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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Plants, Part I

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
II. Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
1:00:00
How They Move
1:00:35
Flagellum
1:02:42
Flagella
1:02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
1:02:59
How They Move
1:03:27
Cell Wall
1:05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
1:05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
1:05:52
In Plants
1:07:19
In Bacteria
1:07:25
In Fungi
1:07:41
Cytoplasm
1:08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
1:08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
1:08:47
Cytosol
1:09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
1:09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
1:00:00
Meiosis II
1:01:04
Prophase II
1:01:08
Metaphase II
1:01:32
Anaphase II
1:02:08
Telophase II
1:02:43
Meiosis Overview
1:03:39
Products of Meiosis
1:06:00
Gametes
1:06:10
Sperm and Egg
1:06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
1:06:27
III. From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
1:00:00
Autosomal Dominant
1:06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
1:09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
1:13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
IV. History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
1:02:13
More on Sexual Selection
1:03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
1:03:26
Examples
1:04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
1:09:41
Phenotype
1:10:01
Only Heritable Traits
1:11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
1:12:00
Temporal Isolation
1:12:59
Behavioral Isolation
1:14:17
Mechanical Isolation
1:15:13
Gametic Isolation
1:16:21
Geographic Isolation
1:16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
1:18:37
Hybrid Sterility
1:18:57
Hybrid Inviability
1:20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
1:20:31
Speciation
1:21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
1:21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
1:21:19
Adaptive Radiation
1:24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
1:24:28
Changes in Appearance
1:24:56
Examples
1:24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
1:27:35
Five Conditions
1:28:15
Equations
1:33:55
Microevolution
1:36:59
Natural Selection
1:37:11
Genetic Drift
1:37:34
Gene Flow
1:40:54
Nonrandom Mating
1:41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
1:41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
1:41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
1:43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
1:46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
V. Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
VI. Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
1:02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
1:03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
VII. Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
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Lecture Comments (5)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Nov 9, 2016 10:11 AM

Post by Vivian Ni on November 8, 2016

If moss can grow on angiosperms, why can't they grow on gymnosperms?

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Apr 6, 2016 8:27 PM

Post by Shikha Bansal on April 6, 2016

If monocots can have multiples of 3 for male flower parts and dicots can have multiples of 4 for male flowers, then how do you tell if a flower is a dicot or a monocot if it has 12 male flower parts?

0 answers

Post by samyah refadah on March 27, 2014

love the style of his teaching

Plants, Part I

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Kingdom Plantae Characteristics 0:05
    • Cuticle
    • Vascular Bundles
    • Stomata
    • Alternation of Generations
  • Plant Origins 5:58
    • Common Ancestor with Green Algae
    • Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
  • Non-Vascular Plants 8:17
    • Bryophytes
    • Anthoworts
    • Hepaticophytes
  • Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle 9:30
    • Dominant Gametophyte
    • Illustration Explanation
  • Seedless Vascular Plants 15:26
    • Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
    • Sori
    • Lycophytes
    • Pterophytes
  • Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle 17:05
    • Dominant Generation
    • Produce Motile Sperm
  • Seed Plants 23:17
    • Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
    • Cotyledons
    • Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
    • Divisions
  • Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants) 27:05
    • Examples
    • Evergreen or Deciduous
    • Gymnosperms
    • Economic Importance
  • Conifer Life Cycle 30:10
    • Dominant Generation
    • Cones Contain the Gametophyte
    • Illustration Explanation
  • Anthophytes (Flowering Plants) 38:01
    • Every Plant That Has Flowers
    • Angiosperms
    • Various Life Spans
  • Flower Anatomy 40:25
    • Female Parts
    • Male Parts
  • Flowering Plant Life Cycle 44:48
    • Dominant Generation
    • Flowers Contain the Gametophyte

Transcription: Plants, Part I

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the lesson on plants, part 1.0000

When you look at the characteristics of kingdom Plantae,0006

What is definitely true about every single one of them is they are multi cellular, eukaryotic, photoautotrophs.0009

If they are unicellular, they would be in kingdom Protista, because all of them make their own food through photosynthesis.0015

They are all eukaryotic, their cells have nuclei, and there is a chloroplast, etc.0022

One of the things that really separate them from a plant like protist is the fact that they have specialized tissues.0027

Here are several examples in these specialize tissues that you would see in the members of kingdom plantae.0034

Number 1, a cuticle, a cuticle is like a waxy coating.0039

I am talking about the other cuticle here, same word but it means you have waxy coating.0050

It is oftentimes most visible or obvious on leaves.0055

There are some leaves where there is so much of that waxy build up,0058

You see they are shining and you can definitely appreciate that waxy protection.0061

