Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Genetics, Part I

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
Section 2: Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
1:00:00
How They Move
1:00:35
Flagellum
1:02:42
Flagella
1:02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
1:02:59
How They Move
1:03:27
Cell Wall
1:05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
1:05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
1:05:52
In Plants
1:07:19
In Bacteria
1:07:25
In Fungi
1:07:41
Cytoplasm
1:08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
1:08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
1:08:47
Cytosol
1:09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
1:09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
1:00:00
Meiosis II
1:01:04
Prophase II
1:01:08
Metaphase II
1:01:32
Anaphase II
1:02:08
Telophase II
1:02:43
Meiosis Overview
1:03:39
Products of Meiosis
1:06:00
Gametes
1:06:10
Sperm and Egg
1:06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
1:06:27
Section 3: From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
1:00:00
Autosomal Dominant
1:06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
1:09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
1:13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
Section 4: History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
1:02:13
More on Sexual Selection
1:03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
1:03:26
Examples
1:04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
1:09:41
Phenotype
1:10:01
Only Heritable Traits
1:11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
1:12:00
Temporal Isolation
1:12:59
Behavioral Isolation
1:14:17
Mechanical Isolation
1:15:13
Gametic Isolation
1:16:21
Geographic Isolation
1:16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
1:18:37
Hybrid Sterility
1:18:57
Hybrid Inviability
1:20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
1:20:31
Speciation
1:21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
1:21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
1:21:19
Adaptive Radiation
1:24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
1:24:28
Changes in Appearance
1:24:56
Examples
1:24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
1:27:35
Five Conditions
1:28:15
Equations
1:33:55
Microevolution
1:36:59
Natural Selection
1:37:11
Genetic Drift
1:37:34
Gene Flow
1:40:54
Nonrandom Mating
1:41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
1:41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
1:41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
1:43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
1:46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
Section 5: Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
Section 6: Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
1:02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
1:03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
Section 7: Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
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Lecture Comments (17)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu May 4, 2017 11:25 AM

Post by Scott Pearce on May 3, 2017

Greetings,
For Epistasis, wouldn't the alleles have to be dominant not recessive ?
Sorry I am confused about that.
Kind regards,
Scott Pearce

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Jun 29, 2015 3:10 PM

Post by Hossain Khondaker on June 27, 2015

its weird how my eye reacts in sight of the color yellow you used in this video it kind of flashes. Why is that??

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Dec 7, 2014 9:24 PM

Post by Samuel Eukbay Eukbay on December 7, 2014

Great explanation!!!!! Thank you.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Sep 3, 2014 12:34 PM

Post by Ivan de La Grange on September 2, 2014

Is not having allergies or not getting poison ivy considered a recessive trait? I say this because many of your recessive trait examples are expressed in the negative aspect. I say this because I have both traits and it seems to me that people are envious of it.

Thanks Professor Cardella.

2 answers

Last reply by: David Gonzalez
Sun Jun 29, 2014 12:17 AM

Post by David Gonzalez on June 28, 2014

Hi Mr. Cardella, I'm very new to genetics, so I apologize if this is a silly question.

Is the punette square designed to show you what the physical representation of the organism will be like? Or what they will look like on a genetic level? Or both? Thank you!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Jun 26, 2014 2:31 AM

Post by Enrique Salinas on June 25, 2014

Can u please explain the following problem?
in a dihybrid cross between bean plants with red (R)wrinkled (w)seeds and white (r) smooth (W)seeds, the F1 progeny is all red and smooth. if the plants are selfed, what proportion of the F2 will also be red and smooth if the genes are linked?

Thks!

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Apr 13, 2014 9:42 PM

Post by Aziza Bouba on April 13, 2014

Can a girl have Haemophilia?

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Apr 13, 2014 9:37 PM

Post by Aziza Bouba on April 13, 2014

concerning autosomal dominant: When a person is for example Hh does he or she have Hungtinton disease?

