Enter your Sign on user name and password.

Forgot password?
Sign In | Subscribe
Start learning today, and be successful in your academic & professional career. Start Today!

Use Chrome browser to play professor video
Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Blood

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Anatomy & Physiology
Introduction to Anatomy & Physiology

25m 34s

Intro
0:00
Anatomy vs. Physiology
0:06
Anatomy
0:17
Pericardium
0:24
Physiology
0:57
Organization of Matter
1:38
Atoms
1:49
Molecules
2:54
Macromolecules
3:28
Organelles
4:17
Cells
5:01
Tissues
5:58
Organs
7:15
Organ Systems
7:42
Organisms
8:26
Relative Positions
8:41
Anterior vs. Posterior
9:14
Ventral vs. Dorsal is the Same as Anterior vs. Posterior for Human Species
11:03
Superior vs. Inferior
11:52
Examples
12:13
Medial vs. Lateral
12:39
Examples
13:01
Proximal vs. Distal
13:36
Examples
13:53
Superficial Vs. Deep
14:57
Examples
15:17
Body Planes
16:07
Coronal (Frontal) Plane
16:38
Sagittal Plane
17:16
Transverse (Horizontal) Plane
17:52
Abdominopelvic Regions
18:37
4 Quadrants
19:07
Right Upper Quadrant
19:47
Left Upper Quadrant
19:57
Right Lower Quadrant
20:06
Left Lower Quadrant
20:16
9 Regions
21:09
Right Hypochondriac
21:33
Left Hypochondriac
22:20
Epicastric Region
22:39
Lumbar Regions: Right and Left Lumbar
22:59
Umbilical Region
23:32
Hypogastric (Pubic) Region
23:46
Right and Left Inguinal (Iliac) Region
24:10
Tissues

38m 25s

Intro
0:00
Tissue Overview
0:05
Epithelial Tissue
0:27
Connective Tissue
1:04
Muscle Tissue
1:20
Neural Tissue
1:49
Histology
2:01
Epithelial Tissue
2:25
Attached to a 'Basal Lamina'
2:42
Avascular
3:38
Consistently Damaged by Environmental Factors
4:43
Types of Epithelium
5:35
Cell Structure / Shape
5:40
Layers
5:46
Example
5:52
Simple Squamous Epithelium
6:39
Meant for Areas That Need a High Rate of Diffusion / Osmosis
6:50
Locations: Alveolar Walls, Capillary Walls
7:15
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
9:10
Meant for Areas That Deal with a Lot of Friction
9:20
Locations: Epidermis of Skin, Esophagus, Vagina
9:27
Histological Slide of Esophagus / Stomach Connection
10:46
Simple Columnar Epithelium
12:02
Meant for Absorption / Secretion Typically
12:09
Locations: Lining of the Stomach, Intestines
13:08
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
13:29
Meant for Protection
14:07
Locations: Epiglottis, Anus, Urethra
14:14
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
14:46
Meant for Protection / Secretion
16:06
Locations: Lining of the Trachea / Bronchi
16:25
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
16:51
Meant for Mainly Secretion / Absorption
16:56
Locations: Kidney Tubules, Thyroid Gland
17:14
Stratified Cubodial Epithelium
18:18
Meant for Protection, Secretion, Absorption
18:52
Locations: Lining of Sweat Glands
19:04
Transitional Epithelium
19:15
Meant for Stretching and Recoil
19:17
Locations: Urinary Bladder, Uterus
20:36
Glandular Epithelium
20:43
Merocrine
21:19
Apocrine
22:58
Holocrine
24:01
Connective Tissues
25:06
Most Abundant Tissue
25:11
Connect and Bind Together All the Organs
25:20
Connective Tissue Fibers
26:13
Collagen Fibers
26:30
Elastic Fibers
27:55
Reticular Fibers
29:58
Connective Tissue Cells
30:52
Fibroblasts
30:57
Macrophages
31:33
Mast Cells
32:49
Lymphocytes
34:42
Adipocytes
35:03
Melanocytes
36:08
Connective Tissue Examples
36:39
Adipose Tissue
36:50
Tendons and Ligaments
37:23
Blood
38:06
Cartilage
38:30
Bone
38:51
Muscle
39:09
Integumentary System (Skin)

51m 15s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Skin
0:07
Protection
0:13
Absorption
0:43
Secretion
1:19
Heat Regulation
1:52
Aesthetics
2:21
Major Layers
3:50
Epidermis
3:59
Dermis
4:45
Subcutaneous Layer (Hypodermis)
5:36
The Epidermis
5:56
Most Superficial Layers of Skin
5:57
Epithelial
6:11
Cell Types
7:16
Cell Type: Melanocytes
7:26
Cell Type: Keratinocytes
9:39
Stratum Basale
10:54
Helps Form Finger Prints
11:11
Dermis
11:54
Middle Layers of the Skin
12:16
Blood Flow
12:20
Hair
13:59
Glands
15:41
Sebaceous Glands
15:46
Sweat Glands
16:32
Arrector Pili Muscles
19:18
Two Main Kinds of Hair: Vellus and Terminal
19:57
Nails
21:43
Cutaneous Receptors (Nerve Endings)
23:48
Subcutaneous Layer
25:00
Deepest Part of the Skin
25:01
Composed of Connective Tissue
25:04
Fat Storage
25:11
Blood Flow
25:43
Cuts and Healing
26:33
Step 1: Inflammation
26:54
Step 2: Migration
28:46
Step 3: Proliferation
30:39
Step 4: Maturation
31:50
Burns
32:44
1st Degree
33:50
2nd Degree
34:38
3rd Degree
35:18
4th Degree
36:27
Rule of Nines
36:49
Skin Conditions and Disorders
40:02
Scars
40:06
Moles
41:11
Freckles/ Birthmarks
41:48
Melanoma/ Carcinoma
42:44
Acne
45:23
Warts
47:16
Wrinkles
48:14
Psoriasis
49:12
Eczema/ Rosacea
49:41
Vitiligo
50:19
Skeletal System

19m 30s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Bones
0:04
Support
0:09
Storage
0:24
Production of Blood
1:01
Protection
1:12
Leverage
1:28
Bone Anatomy
1:43
Spongy Bone
2:02
Compact Bone
2:47
Epiphysis / Diaphysis
3:01
Periosteum
3:38
Articular Cartilage
3:59
Lacunae
4:23
Canaliculi
5:07
Matrix
5:53
Osteons
6:21
Central Canal
7:00
Medullary Cavity
7:21
Bone Cell Types
7:39
Osteocytes
7:44
Osteoblasts
8:12
Osteoclasts
8:18
Bone Movement in Relation to Levers
10:11
Fulcrum
10:26
Resistance
10:50
Force
11:01
Factors Affecting Bone Growth
11:24
Nutrition
11:28
Hormones
12:28
Exercise
13:19
Bone Marrow
13:58
Red Marrow
14:04
Yellow Marrow
14:46
Bone Conditions / Disorders
15:06
Fractures
15:09
Osteopenia
17:12
Osteoporosis
17:51
Osteochondrodysplasia
18:22
Rickets
18:43
Axial Skeleton

35m 2s

Intro
0:00
Axial Skeleton
0:05
Skull
0:21
Hyoid
0:25
Vertebral Column
0:29
Thoracic Cage
0:32
Skull
0:35
Cranium
0:42
Sphenoid
0:58
Ethmoid
1:12
Frontal Bone
1:32
Sinuses
1:39
Sutures
2:50
Parietal Bones
3:29
Sutures
3:30
Most Superior / Lateral Cranial Bones
3:50
Fontanelles
4:17
Temporal Bones
5:00
Zygomatic Process
5:14
External Auditory Meatus
5:43
Mastoid Process
6:07
Styloid Process
6:28
Mandibular Fossa
7:04
Carotid Canals
7:50
Occipital Bone
8:12
Foramen Magnum
8:30
Occipital Condyle
9:03
Jugular Foramina
9:35
Sphenoid Bone
10:11
Forms Part of the Inferior Portion of the Cranium
10:39
Connects Cranium to Facial Bones
10:51
Has a Pair of Sinuses
11:06
Sella Turcica
11:26
Optic Canals
12:02
Greater/ Lesser Wings
12:19
Superior View of Cranium Interior
12:33
Ethmoid Bone
13:09
Forms the Superior Portion of Nasal Cavity
13:16
Images Contain the Crista Galli, Nasal Conchae, Perpendicular Plate, and 2 Sinuses
13:54
Maxillae
15:29
Holds the Upper Teeth, Forms the Inferior Portion of the Orbit, and Make Up the Upper Jaw and Hard Palate
15:50
Palatine Bones
16:17
Nasal Cavity Bones
16:55
Nasal Bones
17:07
Vomer
17:43
Interior Nasal Conchae
18:01
Sagittal Cross Section Through the Skull
19:03
More Facial Bones
19:45
Zygomatic Bones
19:57
Lacrimal Bones
20:12
Mandible
20:58
Lower Jaw Bone
20:59
Mandibular Condyles
21:05
Hyoid Bone
21:39
Supports the Larynx
21:47
Does Not Articular with Any Other Bones
22:02
Vertebral Column
22:45
26 Bones
22:49
There Are Cartilage Pads Called 'Intervertebral Discs' Between Each Vertebra
23:00
Vertebral Curvatures
24:55
Cervical
25:00
Thoracic
25:02
Lumbar
25:05
Atlas
25:28
Axis
26:20
Pelvic
28:20
Vertebral Column Side View
28:33
Sacrum/ Coccyx
29:29
Sacrum Has 5 Pieces
30:20
Coccyx Usually Has 4 Pieces
30:43
Thoracic Cage
31:00
12 Pairs of Ribs
31:05
Sternum
31:30
Costal Cartilage
33:22
Appendicular Skeleton

13m 53s

Intro
0:00
Pectoral Girdle
0:05
Clavicles
0:25
Scapulae
1:06
Arms
2:47
Humerus
2:50
Radius
3:56
Ulna
4:11
Carpals
4:57
Metacarpals
5:48
Phalanges
6:09
Pelvic Girdle
7:51
Coxal Bones / Coxae
7:57
Ilium
8:09
Ischium
8:16
Pubis
8:21
Male vs. Female
9:24
Legs
10:05
Femer
10:11
Patella
11:14
Tibia
11:34
Fibula
11:52
Tarsals
12:24
Metatarsals
13:03
Phalanges
13:21
Articulations (Joints)

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Types of Joints
0:06
Synarthrosis
0:16
Amphiarthrosis
0:44
Synovial (Diarthrosis)
0:54
Kinds of Immovable Joints
1:09
Sutures
1:15
Gomphosis
2:17
Synchondrosis
2:44
Synostosis
4:59
Types of Amphiarthroses
5:31
Syndesmosis
5:36
Symphysis
6:07
Synovial Joint Anatomy
6:49
Articular Cartilage
7:04
Joint Capsule
7:49
Synovial Membrane
8:27
Bursae
8:48
Spongy / Compact Bone
9:28
Periosteum
10:12
Synovial Joint Movements
10:34
Flexion / Extension
10:41
Abduction / Adduction
10:58
Supination / Pronation
11:58
Depression / Elevation
13:10
Retraction / Protraction
13:21
Circumduction
13:35
Synovial Joint Types (By Movement)
13:56
Hinge
14:04
Pivot
14:53
Gliding
15:15
Ellipsoid
15:57
Saddle
16:29
Ball & Socket
17:14
Knee Joint
17:49
Typical Synovial Joint Parts
18:03
Menisci
18:32
ACL Anterior Cruciate
19:50
PCL Posterior Cruciate
20:34
Patellar Ligament
20:56
Joint Disorders / Conditions
21:45
Arthritis
21:48
Bunions
23:26
Bursitis
24:33
Dislocations
25:23
Hyperextension
26:01
Muscular System

