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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Taxonomy

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
II. Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
1:00:00
How They Move
1:00:35
Flagellum
1:02:42
Flagella
1:02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
1:02:59
How They Move
1:03:27
Cell Wall
1:05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
1:05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
1:05:52
In Plants
1:07:19
In Bacteria
1:07:25
In Fungi
1:07:41
Cytoplasm
1:08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
1:08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
1:08:47
Cytosol
1:09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
1:09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
1:00:00
Meiosis II
1:01:04
Prophase II
1:01:08
Metaphase II
1:01:32
Anaphase II
1:02:08
Telophase II
1:02:43
Meiosis Overview
1:03:39
Products of Meiosis
1:06:00
Gametes
1:06:10
Sperm and Egg
1:06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
1:06:27
III. From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
1:00:00
Autosomal Dominant
1:06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
1:09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
1:13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
IV. History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
1:02:13
More on Sexual Selection
1:03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
1:03:26
Examples
1:04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
1:09:41
Phenotype
1:10:01
Only Heritable Traits
1:11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
1:12:00
Temporal Isolation
1:12:59
Behavioral Isolation
1:14:17
Mechanical Isolation
1:15:13
Gametic Isolation
1:16:21
Geographic Isolation
1:16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
1:18:37
Hybrid Sterility
1:18:57
Hybrid Inviability
1:20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
1:20:31
Speciation
1:21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
1:21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
1:21:19
Adaptive Radiation
1:24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
1:24:28
Changes in Appearance
1:24:56
Examples
1:24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
1:27:35
Five Conditions
1:28:15
Equations
1:33:55
Microevolution
1:36:59
Natural Selection
1:37:11
Genetic Drift
1:37:34
Gene Flow
1:40:54
Nonrandom Mating
1:41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
1:41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
1:41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
1:43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
1:46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
V. Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
VI. Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
1:02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
1:03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
VII. Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed May 13, 2015 10:37 AM

Post by antonio cooper on May 12, 2015

Absolutely wonderful lesson thank you for your time and effort in doing these videos. Would you by chance be able to go into the order of Taxonomy a tad bit more detail? I understand that they start broad, but how would we tell if something is referring to class or Order if we have never heard of the creature?

Taxonomy

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Ancient Classification 0:04
    • Start of Classification Systems
    • How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
    • Used in Europe Until 1700s
  • Modern Classification 3:52
    • Carolus Linnaeus
    • Taxonomy
  • Taxonomic Groups 6:57
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  • Binomial Nomenclature 12:10
    • Genus Species
    • Naming System Rules
  • Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy 14:56
    • Advantages
    • Disadvantages
  • Domains 20:31
    • Domain Archaea
    • Domain Bacteria
    • Domain Eukarya
    • Extremophiles
  • Kingdoms 25:09
    • Kingdom Archaebacteria
    • Kingdom Eubacteria
    • Kingdom Protista
    • Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
  • Cladograms 28:07
    • Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
    • Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms

Transcription: Taxonomy

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the lesson on taxonomy.0000

Taxonomy is all about categorizing groups for organisms, based on the evolutionary histories,0007

their body forms, genetics, and various other characteristics.0014

When it comes to taxonomy, it is really a system of classification.0019

You can classify anything in life.0023

You can classify types of music, types of shoes, types of buildings.0025

You can classify all kinds of things, that is a part of being a human.0032

We like to differentiate and compare and contrast things.0036

When it comes to life, humans are desire to classify what is life and how life is different,0040

and how other life forms are similar.0047

Ancient classification, very old as you would guess from the word ancient.0049

Classification systems pertaining to life, we started by Aristotle.0055

We are used and relied upon for over a thousand years, a very long time.0059

Aristotle had three main groups, depending on the textbook that you look in,0066

there will be slightly different phrasings of this.0070

I have seen this very often that he talked about animals with red blood, animals without red blood, and then plants.0073

Basically, according to Aristotle, according to his observations, every life form on earth was in one of these three groups.0082

You would imagine that humans and chickens and dogs, would be animals with blood.0089

