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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Protists

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
II. Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
1:00:00
How They Move
1:00:35
Flagellum
1:02:42
Flagella
1:02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
1:02:59
How They Move
1:03:27
Cell Wall
1:05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
1:05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
1:05:52
In Plants
1:07:19
In Bacteria
1:07:25
In Fungi
1:07:41
Cytoplasm
1:08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
1:08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
1:08:47
Cytosol
1:09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
1:09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
1:00:00
Meiosis II
1:01:04
Prophase II
1:01:08
Metaphase II
1:01:32
Anaphase II
1:02:08
Telophase II
1:02:43
Meiosis Overview
1:03:39
Products of Meiosis
1:06:00
Gametes
1:06:10
Sperm and Egg
1:06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
1:06:27
III. From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
1:00:00
Autosomal Dominant
1:06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
1:09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
1:13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
IV. History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
1:02:13
More on Sexual Selection
1:03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
1:03:26
Examples
1:04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
1:09:41
Phenotype
1:10:01
Only Heritable Traits
1:11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
1:12:00
Temporal Isolation
1:12:59
Behavioral Isolation
1:14:17
Mechanical Isolation
1:15:13
Gametic Isolation
1:16:21
Geographic Isolation
1:16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
1:18:37
Hybrid Sterility
1:18:57
Hybrid Inviability
1:20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
1:20:31
Speciation
1:21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
1:21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
1:21:19
Adaptive Radiation
1:24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
1:24:28
Changes in Appearance
1:24:56
Examples
1:24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
1:27:35
Five Conditions
1:28:15
Equations
1:33:55
Microevolution
1:36:59
Natural Selection
1:37:11
Genetic Drift
1:37:34
Gene Flow
1:40:54
Nonrandom Mating
1:41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
1:41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
1:41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
1:43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
1:46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
V. Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
VI. Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
1:02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
1:03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
VII. Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
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Post by Bryan Cardella on August 4, 2016

Dinoflagellate actually means "whirling tailed-one"
(yes, "dino" also means "terrible" like in the word dinosaur, but there is an alternate meaning too!)

Protists

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Kingdom Protista Basics 0:04
    • Unicellular and Multicellular
    • Asexual and Sexual
    • Water and Land
    • Resemble Other Life Forms
  • Protist Origin 2:04
    • Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
    • Protist Ancestors
  • Protist Debate 4:18
    • One Kingdom
    • Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
  • Plant-like Protists 6:03
    • Photoautotrophs
    • Green Algae
    • Red Algae
    • Brown Algae
    • Golden Algae
    • Dinoflagellates
    • Diatoms
    • Euglena
  • Euglena Structure 10:39
  • Ulva Life Cycle 12:08
  • Fungi-Like Protists 15:39
    • Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
    • Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
  • Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle 17:34
  • Animal-like Protists 21:45
    • Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
    • Motile
  • Amoeba Life Cycle 25:24
  • How Protists Impact Humans 29:09
    • Good
    • Bad

Transcription: Protists

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the lesson on protists.0000

With Kingdom Protista, it is the official name, let us go over some basics.0006

What makes them unique, why are they in this kingdom of life?0009

This kingdom contains eukaryotic organisms that do not have specialized tissues.0013

You are going to see that a lot of these resemble animals, plants, fungi,0017

but they do not belong in those kingdoms for various reasons.0022

Usually, evolving around, the lack of tissues and specialization with the cells.0024

Some protists are unicellular, actually a lot of them are, and others are multicellular.0028

We cannot say that the reason why they are not animals is they are all single celled.0034

There are some that actually do have multicellular versions.0038

Some species are completely unicellular, others actually can be multicellular.0041

Some are asexual, in terms of how they reproduce, they just divide like bacteria do.0047

Some are sexual, others can actually do both.0053

I will give you an example, later on in the lesson about one that can do either, depending on the conditions,0056

depending on whether not there is another organism there that can mate with it.0060

Mostly found in water, that is traditionally true about protists.0065

They are highly dependent on water to survive.0068

However, others can get by on land.0072

Not just like a puddle, or a stream of water, I mean that in soil, you can find protists.0074

