve that comes and stimulates the SA node and then once that is stimulated it is off to the raise1618

in terms of the electrical signal flowing through the heart in the right way.1625

The SA node then sends a signal into here the AV node so this is more in the inferior parts of the right atrium.1629

I will do that in red, the atrioventricular node.1639

Remember the term AV valve from the previous slide, AV node has its name because you can see that if it is on the inferior part of the atrium1644

that is going to be adjacent to the opening to the ventricles that is why it is called AV nodes it is very close to the opening to the ventricle.1654

Here is a good image of the cordae tendonae.1662

The AV bundle then takes the signal down through the septum meaning the border between the left ventricle and right ventricle.1667

It extends in what are called perking fiber.1678

All these little fibers that are intervening the muscle fibers in the ventricles named after a Dr. Perkinge1681

and those perkinge fibers when the electrical signals goes through all those you get the left and right ventricles contracting at the same time as they were supposed to.1688

If you are wondering, what about the left atrium?1698

Because of signals going through the SA node is able to simultaneously stimulate through these little tracts.1701

The atria contracting just about the same time.1710

This sequence is able to get the atria and ventricles contracting in a coordinated fashion to make sure that blood is flowing properly and efficiently through the heart.1715

EKG or ECG stands for electrocardiogram.1726

The English abbreviation the ECG and EKG comes from the German for cardio.1731

You can use either one EKG or ECG they are the same thing.1738

This is a measure of electrical events in the heart.1741

When we look at one single woot there are a few different points they call them waves.1743

The P wave which we will do in red right here, this has to do with the atria being depolarize.1749

Depolarize in atria is going to make it do atrial systole that contraction.1760

Here is atrial depolarization.1766

That is going to make the left and right atria contract.1774

You noticed it is a little hump.1781

It is a little change in electricity and the up flowing through the part compared to this because the QRS that is the ventricles.1783

If you remember why this bump is always high?1792

Ventricles are much larger in terms of them being this holder of blood and like the muscular chamber that is going to be in a much stronger way squeezing blood out of the heart.1794

The size of those ventricles, the amount of electricity flowing through them is going to be a bit bigger.1807

The QRS complex, that as a whole from this point up here and down this is ventricular depolarization.1813

All of these.1823

Remember the terms repolarization and depolarization from action potentials it has to do with this.1824

With action potential it goes up and down similar to this where it is depolarization repolarization terms of sodium and potassium.1843

You can use those terms here to help you remember that it is a depolarization then repolarization.1853

Sodium is going into the neuron potassium leaving the neuron.1860

Having depolarization repolarization this whole thing here just itself as depolarization, after it you have repolarization1864

that gets the ventricles back into their relax state and gets them in ventricular diastole.1874

The T wave is actually the event that repolarizes the ventricles eventually getting ready for receiving more blood.1881

This is ventricular repolarization.1890

If you are wondering what happened to atrial repolarization?1896

I do not see that here.1906

It is covered by QRS so the repolarization in the atria actually happens during the span of time but the electrical signals of the ventricles just outweighed it by far.1907

In an ECG you are going to notice this overlapping that.1917

In terms of arrhythmias I am going to show you how this ECG reading can vary and how a doctor can interpret it in terms of what is going on within heart.1921

First one is what you are seeing here is instead of there are being a nice flat line between the heartbeats you see squiggly and then QRS quiggly.1932

What are these squiggles?1955

That is called atrial fibrillation.1956

The atria instead of having nice coordinated contractions and relaxations, they are kind of not doing it very well.1959

This is not necessarily deadly.1966

It is something that you obviously do not want happening but as long as the ventricles are getting enough blood going in them and1969

doing a great job of squeezing which looks like they are, people can live a long time with some atrial fibrillation.1976

It means their atria are not doing the best job but at least you get the QRS wave.1983

Something else that can happen is, let us say you have the normal flat line between beats and then this.1989

Notice here that the QRS is not that big.1995

It is really not that much bigger than the P or T.2003

This means you can have a weakening of the ventricles.2006

They are not doing as good a job as the most profound systoles, those contractions getting blood exiting.2010