What they are actually making that for is to prevent a lot of water loss.0067

That cuticle is very helpful for being a multi cellular terrestrial organism.0071

Vascular bundles, the ability to actually get water and fluids up against gravity.0078

If you think about cardiovascular system that some animals have, the cardio part means heart.0085

The vascular has to do with the blood transport, that fluid transport thorough out the body.0092

Vascular here, has that same meaning.0097

The ability of the tree to get water all the way up to those leaves up on the top,0099

that is vascularization allows them to do that through these bundles0104

within the roots, within the stems, within the branches and leaves.0108

There are two main sections, the xylem part of it is for water transport.0113

The phloem part is mainly for the sugar transport.0123

In this leaf here, it is a great example, I always use the major leaf vein here.0133

If we were to look inside of all these little passageways, in terms of water and sugar movement,0137

there is a lot of water moving in the leaf constantly, that has been taken up from the roots and going on up.0144

This is really a sugar producing factory, in terms of what the leaf is meant to do.0149

All those sugar producing cells can get sugar back into those vascular bundles within the leaf veins,0154

and transport those sugar to other parts of the plant that have cells any nourishment0162

but maybe are not doing as much photosynthesis, as in this particular part.0166

Stomata, singular would be stoma which literally means mouth, in Greek.0171

Stomata is plural, these are leaf pores.0178

They are more concentrated to the other side of leaf.0186

The way that they look, to have two cells side by side.0190

This is one stoma and this cell is called a guard cell.0199

The way they work is, when you want the stoma to be open, water is drawn into the cell.0207

Actually, the way they do it is they pump ions in, and osmosis has the water follow those ions because,0214

water goes to where there is less water by concentration and that causes the cells to puff up with that water coming in.0219

When they a puff up, it makes that hole open up.0225

Conversely, when you pump the ions out through those membrane proteins,0229

water follows out of the cells and those guard cells kind of collapse on each other, closing that particular hole.0233

Stomata is very important, in terms of getting CO₂ into the plant,0240

and water can evaporate out in the stomata too and they can also loose oxygen from out of there.0245

But that is transpiration, more on that later.0250

But the stomata is very important for getting CO₂ into the plants.0252

Alternation of generations has to do with the lifecycle of a plant.0257

The majority of plants in kingdom plantae are mostly diploid.0264

If you remember diploid means 2 N, having two copies of every chromosome.0267

Haploid is through meiosis, you have that number and have this putting up with the chromosomes,0274

usually to make sex cells, like gametes, sperm and egg.0279

There is one generation of plant called the sporophyte generation, and that is those diploid cells.0284

Then , the gametophyte generation is the haploid.0289

This is not found in animals because you might think, do not I do alternations of generations,0293

my species were mostly diploid which is analogous to this sporophyte.0299

We do meiosis in the gonads to make sperm or egg which are haploid, and those fuse to make a new diploid organism.0304

It is not quite the same because with plants, you will have sporophyte structures all throughout the plant.0312

That then, will give rise to gametophyte that is multicellular, meaning meiosis will happen through these haploid cells.0317

Those haploid cells go through mitosis to make a multicellular gametophyte tissue, which you do not find in animals.0324

You do not find a multicellular sperm tissue, whether all together forming a tissue.0331

This is different, this is something that is unique to plants.0340

Sporophyte leading to gametophyte, back to sporophyte.0344

Depending on the plant, sporophyte can be the majority of their body0349

or sometimes even the gametophyte can be the majority of their body.0354

Plant origins, in terms of where these plants come from.0359

There is plenty of evidence that multicellular land plant share a common ancestor with green algae,0362

which is a modern day plant like protist.0368

Here are some examples of how all these green little cells are related to modern day plants,0370

that we now love.0377

Cellular cell wall, when we look at plant cell and tree, cellulose, cell walls.0379

Cellulose is a kind of polysaccharide, a large sugar molecule.0383

The cell plate during cell division, a cleavage for what happened in animal cell to split up the cytoplasm,0391

instead those vesicles lining up with cellulose allow algae to divide.0397

Similarly, it happens in land plants.0403

Chlorophyll similarities, when we actually look at the molecule that is absorbing most the sunlight,0405

in terms of making photosynthesis to happen, the actual molecular structure of chlorophyll is very similar.0410

rRna similarities, if you remember rRna is ribosomal RNA.0418

When you look at rRna which does come from DNA, in algae and plants, there is a lot in common.0424

Starch storage, in terms of how they store those glucoses that they make through photosynthesis for rainy day.0431