Genetics, Part I

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Gregor Mendel 0:05
    • Father of Genetics
    • Experimented with Crossing Peas
    • Discovered Consistent Patterns
  • Mendel's Laws of Genetics 3:10
    • Law of Segregation
    • Law of Independent Assortment
  • Genetics Vocabulary #1 6:28
    • Gene
    • Allele
    • Homozygous
    • Heterozygous
    • Genotype
    • Phenotype
    • Hybrid
    • Pure Breeding
  • Generation Vocabulary 13:03
    • Parental Generation
    • 1st Filial
    • 2nd Filial
  • Punnett Squares 15:07
  • Monohybrid Cross 18:52
    • Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
    • F1 Cross
  • Dihybrid Cross Introduction 23:42
    • Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
  • Dihybrid Cross Example 26:07
    • Phenotypic Ratio
  • Incomplete Dominance 32:02
    • Blended Inheritance
    • Example
  • Epistasis 35:05
    • Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
    • Example
  • Multiple Alleles 40:12
    • More Than Two Forms of Alleles
    • Example
  • Polygenic Inheritance 46:50
    • Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
    • Example
  • Test Cross 51:53
    • In Cases of Complete Dominance
    • Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
  • Sex-Linked Traits 53:56
    • Autosomes
    • Sex Chromosomes
  • Genetic Disorders 59:31
    • Autosomal Recessive
    • Autosomal Dominant
    • Sex-Linked Recessive
    • Sex-Linked Dominant

Transcription: Genetics, Part I

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the first lesson on genetics.0000

Genetics is one of my favorite things to teach in biology because0006

it is all about how you inherited the pieces of DNA that make you who you are.0009

The environment has a lot to do with the expression of DNA in a person's body or any organism’s body.0015

But without that DNA expressing itself, you would not have those raw materials for the environment to act upon.0020

Thanks to the work of Gregor Mendel, a monk from the 1800s, a very simple man but intelligent man,0026

we got a great head start with figuring out genetics.0035

He is considered the father of genetics because his work is really meticulous, extensive work, really did laid the groundwork.0039

A 19th century Austrian monk who spoke German, he lived in what is now is Czechoslovakia.0047

The world was a little different there, in terms of territory, territories back then in 1800’s.0054

He experimented with crossing peas, pea plants in the garden of the monastery.0062

I have asked my students before, what is the advantage of using peas?0068

If you try this with animals, there would have been a lot of problems.0072

Meaning, getting the animals to mate with the ones you want them to, cleaning up after them.0076

The expense of having animals waiting a long time for the animal to be born,0082

the generation turnover takes a lot longer, the complexity of the genetics of an animal, he got lucky with the pea plants.0087

Pea plants, the species he happened to use have pretty predictable display patterns0093

for how the genetics is actually shown up, how it shows up in the plant.0102

You will see this as we go through some examples with the color of the peas, the shape of peas, the pod etc.0108

This guy, Mr. Mendel, crossed thousands of plants, this took him years to do.0113

If he would just made it a few and saw what happened and he thought he know what is going on,0120

it was the amount of times he did it to prove that this can be something that is replicated time and time again,0126

and you get the same kinds of results.0133

That proved his point, his theory about this.0135

Yes, when we look at his data, he crossed thousands of plants.0137

When we say cross, we mean mate it.0140

He took pollen from one, fertilize the flower of the other.0143

The cool thing about pea plants, in addition to many other advantages that he had is that,0147

every pea plant has male and female parts on it.0151

It makes it very easy to mate them.0155

He discovered some consistent patterns based on the results of the crosses.0157

You will see some interesting ratios of the offspring, what is expected to have happen if he do this crosses.0162

Thanks to the fact he did it hundreds of thousands of times in these various traits, you get those predictable ratios.0169

We will talk more about that, how flipping a coin 10 times, you are not always going to get 5 heads and 5 tails.0176

But, if you flip it a thousand times, you are getting it close to what the statistics tell you is going to happen.0183

There is Mr. Mendel, with his research, there were two laws that have a lot of credence still today0188

but there are some exceptions that I will tell you about.0198

His law of segregation, segregation socially means something very different.0200

If you try to segregate people, you are separating them from each other.0205

Segregation here is talking about gene parts getting segregated.0208

If you watched the cell division lesson on meiosis,0213

you know that there is a separation of duplicated chromatid parts that has to do with making sperm, egg, pollen.0217

That is what the segregation is referring to.0226

Mendel knew that each pair has two units that it could possibly pass on for each trait.0228