But they do typically have to have a damp environment, moisture needs to be there in the soil for them to survive.0082

It would be less likely that you would see them in a desert kind of environment.0088

They resemble but are not categorized with other life forms, as I mentioned earlier.0092

Because of this, they are described as plant-like protists, fungi-like protists, and animal-like protists.0096

Here is a wide variety here, we will go over a lot of these later on in the lesson.0103

This right here is a classic protists known as perimysium.0109

There are lots of different members of that genus, perimysium.0112

You will see this word come up again.0116

The origin of protists, protists are like an evolutionary bridge between bacteria and multicellular eukaryotes.0125

Keep in mind that bacteria are prokaryotic, they do not have nuclei, membrane bound organelles, but eukaryotes do.0132

The initiation of protists, we can thank endosymbiosis.0139

We can thank that occurrence that led to this kingdom.0143

The first eukaryotes on earth could be called the earliest protists ancestors.0147

Technically, they are also our ancestors, we are related to protists.0152

It is a very distant relationship but definitely we came from a single celled being a long time ago.0156

If we were like to map out, like here is the first cell on earth.0164

From there you get bacteria, archaea and eubacteria.0171

And then from out of that, once you have endosymdiosis occurring, you get kingdom protista,0183

which is what this lesson is all about.0197

From there, you get plants, you get fungi, and you get animals.0201

How do you get actually from this purple area, having these single celled eukaryotic beings,0227

to getting multicellular kingdoms that have highly specialized tissues in their bodies.0233

There are a lot of theories about that, it really had to do with early on examples of cells coming together,0239

cooperating, taking on different roles, and order them to lead to like the first simple animals,0246

the first simple fungi, and the first multicellular simple plants.0254

I want to think of a protists debate, depending on what textbook you look in0260

or what sources you look up on the internet, for instance, you are going to see conflicting theories or reviews on this.0263

Traditionally, protists are grouped in one kingdom.0270

When I took high school, it is very common, kingdom protista.0273

A lot of times in textbooks today, you will see protists broken up into multiple kingdoms.0278

The reason why is because, they begun to separate them into their own kingdoms0283

because it is based on genetic links, that puts certain protists into evolutionary branches with each other.0288

You could have two protists that on first glance when you look under a microscope, they do not look that similar.0293

But when you compare their DNA, there is a lot more in common in terms of the DNA than it appears to be, because looks can be deceiving.0299

They probably put those two in a very close relationship,0306

than compared to others that have slightly different genetics or maybe very different genetics.0310

They think they are from a different lineage.0315

The split between those groups came early on.0317

The reason why, in my opinion, it does not exactly matter that we do that here in this lesson is,0320

I’m going to introduce a wide variety of protists to you.0326

Whether or not we break it up at the kingdom level or talk about groups of protists underneath or within that kingdom.0329

To me it is not that significant of a difference.0337

As long as we really understand the plethora of protists that are on planet earth.0340

This is actually an example of a protista called stemtour, really cool looking protista.0345

You can see there is this crown of cilia that helps it bring food in.0350

You can see the size here, 200 micrometers is that amount.0356

This is microscopic.0361

The first group I’m going to talk about is the plant-like protists.0365

These resemble members of kingdom plantae, by they are not in kingdom plantae.0368

Because of that, they are photoautotrophs.0372

They use light to make their own food or to create their own energy source, they are doing photosynthesis.0377

Mostly found in oceans, lakes, and rivers.0384

It is possible you can see these on land.0386

Typically, if you do see them on land, you are seeing them near a major water source.0389

Yes, the oceans, a home to quadrillions of algae cells.0395

Green algae is definitely the most abundant type of plant-like protists on planet earth.0403

A lot of them are single celled, others are multicellular.0410

Here is an example, volvox is this ball of photosynthetic cells.0413

It can make little tiny babies that it releases, once they are ready to go.0421

Very pretty looking protista, you have to use a microscope to see that.0427

Red algae also known as rhodofida, the red algae, usually there is a bunch of red pigment.0432