And then, same types of enzymes and vesicles.0438

When you look at various vesicles inside of their cells, very similar enzymes.0440

Approximately, 400 hundred million years ago, land plants began appearing on earth.0446

Resistance to drought and protection from our loss probably filled this transition.0451

Protection from water loss, protection of embryos from water loss, a very important,0456

in terms of land plants becoming successful and passing on their DNA to make more land plants throughout the eons.0463

It is something that needed to happen because if you have a very simple plant in the water,0471

a little plant like protist in the water, there is so much water in there, you do not have to worry about drying out.0479

When you are in land, sometimes you are away from water for a very long time,0484

in cases of a drought, you do not want to dry out and die.0488

Protection of embryos from water loss is important to make a new generation successful.0491

Now, we are going to get into the different divisions, the different groups of plants, within kingdom plantae.0498

The first is non-vascular plants, I know that with characteristics earlier on this lesson,0503

we said that vascularization, having these vascular bundles is a characteristic of plants.0508

There some exceptions, those other things that I mentioned these have but they do not grow tall,0514

this particular group.0519

These plants cannot pump water up very far against gravity.0521

Bryophyte is one of the most commonly known ones mosses.0526

You can sometimes see in textbooks will say division bryophyte.0531

the term division is basically like saying a plant phylum.0535

There are the mosses, I will tell you more about this on next slide, in terms of how they reproduce.0540

All that fuzzy green stuff and then this little brown extensions coming out, they have to do with the ability to reproduce.0544

There is the anthocerophytes, the hornworts, hornworts also do not grow very tall.0551

These are the reproductive structures going out there.0557

Hepaticophytes, these are the liverworts, do not grow tall at all.0560

Very unique plants, in terms of comparing them to other divisions.0565

Now, time for the bryophyte and moss lifecycle.0572

Unlike most plants, the bryophytes have a dominant gametophyte generation.0575

Most of their body is actually haploid and a small percentage is diploid.0582

You may have seen other division that is not true, when we look at ferns, cone-bearing plants,0588

and flowering plants, they are mostly sporophyte or diploid, but not here.0593

We are going to color code this, let us say that green here is going to be the gametophyte and we will say black is sporophyte.0597

Since this is might be relatively new terms for you, I am going to write next to gametophyte the single N which means haploid,0623

and next to sporophyte 2N meaning diploid.0632

You will see that gametophyte generation, there will be a fusion,0637

there will be a fertilization of haploid cells, to make the sporophyte.0640

And then, it will start all over again.0644

The sporophyte will go through meiosis to make the gametophyte and it keeps happening.0645

We look at moss, you know it is that fuzzy green stuff.0650

You will see it on rocks, you will see it in a log, it is covering a lot of your surface, honestly.0656

We zoom into that, when we zoom in, here is what we see.0662

All of this is haploid, this grow out of something called protonema.0673

I will tell you more about that in a bit.0683

I am going to draw two of these little moss extensions, part of the gametophyte generation of this bryophyte.0687

This one on the left, we are going to say that this is a female version and this is the male version.0696

You actually have two different kinds of gametes that are going to be produced.0703

You have eggs being produced in this one here and sperm being produce in this one here.0710

Deep inside of these areas you will have this.0717

If you look inside of here, here is what you are going to see, it is called the archegonium.0724

This is little cellular extensions.0740

This is like super zoomed in, and down at the bottom here, those are little eggs.0742

Here is the archegonium, I really will say archegonia because that is plural.0751

That is a nickname for female producing structure, female gamete producing structure.0758

Inside of this one, there is something a little bit different.0767

Antheridia, this term anthers is going to come up again later on this lesson.0783

Anthers are the pollen containing structures at the top of these little filaments inside of a flower.0787

This anther term comes up again and again, meaning male gamete producing structure,0794

whether it is pollen or flagellated sperm, in the case of mosses.0800

A moss actually makes flagellated sperm.0805

From out of the antheridia, you have sperm.0807

If you will to zoom in to them, they have little tails.0813

And if there is moisture, If there is dew, If there is enough fluid around, they can literally swim and end up inside of this female gametophyte structure.0817

Here is the female again, this little sperm can swim into there.0830

When you have haploid sperm meeting with haploid eggs, that is going to form diploid.0837

From out of here it is black, it is sporophyte.0844

You produce this structure, this little stock, this little capsule.0850

Inside of this capsule, all of this is going to be diploid.0854

Inside of here, you are going to get meiosis occurring to produce what are called spores.0858

This haploid spores not on the ground, and hopefully will grow into what is called protonima through mitosis.0873

Protonima are these strands of cells that give rise to new gametophyte leaf structures.0882