53m 7s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Muscles
0:06
Movement
0:09
Maintaining Body Position
1:11
Support of Soft Tissues
1:25
Regulating Entrances / Exits
1:56
Maintaining Body Temperature
2:33
3 Major Types of Muscle Cells (Fibers)
2:58
Skeletal (Striated)
3:21
Smooth
4:11
Cardiac
4:54
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy
5:49
Fascia
6:24
Epimysium
6:47
Fascicles
7:21
Perimysium
7:38
Muscle Fibers
8:04
Endomysium
8:31
Myofibrils
8:49
Sarcomeres
9:20
Skeletal Muscle Anatomy Images
9:32
Sarcomere Structure
12:33
Myosin
12:40
Actin
12:45
Z Line
12:51
A Band
13:11
I Band
13:39
M Line
14:10
Another Depiction of Sarcomere Structure
14:34
Sliding Filament Theory
15:11
Explains How Sarcomeres Contract
15:14
Tropomyosin
15:24
Troponin
16:02
Calcium Binds to Troponin, Causing It to Shift Tropomyosin
17:31
Image Examples
18:35
Myosin Heads Dock and Make a Power Stroke
19:02
Actin Filaments Are Pulled Together
19:49
Myosin Heads Let Go of Actin
19:59
They 'Re-Cock' Back into Position for Another Docking
20:19
Relaxation of Muscles
21:11
Ending Stimulation at the Neuromuscular Junction
21:50
Getting Calcium Ions Back Into the Sarcophasmic Reticulum
23:59
ATP Availability
24:15
Rigor Mortis
24:45
More on Muscles
26:22
Oxygen Debt
26:24
Lactic Acid
28:29
Creatine Phosphate
28:55
Fast vs. Slow Twitch Fibers
29:57
Muscle Names
32:24
4 Characteristics: Function, Location, Size, Orientation
32:27
Examples
32:36
Major Muscles
33:51
Head
33:52
Torso
38:05
Arms
40:47
Legs
42:01
Muscular Disorders
45:02
Muscular Dystrophy
45:08
Carpel Tunnel
45:56
Hernia
47:07
Ischemia
47:55
Botulism
48:22
Polio
48:46
Tetanus
49:06
Rotator Buff Injury
49:54
Mitochondrial Diseases
50:11
Compartment Syndrome
50:54
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva
51:44
Nervous System Part I: Neurons

40m 7s

Intro
0:00
Neuron Function
0:06
Basic Cell of the Nervous System
0:07
Sensory Reception
0:31
Motor Stimulation
0:47
Processing
1:07
Form = Function
1:33
Neuron Anatomy
1:47
Cell Body
2:17
Dendrites
2:34
Axon Hillock
3:00
Axon
3:17
Axolemma
3:38
Myelin Sheaths
4:07
Nodes of Ranvier
5:08
Axon Terminals
5:31
Synaptic Vesicles
5:59
Synapse
7:08
Neuron Varieties
9:04
Forms of Neurons Can Vary Greatly
9:08
Examples
9:11
Action Potentials
10:57
Electrical Changes Along a Neuron Membrane That Allow Signaling to Occur
11:17
Na+ / K+ Channels
11:24
Threshold
12:39
Like an 'Electric Wave'
13:50
A Neuron At Rest
13:56
Average Neuron at Rest Has a Potential of -70 mV
14:00
Lots of Na+ Outside
15:44
Lots of K+ Inside
16:15
Action Potential Steps
16:37
Threshold Reached
17:58
Depolarization
18:29
Repolarization
19:38
Hyperpolarization
20:41
Back to Resting Potential
21:05
Action Potential Depiction
21:38
Intracellular Space
21:43
Extracellular Space
21:46
Saltatory Conduction
22:41
Myelinated Neurons
22:49
Propagation is Key to Spreading Signal
23:16
Leads to the Axon Terminals
24:07
Synapses and Neurotransmitters
24:59
Definition of Synapse
25:04
Definition of Neurotransmitters
12:13
Example
26:06
Neurotransmitter Function Across a Synapse
27:19
Action Potential Depolarizes Synaptic Knob
27:28
Calcium Enters Synaptic Cleft to Trigger Vesicles to Fuse with Membrane
27:47
Ach Binds to Receptors on the Postsynaptic Membrane
29:08
Inevitable the Ach is Broken Down by Acetylcholinesterase
30:20
Inhibition vs. Excitation
30:44
Neurotransmitters Have an Inhibitory or Excitatory Effect
31:03
Sum of Two or More Neurotransmitters in an Area Dictates Result
31:13
Example
31:18
Neurotransmitter Examples
34:18
Norepinephrine
34:25
Dopamine
34:52
Serotonin
37:34
Endorphins
38:00
Nervous System Part 2: Brain

1h 7m 43s

Intro
0:00
The Brain
0:07
Part of the Central Nervous System
1:06
Contains Neurons and Neuroglia
1:22
Brain Development
4:34
Neural Tube
4:39
At 3 Weeks
5:03
At 6 Weeks
6:21
At Birth
8:05
Superficial Brain Structure
10:08
Grey vs. White Matter
10:43
Convolution
11:29
Gyrus
12:26
Lobe
13:16
Sulcus
13:39
Fissure
14:09
Cerebral Cortex
14:31
The Cerebrum
14:57
The 'Higher Brain'
15:00
Corpus Callosum
15:53
Divided Into Lobes
16:16
Frontal Lobe
16:41
Involved in Intelligent Thought, Planning, Sense of Consequence, and Rationalization
16:50
Prefrontal Cortex
17:09
Phineas Gage Example
17:21
Primary Motor Cortex
19:05
Broca's Area
20:38
Parietal Lobe
21:34
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
21:50
Wernicke Area
24:06
Imagination and Dreaming
25:21
Gives A Sense of Where Your Body Is in Space
25:44
Temporal Lobe
26:18
Auditory Cortex
26:24
Auditory Association Area
27:00
Olfactory Cortex
27:35
Hippocampi
27:58
Occipital Lobe
28:39
Visual Cortex
28:42
Visual Association Area
28:51
Corpus Callosum
30:07
Strip of White Matter That Connects the Hemispheres of the Cerebrum
30:09
Cutting This Will Help Minimize Harmful Seizures in Epileptics
30:41
Example
31:34
Limbic System
33:22
Establish Emotion, Link Higher and Lower Brain Functions, and Helps with Memory Storage
33:32
Amygdala
33:40
Cingulate Gyrus
34:50
Hippocampus
35:57
Located Within the Temporal Lobes
36:21
Allows Consolidation of Long Term memories
36:33
Patient 'H.M.'
39:03
Basal Nuclei
42:30
Coordination of Learned Movements
42:34
Inhibited by Dopamine
43:14
Olfactory Bulbs / Tracts
43:36
The Only Nerves That Go Directly Into the Cerebrum
44:11
Lie Just Inferior to Prefrontal Cortex of the Frontal Lobe
44:31
Ventricles
44:41
Cavities Deep Within the Cerebrum
44:43
Generate CSF
45:47
Importance of CSF
46:17
Diencephalon
46:39
Thalamus
46:55
Hypothalamus
47:14
Pineal Gland
49:30
Mesencephalon
50:17
Process Visual / Auditory Data
50:38
Reflexive Somatic Motor Responses Generated Here
50:44
Maintains Consciousness
51:07
Pons
51:15
Links Cerebellum With Other Parts of the Brain and Spinal Cord
51:33
Significant Role in Dreaming
51:52
Medulla Oblongata
51:57
Interior Part of Brain Stem
52:02
Contains the Cardiovascular, vasomotor, and Respiratory Centers
52:16
Reticular Formation
53:17
Numerous Nerves Ascend Into the Brain Through Here
53:35
Cerebellum
54:02
'Little Brain' in Latin
54:04
Inferior to Occipital Lobe, Posterior to Pons / Medulla
54:06
Arbor Vitae
54:29
Coordinates Motor Function and Balance
54:51
Meninges
55:39
Membranes That Wrap Around the Superficial Portion of the Brain and Spinal Cord
55:41
Helps Insulate the Central Nervous System and Regulate Blood Flow
55:55
Brain Disorders / Conditions
58:35
Seizures
58:39
Concussions
1:00:11
Meningitis
1:01:01
Stroke
1:01:42
Hemorrhage
1:02:44
Aphasia
1:03:08
Dyslexia
1:03:22
Disconnection Syndrome
1:04:11
Hydrocephalus
1:04:41
Parkinson Disease
1:05:17
Alzheimer Disease
1:05:50
Nervous System Part 3: Spinal Cord & Nerves

32m 6s

Intro
0:00
Nervous System Flowchart
0:08
Spinal Cord
3:59
Connect the Body to the Brain
4:01
Central Canal Contains CSF
4:59
Becomes the Cauda Equina
5:17
Motor vs. Sensory Tracts
6:07
Afferent vs. Efferent Neurons
7:01
Motor-Inter-Sensory
8:11
Dorsal Root vs. Ventral Root
9:07
Spinal Meninges
9:21
Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic
10:28
Fight or Flight
10:51
Rest and Digest
13:01
Reflexes
15:07
'Reflex Arc'
15:20
Types of Reflexes
17:00
Nerve Anatomy
19:49
Epineurium
20:19
Fascicles
20:27
Perineurium
20:51
Neuron
20:58
Endoneurium
21:06
Nerve Examples
21:43
Vagus Nerve
21:48
Sciatic Nerve
23:18
Radial Nerve
24:04
Facial Nerves
24:14
Optic Nerves
24:28
Spinal Cord Medical Terms
24:42
Lumbar Puncture
24:49
Epidural Block
25:57
Spinal Cord/ Nerve Disorders and Conditions
26:50
Meningitis
26:56
Shingles
27:12
Cerebral / Nerve Palsy
28:18
Hypesthesia
28:45
Multiple Sclerosis
29:46
Paraplegia/ Quadriplegia
30:48
Vision

