Sign In | Subscribe

Enter your Sign on user name and password.

Forgot password?
  • Follow us on:
Start learning today, and be successful in your academic & professional career. Start Today!
Loading video...
This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.
For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology
  • Discussion

  • Study Guides

  • Download Lecture Slides

  • Table of Contents

  • Transcription

  • Related Books

Lecture Comments (7)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Feb 18, 2016 2:17 PM

Post by karen mosquera on February 18, 2016

why is embolism more common in elderly?

2 answers

Last reply by: Kayla Steiner
Fri Apr 18, 2014 11:07 PM

Post by Kayla Steiner on April 18, 2014

What's the reason for the multi-lobed nucleus in the leukocytes.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Tue Jan 28, 2014 11:32 AM

Post by Habib Awes on January 27, 2014

1. how haemoglobin is involved in carbon dioxide transport.
2. how H+ ions are produced within an erythrocites and how haemoglobin helps to buffer the blood
3. what is the equation showing combination of O2 and haemoglobin


  • Blood functions: transportation of nutrients/gases/wastes/hormones, regulation of pH, restriction of fluid loss during injury, defense against pathogens/toxins, and regulation of body temperature
  • Blood components are erythrocytes (red blood cells), thrombocytes (platelets), leukocytes (white blood cells), and plasma (water with dissolved solutes)
  • All major blood cells are generated from a single type of stem cell, called hemocytoblasts, in bone marrow
  • Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave discs and they contain a protein called hemoglobin, which is meant to transport oxygen gas
  • Red blood cells are constantly broken down in the liver and spleen (resulting in bilirubin), and they are generated through erythropoiesis to replace old/damaged ones
  • Major blood types include A, B, AB, and O; the Rh factor adds the “+” or “-” designation
  • O type blood (specifically O negative) is the universal donor and AB type blood (specifically AB positive) is the universal recipient
  • The various types of leukocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, Natural killer cells)
  • Platelets help seal off damaged blood vessels to prevent loss of blood and they are crucial to the clotting process
  • Blood conditions/disorders include anemia, hemophilia, and leukemia
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Why is there a weight minimum for donating blood?
    • A: Usually the same amount of blood is taken from every blood donation at a blood drive. One unit of blood is 1 pint (0.5 liters.) Since the average person has about 10 pints (5 liters), then each blood donation takes away 10% of your blood volume. In a person who weighs significantly less than the average person (such as someone who is only 100 lbs., or 45 kg.) that percentage is much greater and the withdrawal of that blood will be more likely to make them anemic!
    • Q: Are there other blood types out there than just the ones in the ABO blood typing system?
    • A: Yes, genetic mutations have created some other extremely rare blood types. All it takes is modification of the genes that determine antigens/antibodies in blood, and you have a new blood type (that may or may not be able to receive/donate blood through transfusions)


Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Blood Functions 0:04
    • Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
    • Regulate pH
    • Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
    • Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
    • Regulate Body Temperature
  • Blood Components 1:59
    • Erythrocytes
    • Thrombocytes
    • Leukocytes
    • Plasma
  • Blood Cell Formation 6:55
  • Red Blood Cells 8:16
    • Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
    • Enucleated
    • Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
    • Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
  • Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs 12:03
    • RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
    • Hemoglobin is Broken Down
    • Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
  • Blood Transfusions #1 15:02
    • A Blood
    • B Blood
    • AB Blood
    • O Blood
    • Rh Factor
  • Blood Transfusions #2 24:31
  • White Blood Cells 25:33
    • Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
    • Amoeboid Movement
    • Most Do Phagocytosis
  • Granulocytes 27:25
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  • Agranulocytes 29:37
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  • Platelets 32:42
    • Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
    • Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
    • Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
  • Hemostasis 33:40
    • Vascular Phase
    • Platelet Phase
    • Coagulation Phase
    • Fibrinolysis
  • Blood Conditions / Disorders 36:29
    • Hemorrhage
    • Thrombus
    • Embolism
    • Anemia
    • Sickle Cell Disease
    • Hemophilia
    • Leukemia

Transcription: Blood

Hi and welcome back to

This is the lesson on blood.0002

Blood has numerous functions not just circulating fluids.0004

It is the transport of nutrients, sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins, etc.0008