That makes sense, that is why they are red algae.0445

Some of them are single celled, others are multicellular, look kind of like a very thin red leaf, in a sense.0448

If you got sushi, if you have the seaweed that they use to make sushi, that comes from a type of red algae.0455

It gets dried out over time and actually looks black, typically, after it is no longer alive.0461

The sushi rolls, they use red algae.0470

Brown algae, kelp is the most common example of that.0476

It is nicknamed feophyta.0481

Feophyta, sometimes there are single celled versions but kelp, the largest protista on planet earth.0487

Sometimes we are talking several meters from top to bottom.0495

Usually it is at the top, the surface of the ocean, and it can go down quite a ways, 20 feet sometimes.0499

The top is typically buoyant because of these little gas bladders it makes.0508

In terms of specialized tissues, it is on the course of really having what we call plant like tissues.0515

It does not have true roots, it does not have true leaves.0522

They have like these blades that are a little bit simpler than an actual leaf.0526

They do photosynthesis in those little gas bladders filled with gas, given some buoyancy.0531

The closer they are on the surface, the more sunlight they can absorb to make food.0536

Kelp, as you can see in this picture, supports a wide variety of life forms.0541

There is a lot of animals that depend on kelp forests in the ocean.0545

Golden algae also called chrisophyta, sometimes they are single celled, sometimes it is multicellular.0549

They are also known as chrisophytes.0557

Dinoflagellates, this is actually an example of dinoflagellate, that little will model there, zoomed into it.0559

Dinoflagellates pretty much means ancient tailed ones, they have multiple flagella.0566

They can spin around, moving their flagella, very interesting protists that do photosynthesis.0575

Diatoms, I will show you a picture later on in the lesson of diatoms that are photosynthetic0581

but have these really interesting shells called tests, like the word, like an exam, tests.0589

They have a shell that protects them.0599

When they die and leave over that shell that is typically made of silica, calcium carbonate, that stuff can be use for filtration.0601

That is something that humans can use for our needs but they are quite plentiful in the ocean.0612

Finally, euglena is another classic example of a plant -like protists.0617

It has a tail, has a flagellum that can move in whip like motion and they do photosynthesis.0621

Actually, they can take in nutrients too, which is very interesting that a photosynthetic organism could eat stuff as well.0627

In the next slide I’m going to show you a picture of what euglena got in it.0634

Here is the euglena structure, you can see that here is that prominent flagellum.0640

They have a stigma also known as an eye spot, that is light sensitive.0647

They are not actually seeing shapes and actually seeing color anything like that, but they are light sensitive.0651

They can tell that lights over there and they will swim towards it.0657

It makes sense, that particular adaptation allows them to do more photosynthesis,0660

the more light they can absorb and the more carbon dioxide they can enjoy under the water.0664

Here is the chloroplast, that helps with photosynthesis.0668

Nucleus with the nucleolus inside, contractile vacuole, this is actually a common structure you can see on a lot of different protists.0674

The contractile vacuole will take on water and squirt it out when needed.0683

Let us say this particular euglena cell is in some kind of lake.0688

There are parts of lake that have a higher salt content and other parts that are lower salt content.0695

If they go in the part of the lake with a lot less salt in the water, they might take on more water because of osmosis going inside of their cell.0700

They do not want to burst, they do not want to explode from that taking on water.0708

The contractile vacuole expand and hold the water in it temporarily, excrete it out at the right moment.0711

Polysaccharides are going to be made, as a result of accumulating glucose for photosynthesis.0719

They can save those for rainy day, literally.0725

Life cycle of a common plant-like protists called ulva, that is the genus name for this particular type plant-like protists.0729

It is a multicellular green algae.0737

It can do sexual reproduction and the amazing thing is one organism can make sperm and egg, and they can fertilize each other.0739

Or the sperm and egg can fertilize another neighboring example of this.0751

Up here, this is known as, you can call it the sporophyte generation, that term will come up again with the plant kingdom.0756