Perhaps, you have an insect, or a worm, or maybe a squid, this one it is hard to say the entire list and0099

all the different animals that he would have been exposed in his lifetime.0111

Based on his observations, he separated all animals in these two groups, and everything else is plants.0115

The plant group, he would describe trees and bushes.0120

Probably he would have even put mushrooms in that group.0125

Now, we now know that mushrooms are not a plant, they are a fungus.0129

They are more closely related to animals than plants.0133

You got to cut stall and slack that, living about 2000 years ago,0137

even have all the tools we have today to figure out that a mushroom is in fact not a photosynthetic being like a plant.0143

There were some flaws to his system of classification.0152

Plants were split up based on type.0157

Further categorization underneath these little umbrella terms.0160

He would have split plants like that is a bush, that is a tree, etc.0166

Animals were split up based on where they were found, water, land, and air.0171

There is a problem with that because when you have very strict determining characteristics for that,0178

there is the water animals, there is the land animals, air animals.0185

What about a duck?0189

A duck can be in all three, they can fly, they can go to the water, and they can walk on land.0192

Yes, obviously some problems with his system.0201

However, up until the 1700’s approximately, this was a commonly use classification system in Europe and beyond.0204

Aristotle, you sir, definitely had a huge impact on classification.0210

Thanks to the scientific revolution and a little bit more kind of reliable thought,0217

in terms of like testing it out and figuring out for certain, it went beyond just theory.0223

Modern day classification is a little more precise.0229

Modern classifications, thanks to this gentleman Carolus Linnaeus, that was not his birth name.0234

He actually Latinized his own name, what I mean by Latinize is,0241

Latin is the basic language that he used to name species and categorize life.0252

It is almost a way to advertise the system that he invented.0261

He was born Carl Linnae.0264

You will also find it written as Carl Von Linnen in certain sources.0269

But Carl became known as Carolus Linnaeus because it almost sounds like a scientific name,0273

or ornithorhynchus anatinus that is the scientific name of the duck-billed platypus.0282

I can do it to my own name, I would be Briannus Cardellonis or Brianicus Cardillae.0286

He did it with Carl Linnae, and Carolus Linneaus, that name was born.0295

He was an 18th century Swedish biologist/botanist.0301

He knew a lot about animals, knew a lot about plants, and that certainly helped,0305

in him coming up of this really good way of categorizing life of different groups.0309

His system of classification is still used today, even though it dates back to the 1700’s.0314

It is known as taxonomy.0321

The different groups he came up with from broad to specific are called taxa.0323

You will see that on a slide in the future, in this lesson.0329

Taxonomy is the discipline of biology concerned with identifying, naming, and classifying species.0332

It is based on several different criteria.0338

We have the benefit of the evolutionary history, fossils, that inform us about different forms of life, we have DNA.0342

Carolus was not careless, but he did not rely on DNA because back then, he did not know about that.0352

He relied on some fossil evidence and then studying their bodily form,0364

which ones were similar to others and which ones were different.0372

Behavior can inform those things.0377

It is not just putting in different groups, it is naming them in the most specific way possible.0381

It is called a specific epithet.0388

Every organism has its own distinct name.0391

The cool thing about his system, regardless of whether or not a scientist knows Latin or speaks Swedish,0394

whether a scientist speaks English, Swahili, Japanese, Russian, Portuguese, it does not matter,0405

the same names are used around the world.0412

Here are the taxonomic groups.0418

From most broad to most specific, they are each called taxa.0420

Singular would be the term taxon.0424

A kingdom would be a taxon.0429

These are the taxa.0432

Domain, that is the largest group.0434

There are three domains and all life forms are in one of those three.0438

Domain, you think of it as a giant circle and that is domain.0441

A kingdom will be contained within the domain, like the animal kingdom.0449

Phylum, the class that we are in is actually called class mammalian.0459

That is c, I will do it in black because it is tough to see the c.0476

Order, like order carnivora, carnivorous mammals.0481

Family, let us do it in red, families are contained within orders.0489

Family hominidae,that would be the family that we are in.0499

Genus, like genus homo or genus canis, meaning it is of the dog family or phallus which is of the feline, the cat family.0505

