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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Plants, Part II

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
II. Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
00:00
How They Move
00:35
Flagellum
02:42
Flagella
02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
02:59
How They Move
03:27
Cell Wall
05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
05:52
In Plants
07:19
In Bacteria
07:25
In Fungi
07:41
Cytoplasm
08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
08:47
Cytosol
09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
00:00
Meiosis II
01:04
Prophase II
01:08
Metaphase II
01:32
Anaphase II
02:08
Telophase II
02:43
Meiosis Overview
03:39
Products of Meiosis
06:00
Gametes
06:10
Sperm and Egg
06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
06:27
III. From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
00:00
Autosomal Dominant
06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
IV. History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
02:13
More on Sexual Selection
03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
03:26
Examples
04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
09:41
Phenotype
10:01
Only Heritable Traits
11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
12:00
Temporal Isolation
12:59
Behavioral Isolation
14:17
Mechanical Isolation
15:13
Gametic Isolation
16:21
Geographic Isolation
16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
18:37
Hybrid Sterility
18:57
Hybrid Inviability
20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
20:31
Speciation
21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
21:19
Adaptive Radiation
24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
24:28
Changes in Appearance
24:56
Examples
24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
27:35
Five Conditions
28:15
Equations
33:55
Microevolution
36:59
Natural Selection
37:11
Genetic Drift
37:34
Gene Flow
40:54
Nonrandom Mating
41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
V. Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
VI. Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
VII. Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
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Plants, Part II

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Plant Cell Varieties 0:05
    • Parenchyma
    • Collenchyma
    • Sclerenchyma
    • Specialized Tissues
  • Plant Tissues 3:17
    • Meristematic Tissue
    • Dermal Tissue
    • Vascular Tissues
    • Ground Tissue
  • Roots 14:24
    • Root Cap
    • Cortex
    • Endodermis
    • Pericycle
    • Taproot
    • Fibrous
    • Modified
  • Stems 19:49
    • Tuber
    • Rhizome
    • Runner
    • Bulb and Corm
  • Leaves 23:06
    • Photosynthesis
    • Leaf Parts
    • Gas Exchange
    • Transpiration
  • Seeds 27:41
    • Cotyledons
    • Seed Coat
    • Endosperm
    • Embryo
    • Radicle
    • Epicotyl
  • Fruit 33:49
    • Fleshy Fruits
    • Aggregate Fruits
    • Multiple Fruits
    • Dry Fruits
  • Plant Hormones 37:44
    • Definition or Hormones
    • Examples
  • Plant Responses 40:42
    • Tropisms
    • Nastic Responses

Transcription: Plants, Part II

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the lesson on plants, part 2.0000

When it comes to plants and a variety of cell types inside of them, there are three main types.0006

The first one is the parenchyma, a parenchyma has a lot different functions compared to the other two.0011

Storage, photosynthesis, gas exchange, protection, and tissue repair replacement.0017

When it comes to storage, very important in plants.0023

When you look at a potato, storing a lot of starch, carbohydrates for a rainy day, literally.0025

Because plants needed to photosynthesis, they need to make sugars and storing them,0033

when you have excess is the great thing to do.0038

Photosynthesis, they have to do that to get energy, making of sugars using carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight.0041

Gas exchange, when we look at how particular gases get up and down a plant.0049

When we look at how that stuff is actually moved to other plant, and how CO₂ and O₂ move in and out of the leaf,0055

parenchyma cells has a lot to do with that.0062

When we talk about leaf structure later on this lesson, you will see how this relates directly to the gas exchange part.0064

And these other things are very important, parenchyma cells are very versatile.0071

Here is a shot of some parenchyma cells.0077

You actually have these little vascular bundles here.0082

You are going to see this come up again, later on in the lessons.0085

This is a vascular bundle from a monocot, we are on that later.0088

Collenchyma cells are mostly for support, flexibility, and tissue repair.0096

Here is a shot on some cells that will be considered collenchyma.0101

If you have ever taken a plant and like bended it, or knocked something into it, and it got hit,0105

and then came back like nothing happened, you can thank these kinds of cells for that support and flexibility.0111

That the plant is just snapped, when you do that, which is great.0118

A sclerenchyma, there are two main kinds of sclerenchyma cells, the sclerids or fibers.0123