Gases, oxygen, and CO2 are among them.0014

Wastes are the ones that you will end up excreting either through your urine, your sweat, etc.0017

Hormones the way that hormones actually get to organs and cause them to change something like the physiology is through blood.0023

Regulation of ph, ph has to do with acid vs. bases.0030

You have a zone in which your ph in your body need to be maintained there.0035

The approximate ph for the human bloodstream is 7.4 ever so slightly basic.0040

If that goes down to below 7 that is enough to kill a person because of the ph kills logarithmic and you want to keep it in a very particular range.0047

Your bloodstream has a lot to do with regulating that.0057

Restriction of fluid loss during an injury.0061

If you do have a cut, you are bleeding or hemorrhaging some are carried into your blood in able to stop that.0062

Defense against pathogens and toxins.0071

White blood cells or the parts of the blood that are primarily protecting you and killing off foreign invaders.0074

Regulation of body temperature that is very important as well.0080

Before I move on I want to show you what these are.0084

This is your old average red blood cell.0086

This is a platelet and this is a white blood cell.0090

More often than not white blood cells or leukocytes are going to be much larger than red blood cells but we do have a heck of a lot more red blood cells.0093

The ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells in the blood is approximately 1,000 to 1.0104

That is why your blood is usually red because of the red blood cells.0110

This is a micrograph.0114

This is an actual image.0115

It is not computer generated.0117

If you take a blood sample from a person and centrifuge it, spin around really fast, you will get a separation of all the blood parts by density.0119

Than densest parts specifically was called hematocrit.0130

Hematocrit is the solid blood parts majority which is red blood cells.0134

You are going to get that in certain parts of the body because those solid particles and cells are much more dense.0140

The fluid portion of blood is going to stay on the top.0147

When we look at all the portions let us start at the bottom.0151

Erythrocytes is the technical term for red blood cells.0154

Erythro means read and cyte means cell.0159

Approximately 45% of the average person's blood is the red blood cells.0163

The other part up next is the buffy coat.0169

There is this white band that tends to be a coming together of all of your white blood cells and platelets which are just slightly less dense than you compacted red blood cells.0173

Thrombocyte is the technical term for platelets.0184

Leukocyte is the technical term for white blood cells.0188

We will talk more about the functions of these later.0191

Plasma is the yellow fluid.0196

The particles dissolved in plasma would give you that yellow look.0199

There are lots of particles dissolved in the plasma, the actual fluid of your blood.0204

A lot of plasma most of it is water.0212

You also have gases, oxygen, CO2, and nitrogen gas.0216

There is a lot of them.0224

You are going to have nutrients, all those molecules that is meant to nourish your body.0224

On the flip side of that, our waste, those waste products that are going to be eventually excreted.0235

On top of all that you are going to have hormones.0244

A lot of hormones get all the different the cells via the fluid of your blood and you also have dissolved blood proteins.0249

Included in the nutrients are going to be amino acids and proteins that you are feeding your cells.0262

Your cells need proteins to function to stay alive.0271

These proteins they stick around the blood and they all have their own purposes.0274

The majority of these blood proteins is 60% of them approximately is the albumins.0279

Albumins are hanging around your blood to help maintain osmotic pressure.0284

If you took biology osmosis has to do with the passive or means moving without energy that the passive natural movement of water to where there is less water by concentration.0293

If you do not have as many albumins in your bloodstream as you do, there will be too much water flow.0304

Think about this, having blood proteins in your blood helps keep water there.0311

If there are a lot less then you actually would sometimes lose too much water out of your bloodstream.0318

Albumins help maintain that osmotic pressure in your body.0323

Next up globulins, there are 2 main kinds of globulins.0327

The one that you have probably heard most about is antibodies.0338

Antibodies is the type of globulin protein those are very specifically shaped molecules that are meant to attach and help the white blood cells attack foreign invaders.0345

They will attach to bacteria and viruses to immobilize them and to mark them so they can get destroyed us they cannot harm you.0357

Antibodies is one type of globulin.0365

Another type of globulin is a transport proteins.0368

There are certain substances in the bloodstream that are necessarily get along with water.0371