Finally, within that we have got species, you can even go sub species.0523

The point is that, the broader groups contain smaller groups within them.0528

Within a kingdom, you could have 10 phyla, the different phylums, you could have 20.0533

It really depends on how scientists have decided to categorize, based on these different groups and the variety that there is.0540

I have seen in classrooms teachers talk about coming up with a mnemonic device,0550

meaning some kind of sentence that starts with all these letters so you can remember the order.0556

I have heard King Philip can only find green stools, or things like that.0563

If you include the D, did not King Philip crouch over fine green stations, I do not know, I’m just making up sentences.0570

If you come up with a sentence that even if it sounds silly, if you can remember it,0588

it will help you remember the order, from domain all the way down to species.0595

Quickly, I’m going to run through the names for our species.0601

Our domain is known as eukarya, more on that in the next slide coming up.0606

Kingdom, we are animals, animalia.0614

Phylum, this name might seem very strange at first but you will learn more about it in the future lesson in this course.0621

Chordata, we are chordates, all vertebrates are within that.0627

I had one little point here between phylum and class that, in here you have something called a sub phylum.0631

Scientists can feel free to do this, if they want to be a little bit more specific underneath a taxon,0641

but that is still more general than the next one down, you can talk about sub phylum vertebrata.0651

This would be all vertebrates, all animals with a spine.0658

Class, our class is mammalian.0662

There are definitely are sub classes of different kinds of mammals.0666

Our order, primates, sometimes called primata.0672

That would be all monkeys, apes, us, and our recent ancestors.0677

Family, hominidae, we are hominins, genus homo, species sapiens.0684

Our sub species is another sapiens, homo sapiens sapiens.0698

If you did this for a lion, African lion, it would be the same here, same here still animals,0703

still vertebrates, still mammals.0715

Once you get to order, there will be a separation.0717

With lions, they will be in order carnivore, family felidae because they are felines,0720

their genus species name would be different.0727

Binomial Nomenclature, this is the two main naming system, that is literally what this means.0732

Binomial two name, way of naming.0738

It is the scientific name of the species and is represented by having these two names back to back,0742

there is a certain way of writing it.0750

We are familiar with this, in a sense of homo sapiens or canis lupus would be the gray wolf.0752

When people hear canis or canine, they think it is dog.0760

Some of us are familiar with this, in terms of like hearing homo sapiens.0765

This applies to every single living organism.0769

They all have this scientific name.0772

Here are the rules for writing them out.0775

You capitalize the genus, lowercase the specific epithet.0777

Capitalize the genus, lowercase the specific epithet.0786

You have lowercased that.0792

By specific epithet, what we mean is that is the technical name for the second word.0794

It just means like, it is the most literally specific point.0802

It is the most specific end of this spectrum of naming.0808

Species comes from the word specific which makes sense, you are talking about a specific organism.0814

You italicize all of it when typed, like I did here.0819

Genus species, when its typed out, it is italicized, the letters do look slanted.0826

You underline all of it when it is handwritten.0833

If I were to handwrite this, it is not easy for people to italicize.0837

You would write genus species like Homo sapiens, like that.0841

But if I was typing it, I will write it like this.0858

See, this is not underlined.0861

This is the last kind of rule, the genus can be abbreviated with a single letter and period, it is implying that that is homo.0863

Also, you could see like this a lot, the e stands for escherichia,0871

that is the actual genus name for a really common bacterium that people are used to hearing about.0878

E coli is a commonly used abbreviation for the scientific name for this bacterial species.0883

Those are the rules with the binomial nomenclature that Carolus Linneaus came up with.0890

Advantages and disadvantages to taxonomy.0898

There are significant advantages to having the system in place.0900

Clarification of the relationships, close or distant between different organisms for all scientists worldwide.0904

Like I mentioned earlier, these names that most of them are derived from Latin and some of them scientific names0910

or the specific epithets are named after particular scientist who discovered them, in honor of them.0919

All of these names are used worldwide, regardless of what language is spoken.0925