It provide support and transportation, here is a shot of those.0128

Two examples with sclerids, they are regularly shaped compared to fibers which tend to be kind of similarly shaped.0133

They are both very tough, sclerids, when it comes to hard seed coats or like the coating of the walnut,0142

that is really hard and tough, you can thank sclerids for that.0150

And then fibers, humans had actually taken advantage of these fiber cells, this class of sclerenchyma cells for thousands and thousands of years.0154

When we make rope, certain linens, when we make canvas material that people paint on,0162

you can thank the fiber cells for that toughness that we take advantage of, with threads and such.0169

And then, when we have these different cells in groups together, we get the specialized tissues of a plant.0176

We get meristems, we get roots, we get stems, we got leaves, we get fruits with different combinations the P, the C, and the S.0182

All of these different chyma cells contribute to all the different tissue varieties.0191

More on plant tissues, meristematic tissue, these are regions with the rapid cell division.0199

The growth of the plant is due to particular regions that have a really active cell division rates.0204

Here the different kinds of meristems, there is the apical meristems.0211

The word apical has to do with the word apex.0214

Like the apex is the peak, the pinnacle, the tip.0218

Apical meristems, they allow growth up and allow growth down.0223

You can think of two apex right.0228

There is the shoot and the root apical meristem.0231

The shoot apical meristem allows growth up and out of the soil.0234

Root apical meristems down in the soil to soak up water, nutrients, etc.0238

This is actually a shot of an onion root tip.0244

Actually, this allium genus, that is what is known as in the taxonomic sense.0253

Right here is part of that root apical meristem.0265

Here we actually call the root cap, that is not actively dividing, it is more protective.0269

But up here, you got a lot of cell division, really it is down here because it is dragging out the root.0275

That is responsible for extending the root down into the soil and horizontally on the soil.0281

Intercalary meristems, these are for more outer growth.0288

They are not just in one region, you can have intercalary meristems in few different regions.0291

Here is how I am going to relate this to you.0296

If you ever mowed the lawn with the lawnmower, whether it is a summer job or doing it in your own yard,0298

if you were to mow the grass which is really just in a sense, like long leaves coming out of the ground.0304

If you mowed a grass and there were not intercalary meristems,0310

you would cut off the apical meristem in that first mowing and they would not grow back.0316

You have removed the meristem.0320

But since you still have meristems in other regions of that blade of grass,0323

it will continue to grow and it will continue to grow time and time again, as long as it has the nutrients.0327

That is an example of intercalary meristems, can extend stems and leaves.0332

Lateral meristems allow growth in terms of girth.0338

As a plant that grows tall gets wider and wider over the years, you can thank lateral meristems for that out wards growth.0341

There is two parts of the lateral meristems, the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.0350

The vascular cambium has more to do with moving fluids.0355

When we talk about the xylem and phloem later on this lesson, that is a vascular part of this meristem,0360

in terms of moving water and moving sugar throughout the plant.0366

The cork cambium is superficial, it is the one the outside.0371

You can get tough barks and coatings on the outside of a stem of a plant, thanks to the cork cambium.0376

Just think about where cork comes from, that are used for a wine bottle or something like that.0383

Robert Hooke, when he was looking at cork cells which are really, they are plant cells that have no more cytoplasm.0388

They are kind of like dried out remnants of the cell walls, that comes from the cork cambium.0396

He was looking at those cells and that is why he actually named cells, that we call them today.0401

Then you have dermal tissue, like with the dermis of us, we are talking about the outer most tissue,0406

most parts of the plant, we call it the epidermis, the most superficial cells.0413

When we look at leaves, you have stomata on the surface.0417

Stomata or actually leaf pores and they are really bordered by guard cells.0421

Each one of these is a guard cell, I am going to make this black because that is the hole.0433

Basically what happens is, imagine that my hands are the guard cells.0448

When you want to let in CO₂ as a leaf, the guard cells do this.0452

The way that they do that is, water gets pumped in and it makes them more puffy, it makes them puff up.0457

And when they puff up, they have a little hole inside of them, and that is actually called a stoma.0463

Stoma is singular, it is Greek for mouth, stomata is plural.0468

When you want that hole to close, because you have taken enough CO₂, you do not want water to evaporate and escape out of it,0473

you send water, and you pump it out of those cells, then they kind of collapse.0479