It might be non polar particle that does not dissolve well in the plasma.0376

Globulins that are the transport variety will sometimes be like a little shuttle or raft getting them through the blood stream.0381

Certain hormones need to be attached to globulins.0388

And finally the next major kind of blood protein is fibrinogen.0392

Fibrinogen is what you made fiber and out of.0398

Without fibrinogen you wouldn't be able to make a blood clot.0403

A blood clot is the way that you stop bleeding and it is very important.0406

There are the components of plasma and the other blood components.0410

How do blood cells get formed in your body?0414

Where do they originate?0418

Hemocytoblast tends to be hanging around in your bone marrow.0419

Hemocytoblasts as a fancy term for blood cell maker.0423

There is one major kind of stem cell and that is a hemocytoblast that through mitotic divisions by dividing makes different lines or lineages of cells.0429

So for instance where you get this from is the hemocytoblast.0441

The prorythroblast eventually leads to the formation of red blood cells erythrocytes.0445

This particular lineage leads to a certain kind of a white blood cell of leukocytes called granulocytes because they have little granules in a cell.0451

It looks like they are little dots, little particles in the cells.0460

On the other hand you this other kind of white blood cell that are called A granulocytes meaning not having those granules.0463

Monocytes and lymphocytes they come from a slightly difference daughter cell from oligoblast and monoblast.0470

Finally myocarioblasts turn to make ocariocytes and eventually the split up portions of that end up being thrombocytes which are platelets.0478

And all of these are in the bone marrow and end up in your bloodstream every second of every day of your life.0490

Red blood cells let us start with those first.0495

They made up the majority of the hematocrit of blood.0500

Erythrocytes the technical term for blood cells are shaped like a biconcave disks.0502

Here is an image of what red blood cells look like up close.0508

From a superior view of red blood cell they should look round and there is a little indentation in the middle.0512

It almost looks like a donut that does not have a full hole in it.0520

If you were to take this and then cut it there and flip the cells, you can see on the side they would look like this.0523

Biconcave disk you see that like both sides are concave and has this shape.0532

Making up the majority of the protein inside of it is something called hemoglobin.0539

The interesting thing about the reason why the shape is this way is some of it has to do with the fact they are enucleated.0544

This is one of those rare examples in the body of cells that do not have a nucleus.0551

An interesting thing is that in addition to them not having a nucleus they need, they excreted it before they end up flowing around your bloodstream.0556

They also do have mitochondria and do not have ribosomes.0565

They are not doing a lot of cellular activity that your cells tend to do just to stay alive.0568

These only last for so long and eventually get damaged but the other reason why not having something like mitochondria is important here.0574

Is if these had mitochondria in them and the purpose of red blood cell is to shutter or carry oxygen to your body,0582

If there is a mitochondria here the mitochondria of red blood can steal the oxygen off of this oxygen raft.0590

That would not be good.0596

You want to have these things just delivering oxygen to the cells that are keeping your tissues alive.0598

If they do not have a nucleus and mitochondria they are just jam packed with this protein called hemoglobin that has a high affinity for oxygen.0603

It is like a magnet for oxygen.0612

And this protein allows it to be like an oxygen raft.0615

I like to think of oxygen as sitting back and enjoying its ride on the red blood cell until it gets to a capillary and ends up finding its temporary home.0618

Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin, depending on whether or not the oxygen is attached to the red blood cell and physically attached hemoglobin is a slightly different color.0630

When oxygen is on hemoglobin it looks red.0641

When there is no oxygen on hemoglobin it tends to look like a deep and dark purplish that can oftentimes look blue.0645

And that is how you get that low with veins being slightly blueish in the systemic circuit.0653

The arteries and arterials being more reddish because of the particular part of the blood vessels that have oxygen attachment vs. No oxygen attachment.0659

Red blood cells last up to 4 months.0670

Some of them last a lot less time than that because they can get damaged as they are moving through, get the shuttle through your bloodstream they get damaged.0672

They get ruined and they breakdown and since they do not have a nucleus and those other organelles they are not repairing themselves.0683

You getting rid of at least a million red blood cells every second of every day and you are also making that many.0689

You can get away with having these damaged red blood cells because you are making 1 – 3,000,000 new red blood cells and have those entering the bloodstream every second.0697