And that, these two units were split up in their pollen and eggs, there is a 50-50 chance of inheritance.0233

You are going to see that depending on the genotype and whether it is dominant-dominant, recessive,0241

it will make more sense in a little bit.0247

Only one of them is going to be passed on to the offspring.0249

Remember, from the chromosome explanation in cell division, if you have homologous pairs,0253

one from your mom and one from your dad, they each gave you one piece of that puzzle.0259

Then they leave that, even though he had never seen chromosomes in his life,0264

he knew that there was something of substance that these plants were passing on in their pollen and egg.0269

The law of segregation is true, we know it is true.0275

The exception is for when non disjunction occurs.0279

Non disjunction would be, when you have failure of separation during meiosis.0283

Failure of homologous chromosomes to separate or the choramatids to separate.0290

You end up with too few or too chromosomes in sperm or egg, or pollen and egg, that does not happen that often.0294

Non disjunction would be the exception to the law of segregation actually happening.0302

The law of independence is a little bit different.0307

Mendel also knew that each trait is inherited independently from every other trait.0309

Example, just because a pea is green does not mean it will be round.0314

The inheritance of color in peas has nothing to do the inheritance of shape.0319

The size of the plant, whether it is tall or short has nothing to do with the peapod color or peapod look.0323

All those things are inherited separately.0330

The one exception is linked genes.0333

We now know that, when look at complex inheritance patterns that we know more about today,0337

there are these linked genes where they are found in the same chromosome and tend to be inherited together.0344

One example I can think of is people with red hair are much more likely to get freckles than people with other hair colors.0349

That could be due to linked genes having to do with getting that particular hair color,0359

impacting the expression of the chance of getting freckles.0364

But there are lots of examples of linked genes.0368

Mendel did not actually get to see that.0371

Those very simple genetic pattern with pea plants which I think was a good thing.0375

He got to cover some slack, he was doing this work in 1800’s, did not have a lot of technology.0379

He really found out some awesome stuff.0385

Some genetics vocabulary, this is the first set of vocabulary I want to show with you.0389

As we go to the examples of these different genetic phenomenon and these patterns,0393

that we can use these terms and you know what I’m talking about.0398

A gene, most of you know that, it is a segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein.0401

We all know that we get our genes from our parents.0407

What it actually is, is a segment of DNA and if you watch the lesson on RNA,0410

you know that RNA is made from DNA that RNA is translated into protein.0417

The proteins is what makes the trait.0421

Sometimes these traits are visible on the surface of an organisms body, sometimes they are not.0425

There is some manifestation of that DNA in the trait.0430

That is what the gene is actually is.0436

An allele is a component of gene.0438

Organisms typically have two for each gene, they pass on one to their offspring because of that segregation phenomenon.0441

When we talk about alleles, alleles are usually called dominant or recessive.0448

What that means is, if it is a dominant allele, it pertains to the allele that can overshadow or mask another.0452

If I inherit two alleles from my parents and this one is not expressed but this one is,0462

we would call this one dominant because it is masking, it is not allowing this DNA to be expressed,0468

this is the one that is being expressed.0473

Recessive is the one that can be overshadowed.0475

These are relative terms, you are going to see there are exceptions to this dominant-recessive thing,0481

when we talk about more complex patterns that is coming up a little bit later.0485

Typically, dominant alleles, they use a capital letter.0489

If we are talking about gene A, dominant alleles would be A.0494

For recessive, it would be lower case.0501

Homozygous and heterozygous, when you inherit two alleles for a gene,0505

that combination is called homozygous or heterozygous.0509

Homo meaning same, zygous coming from that word zygote which means that first cell of life.0512

The sperm or the egg coming together, or the pollen and the egg coming together.0519

Homo meaning same, they have the same allele for the gene that is now in that zygote.0524

Homozygous could be this or it could be this, or it could be this.0533

I’m giving you a few different genes.0542

For gene A, they are both dominant alleles, each parent gave one dominant allele and for gene r, both recessive alleles.0544

These will be expressed, this is the case where recessive, since no dominant alleles have been inherited, those will get expressed.0552

Here is another example, we would actually call this one homozygous dominant.0560