In terms of like deflating, in a sense, they collapse on cells and that closes the stoma.0485

Those are very important for leaves, in terms of gas exchange.0491

Trichomes are the little leaf hairs.0494

Trichomes are meant for protection, and actually a lot of trichomes, these leaf hairs are poisonous so that,0502

if animals try to eat the leaves, they are in for some troubles.0511

Trichomes are protective part of the epidermis in a leaf.0514

Then root hairs, extending the surface area ability of a root to suck up materials from the ground.0518

On plant tissues, when you look at vascular tissues, these allow for transport of nutrients and fluids.0527

That word vascula has to do with fluid movement or cardio vascular system pumping blood through out our body.0532

Cardio means heart, vascular is referring to that blood flow in movement.0538

Plants do the same thing, if they grow tall, they have vascular tissue.0543

They can move fluids up and around, there are stems, etc.0547

Two main parts of the vascular tissue, xylem is for transport of water mainly and dissolved minerals within the water.0552

Two main components that can make up the xylem passageway which were actually located in here.0560

I will tell you more about the structure in a second.0565

Vessel elements tend to look like this in cross section.0567

They are hollowed out cells, it is just like cell walls remnants stacked on top of one another.0574

You can have very efficient water flow up, from the roots to the stems, etc, all the way up to the leaves.0579

That is great, that element is very nice to have.0587

The tracheids, a little bit different, whereas, this elements have this kind of continuous flow stacked on top of another.0591

This tracheids are typically little bit thinner, the borders between them are not as wide open.0602

Let me redraw this one.0608

Sometimes these have like end walls, whether or not completely continuous.0615

Tracheids their descents but they are not efficient as the vessel elements.0621

When you look at angiosperms and gymnosperms, and you actually compare angiosperm on gymnosperms, but non vascular plants.0625

One of the reasons why scientists thing about angiosperm are more widespread and more successful,0632

in terms of where they are found in varieties, it is because angiosperms have primarily vessel elements in their xylems.0638

When you look at a gymnosperm, other plant like ferns, you will see greater percentages in tracheids not as much vessel on it.0645

That is one of the theories regarding the success of them could be.0655

Phloem, transport of sugar, normally the xylem and phloem are adjacent to one another.0660

They are together as a vascular tissue but slightly different functions.0665

When you think about xylem flow of water, it is mostly up a plant,0670

because they are typically sucking it out of the soil and moving it up.0674

With phloem, since you are transporting sugars and nutrients derive from those sugars, typically, sugars are mostly made in leaves.0678

As the sugars are being made in leaves, you want to be able to get those sugars to get energy to the other plant cell,0685

to where you are not doing as much photosynthesis.0692

Like in parts of the stem and the roots, or those cells still needs nourishment.0694

The next flow of phloem tends to be downwards, where xylem tends to be upwards.0698

With phloem, sieve tube member and companion cells, it is usually what is made up of.0705

With the sieve tube member, this is kind of a shot where we are looking slightly down on it.0710

Think of that as, if you are looking down on it and it has holes that allow passage through, etc.0719

The amazing thing about this sieve tube member cell is, it has cytoplasm.0732

Like similar with the vessel elements, there is nothing in the vessel elements,0737

it was completely cleared to some like kind of blank cell walls stacked on top of one another.0740

But it has no nucleus, it has no organelles, but it does have cytoplasm.0745

There is fluid in here and the sugars travel through there.0751

What they have in common with vessel elements is no organelles.0754

One thing that is different is, there is cytoplasm here.0758

No nucleus there but you need to be able to stimulate these cells to do various activities.0764

Around the side, you will get these companion cells that actually have nuclei.0771

One of the theories is that, the nuclear abilities of the cell can assist as a companion,0778

in a sense, that is why it is saying that sieve tube member.0784

You do have movement through sieve tube member of sugars throughout a plant.0787

This particular structure here, you are looking at a vascular bundle of a monocot.0795

The way that I remember that is mono.0806

I will tell you more about monocots later on this lesson.0810

Mono, in Spanish, the word mono means monkey.0812

And that face, to me it looks like monkey face.0819

Two little eyes, nose, and here this is the little vascular bundle that has both xylem and phloem.0822

These are scattered around monocots stems, more pictures of those later on.0829

Ground tissue, this is kind of the other random tissues you tend to find throughout a plant.0835