It starts all over again, you will get male forming, female forming, and it is just that continuous cycle happening all over and over.0893

The see interesting thing about this bryophyte mosses is, it is entirely dependent on gametophyte.0900

This bryophyte does not do photosynthesis.0904

It really does depend on this gametophyte, they are growing out for nutrients and support.0907

Without this bryophyte growing, you are not going to get this new spores being developed for meiosis,0913

to make the gametophyte generation happen all over again.0919

That is the bryophyte life cycle.0924

Now, see these vascular plants.0928

Finally, we are now into the divisions where they can grow tall, we can see trees.0930

These are vascular but they do not make seeds, we will get to the seeds later.0933

They have that water transport ability, a common way they reproduce.0938

If they do not make seeds, how do they make new plants?0943

They are the structures each one is called a sores or sori would be plural, this is a spore bearing structures.0946

Lycophyte is one of the groups of the seedless vascular plants, club mosses or ground pines.0954

If you use your imagination and you look at this picture here, they kind of look like little minnie pine trees, in a sense.0962

A lot of this in the lycophyte group are actually epiphytes.0970

They make these long whining strands that would grow around bigger trees0974

to help them get higher up and absorb more sunlight.0980

These do not make seeds but they can grow tall.0984

Then the pterophytes, the ferns or the horsetails is another type of pterophytes.0989

The division pterophytha, ferns are the most commonly known.0995

Here is a fern plant, it looks like a tree fern.0999

From out of here, you have what is called a fiddlehead.1002

A fiddlehead will actually unravel to make a new fern frond.1005

On the other side of these leaves or frond, you have the sori, those structures that do not make seeds1011

but they make spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.1019

For the pterophyte or fern life cycle.1026

Dominant generation, as we are going to see with the rest of these life cycles,1027

is going to be sporophyte or 2 N, the exception was the mosses.1031

These plants produce motile sperm.1036

It is not like pollen grains like what we are going to see with cone bearing plants or with flowers.1038

Pollen grains do not have a tail, and they are dependent on,1043

typically, wind blowing them or getting on some animal that has participated in pollination.1046

This is a zoom in of the underside of a fern frond.1052

You can see all these little orange brownish, little fuzzy things.1057

Each one of those is called a source.1061

Let us color code this again, let us say that black is going to be this sporophyte and green will be gametophyte.1064

Remember, most of the plant, most of the fern is actually sporophyte.1087

All of this, I am going to circle it in black, that is all sporophyte.1092

But inside of these little orange fuzzy, meiosis is taking place.1098

Here is how it works, if we zoom into one of these little extensions, source.1103

If we zoom into the sources, you will have what is called sporangia.1118

this thing right here, that is a part of each source is a sporangium.1136

With the sporangium, one single sporangium is kind of round structure that we have zoomed into, super zoom in,1146

you are going to have meiosis happening in here to produce what are called spores.1156

The spores fall down onto the ground, and they can go through mitosis,1168

if they are the right conditions or on moisture, they will grow into this interesting thing called a prothallus.1175

Pro meaning early or beginning, and fallus means like beginning or early shoot or twig.1189

It is interesting that they use that terminology, because from out of this which is actually a very tiny structure,1203

I drew this big, but oftentimes, you need a microscope to see this.1210

They just look like a little green dot, like this mini leaf.1214

But from out of this, you are going to get the young shoot, you are going to get a new firm going from out of this.1217

This profallus, notice I drew it in green, it is entirely haploid.1224

On one end, you can have the archegonium, that same terminology from moss, the egg producing structures here.1229

Then down here, you can have antheridia, the sperm producing structure.1242

You can have profalli, these different prothallus, prothallus is the proper term.1254

where one produces the archegonium and other produces the antheridium, but oftentimes, there are on the same one.1259

But you can have the sperm swimming to other ones, of course.1266

These structures here are called rhizoids, they are like want to be roots.1269

There is a chemotaxis that occur.1277

This term chemotaxis, it is like a chemical signal that will attract cells.1279

If you wonder, how did the sperm know where to swim to?1287

It is not like they have eyes or something.1291

Chemo taxes is a chemical attraction that is driving them towards that destination.1293

When there is enough moisture, the sperm that are produced here, they are flagellated,1298

and they will swim to the archegonium, these little flagellated guys.1304

Once they go in the archegonium and fuse with the egg then you have your new sporophyte.1311

From out of here, you can get new fern growing.1317

Of course, as this develops, this fern will grow into a full fern tree.1325

Yes, of course, the majority of the mass of a fern is sporophyte.1331

Just focusing on how the gametophyte forms here.1336

But, if we have nod find this profalli, you will not get new fern trees developing.1338