Just to tell us that, the ones that are the same is a dominant one.0567

This one we will call homozygous recessive because the ones that are the same are the recessive ones.0570

Those were the two that were inherited.0577

Heterozygous is having the opposite form of alleles for a gene.0579

Here is heterozygous, this is heterozygous, and that is heterozygous.0584

The two opposite forms, the dominant or recessive inherited together.0592

Mom or dad gave each of them, that is how it is.0595

You would not use the term heterozygous dominant or heterozygous recessive, that does not make sense.0599

Heterozygous tells you that you have inherited dominant from one parent and recessive from the other.0604

More vocabulary for you, we just looked at genotypes in the previous slide.0611

A genotype is the specific combination of alleles for a gene.0615

Some examples of genotypes is that, that, how about this one, this one.0618

I will give you one that is going to look weird right now, but later on it will not look weird.0634

This is also a genotype pertaining to blood type.0639

These should look familiar, based on what you saw on the previous slide.0643

They are all combinations of alleles that have been inherited.0646

These are forms of DNA that have been inherited in that new individual.0649

The genotype gets expressed, and the actual physical expression the genotype is known as phenotype.0655

Sometimes, phenotype can be seen, when we are talking about something like skin color, whether not someone has a widow's peak.0663

If you are unfamiliar with a widow's peak, if your hair comes down to a little point here in the middle of your hair line, that is a widow’s peak.0675

As far as I know that is caused by a dominant allele, if you have it.0687

Another one could be blood type, this is one that you cannot tell by looking at someone.0692

There is a physical manifestation, a physical expression of the genes that made these.0699

It is shown in the surface of red blood cell.0705

But all of these are phenotypes, the physical expression of what inherited up here.0708

Hybrid, there are multiple definitions, the one we are going to use more with this particular lesson is,0714

it is an individual who was the result of crossing two sexually reproducing parents.0719

I'm a hybrid of my two parents, that is how we could use it.0724

It also can mean a combination of two closely related species.0727

For instance, a mule is a sterile hybrid of the donkey and horse.0731

That hybrid thing will come up in biology occasionally, but with this lesson0738

we are going to talk about hybrid as a combination of two sexually reproducing individuals.0743

Pure breeding also known as true breeding.0749

Pure breeding, the individuals homozygous for a gene, only one kind of a allele to pass on for a trait.0751

You are going to see it coming up when we talk about peas, a pure breeding pea.0757

If it is yellow, it is only going to pass on the alleles that cause its offspring to be yellow.0761

Same with the green pea, if green pea is true breeding, it only has that certain kind of allele, maybe it is wrinkled.0767

It is true breeding or pure breeding for that wrinkled allele type.0776

Vocabulary associated with generations, when we cross one individual and get a second group,0785

cross the second then you will get the third group, there are names for that.0791

Mendel started the process for categorizing generations of organisms, when tracing inheritance.0794

a have kept notes on this to keep it straight, we knew what generation leads to which.0800

The P generation, sometimes called P1, but the 1 is a little bit redundant.0805

P means parental generation.0810

If we plant these peas, we are going to get the next groups of the parents are here.0815

We are saying, this parent is all yellow, I know it is in black and white, it is I know it is hard to tell,0821

but these are all yellow and these are all green.0825

The parental generation, if we take pollen from one and put on the flower the other,0828

the offspring are going to be F1 from the P generation.0834

F1 is 1st filial, filial meaning it is of the family from the previous generation.0839

When we cross F1, their offspring are F2, and that pattern continues.0847

If you were to cross F2, the 2nd filial, they may get three.0852

You cross F3, they may get four.0856

It keeps going on until F whatever.0858

You could think of the P generation as grandparents.0862

The F1 is the parents and the F2 are the grandchildren.0866

It is all relative, F2 is telling you it came from two previous generations, that is why I wrote and so on.0871

You can keep going and going, if you want to see future patterns coming from all the way back from P.0881

You are going to see this on the next couple slides, this will make more sense what is going on with this expression.0888

That in the F2, the grandchildren, that 1P looks a lot like the grandparent up here.0895