That is awesome for international communication and sharing of data.0929

It is great that those things do not need to be translated.0934

Analysis of genetics in the fossil record relates to taxonomy so that we do not let appearances fool us.0937

Carolus Linneaus did a great job of categorizing beings.0944

There were occasional flaws in what he came up with because0948

he did not have the benefit of really advanced genetic analysis, in his favor.0951

These days, we can look it to animals and say that they were really closely related.0957

Let us say, you talk about the Roly-poly also known as an isopod.0964

Roly-poly look like this, they are kind of gray, they have their little feet.0971

And they can roll up to that cute little ball, when they get disturbed.0976

You find these in various places in the soil, in the dirt.0982

You might look at this and say that they are insects.0987

People will say they are not insects because they do not have 6 legs.0991

They definitely look like they are closely related.0995

Not as close as you might think, these are related to crustaceans.0999

But why are they not in the water?1007

There are giants isopods, relatives of wood lice, at the bottom of the ocean and they eat up dead carcasses of whales and such.1009

On land, these still do resemble crustaceans that are in the water, they have gills because1021

if these do not get enough water in the soil, they actually will suffocate.1028

I learned that the hard way when I ordered some of these roly-poly for a lab.1034

When the package of them arrived in the dirt, it told me to quickly open it and spray them with water.1038

I did not look at that notification.1043

By the time I open them, they were all dead, they have dried out because they were not given enough moisture to breathe.1045

They do still have this relationship to crustaceans.1053

Looking at them just base on appearances, you might not think of that relationship.1057

But analyzing their internal anatomy, their genetics, reveals a little bit more about what category of life they should be put in.1062

There are some disadvantages though to taxonomy and the system.1072

Occasionally, there is no category or group that adequately fits a species.1076

By virtue of making this set of determinant, to be in this group, A, B, and C have to be true.1082

What if only A and B are true, and A and B is not enough to get them in this category,1090

but now there is no other category that they belong in?1095

When it comes to these two, this is an example of the flaw of taxonomy.1099

The giant panda, it looks like a bear.1105

Bears are in order carnivora, they are carnivorous mammal and they are all related.1110

But there is plenty of species of bears now, within this order.1117

Are pandas carnivores?1122

No, they primarily depend on bamboo.1124

They tend to be herbivorous.1128

They tend to be herbivores.1133

Occasionally in the wild, pandas have been observed eating tiny animals, that is rare though.1140

They tend to rely on bamboo.1147

To put them in order carnivora is somewhat misleading.1149

Yes, there are genetic links and evolutionary links to a bear ancestor.1152

But putting them in this order is a little bit misleading.1159

Tardigrades, I have them pictured right here.1164

This is taken with a high powered microscope, they are very tiny.1166

At the largest, they will be like close to a millimeter in size.1171

They have their own phylum.1176

If you remember the order domain to kingdom to phylum, etc, phylum is a really broad group.1178

It is right below kingdom.1189

Kingdom animalia which has all animals, they have their own phylum.1190

When you look at the amount of species in each of the typical phyla, tens of thousands of species, if not more.1196

Phylum tardigrada has its own phylum named after it because1206

scientists have not discovered a living animal that resembles this at all.1211

They have theories about what it is more closely related to, like which worm or which other animal it has more in common with.1216

It is so weird that it is hard to put it in a category because it is so unique.1225

Domains, this is that broadest, the most broad category within our taxonomic system.1232

When I took biology, domains was first starting to appear in textbooks and1240

even a lot of textbooks at that time did not have the mention of domains.1245

But a lot of research into the kingdoms of life which is a little bit more specific,1249

has revealed some trends with three major groups of life, coming out of those kingdoms.1254

The three domains includes every life form an earth, every single life form you could possibly find,1262

could be put in one of these three domains.1268

There is domain archaea which includes all archaea bacteria, that is our little red part here.1270

Bacteria, includes all eubacteria, eu stands for true.1278

Archaea comes from the word archaic meaning ancient, very old.1290

I will explain more about that in a bit.1301

Domain eukarya, eukaryotes, you have seen what those are from the previous lesson.1304