It is 2N meaning it is diploid, it has two copies of the chromosome.0768

When it undergoes meiosis, it will make haploid spores.0772

Here is meiosis, you actually get little, here is that N generation, little spores being made.0783

These spores with the haploid number of chromosomes,0795

then undergo mitosis to make a haploid multicellular structure, that will look very similar to what you are seeing up there.0799

They are usually smaller versions of the sporophyte.0813

They actually have female versions and male versions.0816

These are still considered N, in terms of the haploid number.0821

And then, this haploid structure, that haploid structure, they will make little flagellated spores.0825

They will be female spores and male spores.0834

It is an interesting example of how you can have female cells with flagella, with little tails.0844

We are not used to seeing that.0849

Because with the animal kingdom and the plant kingdom, if the gamete have tails,0851

we typically associate them with the male side of things.0856

The female is just sitting there and waiting, for that particular cell.0858

This is a case where they both can have tails.0862

When they combine, or actually going to go back into the diploid.0865

They come together through fertilization.0874

There is the haploid again.0885

And then, this haploid structure will germinate, it will grow in size a bit.0886

Eventually, once again multicellular fully developed diploid sporophyte.0895

And then, we can call this segment, the green part that I have drawn here,0903

the gametophyte generation which is typically associated with haploid structures.0906

Let me actually write that for you.0912

Like I said, with the plant kingdom, those terms sporophyte and gametophyte will come up again.0920

This is how you can get reproduction of a plant-like protists.0925

Other plant-like protists have a variation of this, might be a little bit different.0929

You have a lot of variety of kinds of reproduction with kingdom protista.0933

Now, the fungi-like protists, these protists are heterotrophs, they are not autotrophs like we saw in the plant-like protists.0940

They feed on decaying organic matter.0946

Sometimes they are feeding off of organisms living on them or within them, that is not as common.0949

Typically, they are breaking down dead stuff, dead bodies, little bits of things that will formally alive.0957

They are found almost anywhere where there is moisture and warmth.0965

The easiest place where you can find these is, if you have not cleaned your shower in while, or your bathtub, they may be there.0968

They maybe those little spots, black or white spots that we would see on the shower curtain0976

or in the grout of the tile, because they actually can come in through your water supply.0982

Some examples, plasmodule slime molds and cellular slime molds.0989

Those are great names, they are slimy looking.0992

You can find terrestrial, here is an example of a slime mold, part of them that it is growing in grass.0997

It is feeding off of something that died there, maybe lots of things that have died there over time, insects, etc.1004

Water molds and downy mildews, here is an example of a water mold and here is an example of mildew.1011

This is an example where it is actually growing on a living structure.1019

It is actually growing on a leaf that is still alive.1023

If this does not get taken care of, it can lead to the death of the plant, over time.1026

If it is killing off its photosynthetic ability in the leaves.1031

You can have downy mildews and powdery mildew.1035

The cellular slime mold lifecycle, it is kind of interesting how it develops.1056

Let me draw it out for you.1061

Let us start with, it is like a mass of cells that could be feeding off of like a dead tree, like a log.1065

This is just a giant mass of cells that have gathered together and safety in numbers, to get it done.1076

Occasionally, you will have just a part of it breaking off, when it is not as widely developed or as extensive,1087

you can have just as part of it also take on this slug like characteristic.1095

Slug like version, we are going to call it.1103

It looks like a slug, it looks like a shell of snail but it is not.1107

It does not actually have a head, it does not have developed organs, it does not have eyes, or any of that stuff.1112

It just looks like a little slug, we are talking really tiny like barely visible, it is very tiny.1117

It will actually crawl, it will actually slither as this unit.1124

The amazing thing is that, when the conditions are right, it will make just kind of this smaller stationary mass1129

and then it will grow a fruiting body out of the top.1137

Let me adjust this briefly.1143

The slug will stop and then it will start to have part of it start growing up and that is how you get to this,1145

that is how you get to this part growing which is known as the fruiting body.1154

Fruiting body, that is a term that is used in a lot of different organisms.1165

You are going to see the term fruiting body with kingdom fungi, not just fungi-like protists like we are seeing here.1169