All the other tissues, and for lot of plants, the majority of the tissue is this called ground tissue.0841

In addition to the vascular and the meristematic, etc.0847

They give us this like connective tissue.0852

When look at animal bodies, a lot of times the majority of the tissue is connective tissue.0854

It is pretty important, it is found throughout.0859

You can think of ground tissue as being analogous to that.0861

Different kinds of roots, roots in general, we know they suck up water, they help anchor the plant inside the ground.0865

It is not only sucking up of water though, nutrients, little bits that fertilize the plant.0874

Whether you are putting synthetic fertilizers on the ground or it is natural fertilizer, we are talking nitrogenous compounds.0880

Compounds based on nitrogen, that is the majority of fertilizer, in terms of like plant vitamins and keeping them healthy.0888

Also some gases can be sucked up through roots.0895

You actually can get oxygen suck up through root pores.0898

They do vary in complexity, some roots are deep, some are shallow, it really depends.0903

With some roots you have a really long taproot, going very deep in the ground.0908

The advantage there is, it is getting water that is deep under some underground well and it is able to access that.0915

Then, you have other plants where the roots do not grow that deep.0924

Maybe, it is because the earth is way harder in that area.0928

But if this is the ground, this line I am drawing right here, the roots just go out really far.0931

They spread out horizontally, so that anytime it rains, they can soak up water as it hits the ground.0936

You have seen the advantage and disadvantage of both.0944

When we look at root parts, if we were to zoom in to the tip here, you would see what is called a root cap on the tip of it.0947

Here is the root cap, not actively dividing, it is more protective.0957

That meristem that we talked about before would be a little above it, the root apical meristem,0964

but the root cap would be right there.0970

When we look at the rest of the roots, let us color code this, the cortex and the epidermis,0973

starting from the superficial, outer part of it.0981

Here is the epidermis and here you have got the cortex, supporting part of the root.0986

Right next to the cortex, you will actually have something called the casparian strip and it is linked with the endodermis.0998

We continue around in a ring like fashion.1018

Endodermis, but this particular part is called the casparian strip.1022

I prefer to compare it to like mortar, in terms of brick, like in the area between the bricks.1029

If you think about bricks here and bricks on the inside, this is kind of like a bury layer1038

that causes water to cross through it, instead of just going around it.1043

It helps aid in getting water into the root and going through and in.1048

You will see that right next to that casparian strip.1055

You want water to go to that area because there are those vascular elements to get water up and out of the root.1057

Finally, the pericycle, let us do that in green.1063

Pericycle is actually where lateral roots can grow from, you know the roots that ends up coming out of here.1069

But the pericycle is that inner most part in the center of that root.1080

These are the major layers within the root.1086

Types of roots, taproot, this is a really good example of the taproot, a major root.1090

It is like one major root that gone into the ground and little root hairs coming out of it, like a carrot.1095

Fibrous roots, this is a great example of the fibrous root, this letter E just having lots of branches going all over the place.1101

Advantage and Disadvantages for both.1109

Certainly, you got a mega root here, this is a little bit more widespread.1111

It really depends on the plants needs and the environment it is in.1115

Modified roots, there are lots of varieties, of course.1119

Here is one of them, more of this bold like fashion.1123

But modified roots can also include the metaphors.1127

Metaphors, in cases where, if you have got plants in a swamp area, if that blue line is the water level, you will have plants that make roots come up and out.1136

Like, instead of going deep underground or in the water,1157

as the water level changes, this new metaphor roots that grow up are exposed to the air,1161

they can actually aid in absorbing gases and sucking up on oxygen and other gases out of the atmosphere.1169

That is a root adaptation that is very strange because the roots are growing up and out, and you will see them poking out of the water.1175

We are used to seeing roots going on the ground deep, but that is modified root that has a purpose for the plant.1182

Stems, we know that stems help a plant grow up, up towards the sunlight, and then better chance of leaves absorbing a lot of sun.1191

There are plenty of varieties, in terms of how they are built, shaped, not just for height.1202

Of course, stems support leaves, leaves grow out from stems, typically.1207

Reproductive structures are growing out from branches that come out of stems.1212

They contain vascular tissue, when we look at stems, there are two main kinds.1216

When we are talking about flowering plants, we got the monocot and the eudicot, or sometimes it is called dicot.1224