58m 38s

Intro
0:00
Accessory Structures of the Eye
0:04
Eyebrows
0:15
Eyelids
1:22
Eyelashes
2:11
Skeletal Muscles
3:33
Conjunctiva
3:56
Lacrimal Glands
4:50
Orbital Fat
6:45
Outer (Fibrous) Tunic
7:24
Sclera
8:01
Cornea
8:46
Middle (Vascular) Tunic
10:27
Choroid
10:37
Iris
12:25
Pupil
14:54
Lens
15:18
Ciliary Bodies
16:51
Suspensory Ligaments
17:45
Vitreous Humor
18:13
Inner (Neural)Tunic
19:31
Retina
19:40
Photoreceptors
20:38
Macula
21:32
Optic Disc
22:48
Blind Spot Demonstration
23:34
Lens Function
25:28
Concave
25:48
Convex
26:58
Clear Image
28:11
Accommodation Problems
28:31
Emmetropia
28:32
Myopia
30:46
Hyperopia
32:00
Photoreceptor Structure
34:15
Rods
34:32
Cones
35:06
Bipolar Cells
37:32
Inner Segment
38:28
Outer Segment
38:43
Pigment Epithelium
41:11
Visual Pathways to the Occipital Lobe
41:58
Stereoscopic Vision
42:02
Optic Nerves
43:32
Optic Chiasm
44:25
Optic Tract
46:28
Occipital Lobe
46:58
Vision Disorders / Conditions
48:03
Myopia / Hyperopia
48:10
Cataracts
49:11
Glaucoma
50:22
Astigmatism
52:14
Color Blindness
53:12
Night Blindness
54:51
Scotomas
55:19
Retinitis Pigmentosa
55:46
Detached Retina
56:06
Hearing

36m 57s

Intro
0:00
External Ear
0:04
Auricle
0:22
External Acoustic Meatus
1:49
Hair
2:32
Ceruminous Glands
3:04
Tympanic Membrane
3:53
Middle Ear
5:31
Tympanic Cavity
5:47
Auditory Tube
5:50
Auditory Ossicles
7:52
Tympanic Muscles
9:19
Auditory Ossicles
12:02
Inner Ear
13:06
Cochlea
13:23
Vestibule
13:30
Semicircular Canals
13:36
Cochlea
13:57
Organ of Corti
14:44
Vestibular Duct
15:03
Cochlear Duct
15:11
Tympanic Duct
15:20
Basilar Membrane
16:30
Tectorial Membrane
17:02
Hair Cells
17:17
Nerve Fibers
20:54
How Sounds Are Heard
21:30
Sound Waves Hit the Tympanum
22:10
Auditory Ossicles are Vibrated
22:23
Stapes Vibrates Oval Window
22:31
Basilar Membrane is Vibrated in Turn
22:35
Hair Cells are Moved with Respect to Tectorial Membrane
22:46
Cochlear Nerve Fibers Take Signals to Temporal Lobes
23:24
Frequency and Decibels
23:30
Frequency Deals with Pitch
23:36
Decibels Deal with Loudness
25:30
Vestibule
27:54
Contains the Utricle and Saccule
28:22
Maculae
29:29
Semicircular Canals
31:05
3 Semicircular Canals = 3 Dimensions
31:12
Movement Gives a Sense of How Your Head is Rotating in 3 Dimensions
31:28
Each Contains an Ampulla
31:49
Hearing Conditions / Disorders
33:20
Conductive Deafness
33:24
Tinnitus
34:05
Otitis Media
34:51
Motion Sickness
35:19
Ear Infections
36:31
Smell, Taste & Touch

36m 41s

Intro
0:00
Nasal Anatomy
0:05
The Nose
0:11
Nasal Cavity
0:58
Olfaction
3:27
Sense of Smell
3:28
Olfactory Epithelium
4:58
Olfactory Receptors
7:23
Respond to Odorant Molecules
7:24
Lots of Turnover of Olfactory Receptor Cells
8:25
Smells Noticed in Small Concentrations
9:07
Anatomy of Taste
12:41
Tongue
12:45
Pharynx / Larynx
14:11
Salivary Glands
14:31
Papilla Structure
16:56
Gustatory Cells
17:39
Taste Hairs
18:04
Transitional Cells
18:28
Basal Cells
18:33
Nerve Fibers
18:48
Taste Sensations
19:06
Sweet
19:49
Salty
20:16
Bitter
20:28
Sour
20:46
Umami
20:31
Water
22:07
PTC
23:11
Touch
25:00
Nociceptors
25:08
Mechanoreceptors
25:14
Nociceptors
26:30
Sensitive To…
26:41
Fast vs. Slow Pain
28:12
Mechanoreceptors
31:15
Tactile Receptors
31:21
Baroreceptors
35:20
Proprioceptors
36:07
The Heart

45m 20s

Intro
0:00
Heart Anatomy
0:04
Pericardium
0:11
Epicardium
1:09
Myocardium
1:24
Endocardium
1:49
Atria and Ventricles
2:18
Coronary Arteries
3:25
Arteries / Veins
4:14
Fat
4:31
Sequence of Blood Flow #1
5:06
Vena Cava
5:24
Right Atrium
6:18
Tricuspid Valve
6:26
Right Ventricle
6:49
Pulmonary Valve
7:14
Pulmonary Arteries
7:35
Sequence of Blood Flow #2
8:22
Lungs
8:24
Pulmonary Veins
8:26
Left Atrium
8:36
Left Ventricle
9:00
Bicuspid Valve
9:08
Aortic Valve
10:15
Aorta
10:23
Body
11:20
Simplified Blood Flow Diagram
11:44
Heart Beats and Valves
16:09
'Lubb-Dubb'
16:19
Atrioventricular (AV) Valves
16:47
Semilunar Valves
17:04
Systole and Diastole
19:09
Systole
19:14
Diastole
19:23
Valves Respond to Pressure Changes
20:29
Cardiac Output
21:36
Cardiac Cycle
22:59
Cardiac Conduction System
24:52
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
25:44
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
27:12
Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)
28:46
P Wave
29:10
QRS Complex
30:14
T Wave
31:23
Arrhythmias
32:14
Heart Conditions / Treatments
35:12
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
35:14
Angina Pectoris
36:23
Pericarditis
38:07
Coronary Artery Disease
38:26
Angioplasty
38:47
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
39:53
Tachycardia / Bradycardia
40:51
Fibrillation
41:54
Heart Murmur
43:22
Mitral Valve Prolapse
44:53
Blood Vessels

39m 58s

Intro
0:00
Types of Blood Vessels
0:05
Arteries
0:09
Arterioles
0:19
Capillaries
0:38
Venules
0:55
Veins
1:16
Vessel Structure
1:21
Tunica Externa
1:39
Tunica Media
2:29
Tunica Interna
3:18
Differences Between Arteries and Veins
4:22
Artery Walls are Thicker
4:34
Veins Have Valves
6:07
From Artery to Capillary
6:38
From Capillary to Vein
9:39
Capillary Bed
11:11
Between Arterioles and Venules
11:23
Precapillary Sphincters
11:30
Distribution of Blood
12:17
Systematic Venous System
12:36
Systematic Arterial System
13:23
Pulmonary Circuit
13:36
Heart
13:46
Systematic Capillaries
13:53
Blood Pressure
14:35
Cardiac Output
15:07
Peripheral Resistance
15:24
Systolic / Diastolic
16:37
Return of Blood Through Veins
20:37
Valves
21:00
Skeletal Muscle Contractions
21:30
Regulation of Blood Vessels
22:50
Baroreceptor Reflexes
22:57
Antidiuretic Hormone
23:31
Angiotensin II
24:40
Erythropoietin
24:57
Arteries / Vein Examples
26:54
Aorta
26:59
Carotid
27:13
Brachial
27:23
Femoral
27:27
Vena Cava
27:38
Jugular
27:48
Brachial
28:04
Femoral
28:09
Hepatic Veins
29:03
Pulse Sounds
29:19
Carotid
29:27
Radial
29:53
Femoral
30:39
Popliteal
30:47
Temporal
30:52
Dorsalis Pedis
31:10
Blood Vessel Conditions / Disorders
31:29
Hyper / Hypotension
31:33
Arteriosclerosis
33:05
Atherosclerosis
33:35
Edema
33:58
Aneurysm
33:34
Hemorrhage
35:38
Thrombus
35:50
Pulmonary Embolism
36:44
Varicose Veins
36:54
Hemorrhoids
37:46
Angiogenesis
39:06
Blood

41m 25s

Intro
0:00
Blood Functions
0:04
Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
0:09
Regulate pH
0:30
Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
1:02
Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
1:12
Regulate Body Temperature
1:21
Blood Components
1:59
Erythrocytes
2:34
Thrombocytes
2:50
Leukocytes
3:07
Plasma
3:17
Blood Cell Formation
6:55
Red Blood Cells
8:16
Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
8:25
Enucleated
9:08
Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
10:03
Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
10:32
Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs
12:03
RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
12:15
Hemoglobin is Broken Down
12:23
Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
14:38
Blood Transfusions #1
15:02
A Blood
15:29
B Blood
17:28
AB Blood
19:27
O Blood
20:53
Rh Factor
21:54
Blood Transfusions #2
24:31
White Blood Cells
25:33
Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
25:46
Amoeboid Movement
26:06
Most Do Phagocytosis
26:57
Granulocytes
27:25
Neutrophils
27:44
Eosinophils
28:11
Basophils
29:20
Agranulocytes
29:37
Monocytes
29:49
Lymphocytes
30:30
Platelets
32:42
Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
33:04
Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
33:11
Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
33:22
Hemostasis
33:40
Vascular Phase
33:53
Platelet Phase
34:30
Coagulation Phase
35:15
Fibrinolysis
36:12
Blood Conditions / Disorders
36:29
Hemorrhage
36:41
Thrombus
36:48
Embolism
36:59
Anemia
37:14
Sickle Cell Disease
38:04
Hemophilia
39:19
Leukemia
40:47
Respiratory System

1h 2m 59s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Respiratory System
0:05
Moves Air In and Out of Body
0:37
Protects the Body from Dehydration
0:50
Produce Sounds
2:00
Upper Respiratory Tract #1
2:15
External Nares
2:34
Vestibule
2:42
Nasal Septum
3:02
Nasal Conchae
4:06
Upper Respiratory Tract #2
4:43
Nasal Mucosa
4:53
Pharynx
6:01
Larynx
8:34
Epiglottis
8:48
Glottis
9:03
Cartilage
9:27
Hyoid Bone
12:09
Ligaments
13:04
Vocal Cords
13:15
Sound Production
13:41
Air Passing Through the Glottis Vibrates the Vocal Folds
13:43
Males Have Longer Cords
15:32
Speech =Phonation + Articulation
15:41
Trachea
16:42
'Windpipe'
17:42
Respiratory Epithelium
18:45
Bronchi and Bronchioles
20:56
Primary - Secondary - Tertiary
21:41
Smooth Muscles
22:29
Bronchioles
22:46
Bronchodilation vs. Bronchoconstriction
23:42
Alveoli
24:30
Air Sacks Within the Lungs
24:39
Alveolar Bundle is Surrounded by a Capillary Network
27:24
Surfactant
28:47
Lungs
30:40
Lobes
30:48
Right Lung is Broader; Left Lung is Longer
31:35
Spongy Appearance
32:11
Surrounded by Membrane
32:28
Pleura
32:52
Parietal Pleura
32:59
Visceral Pleura
33:38
Breathing Mechanism
35:27
Diaphragm
35:32
Intercostal Muscles
38:21
Diaphragmatic vs. Costal Breathing
39:10
Forced Breathing
39:44
Respiratory Volumes
41:33
Partial Pressures of Gases
46:02
Major Atmospheric Gases
46:14
Diffusion
47:00
Oxygen Moves Out of Alveoli and Carbon Dioxide Moves In
48:37
Respiratory Conditions / Disorders
51:21
Asthma
51:25
Emphysema
52:57
Lung Cancer
53:45
Laryngitis / Bronchitis
54:25
Cystic Fibrosis
55:38
Decompression Sickness
56:29
Tuberculosis
57:31
SIDS
59:10
Pneumonia
1:00:00
Pneumothorax
1:01:07
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning
1:01:21
Digestive System