This is very well because I have seen textbooks say 1,000,000 and other textbooks say 3,000,000.0707

There is a range.0713

It depends on the person, depends on their size, depends on how me liters of blood in their body.0715

Breakdown and renewal of red blood cells.0721

In the liver, spleen, or bone marrow that is where red blood cells eventually end their journey.0726

They are engulfed by cells there and something called hemolysis.0734

The hemolysis causes them to rupture.0741

They are broken down and they end up you take the hemoglobin molecule which is right here.0743

This is like an inorganic chemistry styled model of the molecule.0749

At each corner here you have carbons, you can see where there are not carbons in the corners between these bonds nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.0755

In the center here is iron.0763

Iron is a very critical element with the formation of hemoglobin.0766

What happens is as the red blood cells are being stripped apart, the hemo part of this hemoglobin which is what the iron is needed for that0770

gets broken apart and ends up producing a molecule called bilivirdin.0780

Bilivirdin looks slightly greenish.0785

If you get certain bruises you may seem like some bruises have like a greenish tone and that is because the pressure that cause the breaking of the capillaries was so great0789

That you have damage and broke apart many hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells that the bilivirdin end up leaking out0803

into the interstitial space and giving that green color.0810

Eventually all of that goes away because you have white blood cells that go up and has swallowed up all that excess stuff and clean it up.0813

Eventually bilivirdin is converted to bilirubin.0820

And bilirubin has more of a yellowish, yellow orange tone.0823

Bilirubin is related to jaundice.0827

What is happening is a bilirubin is supposed to be brought to the liver in your bloodstream and then bilirubin eventually ends up in bile.0831

Bile ends up in your digestive tract.0842

But if your liver is not doing a very good job of dealing with that bilirubin, may be blood flows in the liver0845

something is wrong with it you will get a buildup of bilirubin around the body.0857

It can end up showing through in your skin.0861

Jaundice is that yellow look all over the skin and even the white of the eyes.0864

Something like hepatitis which is an infection of liver is going to lead to that happening and that is because of the bilirubin.0870

Erythropoiesis makes new red blood cells.0878

EPO stands for erythropoietin.0881

EPO is the hormone and erythropoiesis is the process of making red blood cells.0888

That is going to be that one lineage I have showed you on the previous slide that comes from hemocytoblasts but ends up making red blood cell specifically.0893

When it comes to blood transfusions you have to make sure that if someone needs blood, they have lost blood,0902

you need to give them blood from a donor that has to be compatibility.0910

If not you are getting to get some problems happening.0914

I will tell you how those problems occur.0918

Let us look at the surface of each of these different kinds of red blood cells and these different blood types and what is also in the plasma and see how they go together.0920

If we look around the surface of a red blood cell of somebody who has type A blood, let us say that on the surface there are these little molecules.0928

These little antigens projecting through the plasma membrane.0940

This is an A antigen.0948

Antigen is a general term for some kind of a molecule usually it is protein issues.0953

It is made up of proteins and sometimes there are lipid characters next to them .0961

Even the ones on the surface of a bacterium, a bacterial cell you can call those antigens and use that term0964

and in the case of how antibodies that your body produces are going to be attached to there.0972

There are antibodies with respect to this too.0977

This is a red blood cell that belongs in a person's body and they have this kind of antigen on the surface and I am giving it that square shape.0980

The person with A blood has an antibody that goes against B blood.0988

Right next to it you are going to have antibodies that look like this.0993

In later lessons in the immune system or lymphatic system lesson you will see that the actual structure of antibodies is more y shaped.0998

For the case of keeping this simple I am keeping it like this.1010

These 2 here are called anti B because they are against B blood antibodies.1013

You will see what this means in a second.1022

I am going to show you what is on the surface of B blood cells.1029

By the way they would be a lot more antigens than I am drawing but I cannot draw that in this particular instance, just keeping it simple.1034

This is actually a B antigen.1046

A B antigen is different shape, different kind of confirmation, different molecular shape than this particular image here.1051

B blood in the plasma in that fluid floating around you have the opposite going on.1061