With the vascular tissue that ends up being in these stems, you see some patterns exist.1236

With monocots, you have, or it looks like scattered vascular bundles all throughout.1242

Each one of these red dots, if you zoom into it, we saw that picture earlier.1251

It looks like that monkey face, that is what each one of those look like.1256

Remember, the term mono like meaning monkey.1264

Monocots have these scattered vascular bundles look like that.1267

Whereas the eudicots, their vascular bundles are concentrated in a ring, around the outside.1270

It just evolved a little bit differently, that is all.1280

They actually do not tend to have those vascular bundles scattered in the middle.1283

That looks different when you take a cross section and look down in the stem, through a microscope.1287

In terms of types of stems, regardless, I mean, besides the ones just grow straight up,1292

there are some differences that can exists.1301

A tuber is like a potato, it is modified for carbohydrates storage, you have a lot of starch being stored in a tuber.1304

They taste good, when they are cooked and fried.1315

A rhizome, an example would be in an iris.1318

An iris stem is a bit modified, checkout Van Gogh’s famous painting of irises, and you can see what I am talk about.1323

A runner also called a stolon, that word is also occasionally used in fungi.1332

But a stolon is, if you have got a plant that is growing up and out, it have stems coming out of the ground,1337

you can actually have some go underground and then grow new stem parts and leaves over here.1346

In a sense, through asexually production, just kind of extend the plant elsewhere1355

to make another being that is connected to it, from the same genetics.1359

It is interesting how a runner can exist like that under the ground.1364

And then a bulb and a corm, both of these structures are for carbohydrate storage, again.1369

Like onions, these would be the leaves growing from out of them, carbohydrate storage.1375

Most of them or part of them can be located under the ground.1382

Leaves are very important structure, the main function of leaves is photosynthesis.1388

Taking in CO₂ water that came mostly from roots and absorbing sunlight, to do photosynthesis.1395

We look at root, if this is a cross section, and this is a computer generated image, an actual micrograph.1401

The top of the leaf is up here, the bottom of the leaf is down here.1409

When we look at the leaf parts, we got the cuticle and epidermis on the outside.1412

Cuticle, a waxy coating, not actually made of cells, it is just a waxy secretion that is waterproof, it is protective.1416

Epidermis, like with our epidermis, the outer layer of skin.1426

You have the upper epidermis and the lower epidermis.1431

Beneath that, especially when we look at the top side, because that is the side that is facing the sun typically, right?1440

The palisade mesophyll is these column shaped cells that are very bonded in chloroplasts,1448

that is one of the two mesophyll layers.1455

When we look at the mesophyll layers, there is the palisade mesophyll and the spongy mesophyll.1458

Most of your photosynthetic action is happening right in here, right underneath the epidermis.1463

There is a lot of sunlight absorption by the chloroplasts, in here.1468

Then below, its spongy mesophyll, it looks spongy, it looks like those little spaces, like it is in pores.1473

And there is a purpose for that, it helps with water movement and gas movement throughout these part of the leaf.1479

That is the second layer, the spongy mesophyll, it looks spongy.1485

And then, we have got vascular bundles.1490

Here we go, the vascular bundle, as we talked about earlier, it is made up of xylem and phloem.1498

All those leaf veins would be taking that water into the leaf, taking the sugars out of the leaf.1505

At a microscopic level, what is actually in those little leaf veins are this vascular bundles.1510

Stomata, here is a stoma, one single opening, Greek for mouth.1516

But stomata, bordered by guard cells, here they are guard cells.1527

You would have CO₂ coming in, that is kind of like how plants inhale, and O₂ can leave.1531

Some of the oxygen, they can use, send it to mitochondria in plant cells,1538

to actually breakdown the sugar they made in process, then they will get ATP through aerobic respiration.1543

But for photosynthesis on its own, as its own process, oxygen is a waste product, and it can be let go.1548

Gas exchange is very important for leaves, the O₂, CO₂ gas exchange.1555

Sometimes, there are limits as to how much CO₂ a plant can absorb.1561

Just because there is more CO₂ does not mean it is going to be better.1565

There are interesting studies in labs, where they overexposed plants to CO₂.1569

If there is like 80% CO₂ near, that is not necessarily a good thing.1574

It is almost like an overdose and it can affect its metabolism, and its behavior.1578