This was my little fiddlehead drawing here, showing how a new fern can develop.1344

One more thing, the prothallus fades away, it disintegrates once fertilization has been accomplished.1350

You could have at the base of a fern this a structure called a rhizome, developing.1358

The rhizome is supportive structure from which the fern grows out of it.1365

It is kind of like a structure that supports the roots, supports the shoots.1372

You can actually cut off part of the rhizome, remove it,1379

and you can have new fern structures growing from out of that part of this sporophyte tissue.1383

Ferns pretty incredible trees, a very ancient lineage of trees and it has been around since before dinosaurs.1389

Seed plants, the next two major divisions we are going to talk about,1399

they are seed bearing plants, and most vascular plant species do have seeds.1402

They definitely have their advantages, protective, otherwise.1409

Seeds are tiny sporophytes, little babies of a new plant, surrounded by a protective tissue.1412

It is kind of like a mobile room in a sense.1418

Cotyledon is a structure inside of seeds that is important to know about.1423

Cotyledons are seed structures that store food or help absorb food for the young plant.1426

With this term cotyledon, the root of that cot, ends up giving you these two.1431

These are lineages of flower bearing plants.1438

When look at division antophyta, the flower producing plants, there is the monocots and eudicots.1442

I want you to just keep in mind that, if you look at an older textbook,1450

eudicot is just called dicot but they added eu with a lot of modern terminologies.1454

Monocots, singular cot, one cotyledon in their seeds, and of course di meaning two cotyledons in their seeds.1461

The storing food part, you are going to see in the future lesson about plants.1469

the cotyledon in some plants actually will absorb what is called the endosperm,1475

the nourishing part for the little embryo is actually a part of the cotyledon.1481

Gymnosperm versus angiosperm what this has to do with is,1489

when you look at all of the seed bearing plants, gymnosperms this means naked seed.1492

Angiosperm means housed or covered seeds.1498

Gymnosperms, a classic example would be the cone producing plants.1504

Something like a pine tree, those seeds that they produce and1509

that are developing at the base of the scales of the pine cone, they are exposed to the air.1514

They are exposed to the outer environment, it is like they are naked.1519

They are not really covered or housed, and protected.1522

An angiosperm, they are fruit bearing plants.1526

The seeds end up typically inside of fruits.1529

The fruit has certain advantages, in terms of animals enjoying getting the nourishment.1532

In terms of the plant producing, that fruit structure is definitely helping to protect the seeds in the future generations of plants.1538

When you look at these seed plants, there are few divisions I want to highlight.1547

Psechidophyta, gingkophyta this one is really fascinating.1550

In this division, remember is kind of like saying a phylum which is very broad taxonomic category,1557

right below in kingdom, there is one species, the gingko biloba plant.1564

The weird thing about the gingko plant is morphologically and genetically,1569

it is so unique compared to these other modern trees that scientists are not sure where to group them.1575

It could be that they had a lot of relatives from millions of years ago but they are extinct.1581

There is just one species in division gingkophyta.1587

Coniferophyta, these are the conifers, cone bearing trees.1591

And then antophyta, these are the flower bearing plants, of course flowers here.1596

This right here, this little fuzzy like structure, it is actually a fruit.1601

You might not strike it as a fruit because it does not look appetizing.1606

But, these are seeds inside of here, this is a structure of the plants produced around the seeds as like a protective house for them.1610

Though we may not eat these, some animal may find them quite appetizing.1619

coniferophytes, the cone bearing plants, some conifer examples in the gymnosperm would be pines, cyprus, redwoods.1627

If you had a Christmas tree in the last time you celebrated Christmas, if you do celebrate Christmas, it was probably a conifer.1636

Many have needles, these very long, hard leaves covered in cutin.1643

Cutin is a hard coating around them that is protective.1650

It helps prevent water loss and will make it less likely for certain animals to want to eat those leaves.1654

That does not sound very appetizing.1662

In terms of the different kinds of conifers, some of them are evergreen which basically means always green.1664

They do not lose their leaves, they do not lose their needles, there is not a period like autumn associated with leaves falling off.1672

As long as they have enough moisture and nutrition, they will keep their leaves and retain them throughout their life.1682

Deciduous, a little bit different, deciduous trees they also exist with flowering plants.1686

They lose their leaves, typically in autumn or fall.1693

Those leaves will grow back in spring and they will retain them throughout summer.1698

gymnosperms meaning naked seed, of course, male and female cones typically exist on the same tree.1706