You have antibodies that would look like this.1067

It looks like H but use your imagination.1070

This would be floating around in these particular antibodies.1074

Guess what anti A antibodies.1080

The problem with somebody who has A blood giving them B blood from that other person is that in the person with A blood they got this floating around.1087

They get these and these and when you put this blood into their body you have added red blood cells that is what they we are missing.1100

That is what they need to stay alive but you have also introduced anti A antibodies.1109

These are going to attach to there, they have a perfect fit and it is good cause red blood cells to come together because when antibodies see this little space attaches that antigen.1116

Imagine them just having antibodies all around them and then having other red blood cells come together that is called agglutination.1126

That is going to form an abnormal clot that does not belong there.1135

The other problem is when you have added in this kind of red blood cell, look what they have in their bloodstream here, they have got the anti B antibodies.1138

That is going to cause a problem.1146

Some people around you just take out the antibodies but like I have said just the fact you are putting this particular cell into their bloodstream1147

you cannot get rid of all the anti B antibodies in that person's blood flow.1156

It is just not possible.1161

These do not go together.1163

Next up AB blood the reason why it is called AB blood because it has both A and B antigens.1165

It is got A antigens and also have B antigens.1176

But guess what no antibodies to the A or B antigens.1179

Now there are antibodies in this person's bloodstream yes but they are not actually going to have antibodies against what is naturally on the surface of the red blood cells.1186

The amazing thing about having AB blood is you can give that person almost any kind of blood because1198

they do not have antibodies floating around their plasmas that is going to cause problems.1205

You can put this in as long as you take out the anti A antibodies because you can strain them out as long as you take out these antibodies1209

they will have no trouble with these kinds of red blood cells.1221

No big deal.1224

I have heard that you can still put donor blood into a person's body with antibodies for this person as AB as long as you slowly put it in the antibodies do not cause as much of a trouble.1225

Screening or taking them out is going to give them what they need.1238

They need these red blood cells.1243

In that case scenario they are going to give a person with AB blood AB blood but that is a rare blood type.1244

O blood let us check it out.1250

O blood cells I am drawing it like an O because they do not have the A antigen on surface and they do have the B antigen1252

but they have both kinds of antibodies naturally floating around their body.1258

Both antibodies that is why somebody like myself with O blood, I need O blood and even if you take out the antibodies from the donor1266

if you give me this cell I got these things floating in my plasma that are going to freak out and buy into and cause that clumping.1286

It is going to cut off blood flow to some important vital organs and it could kill me.1293

You can give O blood and the good news is that O blood is very common.1298

Depending on what country you are in the percentage with O blood can be a little less but in the US O blood is the most common.1304

Next up Rh factor this is either Rh + or Rh - and this is named after the fact that it was discovered in the Rhesus monkey.1311

The word Rhesus is not like a candy, it is Rhesus.1321

The rhesus monkey that discover this, this comes from a separate gene.1328

Whether or not you are O or AB that comes from a certain genotype.1331

You can hear it this is on a different gene.1336

Think of it this way.1338

If you are Rh + you have an additional antigen on the surface.1339

By the way before I move on and forget, the O red blood cell I do not want you think it has no antigens at all.1343

There are lots of different kinds of antigens and the surface in my red blood cells are going to have antigens projecting out from the plasma membrane.1350

They are not going to have the A and B antigens.1359

The Rh factor if you are H+ you have an additional antigen.1361

Think of it as like this.1366

Let us say this is an O red blood cell.1367

Here is another O red blood cell.1370

If you are Rh + you might have this additional little antigen sticking out from the surface.1371

If you are Rh - you do not have any of them.1379

You do not have that particular antigen.1386

It is the lack of the antigen that is why it is negative.1389

The way this comes into play is I told you earlier that AB blood if you have that you can be given almost any blood type.1391

The reason why it cannot be any oftentimes is if you are AB- that means your AB cells or AB red blood cells do not have this particular antigen.1398

If you introduce let us say O+ blood your body could actually end up attacking those red blood cells with antibodies because you are not used to it.1412

If you are AB- they are going to give you O- or B-, or A-.1424

I am O+ so they can give me O- or O+.1431

Somebody who is O- they do not give O+ to that person.1437

If you are on the ER and they need to give you blood transfusion within a matter of minutes with a test they can figure out which of these blood types you are.1440