Just like too much oxygen can be a bad thing for us.1582

Transpiration is this process that actually aids in getting water up and out.1586

Think about it this way, osmosis moves water to where there is less water by concentration, like a domino effect.1594

Think about water being pulled up into the root, how does it really pulled up?1600

You need to have less water above, in terms of water pressure.1607

The pressure will follow to where there is less pressure.1610

To keep drawing water up, you have to use water up to the leaves, and they do the photosynthesis.1614

What also happens is H₂O goes out of the stomata, it vaporizes.1619

The actual evaporation of water out of leaves is how transpiration occurs.1627

It aids in pulling water up and out of the soil continuously, as this kind of like domino effect from top to bottom, getting it up.1632

When we look into different types of leaves, here are some examples.1641

Here is a simple leaf, where you have the one major leaf vein with little extensions coming off of it.1644

You also have compound leaves where it branches quite a bit.1650

There is the palmate version and the pinnate version.1654

Different species have different varieties.1659

Seeds, most vascular plants have seeds.1662

The ones that do not would be ferns, for instance, the vascular seedless plants is what I meant to say.1667

When you look at angiosperms, they have seeds but no flowers.1676

Of course, flowering plants make seeds as well.1679

It is very common to have seeds.1681

What is the advantage, why is it adaptation important for those plants?1683

Seeds are tiny sporophytes, it is the beginning of that sporophyte generation 2 N.1688

It is a little embryo surrounded by a protective tissue.1695

It is like a mobile and motile room, nourishing that little baby plant until it is ready to emerge.1699

It will get its roots to the ground and starting photosynthesis on its own.1706

While it is in the seed, it actually does a lot of aerobic respiration, doing a lot of oxygen absorption to fuel its growth,1709

until it can poke out a little radical, and I will tell you more about that in a second.1718

Cotyledons, little seed structures that store food or help absorb food for the young plant.1722

In some plants like in eudicots, for a brief time kind of resembles leaves, but they are not quite leaves.1729

They do not do photosynthesis, they are actually for food storage and nourishing of little embryo.1737

With monocots and eudicots, you do have some varieties.1744

I will tell you the difference between them.1747

The root of the word monocot, literally means one cotyledon.1749

There is only one of this in a monocot seed.1755

Eudicots, the di- 2, there is two cotyledons.1757

With eudicots, the cotyledon actually is absorbing a lot of the endosperm which is a food source.1761

When we look at the seed parts, the seed coat is that outer, tough part that shields and protects the seed.1768

It makes them hard, usually.1774

The endosperm is a lot of seed structure, the endosperm here is labeled and it is usually triploid.1777

It is 3 N, this is a result of that double fertilization mentioned with the previous lesson.1786

When we look at double fertilization, in terms of how plants reproduce, it is important that all those cells get together and combine,1794

and then have this development of endosperm because this ends up being a food source for the embryo.1803

The embryo usually is diploid, 2 N, it is a product of those two haploid nuclei, egg, and pollen grain, or sperm cell, coming together.1810

The radical is the part of the seed that first emerges.1828

It is like the beginning of that embryo poking out.1832

Let me draw a few varieties.1835

Here on the left, we are going to have mono.1838

We will have, I will just write di, to save some space, it is really eudicot.1841

With a monocot seed, something like corn, you would see a little thing poking out there and the radicle poking out here.1846

With a dicot, you would see little radicle poking out.1857

Right here, you can see like it is trying to come out.1862

The embryo, you could see that they are associating with the radical with it, the hypocotyl,1865

I will tell you more about that in a moment.1870

But, the radicle is that first thing that pokes out.1872

If we flash forward, here is what happens next.1874

The first leaf will start to form in the mono.1883

What is happening here is, we are seeing the radical push down and down with this particular dicot.1896

The epicotyl and hypocotyl will end up developing.1904

The radicle is this down here, it becomes the root, that is what the radicle’s purpose is.1909

With the epicotyl and hypocotyls, if we flash forward a little bit later, I will show you what happens.1915

Eventually, the cotyledon in the monocot, it just fades away, this part of the seed.1925

It will gradually go away.1937

With the dicot, the cotyledons that were incorporated in this little bean shaped seed, they eventually go away too.1941

They will fall off and not serve a purpose.1960

Here are some little leaves beginning to flow or cot up rather.1963

This is the cotyledon, there is actually two of them, remember because it is a eudicot or dicot.1967