That is all cells that actually have membrane bound organelles, nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc..1311

The majority of species that have been discovered, they are definitely in this green region.1317

Down here, this is early on in time on earth and here is present day up on top.1324

There is a common ancestor right, the first official cell that get passed on its DNA.1332

We get to this point where there is a split.1337

This split is between what lead to eubacteria, the true bacteria that we are commonly exposed to, and archaea.1341

Archaebacteria, they tend to exist in really extreme environments.1349

I will tell you more about kingdom archaebacteria in a future lesson.1353

It is interesting that archaebacteria, they tend to be what are called extremophiles.1358

Extremophiles meaning they love extreme conditions, extreme temperatures, extreme salt level,1369

extreme amounts of certain gases, extreme acidity levels.1389

They like extremes.1393

It is interesting that these are modern day descendants of a very ancient form of bacteria that got by next to hydrothermal vents.1395

It got by in really harsh conditions.1405

You tend to not be exposed to these very much in your daily life.1408

Because right here right now, where you are watching this lesson, where it is room temperature,1411

it would be too darn cold for a lot of archabacteria to exist there.1418

You tend to find a lot of archaebacteria where it is really hot temperatures, even exceeding boiling.1421

The funny thing is that, notice that there was a split from archaea and what lead to us.1428

Analysis of those cells has revealed that, we actually have more in common as eukaryotes with archaea than with bacteria.1435

With bacteria, there still is plenty in common.1449

We still have ribosomes, we still have some genes in common with them.1455

When you compare what is going on in here, the ribosomes in archaebacteria,1461

certain proteins in archaebacteria, and DNA sequences, they are more in common.1467

This split right here, you can think endosymbiosis for that.1472

If you remember from earlier lesson, endosymbiosis was the point where you get this green line occurring.1485

You get membrane bound organelles inside of cells, what will become mitochondria and chloroplasts.1490

The success of eukarya and multicellularity on this planet,1497

is thanks to this green lineage that grew out of that separation from archaebacteria.1501

The kingdoms are within the domains.1510

Those three domains how these little kingdoms within them.1512

Archaebacteria and eubacteria, when we look at domain archaeaa, there is one kingdom, it is this one.1517

When you look at domain bacteria, there is one kingdom.1524

When I actually took biology, these were all considered monerans or monera.1527

If you ever come across this term moneran, it is basically talking about all forms of bacteria.1536

It is not as commonly used today because scientists differentiate between these.1541

There is enough differences to talk about them into different kingdoms, two different categories.1546

Kingdom protista, I wrote debatable here because certain textbooks will actually list several kingdoms for protists.1552

For right now, just know that protists are eukaryotic, they are in domain eukarya but they do not have organs.1561

You tend to see a lot of unicellular protists, single celled beings in lakes, ponds, the oceans, rivers, etc..1568

You see some on land as well.1577

Occasionally, you will come across multicellular protist.1580

They do not have highly developed organs that would make them plants or fungi or animals.1583

They are grouped to this category and that is why you have the lineage depicted it as it is.1589

You can see that down here, this would be the origin of life.1594

You got your eubacteria, your archaebacteria.1598

From out of that, you get a new symbiosis leading to single celled eukaryotes.1600

With a little bit more complexity from out of protist, you get the other three kingdoms here.1607

You can see in this protist category, you do have unicellular and multicellular.1613

Up here with plants, animals, and fungi, you do not have individuals that are single celled.1617

When you see single celled here, it is a sperm and egg that are temporary form to give rise to the new organism.1624

Notice that all of these are multicellular and they would have specialized tissues.1631

Plantae, fungi, mammalia, I will be going over them in this order, in future lessons in this course.1638

I wrote viruses with a question mark because viruses, they are technically not alive.1647

I put a question mark because in the taxonomic system that scientists tend to use,1657

the system that Carolus Linneaus started, there is no virus kingdom.1661

There are names for viruses, a lot of times they will be a letter and number sequence that viruses are given.1666