59m 28s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Digestive System
0:05
Ingestion
0:09
Mechanical Breakdown
0:15
Digestion
0:33
Secretion
0:59
Absorption
1:22
Excretion
1:33
Alimentary Canal (GI Tract)
1:38
Mouth
2:13
Pharynx
2:18
Esophagus
2:20
Stomach
2:29
Small Intestine
2:33
Large Intestine
2:41
Rectum
2:49
Anus
2:51
Oral Cavity (Mouth)
2:53
Salivary Glands
2:58
Saliva
3:59
Tongue
5:04
Teeth
5:28
Hard Palate / Soft Palate
5:42
Teeth
6:19
Deciduous Teeth
9:27
Adult Teeth
9:56
Incisors
10:14
Cuspids
10:42
Bicuspids
11:07
Molars
11:27
Swallowing
14:06
Tongue
14:19
Pharyngeal Muscles
14:57
Soft Palate
15:05
Epiglottis
15:23
Esophagus
16:41
Moves Food Into the Stomach Through 'Peristalsis'
16:54
Mucosa
18:28
Submucosa
18:30
Muscular Layers
18:54
Stomach #1
19:58
Food Storage, Mechanical / Chemical Breakdown, and Emptying of Chyme
20:42
4 Layers: Mucosa, Submuscoa, Muscular Layers, Serosa
21:27
4 Regions: Cardia, Fundus, Body, Pylorus
22:51
Stomach #2
24:43
Rugae
25:20
Gastric Pits
25:54
Gastric Glands
26:04
Gastric Juice
26:24
Gastrin, Ghrelin
28:18
Small Intestine
29:07
Digestion and Absorption
29:09
Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
29:46
Peristalsis
29:57
Intestinal Villi
30:22
Vermiform Appendix
32:53
Vestigial Structure!
33:40
Appendicitis / Appendectomy
35:40
Large Intestine
36:04
Reabsorption of Water and Formation of Solid Feces
36:20
Ascending Colon
37:10
Transverse Colon
37:16
Descending Colon
37:22
Sigmoid Colon
37:36
Rectum and Anus
37:48
Rectum
37:51
Anus
38:38
Hemorrhoids
39:24
Accessory Organs
41:13
Liver
41:26
Gall Bladder
41:28
Pancreas
41:30
Liver
41:40
Metabolism
43:21
Glycogen Storage
43:34
Waste Product Removal
44:42
Bile Production
44:50
Vitamin Storage
45:04
Breakdown of Drugs
45:25
Phagocytosis, Antigen Presentation
46:24
Synthesis of Plasma Proteins
47:05
Removal of Hormones
47:19
Removal of Antibodies
47:31
Removal of RBCs
48:07
Removal / Storage of Toxins
48:21
Gall Bladder
48:50
Stores Bile Made by Liver
48:53
Common Hepatic Duct
49:24
Common Bile Duct Connects to the Duodenum
49:31
Pancreas
51:28
Pinkish-Gray Organ
51:45
Produces Digestive Enzymes and Buffers
52:05
Digestive Conditions / Disorders
52:50
Gastritis
52:54
Ulcers
53:03
Gallstones
54:09
Cholera
54:51
Hepatitis
55:14
Jaundice
55:31
Cirrhosis
56:34
Constipation
56:52
Diarrhea
57:23
Lactose Intolerance
57:37
Gingivitis
58:24
Metabolism & Nutrition

1h 17m 2s

Intro
0:00
Metabolism Basics
0:06
Metabolism
0:10
Catabolism
0:58
Anabolism
1:12
Nutrients
2:45
Carbohydrates
2:57
Lipids
3:01
Proteins
3:04
Nucleic Acids
3:23
Vitamins
3:54
Minerals
4:32
Carbohydrate Structure
5:13
Basic Sugar Structure
5:42
Monosaccharides
7:48
Disaccharides
7:54
Glycosidic Linkages
8:07
Polysaccharides
9:17
Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis
10:27
Water Soluble
10:55
Energy Source
11:18
Aerobic Respiration
11:39
Glycolysis
13:25
Krebs Cycle
13:34
Oxidative Phosphorylation
13:44
ATP Structure and Function
14:08
Adenosine Triphosphate
14:11
ATP is Broken Down Into ADP + P
16:26
ADP + P are Put Together to Make ATP
16:39
Glycolysis
17:18
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvate
17:42
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
17:55
Phase I
18:13
Phase II
19:01
Phase III
20:27
Krebs Cycle
21:54
Citric Acid Cycle
21:57
Pyruvates Modify Into 'acetyl-CoA'
22:23
Oxidative Phosphorylation
29:36
Anaerobic Respiration
34:33
Lactic Acid Fermentation
34:52
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
36:05
Gluconeogenesis
37:36
Glycogenesis
39:16
Glycogenolysis
39:27
Lipid Structure and Function
39:58
Fats
40:00
Non-Polar
41:42
Energy Source, Insulation, Hormone Synthesis
42:02
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
43:18
Saturated Fats
43:22
Unsaturated Fats
44:30
Lipid Catabolism
46:11
Lipolysis
46:17
Beta-Oxidation
46:56
Lipid Synthesis
48:17
Lipogenesis
48:21
Lipoproteins
48:51
Protein Structure and Function
51:48
Made of Amino Acids
51:59
Water-Soluble
52:23
Support
53:03
Movement
53:23
Transport
53:34
Buffering
53:49
Enzymatic Action
54:01
Hormone Synthesis
54:13
Defense
54:24
Amino Acids
54:56
20 Different 'R Groups'
54:59
Essential Amino Acids
55:19
Protein Structure
56:54
Primary Structure
56:59
Secondary Structure
57:29
Tertiary Structure
58:28
Quaternary Structure
59:20
Vitamins
59:40
Fat-Soluble
1:01:46
Water-Soluble
1:02:15
Minerals
1:04:01
Functions
1:04:14
Examples
1:04:51
Balanced Diet
1:05:39
Grains
1:05:52
Vegetables and Fruits
1:06:00
Dairy
1:06:36
Meat/ Beans
1:06:54
Oils
1:07:52
Nutrition Facts
1:08:44
Serving Size
1:08:55
Calories
1:09:50
Fat-Soluble
1:10:45
Cholesterol
1:13:04
Sodium
1:13:58
Carbohydrates
1:14:26
Protein
1:16:01
Endocrine System

44m 37s

Intro
0:00
Hormone Basics
0:05
Hormones
0:38
Classes of Hormones
2:22
Negative vs. Positive Feedback
3:22
Negative Feedback
3:25
Positive Feedback
5:16
Hypothalamus
6:20
Secretes Regulatory Hormones
7:18
Produces ADH and Oxycotin
7:44
Controls Endocrine Action of Adrenal Glands
7:57
Anterior Pituitary Gland
8:27
Prolactin
9:16
Corticotropin
9:39
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
9:47
Gonadotropins
9:52
Growth Hormone
11:04
Posterior Pituitary Gland
12:29
Antidiuretic Hormone
12:38
Oxytocin
13:37
Thyroid Gland Anatomy
15:16
Two Lobes United by an Isthmus
15:44
Contains Follicles
16:04
Thyroid Gland Physiology
16:50
Thyroxine
17:04
Triiodothyroine
17:36
Parathyroid Anatomy / Physiology
18:52
Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
19:13
Adrenal Gland Anatomy
20:09
Contains Cortex and Medulla
21:00
Adrenal Cortex Physiology
21:40
Aldosterone
22:12
Glucocorticoids
22:35
Androgens
23:18
Adrenal Medulla Physiology
23:53
Epinephrine
24:06
Norepinephrine
24:12
Fight or Flight
24:22
Contribute to…
24:32
Kidney Hormones
26:11
Calcitriol
26:20
Erythropoietin
27:00
Renin
27:45
Pancreas Anatomy
28:18
Exocrine Pancreas
29:07
Endocrine Pancreas
29:22
Pancreas Physiology
29:50
Glucagon
29:57
Insulin
30:54
Somatostatin
31:50
Pineal Gland Anatomy / Physiology
32:10
Contains Pinealocytes
32:33
Produces Melatonin
32:59
Thymus Anatomy / Physiology
34:17
Max Size Before Puberty
34:49
Secrete Thymosins
35:18
Gonad Hormones
35:45
Testes
35:51
Ovaries
36:20
Endocrine Conditions / Disorders
37:28
Diabetes Type I and II
37:32
Diabetes Type Insipidus
39:25
Hyper / Hypoglycemia
40:01
Addison Disease
40:28
Hyper / Hypothyroidism
41:00
Cretinism
41:30
Goiter
41:59
Pituitary Gigantism / Dwarfism
42:39
IDD Iodized Salt
43:30
Urinary System

35m 8s

Intro
0:00
Functions of the Urinary System
0:05
Removes Metabolic Waste
0:14
Regulates Blood Volume and Blood Pressure
0:31
Regulates Plasma Concentrations
0:49
Stabilize Blood pH
1:04
Conserves Nutrients
1:42
Organs / Tissues of the Urinary System
1:51
Kidneys
1:58
Ureters
2:17
Urinary Bladder
2:25
Urethra
2:34
Kidney Anatomy
2:47
Renal Cortex
4:21
Renal Medulla
4:41
Renal Pyramid
5:00
Major / Minor Calyx
5:36
Renal Pelvis
6:07
Hilum
6:18
Blood Flow to Kidneys
6:41
Receive Through Renal Arteries
7:11
Leaves Through Renal Veins
9:08
Regulated by Renal Nerves
9:21
Nephrons
9:27
Glomerulus
10:21
Bowman's Capsule
10:42
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
11:31
Loop of Henle
11:42
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
12:01
Glomerular Filtration
12:40
Glomerular Capillaries are Fenestrated
12:47
Blood Pressure Forces Water Into the Capsular Space
13:47
Important Nutrients
13:57
Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT)
14:25
Lining is Simple Cubodial Epithelium with Microvilli
14:47
Reabsorption of Nutrients, Ions, Water and Plasma
15:26
Loop of Henle
16:28
Pumps Out Sodium and Chloride Ions
17:09
Concentrate Tubular Fluid
17:20
Distal Convoluted Tubule (DCT)
17:28
Differs From the PCT
17:39
Three Basic Processes
17:59
Collecting System
18:35
Final Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption
18:52
Concentrated Urine Passes through the Collecting Duct
19:04
Fluid Empties Into Minor Calyx
19:20
Major Calyx Leads to Renal Pelvis
19:26
Summary of Urine Formation
19:35
Filtration
19:40
Reabsorption
20:04
Secretion
20:35
Urine
21:15
Urea
21:31
Creatinine
21:55
Uric Acid
22:09
Urobilin
22:23
It's Sterile!
23:43
Ureters
24:55
Connects Kidneys to Urinary Bladder
25:00
Three Tissue Layers
25:17
Peristalsis
25:38
Urinary Bladder
26:08
Temporary Reservoir for Urine
26:12
Rugae
26:44
Trigone
26:59
Internal Urethral Sphincter
27:10
Urethra
27:48
Longer in Males than Females
28:00
External Urethral Sphincter
28:46
Micturition
29:14
Urinary Conditions / Disorders
29:47
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
29:50
Kidney Stones (Renal Calculi)
30:26
Kidney Dialysis
31:47
Glomerulonephritis
33:29
Incontinence
34:25
Lymphatic System