That can be a problem.2018

Here is another one.2020

Notice that is a lot bigger QRS exaggerating little more.2021

This is a sign of an enlarged heart.2036

At first you might think a larger heart is doing even better because it is bigger.2039

An enlarged heart having an enlargement of the ventricle mass of the ventricle muscle is actually counterproductive.2046

An enlarged heart I also have the term athlete's heart to describe it.2055

Getting an enlarged heart there actually can make the ventricle chambers smaller.2059

Its ability to get blood exiting the heart efficiently it is going to get in the way of cardiac output.2065

Having enlarged heart is not a good thing.2071

There are plenty of other arrhythmias in terms of the spacing between the P and S, spacing between the S and T.2074

That could signal problems in the cardiac conduction system that the electrical signal from SA to AV is somehow not going as quickly as it should.2082

Or from the AV down the bundle for deceptum and the perkinge fibers, if any of those are delayed you got problems with the coronation of your heartbeat.2092

There are other things like tachycardia, bradycardia, with have to do with too high of a heart rate and too low heart rate.2102

We will cover that at the end of this lesson.2109

Heart conditions and treatments.2112

A myocardial infarction or MI is something you might hear in certain medical shows or shows involving doctors or something in a hospital.2114

That is a heart attack.2123

A myocardial infarction is a technical term for heart attack.2125

The way it happens is a blockage in a coronary artery is going cut off blood flow to part of a heart tissue2128

and it is going to cause death of some of the heart tissue within the myocardium.2135

You can survive a heart attack but the more heart attacks a person gets the more you are permanently damaging your heart tissue.2140

The more heart attacks the more likely is that the next one can be fatal.2146

There are interesting bits of research the leading us into how to regenerate heart muscle in an area of the heart that is dying off because of a heart attack.2151

I have read that injecting stem cells into on mice or rats heart that have myocardial infarctions has shown promise.2161

I think we will eventually get the point where we will be able to bring back a dead heart issue.2171

Your diet, exercise, are going to be those things that you do have control over right now.2176

Angina pectoris is not quite a heart attack.2182

Angina pectoris has to do with a lessening of adequate blood flow through those coronary arteries so that2185

you do have periods of time if somebody has angina where the heart is not getting as much blood as it should.2193

Typically some of the angina if they get really stressed out, really angry, or do too much physical activity, the increase in blood pressure and2200

the constricting of the coronary arteries is going to cause them a lot of pain because it is not quite in MI2208

but you are restricting blood flow to the parts of the heart that need blood in order the contract effectively.2214

One of the treatments for angina pectoris is something like nitroglycerin.2219

I have heard of sprays under the tongue, there are other ways to deliver it in the body but it will actually the lower the blood pressure2225

which will make all those coronary arteries expand a little bit and then have more blood can get to the heart.2234

Interestingly enough a little blue pill that people are familiar with which is actually corrects all dysfunction is related to this.2240

One of the active ingredients in medications the tree angina pectoris since it lowers blood pressure and actually expands the vessels getting more blood flow.2250

They notice one of the side effects of treatment in angina was the males would get erections now and then.2261

Taking that active ingredient and playing with it in terms of what tissue it targets that led to that pill that helps with ED2268

because it is expanding blood vessels and helping get blood flow into the penis and that is $1,000,000,000 industry.2277

Pericarditis is actually infection or irritation of pericardial, that sac around the heart.2286

It can get irritated because of trauma or an infection can harm that and overtime that can have a negative impact on heart which is inside it.2293

Coronary artery disease is what is going to lead to an MI.2304

A coronary disease when you get a buildup of plaques that are constricting the amount of blood that can go through those blood vessels.2309

That is something that is not good to get and of course like I have mentioned diet and exercise are important.2318

An angioplasty is one of the most common ones.2325

I have heard there is a balloon angioplasty.2328

It will actually go through the femoral artery in the leg and they will insert this little metal like catheter and it goes all the way up into the aorta.2330

And they go up around that little loop into a coronary artery where they have a blockage and then they will actually go into the coronary artery2343

that has the plaque and then expand the balloon that will actually press that plaque out of the way and it gets that interior part of the blood vessel expanded and open.2355