But in the F1 generation, that green phenotype was hidden and it is masked.0901

Punnett squares, there was a scientist by the name of Punnett,0908

who came up with this way of using a square to have a visual representation for the probability of allele inheritance in offspring.0912

Let us say in the P generation, we have a heterozygous individual and0921

we are crossing this individual with another heterozygous individual.0929

You are going to see this a lot through this lesson.0932

This X means we are mating those two and these are their genotypes.0935

The phenotype does not really matter here, I just want to show you how the gene inheritance occurs,0939

with respect to this Punnett square.0946

You put one individual on one side and you separate the alleles here and here.0948

This is kind of acting out that segregation phenomenon.0953

During meiosis, you get a splitting of those chromosomes.0958

This is saying that, if that is the male individual, half the sperm are going to have inheritance of this,0961

half the sperm are going to have this other allele in it.0967

Or a pollen, if we are talking about plant, half the pollen grains have this, half the pollen grains have that.0970

The other parent is the same, we put that parent’s alleles here and here.0975

This is just how it is, one parent is on the top of this four square Punnett square and the other parent is on the left.0979

You do not put it here or here, that is how it is.0988

It does not matter where you put the male and female.0992

The male or female could be here and vice versa.0994

And then, you show how they come together, it is accounting for all the possibilities of inheritance.0997

These two gametes, pollen and egg can combine, these two combine, and so on.1004

What this is saying is, there are four possibilities, there is a 25% chance of the offspring being homozygous dominant.1014

There is a 50% chance, 2 out of 4 of it being heterozygous, 25% chance of being homozygous recessive.1024

The genotypic ratio for the F1, if these is the P generation which are here,1033

this is telling you what is going to happen in the F1 that come from them.1043

The genotypic ratio is 1 to 2 to 1 that is like saying 25% -50%-25%.1046

Here is what I’m saying, 1 to 2 to 1, this ratio will come up again and again.1056

Some people like rating fractions, it is just another way of representing the chances of this happening.1073

Keep in mind, if you were to have only four offspring, you are not always going to get half of them with heterozygous.1078

I mentioned this earlier, if you flip a coin 4 times are you always going to get two heads and two tails, no.1087

But if you keep flipping that coin, statistics tell you that, as time goes on you are more likely to get the 50-50 ratio.1095

If we are doing this with peas and we planted 4 peas and see what happens, it is possible that we get the perfect one, the 2-1.1103

But every time inheritance happens, every time a pollen grain and egg combine,1113

you get this being reenacted over and over again, in terms of the probabilities.1118

If we planted 100 peas or 500 peas, it is much more likely that is going to be close to that 1-2-1 ratio.1124

Monohybrid cross is telling us, when we are focusing on one gene, monosingular.1133

Hybrid, combination crosses is the mating.1138

It is tracing inheritance of one gene.1142

Mono started by mating pure breeding peas in the P generation.1145

Homozygous dominant for this color gene, this is focusing on color this time.1152

We focus on other traits, the size of the plant, etc.1159

We are focusing on the color of the pea.1163

We are going to call it the Y gene, it happens a lot.1166

Geneticists will assign a letter based on the dominant phenotype.1170

You do not have to, if you want you can use A for this gene.1175

We are using Y for yellow.1179

Pure breeding means, this plant, all of its peas are going to look yellow.1181

It is only going to pass on dominant alleles.1187

This plant, all of its peas are green, and because there is no dominant allele,1190

those heterozygous they will be y, it would look yellow because this allele dominates that.1196

When you mate them, I want to use green because I do not want to confuse you about the green pea thing.1203

Here is the P generation, this is a P generation of peas.1214

When you do a Punnett square, they are all going to be heterozygous.1222

What will they look like, they will look like this parent because at least one Y allele,1243

the big one, the dominant one, will mask this recessive one.1250

The heterozygous individuals look just like this one.1255

They are all heterozygous and they are all going to look yellow, 100% chance.1259

We are going to take these F1 individuals, the F1 all yellow, all heterozygous, and mate them.1273

I realize that their pea plant siblings, that is not a big deal when it comes to plants.1279

It is a different kind of thing, when it comes to humans.1285

You are going to mate the F1 generation and see what happens.1289

If the F1 cross, two heterozygous were made, all of them are going to be heterozygous looking yellow.1292