44m 23s

Intro
0:00
Lymphatic Functions
0:05
Production, Maintenance, and Distribution of Lymphocytes
0:08
Lymphoid System / Immune System
1:26
Lymph Network
1:34
Lymph
1:40
Lymphatic Vessels
2:26
Lymph Nodes
2:37
Lymphoid Organs
2:54
Lymphocytes
3:11
Nonspecific Defenses
3:25
Specific Defenses
3:47
Lymphatic Vessels
4:06
Larger Lymphatic Vessels
4:40
Lymphatic Capillaries
5:17
Differ From Blood Capillaries
5:47
Lymph Nodes
6:51
Concentrated in Neck, Armpits, and Groin
7:05
Functions Like a Kitchen Water Filter
7:52
Thymus
8:58
Contains Lobules with a Cortex and Medulla
9:18
Promote Maturation of Lymphocytes
10:36
Spleen
10:43
Pulp
12:04
Red Pulp
12:19
White Pulp
12:25
Nonspecific Defenses
13:00
Physical Barriers
13:18
Phagocyte Cells
14:17
Immunological Surveillance
14:55
Interferons
16:05
Inflammation
16:37
Fever
17:07
Specific Defenses
18:16
Immunity
18:31
Innate Immunity
18:41
Acquired Immunity
19:04
T Cells
23:58
Cytotoxic T Cells
24:14
Helper T Cells
24:52
Suppressor T Cells
25:09
Activate T Cells
25:40
Major Histocompatibility Complex Proteins (MHC)
26:37
Antigen Presentation
27:58
B Cells
29:44
Responsible for Antibody-Mediated Immunity
29:50
Memory B Cells
30:44
Antibody Structure
32:46
Five Types of Constant Segments
33:45
Primary vs. Secondary Response
34:51
Immune Conditions / Disorders
35:35
Allergy
35:38
Anaphylactic Shock
37:17
Autoimmune Disease
38:34
HIV / AIDS
39:06
Cancer
40:51
Lymphomas
42:02
Lymphedema
42:21
Graft Rejection
42:48
Tonsillitis
43:23
Female Reproductive System

47m 19s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:05
Mons Pubis
0:12
Vulva
0:29
Vagina
0:51
Clitoris
1:23
Prepuce
2:10
Labia Minora
2:29
Labia Majora
2:35
Urethra
3:09
Vestibular Glands
3:30
Internal Reproductive Organs
3:47
Vagina
3:51
Uterus
3:57
Fallopian Tubes
4:13
Ovaries
4:19
Vagina
4:28
Passageway for Elimination of Menstrual Fluids
5:13
Receives Penis During Sexual Intercourse
5:31
Forms the Inferior Portion of the Birth Canal
5:34
Hymen
5:42
Uterus
7:21
Provides Protection, Nutritional Support, and Waste Removal for Embryo
7:25
Anteflexion
8:30
Anchored by Ligaments
9:18
Uterine Regions
9:57
Perimetrium
10:56
Myometrium
11:19
Endometrium
11:44
Fallopian Tubes
13:03
Oviducts / Uterine Tubes
13:04
Infundibulum
13:49
Ampulla
15:07
Isthmus
15:12
Peristalsis
15:21
Ovaries
16:06
Produce Female Gametes
16:37
Secrete Sex Hormones
16:47
Ligaments, Artery / Vein
17:18
Mesovarium
17:45
Oogenesis Explanation
17:59
Ovum Production
18:08
Oogonia Undergo Mitosis
18:44
Oogenesis Picture
22:22
Ovarian / Menstrual Cycle
25:48
Menstruation
33:05
Thickened Endometrial Lining Sheds
33:08
1-7 Days
33:37
Ovarian Cycle
33:48
Formation of Primary Follicles
34:20
Formation of Secondary Follicles
34:28
Formation of Tertiary Follicles
34:30
Ovulation
34:37
Formation / Degeneration of Corpus Luteum
34:52
Menarche and Menopause
35:28
Menarche
35:30
Menopause
36:24
Mammaries
38:16
Breast Tissue
38:18
Mammary Gland
39:19
Female Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
41:32
Amenorrhea
41:35
Dysmenorrhea
42:29
Endometriosis
42:40
STDs
43:11
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
43:37
Premature Menopause
43:55
Ovarian, Cervical, Breast Cancers
44:20
Hysterectomy
45:37
Tubal Ligation
46:12
Male Reproductive System

36m 35s

Intro
0:00
External Genitalia
0:06
Penis
0:09
Corpora Cavernosa
3:10
Corpus Spongiosum
3:57
Scrotum
4:15
Testes
4:21
Gubernaculum Testis
4:54
Contracts in Male Babies
5:34
Cryptorchidism
5:50
Inside the Scrotal Sac
7:01
Scrotum
7:08
Cremaster Muscle
7:54
Epididymis
8:43
Testis Anatomy
9:50
Lobules
10:03
Septa
11:35
Efferent Ductule
11:39
Epididymis
11:50
Vas Deferens
11:53
Spermatogenesis
12:02
Mitosis
12:14
Meiosis
12:37
Spermiogenesis
12:48
Sperm Anatomy
15:14
Head
15:19
Centrioles
17:01
Mitochondria
17:37
Flagellum
18:29
The Path of Sperm
18:50
Testis
18:58
Epididymis
19:05
Vas Deferens
19:16
Accessory Glands
19:57
Urethra
21:33
Vas Deferens
21:45
Takes Sperm from Epididymides to the Ejaculatory Duct
21:53
Peristalsis
22:35
Seminal Vesicles
23:45
Fructose
24:25
Prostaglandins
24:51
Fibrinogen
25:13
Alkaline Secretions
25:45
Prostate Gland
26:12
Secretes Fluid and Smooth Muscles
26:49
Produces Prostatic Fluid
27:02
Bulbo-Urethral Gland
27:43
Cowper Glands
27:48
Secretes a Thick, Alkaline Mucus
28:13
Semen
28:45
Typical Ejaculation Releases 2-5mL
28:48
Contains Spermatozoa, Seminal Fluid, Enzymes
28:58
Male Reproductive Conditions / Disorders
29:59
Impotence
30:02
Low Sperm Count
30:24
Erectile Dysfunction
31:36
Priapism
32:11
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
32:58
Prostatectomy
33:39
Prostate Cancer
33:59
STDs
34:30
Orchiectomy
34:47
Vasectomy
35:10
Embryological & Fetal Development

49m 15s

Intro
0:00
Development Overview
0:05
Fertilization
0:13
Embryological Development
0:23
Fetal Development
1:14
Postnatal Development
1:25
Maturity
1:36
Fertilization Overview
1:39
23 Chromosomes
2:23
Occurs a Day After Ovulation
3:44
Forms a Zygote
4:16
Oocyte Activation
4:33
Block of Polyspermy
4:51
Completion of Meiosis II
6:05
Activation of Enzymes That Increase Metabolism
6:26
Only Nucleus of Sperm Moves Into Oocyte Center
7:04
Cleavage
8:14
Day 0
8:25
Day 1
8:35
Day 2
9:10
Day 3
9:12
Day 4
9:21
Day 6
9:29
Implantation
11:03
Day 8
11:10
Initial Implantation
11:15
Lacunae
11:27
Fingerlike Villi
11:38
Gastrulation
12:39
Day 12
12:48
Ectoderm
14:06
Mesoderm
14:17
Endoderm
14:44
Extraembryonic Membranes
16:17
Yolk Sac
16:28
Amnion
17:28
Allantois
18:05
Chorion
18:27
Placenta
19:28
Week 5
19:50
Decidua Basalis
20:08
Cavity
21:20
Umbilical Cord
22:20
Week 4 Embryo
23:01
Forebrain
23:35
Eye
23:46
Heart
23:54
Pharyngeal Arches
24:02
Arm and Leg Buds
24:53
Tail
25:56
Week 8 Embryo
26:33
Week 12 Fetus
27:36
Ultrasound
28:26
Image of the Fetus
28:28
Sex Can Be Detected
28:54
Week 40 Fetus
29:46
Labor
31:10
False Labor
31:16
True Labor
31:38
Dilation
32:02
Expulsion
33:21
Delivery
33:49
Delivery Problems
33:57
Episiotomy
34:02
Breech Birth
34:39
Caesarian Section
35:41
Premature Delivery
36:12
Conjoined Twins
37:34
Embryological Conditions / Disorders
40:00
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia
40:07
Miscarriage
41:04
Induced Abortions
41:37
Ectopic Pregnancy
41:47
In Vitro Fertilization
43:03
Amniocentesis
44:01
Birth Defects
45:15
Alcohol: Effects & Dangers

27m 47s

Intro
0:00
Ethanol
0:06
Made from Alcohol Fermentation
0:20
Human Liver Can Break Down Ethyl Alcohol
1:40
Other Alcohols
3:06
Ethanol Metabolism
3:33
Alcohol Dehydrogenase Converts Ethanol to Acetaldehyde
3:38
Acetaldehyde is Converted to Acetate
4:01
Factors Affecting the Pace
4:24
Sex and Sex Hormones
4:33
Body Mass
5:30
Medications
5:59
Types of Alcoholic Beverages
6:07
Hard Alcohol
6:14
Wine
6:51
Beer
6:56
Mixed Drinks
8:17
Alcohol's Immediate Effects
8:55
Depressant
9:12
Blood Alcohol Concentration
9:31
100 mg/ dL = 0.1%
10:19
0.05
10:48
0.1
11:29
0.2
11:56
0.3
12:52
Alcohol's Effects on Organs
13:45
Brain
13:59
Heart
14:09
Stomach
14:20
Liver
14:31
Reproductive System
14:37
Misconceptions on Alcohol Intoxication
14:54
Cannot Speed Up the Liver's Breakdown of Alcohol
14:57
Passing Out
16:27
Binge Drinking
17:50
Hangovers
18:40
Alcohol Tolerance
18:51
Acetaldehyde
19:10
Dehydration
19:40
Congeners
20:34
Ethanol is Still in Bloodstream
21:26
Alarming Statistics
22:26
Alcoholism Affects 10+ Million People in U.S. Alone
22:33
Society's Most Expensive Health Problem
22:40
Affects All Physiological Tissues
22:15
Women Drinking While Pregnant
23:57
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
24:06
Genetics
24:26
Health Problems Related to Alcohol
24:57
Alcohol Abuse
25:01
Alcohol Poisoning
25:20
Alcoholism
26:14
Fatty Liver
26:46
Cirrhosis
27:13
Loading...
This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.
For more information, please see full course syllabus of Anatomy & Physiology
  • Discussion

  • Study Guides

  • Download Lecture Slides

  • Table of Contents

  • Transcription

  • Related Books

Lecture Comments (7)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Feb 18, 2016 2:17 PM

Post by karen mosquera on February 18, 2016

why is embolism more common in elderly?