Sometimes they do not have minutes.1449

Sometimes somebody who is bleeding profusely close to death in that case they will give them O- blood if it is on supply.1451

Because they do not have enough time to wait.1459

They are just going to give them that one but if there is time, if they know a surgery is coming up,1461

they will try to get the precise type of blood that matches the blood that is actually in the body.1465

Here is a little chart that you can study that tells you which one goes with which in terms of the donor, getting to the recipients.1471

Like I said earlier if the donor is O+ like myself I cannot give to O-.1484

But guess what, O- can give to me.1491

If I'm the recipient I can actually get O- or O+ blood.1495

The yellow sections have to do with if its light yellow they are saying that you can give them plasma transfusions but not with the whole blood.1500

Bright yellow that is full blood transfusions.1510

White means no of plasma compatibility meaning they would give that person was called whole blood or just hematocrit.1514

Hematocrit is a better name for the compacted red blood cells.1521

White blood cells also known as leukocytes.1529

Leukocytes come in many varieties and have an incredible ability to defend body.1537

Here are the main functions or abilities, they can migrate out of the bloodstream.1541

Amazingly a white blood cell can squeeze itself.1548

If you go inside of a capillary they can squeeze themselves through those endothelial cells into organs.1552

That is amazing their ability to migrate and hunt down these foreign bodies that cause problems.1558

They have an amoeboid movement.1565

If you have taken biology amoebas they have this ability to manipulate the shape of the plasma membrane and make it look like pseudopodia.1568

It looks like fake feet extending out and that is by manipulating the cystoskeleton when they move their microfilaments.1578

That part of the cytoskeleton, those protein strands, they pole and let go on parts of the plasma membrane and1586

That allows them to wrap around and swallow particular foreign invaders.1592

It also aids in their ability to squeeze out of blood vessels by narrowing cells.1598

They are attracted to the specific stimuli depending on white blood cells you are talking about.1605

They are able hone in on certain kinds of foreign bodies, bacteria, certain bacteria, certain viruses, even parasites.1609

Most of them do phagocytosis which means cell eating.1616

It is a form of endocytosis where they are wrapping a plasma membrane around the foreign body, taking it in1622

And that little sack which now contains the bacteria were have you will fuse with lysosomes1628

Or little cellular organelles that have enzymes that can digest that particular foreign invader and kill it.1634

There are some abilities of white blood cells.1640

The first class of white blood cells that I will tell you about is granulocytes.1644

Like I have said before they have little granules in their cytoplasm.1648

A lot of these granules you are seeing is lysosomes and enzymes.1652

A lot of them are meant to be there because these are cells that kill.1657

Neutrophils about 50 to 70% of white blood cells very common.1663

They are meant to swallow up foreign invaders and are typically on the front lines.1667

If you have an infection they are usually the first ones there and considering how many of them there are relative1671

to the other white blood cells the chances of them getting there first is very good.1677

They are there on the front lines like they use that term wit war in an army.1681

Eosinophils is a lot less 2 to 4% of white blood cells.1689

They attack objects with antibody.1694

If antibodies, these globular proteins have been attached to a certain bacteria, eosinophils notice it.1697

It got antibodies on it like a marker and they go and eat it up.1704

They are great at attacking parasites.1709

If you have a parasitic infection like let us say a tapeworm, your eosinophil count is going to go up because they are good attacking parasites.1712

And the increasing number during allergic reactions.1722

Allergic reactions depend on the person.1725

Allergic reactions probably happen because of a combination of genetics and environment affecting that have normal immune response.1727

But eosinophils play a role in that.1736

You can see that each of these pictures they have this weird thing going on in the middle it is called a multi lobed nucleus.1739

It is like a nucleus with a few different sections.1747

Neutrophils oftentimes will have many lobes.1750

Eosinophils classically have bilobed, 2 lobed nucleus.1753

Basophils the smallest percentage in granulocytes.1758

They assist with mast cells in producing inflammation, expanding blood vessels in an area and that is a classic response when you have an infection or damage to an area.1763

Agranulocytes is the opposite, meaning they do not have those granules.1774

They look not quite as they have many dots on them.1782

Monocyte is one type of a granulocyte that is about 2-8% of white blood cells just depending.1784