The fruiting body, you have development within here of spores.1177

These spores are released from the fruiting body.1182

These spores can develop into these little units that hatch an amoeba like cell.1196

Here is the spore with an amoeba coming out of it.1204

Here is another little spore with an amoeba crawling out of it.1210

Amoebas, I’m going to tell you more about traditional amoebas that are animal-like protists,1214

a different species but this particular fungi-like protists can take on that amoeba like cell shape.1219

We are going to call them amoeba like cells.1227

And then, these amoeba-like cells, they can gather together body up.1233

Eventually, it can go back to this, this huge mass.1249

A lot of this is dependent on the conditions.1253

If there is enough moisture in organisms feeding off of, it will get to this stage, this huge mass.1255

If moisture goes away, the food source goes away, a lot of this could die off.1263

As long as they can retain a little bit of themselves, those cells can had this happen all over again.1268

There is a point in time when you can have sexual reproduction.1275

This is really a way that it can asexually just make more copies.1280

Through sexual reproduction, you can actually have these cells at this part of the cycle up here, undergo meiosis, make haploids.1283

We are talking different cellular slime molds making haploids then join it together1294

to make a new diploid that leads to this mass forming again, it can start all over.1298

Animal-like protists, this is the last category that I’m going to teach you about.1306

These are protists that are heterotrophs that are eating live cells, typically.1309

That is what makes them resemble animals, animals that are predators that feed off of other life that is alive.1314

Many of them are motile, we see a lot of them moving themselves through the water, it is a very common thing.1322

Here we have different, in this picture, amoeba forms.1328

This is a very old drawing, this drawing to our knowledge is over hundred years old.1331

People looking in microscopes for decades have been fascinated by amoebas and the different shapes they can take on.1338

Like I said, many of them are mobile, and zooflagellates is an example of an animal-like protists that has flagella.1346

Notice it is not dinoflagellates, that was plant-like protists.1354

The word zoo like zoology, the study of animals, zoo means animal with a flagella on it.1357

Amoebas, they make these little pseudopods or pseudopodia which pretty much mean fake feet or false feet.1364

That is what you are seeing here, these little out pouching, you could call them, of the plasma membrane.1379

This has to do with the altering their cytoskeleton, altering how microfilaments,1386

part of the cytoskeleton, are pulling or letting go on the plasma membrane.1390

And they make these little, almost look like they are crawling through the water with what looks like legs, but they are not.1394

Sporozoans, this is another category.1402

With sporozoans, you would see actually a lot of variety.1405

An example is plasmodium, plasmodium is actually the organism that causes malaria.1411

That particular kind of protists would be inside of the mosquito, usually a mosquito biting you,1426

getting blood from the capillaries in your arms or wherever its landed.1434

You have some exchange of fluid from you to the mosquito, vice versa.1439

The plasmodium inside the mosquito ends up in your body, goes to your liver, uses your liver to make more of themselves.1444

There are units that get into the blood flow going to liver and then out of your liver.1452

In a certain stage of the lifecycle, they inhabit your red blood cells.1459

If untreated, malaria can kill a person.1462

The amazing thing is mosquitoes that do not have malaria in them,1465

if they bite a person with malaria then it can get inside of the mosquito body.1471

It is this cycle of mosquito to human, human to mosquito, and so on.1476

Malaria, if untreated can be deadly because of that plasmodium effect on your blood.1480

Ciliates, these are animal-like protists that have cilia, little hair like extensions coming out of the plasma membrane that help them move.1486

The classic example is perimysium which is right here.1496

It is tough to see but there is a ring of cilia all around that.1499

You even cannot see also the tons of organelles inside of the perimysium.1505

By the way, this picture is showing what that malaria protists does to your blood cells.1508

All of these little reddish circles goes to your blood cells or erythrocytes that had been inhabited by the plasmodium that causes malaria.1515

The amoeba life cycle goes something like this.1526

There is a couple of options for amoebas, they traditionally do asexual reproduction.1528

There is some evidence that perhaps the ancestors of amoebas actually had sexual reproduction.1535