2 answers

Last reply by: Kayla Steiner
Fri Apr 18, 2014 11:07 PM

Post by Kayla Steiner on April 18, 2014

What's the reason for the multi-lobed nucleus in the leukocytes.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Tue Jan 28, 2014 11:32 AM

Post by Habib Awes on January 27, 2014

1. how haemoglobin is involved in carbon dioxide transport.
2. how H+ ions are produced within an erythrocites and how haemoglobin helps to buffer the blood
3. what is the equation showing combination of O2 and haemoglobin

Blood

  • Blood functions: transportation of nutrients/gases/wastes/hormones, regulation of pH, restriction of fluid loss during injury, defense against pathogens/toxins, and regulation of body temperature
  • Blood components are erythrocytes (red blood cells), thrombocytes (platelets), leukocytes (white blood cells), and plasma (water with dissolved solutes)
  • All major blood cells are generated from a single type of stem cell, called hemocytoblasts, in bone marrow
  • Erythrocytes are shaped like biconcave discs and they contain a protein called hemoglobin, which is meant to transport oxygen gas
  • Red blood cells are constantly broken down in the liver and spleen (resulting in bilirubin), and they are generated through erythropoiesis to replace old/damaged ones
  • Major blood types include A, B, AB, and O; the Rh factor adds the “+” or “-” designation
  • O type blood (specifically O negative) is the universal donor and AB type blood (specifically AB positive) is the universal recipient
  • The various types of leukocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, Natural killer cells)
  • Platelets help seal off damaged blood vessels to prevent loss of blood and they are crucial to the clotting process
  • Blood conditions/disorders include anemia, hemophilia, and leukemia
  • Did you know…
    • Q: Why is there a weight minimum for donating blood?
    • A: Usually the same amount of blood is taken from every blood donation at a blood drive. One unit of blood is 1 pint (0.5 liters.) Since the average person has about 10 pints (5 liters), then each blood donation takes away 10% of your blood volume. In a person who weighs significantly less than the average person (such as someone who is only 100 lbs., or 45 kg.) that percentage is much greater and the withdrawal of that blood will be more likely to make them anemic!
    • Q: Are there other blood types out there than just the ones in the ABO blood typing system?
    • A: Yes, genetic mutations have created some other extremely rare blood types. All it takes is modification of the genes that determine antigens/antibodies in blood, and you have a new blood type (that may or may not be able to receive/donate blood through transfusions)

Blood

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Blood Functions 0:04
    • Transport Nutrients, Gases, Wastes, Hormones
    • Regulate pH
    • Restrict Fluid Loss During Injury
    • Defend Against Pathogens and Toxins
    • Regulate Body Temperature
  • Blood Components 1:59
    • Erythrocytes
    • Thrombocytes
    • Leukocytes
    • Plasma
  • Blood Cell Formation 6:55
  • Red Blood Cells 8:16
    • Shaped Like Biconcave Discs
    • Enucleated
    • Hemoglobin is the Main Protein at Work
    • Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin
  • Breakdown and Renewal of RBCs 12:03
    • RBCs are Engulfed and Rupture
    • Hemoglobin is Broken Down
    • Erythropoiesis Makes New RBCs
  • Blood Transfusions #1 15:02
    • A Blood
    • B Blood
    • AB Blood
    • O Blood
    • Rh Factor
  • Blood Transfusions #2 24:31
  • White Blood Cells 25:33
    • Can Migrate Out of Blood Stream
    • Amoeboid Movement
    • Most Do Phagocytosis
  • Granulocytes 27:25
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  • Agranulocytes 29:37
    • Monocytes
    • Lymphocytes
  • Platelets 32:42
    • Release Chemicals to Help Clots Occur
    • Temporary Patch on Walls of Damaged Vessels
    • Contraction to Reduce Clot Size
  • Hemostasis 33:40
    • Vascular Phase
    • Platelet Phase
    • Coagulation Phase
    • Fibrinolysis
  • Blood Conditions / Disorders 36:29
    • Hemorrhage
    • Thrombus
    • Embolism
    • Anemia
    • Sickle Cell Disease
    • Hemophilia
    • Leukemia

Transcription: Blood

Hi and welcome back to www.educator.com.0000

This is the lesson on blood.0002

Blood has numerous functions not just circulating fluids.0004

It is the transport of nutrients, sugars, proteins, lipids, vitamins, etc.0008

Gases, oxygen, and CO2 are among them.0014

Wastes are the ones that you will end up excreting either through your urine, your sweat, etc.0017

Hormones the way that hormones actually get to organs and cause them to change something like the physiology is through blood.0023

Regulation of ph, ph has to do with acid vs. bases.0030

You have a zone in which your ph in your body need to be maintained there.0035

The approximate ph for the human bloodstream is 7.4 ever so slightly basic.0040

If that goes down to below 7 that is enough to kill a person because of the ph kills logarithmic and you want to keep it in a very particular range.0047

Your bloodstream has a lot to do with regulating that.0057

Restriction of fluid loss during an injury.0061

If you do have a cut, you are bleeding or hemorrhaging some are carried into your blood in able to stop that.0062

Defense against pathogens and toxins.0071

White blood cells or the parts of the blood that are primarily protecting you and killing off foreign invaders.0074

Regulation of body temperature that is very important as well.0080

Before I move on I want to show you what these are.0084

This is your old average red blood cell.0086

This is a platelet and this is a white blood cell.0090

More often than not white blood cells or leukocytes are going to be much larger than red blood cells but we do have a heck of a lot more red blood cells.0093

The ratio of red blood cells to white blood cells in the blood is approximately 1,000 to 1.0104

That is why your blood is usually red because of the red blood cells.0110

This is a micrograph.0114

This is an actual image.0115

It is not computer generated.0117

If you take a blood sample from a person and centrifuge it, spin around really fast, you will get a separation of all the blood parts by density.0119

Than densest parts specifically was called hematocrit.0130

Hematocrit is the solid blood parts majority which is red blood cells.0134

You are going to get that in certain parts of the body because those solid particles and cells are much more dense.0140

The fluid portion of blood is going to stay on the top.0147

When we look at all the portions let us start at the bottom.0151

Erythrocytes is the technical term for red blood cells.0154

Erythro means read and cyte means cell.0159

Approximately 45% of the average person's blood is the red blood cells.0163

The other part up next is the buffy coat.0169

There is this white band that tends to be a coming together of all of your white blood cells and platelets which are just slightly less dense than you compacted red blood cells.0173

Thrombocyte is the technical term for platelets.0184

Leukocyte is the technical term for white blood cells.0188

We will talk more about the functions of these later.0191

Plasma is the yellow fluid.0196

The particles dissolved in plasma would give you that yellow look.0199

There are lots of particles dissolved in the plasma, the actual fluid of your blood.0204

A lot of plasma most of it is water.0212

You also have gases, oxygen, CO2, and nitrogen gas.0216

There is a lot of them.0224

You are going to have nutrients, all those molecules that is meant to nourish your body.0224

On the flip side of that, our waste, those waste products that are going to be eventually excreted.0235

On top of all that you are going to have hormones.0244

A lot of hormones get all the different the cells via the fluid of your blood and you also have dissolved blood proteins.0249

Included in the nutrients are going to be amino acids and proteins that you are feeding your cells.0262

Your cells need proteins to function to stay alive.0271

These proteins they stick around the blood and they all have their own purposes.0274

The majority of these blood proteins is 60% of them approximately is the albumins.0279

Albumins are hanging around your blood to help maintain osmotic pressure.0284

If you took biology osmosis has to do with the passive or means moving without energy that the passive natural movement of water to where there is less water by concentration.0293

If you do not have as many albumins in your bloodstream as you do, there will be too much water flow.0304

Think about this, having blood proteins in your blood helps keep water there.0311

If there are a lot less then you actually would sometimes lose too much water out of your bloodstream.0318

Albumins help maintain that osmotic pressure in your body.0323

Next up globulins, there are 2 main kinds of globulins.0327

The one that you have probably heard most about is antibodies.0338

Antibodies is the type of globulin protein those are very specifically shaped molecules that are meant to attach and help the white blood cells attack foreign invaders.0345

They will attach to bacteria and viruses to immobilize them and to mark them so they can get destroyed us they cannot harm you.0357

Antibodies is one type of globulin.0365

Another type of globulin is a transport proteins.0368

There are certain substances in the bloodstream that are necessarily get along with water.0371

It might be non polar particle that does not dissolve well in the plasma.0376

Globulins that are the transport variety will sometimes be like a little shuttle or raft getting them through the blood stream.0381

Certain hormones need to be attached to globulins.0388

And finally the next major kind of blood protein is fibrinogen.0392

Fibrinogen is what you made fiber and out of.0398

Without fibrinogen you wouldn't be able to make a blood clot.0403

A blood clot is the way that you stop bleeding and it is very important.0406

There are the components of plasma and the other blood components.0410

How do blood cells get formed in your body?0414

Where do they originate?0418

Hemocytoblast tends to be hanging around in your bone marrow.0419

Hemocytoblasts as a fancy term for blood cell maker.0423

There is one major kind of stem cell and that is a hemocytoblast that through mitotic divisions by dividing makes different lines or lineages of cells.0429

So for instance where you get this from is the hemocytoblast.0441

The prorythroblast eventually leads to the formation of red blood cells erythrocytes.0445

This particular lineage leads to a certain kind of a white blood cell of leukocytes called granulocytes because they have little granules in a cell.0451

It looks like they are little dots, little particles in the cells.0460

On the other hand you this other kind of white blood cell that are called A granulocytes meaning not having those granules.0463

Monocytes and lymphocytes they come from a slightly difference daughter cell from oligoblast and monoblast.0470

Finally myocarioblasts turn to make ocariocytes and eventually the split up portions of that end up being thrombocytes which are platelets.0478

And all of these are in the bone marrow and end up in your bloodstream every second of every day of your life.0490

Red blood cells let us start with those first.0495

They made up the majority of the hematocrit of blood.0500

Erythrocytes the technical term for blood cells are shaped like a biconcave disks.0502

Here is an image of what red blood cells look like up close.0508

From a superior view of red blood cell they should look round and there is a little indentation in the middle.0512

It almost looks like a donut that does not have a full hole in it.0520

If you were to take this and then cut it there and flip the cells, you can see on the side they would look like this.0523

Biconcave disk you see that like both sides are concave and has this shape.0532

Making up the majority of the protein inside of it is something called hemoglobin.0539

The interesting thing about the reason why the shape is this way is some of it has to do with the fact they are enucleated.0544

This is one of those rare examples in the body of cells that do not have a nucleus.0551

An interesting thing is that in addition to them not having a nucleus they need, they excreted it before they end up flowing around your bloodstream.0556

They also do have mitochondria and do not have ribosomes.0565

They are not doing a lot of cellular activity that your cells tend to do just to stay alive.0568

These only last for so long and eventually get damaged but the other reason why not having something like mitochondria is important here.0574

Is if these had mitochondria in them and the purpose of red blood cell is to shutter or carry oxygen to your body,0582

If there is a mitochondria here the mitochondria of red blood can steal the oxygen off of this oxygen raft.0590

That would not be good.0596

You want to have these things just delivering oxygen to the cells that are keeping your tissues alive.0598