Those look like they get shriveled up and here are actual leaves existing.1974

The epicotyl is above the cotyledon, epi meaning above or outer.1979

The hypocotyl is the part of the stem that was closest to.1988

There is the hypocotyls.1996

It is just some varieties, in terms of how the plant emerges and how it actually anchors itself in the ground,1998

and has the plant having that apical growth of the shoot up and out, to finally form leaves and do photosynthesis.2006

Once it is emerge from the seed and released its outer self on the soil, all it needs is just to start photosynthesis.2014

And that, it no longer needs that endosperm, no longer needs that food that was provided for it, in its little mobile room.2021

Fruits, when we look at angiosperms, the ones that make fruits, it develops from the ovary wall upon fertilization.2030

The actual embryo that goes inside the seed, that is from thee fertilization of the pollen grain nucleus and the egg nucleus.2039

But then, the ovule that happened inside of, you have the ovary that surrounded it.2048

The wall of the ovary is actually what develops into the fruit.2053

Because the ovary contain the eggs to begin with, the seeds are typically inside of the fruit.2058

All of these fruits, they come from outgrowth of that ovary wall.2063

Yes, it protects seeds and it can also encourage animals to eat them.2069

Fruits are delicious, it is a great combination of sugars, fructose, glucose, lactose, etc.2073

You have some citric acid there, the balance of that sugar and acid has a really good taste, it is nature’s candy.2080

As you can see with this tomato, its fleshy fruit has seeds inside of it.2086

Others simple fleshy fruits would be, not only tomatoes but apples, oranges, lemons,2091

they are a product of having fertilization of a flower.2103

You can have fertilization of many different egg cells and it comes from a single flower being fertilize each individual fruit.2108

Aggregate fruits are a little bit different, that is when you have a flower with numerous female parts in it,2117

this would be strawberry, raspberry, blackberries.2123

You can look at a raspberry and tell that there are a lot of little units, it looks like it has a lot of little spherical parts to it.2133

Each one of the spherical section was a separate female unit, separate pistil, carpo, that got fertilized.2140

That is how you get the aggregate fruit.2147

Multiple fruits like with the pineapple, I have a picture of a pineapple flower here.2149

The pineapple flower is actually numerous little flowers that all get fertilized separately, to make the entire fruit.2161

Each little flower forms each of those sections of the pineapple that you see wrapped around the outside of the fruit.2171

It is fascinating when you look at the pineapple flower, it looks very similar to what the eventual fruit is going to look like.2177

That is a multiple fruit coming from multiple flowers.2183

Dry fruits like, we talk about nuts, particular grains in such.2187

A lot times, there are nuts that do not look appetizing to us.2193

Nuts, when you take them out of their shell, there is the seed, it is appetizing especially when they are roasted and salted.2198

But dried fruit, according to the biological definition, they still are fruits.2204

It is from that outgrowth of the ovary wall after fertilization, protecting and surrounding seeds to developing plant embryo.2210

Like I said, the biological definition is, if that is what is going on, and you have seeds inside that are on, it is a fruit.2217

Even in a store, if you purchased produce, if you go to produce section, where you have got your veggies and fruits,2224

a lot of items that would be called vegetables are actually biological fruits,2233

a bell pepper whether it is red or green, or whatever, that is a fruit.2241

Cucumber that is definitely a fruit, it has seeds inside of it.2245

There are other vegetable plants that are definitely not fruits,2249

like head of lettuce is a lot of leaves compacted together, a carrot is really a modified root.2252

There is a lot of different plant parts.2261

Plant hormones, hormones are not just in animals.2265

Hormones are chemicals produced in a body, that are meant to signal or stimulate another part, causing physiological change.2268

In the animals, you got insulin, you got adrenaline, you got all these different hormones that maintain homeostasis and keep us stable,2274

and totally relative to changes in the environment or inside of ourselves.2285

Plants have them too, it might not be obvious to us, here are some 4 major kinds of plant hormones.2289

An example is auxin, one common auxin would be IAA, it is a kind of acid that is a type of auxin.2294

It promotes cell elongation, and auxins can be released and produced in different parts of the plant.2306

They can move very slow, sometimes it is just like 1 cm an hour.2313

Depending on when they are released to that parts of the plants they are released in, you can get growth at needed times.2314