It is going to be a little bit different this time around.1309

25% chance of homozygous dominant, 50% chance of heterozygous, and 25% chance of homozygous recessive.1321

In the F2, the genotypic ratio is what?1334

It is 1 to 2 to 1, one homozygous, 2 out of 4 are going to be heterozygous, 1 out of 4 is homozygous recessive.1345

However, the phenotypic ratio is going to be a little bit different.1356

It is going to be 3 to 1, why, because these three all look yellow but this one looks green,1369

like its grandparent pea plant.1381

That is the interesting thing that, now when we look at the genotype versus phenotype, there are some differences.1385

Because in this particular case with heterozygous, only the dominant allele is being expressed and the recessive one is being ignored.1391

You are going to see it in the future, in this lesson,1401

there are some cases with the heterozygous individual, the recessive is also expressed.1404

That is not complete dominance like we are seeing here.1409

There are your ratios in the F2 generation, the grandchildren peas from the P generation.1412

It is not a hybrid color cross.1419

With the dihybrid cross, we are going to trace the inheritance of two genes at the same time,1424

that is why it is dihybrid.1428

Mendel did this, he simultaneously traced pea color and shape.1431

I’m going to introduce a new designation for you.1437

Now, as a shortcut, instead of writing more than this genotype, I’m just going to write Y blank meaning,1440

that blank whether it is a dominant Y or recessive y, same thing, in terms of what phenotype you get.1447

Because that one dominant is going to be expressed and whether the other one is dominant or recessive, it is going to look yellow.1455

Like we also saw before, both recessive homozygous, recessive codes for green, the phenotype.1462

With shape of pea, getting at least one dominant allele for the r gene is going to make the peas round,1468

like we are used to seeing when we eat peas.1475

If no dominance are inherited and it is homozygous recessive, you are going to have wrinkled peas.1477

Let us see what happens when you mate the pure breeding plants.1484

First to this, he knew based on previous observation, that this plant is completely pure breeding.1488

Regardless of what I mate it with, time and time again, it is always making yellow round peas, and he mated it with this one.1497

This one always yellow round, here is the phenotype and this one will look wrinkled.1508

It is always making that wrinkled green one.1519

When you mate them together, we are not going to have to do a Punnett square for this,1522

you are always going to get this, heterozygous for both genes.1528

What it is going to look like, check this out, look back here.1535

It is going to look like this, like that parent, even though the genotypes are different.1542

Here is what you have in the F1, all of the F1 generation looks like that and has these genotypes.1548

What happens when you mate F1, when it is heterozygous for both genes?1557

You need do a very large Punnett square for that, that is coming up next.1562

Here is the dihybrid cross example, in terms of mating those F1 individuals.1569

Like we said, we are mating this times two.1574

I’m writing that kind of small because I need more room1583

to write the different pollen and egg allele combinations that we are going to get.1585

If we account for everything, here is what ends up happening in the pollen grains.1593

That is all the possible combinations.1608

The way you can keep track of that is, this is just makes sense in my head.1611

Since, you have to account for every possibility, I just make two little dots next to every letter.1617

Once there are two dots, you know you are done.1624

Here is what I mean, you can have that one and that one combining, that is one pollen grain possibility.1627

We could also have this one and that one.1635

Now, we know we are done with the dominant Y.1640

We could also have this one combined with this one.1643

We are also going to have this one combined with this one.1648

Those are all the different possibilities.1652

Since the other parent has the same genotype for both the color of gene and the shape of the pea gene, it is the same.1654

It would be really exhausted to write out the genotypes for all of these.1672

Instead, let us just keep track of the phenotypes.1677

For the first one, first couple, I will write the genotype.1683

This one is going to look like that grandparent because having that pollen grain combine with that egg,1687

we are having this pollen grain combine with that egg, you are going to get that.1693

What are they going to look like?1697

It will look like that.1702

For the rest of them, up on the top row, because of this, the fact that you are always in this part of the Punnett square,1704

you are always going to get a dominant Y and dominant R.1713

The rest of these are all going to be round and yellow, regardless of what they inherit here.1717

Even though, this particular combination is going to be heterozygous like those two parents,1723

it is