If they do not have a nucleus and mitochondria they are just jam packed with this protein called hemoglobin that has a high affinity for oxygen.0603

It is like a magnet for oxygen.0612

And this protein allows it to be like an oxygen raft.0615

I like to think of oxygen as sitting back and enjoying its ride on the red blood cell until it gets to a capillary and ends up finding its temporary home.0618

Oxyhemoglobin vs. Deoxyhemoglobin, depending on whether or not the oxygen is attached to the red blood cell and physically attached hemoglobin is a slightly different color.0630

When oxygen is on hemoglobin it looks red.0641

When there is no oxygen on hemoglobin it tends to look like a deep and dark purplish that can oftentimes look blue.0645

And that is how you get that low with veins being slightly blueish in the systemic circuit.0653

The arteries and arterials being more reddish because of the particular part of the blood vessels that have oxygen attachment vs. No oxygen attachment.0659

Red blood cells last up to 4 months.0670

Some of them last a lot less time than that because they can get damaged as they are moving through, get the shuttle through your bloodstream they get damaged.0672

They get ruined and they breakdown and since they do not have a nucleus and those other organelles they are not repairing themselves.0683

You getting rid of at least a million red blood cells every second of every day and you are also making that many.0689

You can get away with having these damaged red blood cells because you are making 1 – 3,000,000 new red blood cells and have those entering the bloodstream every second.0697

This is very well because I have seen textbooks say 1,000,000 and other textbooks say 3,000,000.0707

There is a range.0713

It depends on the person, depends on their size, depends on how me liters of blood in their body.0715

Breakdown and renewal of red blood cells.0721

In the liver, spleen, or bone marrow that is where red blood cells eventually end their journey.0726

They are engulfed by cells there and something called hemolysis.0734

The hemolysis causes them to rupture.0741

They are broken down and they end up you take the hemoglobin molecule which is right here.0743

This is like an inorganic chemistry styled model of the molecule.0749

At each corner here you have carbons, you can see where there are not carbons in the corners between these bonds nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen.0755

In the center here is iron.0763

Iron is a very critical element with the formation of hemoglobin.0766

What happens is as the red blood cells are being stripped apart, the hemo part of this hemoglobin which is what the iron is needed for that0770

gets broken apart and ends up producing a molecule called bilivirdin.0780

Bilivirdin looks slightly greenish.0785

If you get certain bruises you may seem like some bruises have like a greenish tone and that is because the pressure that cause the breaking of the capillaries was so great0789

That you have damage and broke apart many hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells that the bilivirdin end up leaking out0803

into the interstitial space and giving that green color.0810

Eventually all of that goes away because you have white blood cells that go up and has swallowed up all that excess stuff and clean it up.0813

Eventually bilivirdin is converted to bilirubin.0820

And bilirubin has more of a yellowish, yellow orange tone.0823

Bilirubin is related to jaundice.0827

What is happening is a bilirubin is supposed to be brought to the liver in your bloodstream and then bilirubin eventually ends up in bile.0831

Bile ends up in your digestive tract.0842

But if your liver is not doing a very good job of dealing with that bilirubin, may be blood flows in the liver0845

something is wrong with it you will get a buildup of bilirubin around the body.0857

It can end up showing through in your skin.0861

Jaundice is that yellow look all over the skin and even the white of the eyes.0864

Something like hepatitis which is an infection of liver is going to lead to that happening and that is because of the bilirubin.0870

Erythropoiesis makes new red blood cells.0878

EPO stands for erythropoietin.0881

EPO is the hormone and erythropoiesis is the process of making red blood cells.0888

That is going to be that one lineage I have showed you on the previous slide that comes from hemocytoblasts but ends up making red blood cell specifically.0893

When it comes to blood transfusions you have to make sure that if someone needs blood, they have lost blood,0902

you need to give them blood from a donor that has to be compatibility.0910

If not you are getting to get some problems happening.0914

I will tell you how those problems occur.0918

Let us look at the surface of each of these different kinds of red blood cells and these different blood types and what is also in the plasma and see how they go together.0920

If we look around the surface of a red blood cell of somebody who has type A blood, let us say that on the surface there are these little molecules.0928

These little antigens projecting through the plasma membrane.0940

This is an A antigen.0948

Antigen is a general term for some kind of a molecule usually it is protein issues.0953

It is made up of proteins and sometimes there are lipid characters next to them .0961

Even the ones on the surface of a bacterium, a bacterial cell you can call those antigens and use that term0964

and in the case of how antibodies that your body produces are going to be attached to there.0972

There are antibodies with respect to this too.0977

This is a red blood cell that belongs in a person's body and they have this kind of antigen on the surface and I am giving it that square shape.0980

The person with A blood has an antibody that goes against B blood.0988

Right next to it you are going to have antibodies that look like this.0993

In later lessons in the immune system or lymphatic system lesson you will see that the actual structure of antibodies is more y shaped.0998

For the case of keeping this simple I am keeping it like this.1010

These 2 here are called anti B because they are against B blood antibodies.1013

You will see what this means in a second.1022

I am going to show you what is on the surface of B blood cells.1029

By the way they would be a lot more antigens than I am drawing but I cannot draw that in this particular instance, just keeping it simple.1034

This is actually a B antigen.1046

A B antigen is different shape, different kind of confirmation, different molecular shape than this particular image here.1051

B blood in the plasma in that fluid floating around you have the opposite going on.1061

You have antibodies that would look like this.1067

It looks like H but use your imagination.1070

This would be floating around in these particular antibodies.1074

Guess what anti A antibodies.1080

The problem with somebody who has A blood giving them B blood from that other person is that in the person with A blood they got this floating around.1087

They get these and these and when you put this blood into their body you have added red blood cells that is what they we are missing.1100

That is what they need to stay alive but you have also introduced anti A antibodies.1109

These are going to attach to there, they have a perfect fit and it is good cause red blood cells to come together because when antibodies see this little space attaches that antigen.1116

Imagine them just having antibodies all around them and then having other red blood cells come together that is called agglutination.1126

That is going to form an abnormal clot that does not belong there.1135

The other problem is when you have added in this kind of red blood cell, look what they have in their bloodstream here, they have got the anti B antibodies.1138

That is going to cause a problem.1146

Some people around you just take out the antibodies but like I have said just the fact you are putting this particular cell into their bloodstream1147

you cannot get rid of all the anti B antibodies in that person's blood flow.1156

It is just not possible.1161

These do not go together.1163

Next up AB blood the reason why it is called AB blood because it has both A and B antigens.1165

It is got A antigens and also have B antigens.1176

But guess what no antibodies to the A or B antigens.1179

Now there are antibodies in this person's bloodstream yes but they are not actually going to have antibodies against what is naturally on the surface of the red blood cells.1186

The amazing thing about having AB blood is you can give that person almost any kind of blood because1198

they do not have antibodies floating around their plasmas that is going to cause problems.1205

You can put this in as long as you take out the anti A antibodies because you can strain them out as long as you take out these antibodies1209

they will have no trouble with these kinds of red blood cells.1221

No big deal.1224

I have heard that you can still put donor blood into a person's body with antibodies for this person as AB as long as you slowly put it in the antibodies do not cause as much of a trouble.1225

Screening or taking them out is going to give them what they need.1238

They need these red blood cells.1243

In that case scenario they are going to give a person with AB blood AB blood but that is a rare blood type.1244

O blood let us check it out.1250

O blood cells I am drawing it like an O because they do not have the A antigen on surface and they do have the B antigen1252

but they have both kinds of antibodies naturally floating around their body.1258

Both antibodies that is why somebody like myself with O blood, I need O blood and even if you take out the antibodies from the donor1266

if you give me this cell I got these things floating in my plasma that are going to freak out and buy into and cause that clumping.1286

It is going to cut off blood flow to some important vital organs and it could kill me.1293

You can give O blood and the good news is that O blood is very common.1298

Depending on what country you are in the percentage with O blood can be a little less but in the US O blood is the most common.1304

Next up Rh factor this is either Rh + or Rh - and this is named after the fact that it was discovered in the Rhesus monkey.1311

The word Rhesus is not like a candy, it is Rhesus.1321

The rhesus monkey that discover this, this comes from a separate gene.1328

Whether or not you are O or AB that comes from a certain genotype.1331

You can hear it this is on a different gene.1336

Think of it this way.1338

If you are Rh + you have an additional antigen on the surface.1339

By the way before I move on and forget, the O red blood cell I do not want you think it has no antigens at all.1343

There are lots of different kinds of antigens and the surface in my red blood cells are going to have antigens projecting out from the plasma membrane.1350

They are not going to have the A and B antigens.1359

The Rh factor if you are H+ you have an additional antigen.1361

Think of it as like this.1366

Let us say this is an O red blood cell.1367

Here is another O red blood cell.1370

If you are Rh + you might have this additional little antigen sticking out from the surface.1371

If you are Rh - you do not have any of them.1379

You do not have that particular antigen.1386

It is the lack of the antigen that is why it is negative.1389

The way this comes into play is I told you earlier that AB blood if you have that you can be given almost any blood type.1391

The reason why it cannot be any oftentimes is if you are AB- that means your AB cells or AB red blood cells do not have this particular antigen.1398

If you introduce let us say O+ blood your body could actually end up attacking those red blood cells with antibodies because you are not used to it.1412

If you are AB- they are going to give you O- or B-, or A-.1424

I am O+ so they can give me O- or O+.1431

Somebody who is O- they do not give O+ to that person.1437

If you are on the ER and they need to give you blood transfusion within a matter of minutes with a test they can figure out which of these blood types you are.1440

Sometimes they do not have minutes.1449

Sometimes somebody who is bleeding profusely close to death in that case they will give them O- blood if it is on supply.1451

Because they do not have enough time to wait.1459

They are just going to give them that one but if there is time, if they know a surgery is coming up,1461

they will try to get the precise type of blood that matches the blood that is actually in the body.1465

Here is a little chart that you can study that tells you which one goes with which in terms of the donor, getting to the recipients.1471

Like I said earlier if the donor is O+ like myself I cannot give to O-.1484

But guess what, O- can give to me.1491

If I'm the recipient I can actually get O- or O+ blood.1495

The yellow sections have to do with if its light yellow they are saying that you can give them plasma transfusions but not with the whole blood.1500

Bright yellow that is full blood transfusions.1510

White means no of plasma compatibility meaning they would give that person was called whole blood or just hematocrit.1514

Hematocrit is a better name for the compacted red blood cells.1521

White blood cells also known as leukocytes.1529

Leukocytes come in many varieties and have an incredible ability to defend body.1537

Here are the main functions or abilities, they can migrate out of the bloodstream.1541

Amazingly a white blood cell can squeeze itself.1548

If you go inside of a capillary they can squeeze themselves through those endothelial cells into organs.1552

That is amazing their ability to migrate and hunt down these foreign bodies that cause problems.1558

They have an amoeboid movement.1565

If you have taken biology amoebas they have this ability to manipulate the shape of the plasma membrane and make it look like pseudopodia.1568

It looks like fake feet extending out and that is by manipulating the cystoskeleton when they move their microfilaments.1578

That part of the cytoskeleton, those protein strands, they pole and let go on parts of the plasma membrane and1586