They are the largest white blood cells.1793

They are large compared to the others.1795

They are great at endocystosis.1798

Like I have mentioned before with the amoeba action wrapping around and engulfing bacterium.1799

They tend to circulate in the bloodstream for about a day and then they end up in a tissue outside of the bloodstream as a macrophage.1807

Macrophage means giant eater.1819

Like I have said they are quite large.1820

Macrophages you will find those roaming around in tissues eaten up and stuff that should not be there.1822

Lymphocytes up 20 to 30% of white blood cells are lymphocytes.1829

They circulate in the blood of course but they also hang out in lymphatic organs like the spleen.1835

The thymus is another one has to do with it but the spleen is going to be a place that you are going to find a lot of lymphocytes.1841

Here are some examples of lymphocytes.1852

T cells have to do with a cell mediated immunity.1853

T cells they are going to be targeting particular invaders as they come in.1857

T cells some other call them helper T cells.1866

You may have heard that term before because HIV is a virus that has the most impact on the helper T cells.1870

HIV apparently can invade a lot of different kinds of white blood cells but the clinical problems associated with HIV and AIDS has mostly have to do with their impact on helper T cells.1877

There is a certain kind of protein on the surface of those cells and HIV basically has the key it fits into the lock that allows it to get into those cells and cause problems.1889

B cells are a little bit different.1901

They have to do with the manufacturing of antibodies based on the things that you are exposed to be.1904

Based on certain viruses, certain bacteria you are exposed to.1911

I remember that because anti body with a B, B cell anti body.1915

Lastly is the natural killer.1920

They are natural killer cells because they roam around the body and they target abnormal cells in your tissues.1923

So if you have some odd cell growth that is not correct, it is not healthy, they will eat that tissue.1933

Having a good natural killer cells makes it less likely you are going to get cancer.1940

I mean getting the long term metastasis, cancer that grows and spreads because if you have deficiency of a natural killer cells you are going to get out of control cell growth eventually.1945

Natural killer cells help with that.1958

Platelets, thrombocytes is the technical term for platelets.1961

They do look like pieces of a shattered plate.1966

It is like you took a plate and then all these little pieces, all these little red parts come together.1969

Those are platelets aggregating, coming together.1976

These cells do have many important roles related to clotting blood.1979

They release chemicals to help encourage the occurrence of a clot, of that plug in a sense.1983

They form a temporary patch on the walls of damaged vessels.1990

If you have a cut that is causing the leaking of blood, platelets are what you will see come there and kind of patch it up.1993

They help in contraction to reduce clot size so eventually you want to start to make a clot not as big so2000

they help get the clot kind of a flatter in reducing its size once healing has begun to occur.2012

Hemostasis basically means like keeping blood where it should be.2019

It is the stoppage of bleeding or hemorrhaging.2027

There are few different phases, when you have a cut in a blood vessel the first thing that is going to happen is the vascular phase.2031

There will be certain stimulation that causes that blood vessel to decrease in diameter and least for a bit2038

because the immediate thing you want to do is stop a lot of blood from getting out of there.2046

Reducing the width of it is going to do that.2052

It is endothelial cells right next to where the blood is.2055

If you saw the blood vessel lesson, endothelium is where all the blood is rushing to, that inner layer.2059

They are going to release those chemical factors that have to do with that.2065

Next is the platelet phase.2069

If you have platelets in your bloodstream is just floating all around and then they are stimulated to aggravate there, to come there and kind of bind to one another.2071

It is almost like a glue in a sense that is trying to get that vessel patched together so that you do not have as much blood coming out of it.2081

And that is going to cause the release from the platelets of more chemicals like ATP and clotting factors.2092

ATP if you have taken biology this is the same ADP that you get when ATP adenosine try phosphates broken apart is adenosine die phosphate.2098

And that is a chemical factor that can actually encourage the formation of a clot in your bloodstream.2107

Next is the coagulation or blood clotting phase.2113

The platelets have started to patch up this vessel cut but you also want to do a better job of patching up that area so that you do not have bits of blood leaking out through it.2117

In addition of platelets, fibrinogen one of those globular proteins is converted to fibrin.2132