With most conifers, you will find these cones which of the male and these cones which are the female cones.1714

The male cones, sometimes they look kind of brownish or orange but there is different species.1726

These little cones, if you went up and felt them, a lot of them just disintegrate in your hand.1731

They are kind of sticky and dusty.1736

It is just a whole bunch of pollen grains inside of these male cones.1740

Female cones, typically larger and harder.1745

At the base of these scales, there are two ovules.1748

You can actually see them, right here and right here, two ovules that can produce eggs.1751

All it takes is a pollen grain getting into the base of the scale to fertilize the female cone,1759

and that can lead to a seed being produced.1764

In terms of economic importance, I mean with plants, in general, they are so much important,1767

in terms of supporting us and supporting life on earth.1771

But economic importance, lumber, the wood that is used to build houses, to build buildings,1774

they typically get them from conifers.1782

Lumber very important, the paper that you write on, typically taken from this kind of trees.1786

Resins, all kinds of resins used in making products, a lot of resin come from conifers.1791

You can also get resins from flower bearing plants, the anthopytes.1797

Syrup, something like maple syrup from a maple tree is quite tasty on some breakfast items.1801

for the conifer lifecycle, once again dominant sporophyte generation, mostly 2 N, mostly diploid.1811

Within the cones, you do have those haploid, the multi cellular structures that we call the gametophyte.1818

In cones male and female, they do contain the gametophyte.1824

Let us color code this, let us say once again.1828

Black is sporophyte and green is the gametophyte.1834

Here we go, when it comes to cones, they come from the sporophyte structure of a tree.1854

I am going to make this a very simple drawing, this is my quick and dirty sketch of a pine tree.1867

Gorgeous, it could have been better.1874

But here we go, there is a pine tree, on that pine tree, here is your female cone and you have your little male cones.1877

If we zoom into one of these scales, here is the super zoom in, each one of these scales has two ovules.1904

Each of those ovules, meiosis will happen within them to produce the little eggs.1929

Let us focus on one of these.1937

This is called, within the ovule, the megasporangium.1954

Conversely, with the male parts will be the microsporangium.1963

Remember, the female cone is much larger and the male cones ore tinier.1966

Mega meaning large and micro meaning small.1970

This megasporangium will go through meiosis.1972

Let us try to redraw this structure as part of the scale.1979

Here is meiosis and these are called megaspores.1986

The megaspores rise from meiosis from the megasporangium.2001

But guess what, three of those megaspores typically disintegrates, I’m going to across them out.2007

Then moving on a little bit further, let us just do the whole thing.2015

we are still retaining this structure that is black around it, but inside of it, you have your one megaspore.2026

Which we can say it is developed into something called the archegonium, that word has been used numerous times.2039

That is your haploid egg cell, I mean that is the one that is going to be fertilized by a pollen grain.2050

When we focus on the male cone, you can have this.2061

That is one of those little cones.2076

Inside of here, I am not going to draw all of them, there are all these tiny little microsporangia.2078

When we zoom into this even further, the microsporangium will undergo meiosis once again, to produce microspores.2085

Let us make note that this is, like I said here with megasporangium, this thing is called a microsporangium.2120

These individual microspores, each of these microspores is of course haploid.2136

Now, We are talking gametophyte, but they go through mitotic divisions to make a pollen grain.2153

A pollen grain ends up looking like this, if you really zoomed into it.2160

It almost looks like it has little wings on it.2164

Inside, you actually can have multiple nuclei.2166

Through these mitotic divisions, it will mature to the point that,2170

when it comes into contact with this egg that is a part of the archegonium, you have multiple nuclei.2186

One of them is called a tube nucleus, and in here is the sperm nucleus.2196

Now inside of that, this is a super zoom in, this is at the base of the ovule region,2209

you have something called the micropile.2218

The micropile is this region where you can have access to the egg when a pollen grain lands there.2220

All it takes is the wind blowing this pollen grain.2226

If it gets right here, they can actually let the sperm nucleus fuse with the egg nucleus.2229

From out of there, you can get fertilization, of course.2237

You will get your little embryo and this is actually your seed.2246

we are back into black now, sporophyte.2253

From out of there, fertilization, mitosis happens with that sporophyte to make the embryo.2255

You have this seed with oftentimes little wing on it.2262

Now, hopefully it lands somewhere where there is enough moisture, where there is enough good soil.2266

It will grow into a new pine tree or whatever conifer we are talking about here.2273

That is the conifer life cycle.2278

Antophytes, the flowering plants, antophytes include every plant that has flowers, there is a lot of them.2282