That is a fascinating thing to think about that they can actually increase blood flow and make it less likely that person is going to get MI in the future.2367

It is something that is not a permanent fix.2377

If a fat person continues to eat a high fat diet so he has high saturated fat and does not exercise, they are going to get the buildup of plaque again.2381

It is not going to cure the problem.2391

The coronary artery bypass graft.2393

If you have ever heard somebody getting a triple bypass or quadruple bypass, when they do a surgery to take an artery and had a goal around where there is a blockage.2395

You may have up to 4 once be done so a quadruple bypass is a major thing because they are making the loop for blood to bypass2406

so they go around a blockage in the road that is taking blood into the heart muscle.2416

That graft can definitely extend someone's life significantly.2420

Amazingly some people better than others will naturally do this in their heart.2426

Some people just go beyond 90 hundred years without getting a heart attack because where they had a blockage their body can actually naturally bypass, go around that blockage.2433

Some people do better than others.2447

Tachycardia vs. Bradycardia this means really high heart rate versus really low.2449

Tachycardia is acceptable if you are exercising or if you are running, if you are doing a marathon you are going to have a high heart rate.2456

Tachycardia in that instance expected.2463

Bradycardia if your at rest you would expect to have a very low heart rate but if your tachycardic, if this is happening when you are at rest that is not a good ting.2466

It might be stress.2479

It might be something that is causing that to happen is very unhealthy.2480

If you are tachycardic and when you are sitting down and you want to go to the doctor to get the checked out.2485

Maybe stress that is causing that.2491

Bradycardia having too few heart beats in a span time.2493

Like I have said, when you are at rest it is expected but you want your heart rate to increase if you are asking your body to do more.2502

That is how you are going to get more blood flow into your skeletal muscles.2510

Fibrillation is something that is going to be accompanied with MI.2514

Fibrillation is associated with it.2520

What I mean by that is if you have the cutoff of blood flow into significant part of the ventricular muscle2524

instead of it being this nice coordinated set of your PQRST it is going to look like this.2532

That is not effectively contracting ventricles and contracting and relaxing the atria.2539

This is what a heart attack can look like and that is called fibrillation.2546

An AED or an automatic external defibrillator is the clear and that is trying to kind of reboot the heart in terms of the electric flow.2550

Trying to get back into this proper PQRS complex.2564

An automatic external defibrillator is the opposite of fibrillation.2570

De for trying to get rid of that fibrillation so it has a nice coordinated set of contractions.2574

If someone is flat line just no electricity flowing to the heart, the chances of an AED getting them back is extremely low.2580

It is possible so they are still going to try to give that person back but generally AED is most effective in getting a person out of fibrillation.2591

A heart murmur is when one or more of the valves that control blood flows that goes in one direction is not working properly.2599

If those valves, the AV valves or semilunar valves are not completely closing when they should, you can get regurgitation.2609

Blood flow going backwards.2618

A heart murmur you can go to a cardiologist and they listen to your hearts sound with a stethoscope.2620

They are trained and have tons of experience where they can hear the little bits of backflow in a heart murmur.2627

I do not have that training but I'm exaggerating this for you.2634

A heartbeat to them would sound like bump bump bump and if we exaggerate what a heart murmur sounds it is like bump shh bump shh.2637

Because that shh sound is blood back flowing, going backwards maybe back into the ventricle from the aorta.2648

Or some of it ends up staying behind in the atria rather than going from the atrial ventricles.2660

Heart murmur sometimes if it is significant enough overtime that can shorten lifespan and surgeries can replace them or fix them.2665

They actually will use fake heart valves oftentimes to replace heart valves in human and that works fine.2677

But you have to take drugs to calm down your immune system so you do not attack that issue but it works.2685

Mitral valve prolapsed is when part of the mitral valves actually like going curved into the atrium.2692

Mitral valve prolapsed over time it is not sufficient in terms of the mitral valve closing when it is supposed to prevent backflow.2701

These are some of the heart conditions and treatments involved with keeping a person alive and in minimizing problems with the heart.2710

Thanks for watching www.educator.com.2718

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