We see a lot of variety with amoeba genetics today.1542

The theories that they originated probably from a sexually producing single celled being.1547

As far as we know, there is not really a sexual reproduction that is observable in amoebas of today.1553

Here are two options for the adult amoeba, if you can even call it an adult.1560

Single celled, one option is binary fission, the other one is multiple fission.1565

Binary fission, we usually see the word binary fission associated with bacteria but here same term.1572

Binary fission is when this amoeba will actually just make two.1588

Here is an amoeba, it will take in its pseudopods, it does look like what a bacteria do.1598

It just copies its DNA, it does not take as long as mitosis.1606

This will divide into daughter amoeba cells.1611

Here are the daughter cells.1630

And then, another way it can make babies is multiple fission.1631

Here is that amoeba that takes in its pseudopods, and then, it will form this cyst.1645

The terms cyst is for, when a cell, it looks like it is going dormant, it makes this thick coat around the outside, this cyst like form.1652

Inside of that cyst, you will actually get development of a lot of cells through mitosis.1664

Here, the term binary fission is not used because it is not making just two binary 2, double.1680

This is making multiple daughter cells.1686

You can see that, it is like taking that space, the cytoplasmic space that the original amoeba took up.1697

It is just giving that up, making tiny little daughter cells.1705

Eventually, it ruptures, it breaks open, and releases the tiny little cells which can grow,1709

as they take on nutrients and make more cell parts.1720

Obviously, from the multiple fissions, you get a lot more daughter cells with this kind of reproduction than with this one.1730

Perhaps, what stimulates the amoeba to go one way or the other is the amount of nutrients that are available.1739

If there is a lot of nutrients around, why not do what is on the right here, why not make more babies if you can.1743

How protists impact humans?1750

You might not think they are around you a lot, but they really are.1753

Some good things, oxygen production, you can thank algae.1756

Algae, amazingly produces way more oxygen, I could say food, than all the trees combined on earth.1764

That is a mind trick to think about because there are so many billions of trees,1779

so many trees doing photosynthesis and cranking out oxygen in the atmosphere.1784

But if you were to add up all the algae in the oceans, in the lakes, in the rivers, in the ponds, etc,1788

they have more biomass amazingly.1794

Algae have more biomass than the trees, amazing.1798

When we take a breath, you thank algae, you can thank trees too.1806

Food, we actually use a lot of them for food.1810

One example I gave you earlier was seaweed that is used, it is technically a red algae that is used in sushi.1814

There are a lot of other examples of protists that are used to help us make food, as an ingredient in food.1822

Wastewater treatment, you can actually get protists to help you to filter out bad stuff out of the water.1830

Since taking advantage of the natural process that they can do, to help us clean our sewage.1839

Bacterial control, if you want to get rid a lot of bacteria in some fluid,1846

introduce some protists that eat bacteria and then the bacteria is gone.1853

Ideally, you want to get to protists out eventually too.1858

You can use protists ability to eat bacteria to our advantage.1860

Filtration, that is this right here.1866

This is an assortment of diatoms.1871

I mentioned diatoms earlier on in the lesson.1876

They are used to make what is called diatomacious earth.1880

You get these out of the ocean, specifically the ocean floor.1892

It is all these little diatoms that have died and left over these amazing geometric shapes called tests.1896

Diatoms have tests made of silica or calcium carbonate.1903

You can see this awesome geometry that they all have, it is amazing the shapes that they form.1908

Or you can use this diatomacious earth, made of their little carcasses, to filter pool water.1912

I remember how my dad cleans out the pool filter when I was really young.1918

He would pour this like heavy bag and it looks like gray powder.1921

It is these, they are microscopic but it is billions and billions of these that can help filter pool water.1927

You are taking advantage of their little geometric structures to do that.1933

The bad side of protists is the disease that they can cause in us.1938

One example is this, it is called giardia.1942

It causes severe diarrhea among other problems.1950

If this gets in your intestines, no good, it is not a very good thing. You want to stay diarrhea free.1955

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.1965

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