Very successful division from the plant kingdom.2288

It is the most widely distributed successful plant.2290

75%, approximately at the plant kingdom are actually angiosperms, these antophytes.2293

That is incredible, when you consider all the plants you have seen that do not have flowers,2300

there is so many more that do.2305

These angiosperms as with the conifers, you got the male and female parts.2308

But oftentimes, you have one flower that has male and female.2313

That is actually very common, there are some trees that have, this tree has the male flowers,2319

this tree has the female flowers, but most often they are together.2324

They have one home, and actually the term for that is a monoissues,2327

they have like one house for the male and female parts, as with this flower.2331

We will look at the flower parts in a moment and talk about, what is the male part and what is the female part.2336

Various life spans, in terms of how long it takes them to make a new generation.2342

With annual flowering plants, as the name says, their life is one year long.2346

With a lot of crops, the crops will last one year.2354

They make flowers, they get pollinated, make seeds which land to make new plants.2358

And in those plants that made those seeds die, one year lifespan.2364

Then the next generation does it for one year again.2369

Biannual, it takes two years, it is a 2 years span where it will take until the second year for them2373

to actually produce flowers that get pollinated.2384

And then, once that pollination happens, or even if it does not happen, their life is over.2387

And then perennials, I want to put a question mark because it means year after year, they can make flowers, they can make seeds.2392

Their life will last as long as they have enough nourishment,2403

as long as they have enough water and CO₂, and the conditions are right.2407

The temperature is right, they do not get a virus, they do not get a fungus, they do not got eaten, etc.2409

Perennials, look at the tallest trees you have seen, those are perennials.2414

They keep growing, year after year they can make flowers.2419

Alright, flower anatomy, for the female part of flower we will use purple, this is the female parts.2426

And then, let us use color green for the male.2442

Let us start with the female, ladies first.2455

I am giving you a classic version of the flowering plant.2462

When you look at flowering plants, sometimes what you are going to see here is actually very different.2466

This first structure I drew, that is oftentimes in the center of the flower, it is a pistil or carpel.2471

Some flowers can have many pistils, not just one.2476

In this case, I am just drawing one.2479

The whole thing is a pistil, and some books will actually call it carpel but pistil is most commonly used.2484

How do you remember that the pistil is the female part,2499

it is kind of silly for me to say this but this is how I remember it, when I have learned this.2504

I just picture a female spy with the gun like a pistol, and I know that that term pistol will be spelled differently.2507

instead of James Bond, maybe it is Jamie bond, and it helps me remember it.2514

The whole thing is a pistil, the top part where pollen grains hopefully will land is called the stigma.2519

I remember that, because that top part of the pistil where you want pollen to land,2526

and then start the pollinating process, it is sticky.2531

I think sticky stigma, they kind of start with that same sound.2535

The middle here is known as a style, this is the female part, ladies got style.2540

The style is that middle region, the pollen tube which you going to hear more about on the next slide, grows down in this region.2546

And then, at the bottom is the ovary which would contain ovules, the eggs are definitely down there.2554

here are the female parts, the male parts now.2564

I am going to draw 4 of them but depending on the plant, I mean,2568

if it is a monocot you would typically have multiples of 3 of these, with dicots you would see a multiples of 4 or 5.2573

I guess here I’m drawing a eudicot or dicot right now.2582

Here is the male portion, the entire thing is called a stamen.2585

The way that I remember it is, the word men, it is the male part of a flower, men is in there.2595

That whole thing is a stamen, I will just draw 4 stamens.2600

The top part, the pollen containing producing part is known as an anther.2604

And like I said before, that term antheridium, which means that is the part of the plant2609

that is producing the male gametes, there it is, the anther.2614

That part that is long and skinny is called a filament, and that is what a filament is.2620

filamentous is long and very thin.2624

Those are the male terms.2627

Beyond that, you have other structures that are not male or female, they are just supportive and they serve a purpose.2631

Those of course, I just drew petals, petal not pedal that would be a pedal like on a bike or car.2645

Petals, I drew 4, like I said if this is eudicot plant, you will typically see multiples of 4 and that includes the petals.2656

What else? There is the flower stem that leads to it growing.2665

These structures here, they kind of look like flower leaves in a sense, each one is called a sepal.2671

The sepals, those cover the flower bud, when it is not open, in a protective way.2677

Those are the sepals and those are the parts of a flower.2684

Flowering plant life cycle, like I said before, the only one of the divisions that is dominant gametophyte was the mosses.2689

We have dominant sporophyte generation, most of the flowering plant, a tree that has flowers, is going to be diploid.2697