That allows them to wrap around and swallow particular foreign invaders.1592

It also aids in their ability to squeeze out of blood vessels by narrowing cells.1598

They are attracted to the specific stimuli depending on white blood cells you are talking about.1605

They are able hone in on certain kinds of foreign bodies, bacteria, certain bacteria, certain viruses, even parasites.1609

Most of them do phagocytosis which means cell eating.1616

It is a form of endocytosis where they are wrapping a plasma membrane around the foreign body, taking it in1622

And that little sack which now contains the bacteria were have you will fuse with lysosomes1628

Or little cellular organelles that have enzymes that can digest that particular foreign invader and kill it.1634

There are some abilities of white blood cells.1640

The first class of white blood cells that I will tell you about is granulocytes.1644

Like I have said before they have little granules in their cytoplasm.1648

A lot of these granules you are seeing is lysosomes and enzymes.1652

A lot of them are meant to be there because these are cells that kill.1657

Neutrophils about 50 to 70% of white blood cells very common.1663

They are meant to swallow up foreign invaders and are typically on the front lines.1667

If you have an infection they are usually the first ones there and considering how many of them there are relative1671

to the other white blood cells the chances of them getting there first is very good.1677

They are there on the front lines like they use that term wit war in an army.1681

Eosinophils is a lot less 2 to 4% of white blood cells.1689

They attack objects with antibody.1694

If antibodies, these globular proteins have been attached to a certain bacteria, eosinophils notice it.1697

It got antibodies on it like a marker and they go and eat it up.1704

They are great at attacking parasites.1709

If you have a parasitic infection like let us say a tapeworm, your eosinophil count is going to go up because they are good attacking parasites.1712

And the increasing number during allergic reactions.1722

Allergic reactions depend on the person.1725

Allergic reactions probably happen because of a combination of genetics and environment affecting that have normal immune response.1727

But eosinophils play a role in that.1736

You can see that each of these pictures they have this weird thing going on in the middle it is called a multi lobed nucleus.1739

It is like a nucleus with a few different sections.1747

Neutrophils oftentimes will have many lobes.1750

Eosinophils classically have bilobed, 2 lobed nucleus.1753

Basophils the smallest percentage in granulocytes.1758

They assist with mast cells in producing inflammation, expanding blood vessels in an area and that is a classic response when you have an infection or damage to an area.1763

Agranulocytes is the opposite, meaning they do not have those granules.1774

They look not quite as they have many dots on them.1782

Monocyte is one type of a granulocyte that is about 2-8% of white blood cells just depending.1784

They are the largest white blood cells.1793

They are large compared to the others.1795

They are great at endocystosis.1798

Like I have mentioned before with the amoeba action wrapping around and engulfing bacterium.1799

They tend to circulate in the bloodstream for about a day and then they end up in a tissue outside of the bloodstream as a macrophage.1807

Macrophage means giant eater.1819

Like I have said they are quite large.1820

Macrophages you will find those roaming around in tissues eaten up and stuff that should not be there.1822

Lymphocytes up 20 to 30% of white blood cells are lymphocytes.1829

They circulate in the blood of course but they also hang out in lymphatic organs like the spleen.1835

The thymus is another one has to do with it but the spleen is going to be a place that you are going to find a lot of lymphocytes.1841

Here are some examples of lymphocytes.1852

T cells have to do with a cell mediated immunity.1853

T cells they are going to be targeting particular invaders as they come in.1857

T cells some other call them helper T cells.1866

You may have heard that term before because HIV is a virus that has the most impact on the helper T cells.1870

HIV apparently can invade a lot of different kinds of white blood cells but the clinical problems associated with HIV and AIDS has mostly have to do with their impact on helper T cells.1877

There is a certain kind of protein on the surface of those cells and HIV basically has the key it fits into the lock that allows it to get into those cells and cause problems.1889

B cells are a little bit different.1901

They have to do with the manufacturing of antibodies based on the things that you are exposed to be.1904

Based on certain viruses, certain bacteria you are exposed to.1911

I remember that because anti body with a B, B cell anti body.1915

Lastly is the natural killer.1920

They are natural killer cells because they roam around the body and they target abnormal cells in your tissues.1923

So if you have some odd cell growth that is not correct, it is not healthy, they will eat that tissue.1933

Having a good natural killer cells makes it less likely you are going to get cancer.1940

I mean getting the long term metastasis, cancer that grows and spreads because if you have deficiency of a natural killer cells you are going to get out of control cell growth eventually.1945

Natural killer cells help with that.1958

Platelets, thrombocytes is the technical term for platelets.1961

They do look like pieces of a shattered plate.1966

It is like you took a plate and then all these little pieces, all these little red parts come together.1969

Those are platelets aggregating, coming together.1976

These cells do have many important roles related to clotting blood.1979

They release chemicals to help encourage the occurrence of a clot, of that plug in a sense.1983

They form a temporary patch on the walls of damaged vessels.1990

If you have a cut that is causing the leaking of blood, platelets are what you will see come there and kind of patch it up.1993

They help in contraction to reduce clot size so eventually you want to start to make a clot not as big so2000

they help get the clot kind of a flatter in reducing its size once healing has begun to occur.2012

Hemostasis basically means like keeping blood where it should be.2019

It is the stoppage of bleeding or hemorrhaging.2027

There are few different phases, when you have a cut in a blood vessel the first thing that is going to happen is the vascular phase.2031

There will be certain stimulation that causes that blood vessel to decrease in diameter and least for a bit2038

because the immediate thing you want to do is stop a lot of blood from getting out of there.2046

Reducing the width of it is going to do that.2052

It is endothelial cells right next to where the blood is.2055

If you saw the blood vessel lesson, endothelium is where all the blood is rushing to, that inner layer.2059

They are going to release those chemical factors that have to do with that.2065

Next is the platelet phase.2069

If you have platelets in your bloodstream is just floating all around and then they are stimulated to aggravate there, to come there and kind of bind to one another.2071

It is almost like a glue in a sense that is trying to get that vessel patched together so that you do not have as much blood coming out of it.2081

And that is going to cause the release from the platelets of more chemicals like ATP and clotting factors.2092

ATP if you have taken biology this is the same ADP that you get when ATP adenosine try phosphates broken apart is adenosine die phosphate.2098

And that is a chemical factor that can actually encourage the formation of a clot in your bloodstream.2107

Next is the coagulation or blood clotting phase.2113

The platelets have started to patch up this vessel cut but you also want to do a better job of patching up that area so that you do not have bits of blood leaking out through it.2117

In addition of platelets, fibrinogen one of those globular proteins is converted to fibrin.2132

It forms a net like structure that kind of catches red blood cells, that was like fish being caught in the net.2137

As they are caught in this net it forms a clot.2144

A plug that helps stop blood from exiting.2147

Eventually, once that blood vessel walls completely healed and you have new connective tissue making it nice and sound.2152

You want to get rid of the clot.2162

You do not want the clot to grow and hang around too long and reduce blood flow through the vessel once the healing has happened.2164

Fibrinolysis means getting rid of that fibrin or getting rid of that clot and making it go back into its little bits so that you do not have that big clump there when it is not needed anymore.2170

Some blood conditions and disorders.2187

Some of this overlaps with the blood vessel lessons from before.2193

I am using the same pictures here because blood is running through blood vessels.2196

Hemorrhaging is the leaking of blood out of blood vessels.2200

Internal hemorrhaging can be a very bad thing.2204

Thrombus is blood clot that should not be there and if it gets dislodge and eventually moves along through the bloodstream that is an embolism.2207

An embolism, embolist gets caught and becomes an embolism.2219

Depending on where embolism happens that can restrict blood flow to the lungs, to the heart, brain, and it could result in fatality.2223

On anemia basically means that you are not producing enough red blood cells or the red blood cells you are producing are not getting the job done.2232

The main way people get anemia is they are not taking enough iron.2242

You need iron to produce hemoglobin which is a critical part of red blood cells.2247

If your iron intake is low you are going to feel fatigued and tired and there is other long-term health effects that happen because of anemia.2253

Being chronically anemic can shorter lifespan.2261

Doctors will tell you if you are anemic eat more red meat and that is a problem for vegetarian but red meats has a high iron content compared to some other meats.2265

That can encourage your body to make more red blood cells through erythropoeisis.2276

Sickle cell disease is also called sickle cell anemia this is an example of where you may be producing the right amount of red blood cells2283

but the red blood cells are producing are not doing the job of binding oxygen and may be getting caught when they should not.2291

Sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia something you are born with and there is a gene corresponding to the shape of hemoglobin.2298

And the amazing thing is that all the amino acids that are put together to make hemoglobin it is a point mutation.2307

It is one DNA base that is wrong and that impacts where the amino acids and changes the whole structure of hemoglobin.2314

Instead of the cells looking like this, that round shape with a little indent, they will look like this like a sickle.2321

That shape means hemoglobin is not doing as good of a job at binding oxygen effectively.2333

The shape also causes these red blood cells to get caught in certain parts the body.2341

There are long-term negative health effects of having sickle cell disease or sickle cell anemia.2347

Hemophilia is another genetic disorder.2352

Unlike sickle cell disease which is a autosomal disease meaning not sex linked.2357

Hemophilia the most common form is sex linked.2361

It is on the X chromosome and if you have taken biology you may have remember that because of the X chromosome it affects more males than women.2365

Males only have one X chromosome and females have 2.2373

All it takes is one harmful recessive allele on that 1 X chromosome to give them hemophilia.2376

It takes the inheritance of that allele from both parents in women.2382

Hemophilia this literally means living blood.2387

Ironically someone who is hemophiliac would not love to see blood.2390

The reason why it has that name is because when they get cut, blood keeps coming.2395

They do not have the ability to properly and actually clot their blood.2399

On that is a problem.2403

There are so many different factors like 20 factors that have to do with this domino effect that leads to the formation of a clot.2406

I gave you a very brief summary of how clot is formed but it is a very complicated chemical process.2418

Being a hemophiliac something is wrong with that sequence of how a clot is formed and you do not have the proper blood proteins to do that.2424

There is no cure but if you are hemophiliac you can carry around something that allows you2434

to inject clotting factors when you do get a cut or you have to take a trip to the ER to deal with that.2440

Leukemia is a of bone marrow cancer.2446

Leukemia one of initial signs it is actually overproduction of leukocytes because what all cancers have in common is, it is mitosis out of control.2450

It is too much growth within that tissue and that can impact neighboring healthy tissues.2461

Cancer of the bone marrow you are going to be producing way more white blood cells than you should.2467

Leukemia is fatal if that person does not get a bone marrow transplant.2473

Thank you for watching this blood lesson and thank you for watching www.educator.com.2479

Educator®

Please sign in for full access to this lesson.

Sign-InORCreate Account

Enter your Sign-on user name and password.

Forgot password?

Start Learning Now

Our free lessons will get you started (Adobe Flash® required).
Get immediate access to our entire library.

Sign up for Educator.com

Membership Overview

  • Unlimited access to our entire library of courses.
  • Search and jump to exactly what you want to learn.
  • *Ask questions and get answers from the community and our teachers!
  • Practice questions with step-by-step solutions.
  • Download lesson files for programming and software training practice.
  • Track your course viewing progress.
  • Download lecture slides for taking notes.

Use this form or mail us to .

For support articles click here.