It forms a net like structure that kind of catches red blood cells, that was like fish being caught in the net.2137

As they are caught in this net it forms a clot.2144

A plug that helps stop blood from exiting.2147

Eventually, once that blood vessel walls completely healed and you have new connective tissue making it nice and sound.2152

You want to get rid of the clot.2162

You do not want the clot to grow and hang around too long and reduce blood flow through the vessel once the healing has happened.2164

Fibrinolysis means getting rid of that fibrin or getting rid of that clot and making it go back into its little bits so that you do not have that big clump there when it is not needed anymore.2170

Some blood conditions and disorders.2187

Some of this overlaps with the blood vessel lessons from before.2193

I am using the same pictures here because blood is running through blood vessels.2196

Hemorrhaging is the leaking of blood out of blood vessels.2200

Internal hemorrhaging can be a very bad thing.2204

Thrombus is blood clot that should not be there and if it gets dislodge and eventually moves along through the bloodstream that is an embolism.2207

An embolism, embolist gets caught and becomes an embolism.2219

Depending on where embolism happens that can restrict blood flow to the lungs, to the heart, brain, and it could result in fatality.2223

On anemia basically means that you are not producing enough red blood cells or the red blood cells you are producing are not getting the job done.2232

The main way people get anemia is they are not taking enough iron.2242

You need iron to produce hemoglobin which is a critical part of red blood cells.2247

If your iron intake is low you are going to feel fatigued and tired and there is other long-term health effects that happen because of anemia.2253

Being chronically anemic can shorter lifespan.2261

Doctors will tell you if you are anemic eat more red meat and that is a problem for vegetarian but red meats has a high iron content compared to some other meats.2265

That can encourage your body to make more red blood cells through erythropoeisis.2276

Sickle cell disease is also called sickle cell anemia this is an example of where you may be producing the right amount of red blood cells2283

but the red blood cells are producing are not doing the job of binding oxygen and may be getting caught when they should not.2291

Sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia something you are born with and there is a gene corresponding to the shape of hemoglobin.2298

And the amazing thing is that all the amino acids that are put together to make hemoglobin it is a point mutation.2307

It is one DNA base that is wrong and that impacts where the amino acids and changes the whole structure of hemoglobin.2314

Instead of the cells looking like this, that round shape with a little indent, they will look like this like a sickle.2321

That shape means hemoglobin is not doing as good of a job at binding oxygen effectively.2333

The shape also causes these red blood cells to get caught in certain parts the body.2341

There are long-term negative health effects of having sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia.2347

Hemophilia is another genetic disorder.2352

Unlike sickle cell disease which is a autosomal disease meaning not sex linked.2357

Hemophilia the most common form is sex linked.2361

It is on the X chromosome and if you have taken biology you may have remember that because of the X chromosome it affects more males than women.2365

Males only have one X chromosome and females have 2.2373

All it takes is one harmful recessive allele on that 1 X chromosome to give them hemophilia.2376

It takes the inheritance of that allele from both parents in women.2382

Hemophilia this literally means living blood.2387

Ironically someone who is hemophiliac would not love to see blood.2390

The reason why it has that name is because when they get cut, blood keeps coming.2395

They do not have the ability to properly and actually clot their blood.2399

On that is a problem.2403

There are so many different factors like 20 factors that have to do with this domino effect that leads to the formation of a clot.2406

I gave you a very brief summary of how clot is formed but it is a very complicated chemical process.2418

Being a hemophiliac something is wrong with that sequence of how a clot is formed and you do not have the proper blood proteins to do that.2424

There is no cure but if you are hemophiliac you can carry around something that allows you2434

to inject clotting factors when you do get a cut or you have to take a trip to the ER to deal with that.2440

Leukemia is a of bone marrow cancer.2446

Leukemia one of initial signs it is actually overproduction of leukocytes because what all cancers have in common is, it is mitosis out of control.2450

It is too much growth within that tissue and that can impact neighboring healthy tissues.2461

Cancer of the bone marrow you are going to be producing way more white blood cells than you should.2467

Leukemia is fatal if that person does not get a bone marrow transplant.2473

Thank you for watching this blood lesson and thank you for watching