It promote cell elongation.2325

Elongation of cells, gradually over time can cause maturity of plant parts.2326

Gibberellins, similar to auxins, in terms of their effect except one major difference is gibberellins,2333

they travel extensively through vascular tissue.2339

Up a plant, down a plant, depending on what part they are produced in.2344

Gibberellins can definitely be similar to auxins effects.2348

And then used in tandem can sometimes be a very productive thing to do.2353

Auxins by themselves are not those effective, but auxins and gibberellins and cytokinins can produce desired effects on a plant.2358

Speaking of cytokinins, these promote cell division.2365

Rather than just cell elongation, it actually promotes dividing.2368

Remember, cytokininsis, if you saw the cell division lesson.2374

Cytokininsis is the actual splitting of cells.2377

The plant cell, you would get the style where that new cell wall has cells that are elongated, and the DNA is divided up.2383

Via mitosis, you would actually be promoting increased mitosis by cytokinins being released.2391

And finally, ethylene causes ripening of fruits naturally in plant.2398

However, we can use it to our own advantage, in terms of timing with selling fruits.2402

Oftentimes, fruits like tomatoes are picked when they look like this.2407

They are picked unripe, and then right before being put out in a grocery store,2411

they are sprayed with ethylene gas to make them that orangish reddish look.2417

And then, they look red, great, I will buy them.2422

If they were picked when they are ripe, by the time they get to the display shelf, they are already be go to rot and get spoiled.2425

It is the timing thing, if you spray with ethylene gas, you will hasten the ripening of the fruit.2432

But plants can actually do it on their own, at the right time.2438

Plant responses, plants do react and move with respect to the environment.2443

It is not as obvious to us, animals obviously move and we can see how a stimuli makes them react,2448

but plants do it, a little bit slower sometimes but there are exceptions to the slowness.2455

Tropism are plants responses to external stimuli.2460

Usually a tropism is positive or negative, in terms of how the plant reacts.2463

One example is phototropism, phototropism is going on right here.2467

You can see that this plant in this pot is away from the window.2474

The window is clearly over here, the plant is like, I want to go towards there, how does that happen?2479

Light is hitting one side of the stem, here is the plan, here is the leaves.2484

Light is hitting this leaves but not as much on this side, right, if the light is coming from this direction.2491

What happens is, there is a stimulation of this side, the side opposite of the light, to grow faster.2497

If that side grows faster, in terms of cell elongation and division, it will gradually tilt it.2505

And that will move the plant, it will bend it towards the light, and that what is going on here.2513

It can happen slowly but it does happen gradually, as a response to the environment.2520

Gravitropism, with respect to gravity, you can think of it as kind of a negative tropism because it is going away from the earth, away from the force of gravity.2525

What this means is, some plants, if you turn them upside down,2537

they will make U turn and start growing away from the gravitational pull of the earth.2541

Pretty amazing they can do that actually because they evolved to do that, to grow away from the earth,2547

to grow towards the sun, amazing thing that they can do.2552

A phygmotropism describes how some plants almost have a sense of touch that they have, that they can wrap around something, as a vine.2556

Or in the rain forest, you see this a lot, you see plants wrapping themselves around to aid in their growth upwards.2569

It is taking advantage of previously damaged plants and that phygmotropism helps them do that.2576

Nastic responses are kinds of plant responses that do not necessarily have a positive or negative impact,2583

in terms of them encouraging the reaction in one direction or in the opposite.2590

Nastic responses, a lot of it has to do with other organisms touching them and just getting a response immediately.2596

One example is a particular species called mimosa pudica.2604

This particular plant, when you touch its leaves, it will close them up.2616

They close up and get really tight, compared to how spread out they are here.2625

It is just this automatic reaction that has to do with the change in water pressure that is protective.2633

If you let them go and do not touch them for a while, they will gradually open up again.2639

It is a nastic response.2645

Another one would be the venus flytrap, of course.2646

A venus flytrap has these little hairs, and all it takes is two of those little hairs to be triggered2649

by movement of an insect or what have you in there, within a certain amount of time, it just automatically does that.2656

It has to do with the changes in water pressure that cause that to happen.2662

The nastic response is this sensitive reaction to the environment.2667

It certainly helps the venus flytrap, in terms of getting nutrients and vitamins that it needs.2673

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2679