There are groupings of viruses, there are categories but they are not considered part of the taxonomic naming system,1675

because there are reasons why they are not alive.1682

If you watch the virus lesson, I will go over those reasons.1684

Next is cladograms, cladistics, involving the making of a cladogram which relates evolution to phylogeny.1688

Phylogeny is all about the grouping of organisms based on which one split from which,1697

why is this group considered in this category vs. this group, kind of steps in the evolutionary tree1704

that cause organisms to differentiate overtime.1711

It shows how various characteristics have led to the splitting off of groups of organisms in evolutionary history.1713

Here is a cladogram, right now I do not have all the species listed or the characteristics involved in which one got it,1720

which one did it, and how the splits happen.1729

We are going through it step by step.1731

This is going to be a vertebrate cladogram.1733

You can do it with all kinds of animals and plants.1736

We are going to say that here, there is a particular organism.1741

As time goes on, we go all the way up to here.1745

Each of these branches is a subsequent kind of splitting off.1748

This is a vertebrate ancestor.1754

Here we have what is known as a lamprey.1767

A lamprey is a jawless fish.1771

It is a fish with a spine, it would have to have a spine because from a vertebrate ancestor,1776

all the organisms we get along this lineage are also going to be vertebrates.1781

They are also going to have spines.1784

This is known as out group because right here, we are going to have a characteristic occurring.1786

Some adaptation, some change that caused the next one to have a characteristic that the previous one does not.1793

In here, we are going to have something developing that every other organism afterwards also has.1804

Here is the jaw, jaws develop and we get the tuna.1811

A fish with an actual bony jaw.1825

Lampreys have like a sucking face, they have eyes, they have mouth, but they do not have an actual jaw.1830

Next up, we would have another one, another splitting off.1839

It could be a leopard frog, it could be a tree frog, a frog.1849

What do frogs have that a tuna would not?1853

They have lungs.1858

And that means all the animals after this will have this lung characteristic.1864

Tuna, they have gills.1870

Frog has lungs, they are tinier than another organisms like the average reptile or mammal or bird.1873

Frogs they have lungs, that is why they can breathe air on land.1880

Next up, let us go with a lizard.1885

What is it that a lizard would have and these others will have, that a frog does not?1899

It is an amnion.1908

In a lizard or birds, it would be an amniotic egg meaning1912

you have this actual protective separation of the egg in the developing embryo from the outer environment.1918

In lizards and birds, reptiles and birds, you have a hard shell typically.1925

With frogs and fish, you have a very fragile, soft, delicate egg,1931

that does not have this amniotic sac or membrane, with some kind of extra barrier like a uterus or a hard shell.1938

An amnion, lizards, birds, mammals have that same characteristic demonstrated a little bit differently.1949

Next up, we have some mammals.1956

I’m going to say tree shrew, this is a rodent, something that the tree shrew has that,1961

among a lot of things that the lizard does not is hair, actual fur, lizards do not have that.1973

The rest of them, they are all going to have hair.1980

We can also say warm blooded, four chambered heart.1982

There is a lots of things that mammals have in comparison to the average reptile but when we say hair, here.1988

Tree shrew has hair.1997

Next up is chimpanzee.1999

Among other things, I mean we can say front facing eyes, a lot of different things.2007

We are going to say, let us go with front facing eyes.2013

Or binocular vision, stereoscopic vision is also ways to say this.2041

As discussed in the human evolution lesson, having eyes in the front, overlapping fields of vision gives you depth perception.2046

There are advantages having eyes in the side, you get more in the periphery.2053

Depth perception, when swinging to the trees definitely a good thing.2058

Last is going to be humans.2063

Something we have that they do not would be bipedalism, not being dependent on locomotion with our forelimbs as adults.2067

That is the norm for humans to walk on two legs.2084

Chimps, it might seem that they are dependent on just two legs, until they get running fast and then you see them on all fours.2090

They are naturally quadropedal, and we are bipedal.2099

It takes a lot more energy to be bipedal, to have that balance.2103

It certainly has its advantages, as discussed in the human evolution lesson.2109

This is a cladogram, a way that you can connect taxonomy or phylogeny to the evolutionary tree of life.2113

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2120

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