Within the flowers, you have the gametophyte growing, male and female.2704

We got a flower, very quick drawing.2711

Within a flower, you are going to have two different sections, you have the male and the female parts.2723

Here we go, let us zoom into to the male anther.2728

Like before, black would mean sporophyte, I am just going to write sporo.2737

Green would mean gametophyte, just write gameto.2744

Within the anther, when we talk with the filament and the anther itself, it is sporophyte,2752

but meiosis happens within the anther to make a pollen.2758

If we zoom into these little units, there are these regions which inside of them, look at that, it is green inside.2763

You have meiosis happening within there to make what are called microspores.2789

Meiosis happens to make that gametophyte generation.2799

These microspores, if we zoom inside of one of them,2803

the microspore produces a pollen grain that actually ends up being multicellular.2811

That is the whole point of this alteration generation things, it is the arising of that multicellular tissue from a single haploid.2818

Here is a single pollen grain, inside of the pollen grain, there are two nuclei.2824

One of them is called a tube nucleus and one of them is called a generative.2837

Generative nucleus, it is called generative because it is going to generate multiple nuclei upon the instance of pollination.2850

This pollen grain, hopefully have access to the stigma and make fertilization happen.2858

If we focus now on what is going on in this little region, the pistil, if we zoom in to here, here is what is going on.2866

You have the ovule, inside of here you have like from that other slide, similar terminology,2887

the megaspores arising from meiosis.2917

Meiosis happens here within the ovule to make these megaspores.2928

Like I have suggested before with the conifers, typically a bunch of the megaspore, 3 of them will disintegrate.2932

The one megaspore will actually develop into this more complex structure, that is the egg that can be fertilized.2938

I am going to cross off these megaspores here.2947

If we continue this, this egg is housed within the part of the ovule.2952

You will have multiple nuclei forming.2967

You have just a bunch of mitotic divisions that happened within that one megaspore to make an egg,2971

that is really filled with numerous nuclei.2977

There is your egg cell and this forms from multiple divisions.2982

In this region here, it is called the micropile.2998

I use that term with the cone bearing plant earlier.3000

The micropile is, you need to have access of that pollen nucleus to get into that region.3004

You have one large egg cell with 8 nuclei.3012

What happens is, when this pollen grain lands here so that little male lands here,3015

you will get development of a pollen tube.3025

That pollen tube grows down the style.3028

Once again, it is like a chemotaxis, that is one of the theories of how this occurs, and depending on the plant.3033

If the wrong kind of pollen grain, let us say for another species that is not compatible,3040

lands in the stigma, it would not allow the pollen to actually develop.3043

In some plans, the pollen tube got as long as 50 cm like in corn.3049

This grows all the way down here until it gets to this region.3055

We have the egg with these nuclei, and you have a pollen tube that allowed the pollen gain access to it.3062

Remember, the pollen tube is haploid, it came from this pollen grain, this egg, haploid cells, multi nuclei.3078

And then, you get fertilization but it is actually called double fertilization.3089

What happens here is, you get N + N that is the egg cell that is meant to be fertilized.3098

The gender of that nucleus actually gives rise to two different nuclei.3109

One of them ends up being the true sperm.3113

N + N mean 2N, and you get the zygote which eventually become embryo.3118

That generative nucleus also produces another nucleus that fertilizes with polar nuclei here.3128

The term double fertilization is referring to the fact that other than this fertilization to which we expected.3135

The double fertilization also leads to N + N + N to equal 3 N, and you have a triploid endosperm.3144

This is thanks to that generative nucleus forming this sperm nucleus.3161

This nucleus that is going to fuse with other polar nuclei within this egg, to produce the 3 N endosperm.3170

Now that we have our zygote, please keep in mind that even though I wrote this in black,3179

I am not saying that these N cells are actually sporophyte.3185

I’m just making a note that this is part of the process of making that sporophyte.3189

Here is a seed that is developing from this here, here is your little embryo located here, this is all sporophyte.3194

But in addition to that, you have the structure called the endosperm which is nourishing.3205

That typically is triploid, and there is a seed code on the outside.3211

You will have that contained within a fruit, typically.3217

The fruit develops from the wall of the ovary, there is the devoiding of sugar and citric acid, and other things,3221

to develop that fruit that is going to house this seed that develops at the base of the flower.3228

There you go, that is the flowering plant lifecycle, like the previous slide with mosses, ferns, conifers,3235

we see the alteration and generations here happening.3242

Sporophyte making gametophyte, back to sporophyte, and so on.3246

But the unique thing here was definitely double fertilization,3250

that is something that is a classic important piece to angiosperm reproduction.3254

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.3260

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