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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Ecology, Part II

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
II. Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
1:00:00
How They Move
1:00:35
Flagellum
1:02:42
Flagella
1:02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
1:02:59
How They Move
1:03:27
Cell Wall
1:05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
1:05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
1:05:52
In Plants
1:07:19
In Bacteria
1:07:25
In Fungi
1:07:41
Cytoplasm
1:08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
1:08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
1:08:47
Cytosol
1:09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
1:09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
1:00:00
Meiosis II
1:01:04
Prophase II
1:01:08
Metaphase II
1:01:32
Anaphase II
1:02:08
Telophase II
1:02:43
Meiosis Overview
1:03:39
Products of Meiosis
1:06:00
Gametes
1:06:10
Sperm and Egg
1:06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
1:06:27
III. From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
1:00:00
Autosomal Dominant
1:06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
1:09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
1:13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
IV. History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
1:02:13
More on Sexual Selection
1:03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
1:03:26
Examples
1:04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
1:09:41
Phenotype
1:10:01
Only Heritable Traits
1:11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
1:12:00
Temporal Isolation
1:12:59
Behavioral Isolation
1:14:17
Mechanical Isolation
1:15:13
Gametic Isolation
1:16:21
Geographic Isolation
1:16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
1:18:37
Hybrid Sterility
1:18:57
Hybrid Inviability
1:20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
1:20:31
Speciation
1:21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
1:21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
1:21:19
Adaptive Radiation
1:24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
1:24:28
Changes in Appearance
1:24:56
Examples
1:24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
1:27:35
Five Conditions
1:28:15
Equations
1:33:55
Microevolution
1:36:59
Natural Selection
1:37:11
Genetic Drift
1:37:34
Gene Flow
1:40:54
Nonrandom Mating
1:41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
1:41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
1:41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
1:43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
1:46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
V. Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
VI. Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
1:02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
1:03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
VII. Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
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Ecology, Part II

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Mimicry 0:05
    • Batesian Mimicry
    • Müllerian Mimicry
  • Camouflage 3:23
    • Blend In with Surroundings
    • Evade Detection by Predators
  • Succession 5:22
    • Primary Succession
    • Secondary Succession
  • Biomes 9:31
    • Terrestrial
    • Aquatic / Marine
  • Desert 11:20
    • Annual Rainfall
    • Flora
    • Fauna
  • Tundra 14:49
    • Annual Rainfall
    • Permafrost
    • Flora
    • Fauna
  • Taiga (Boreal Forest) 16:59
    • Annual Rainfall
    • Largest Terrestrial Biome
    • Flora
    • Fauna
  • Temperate Grassland 19:07
    • Annual Rainfall
    • Flora
    • Fauna
  • Tropical Grassland (Savanna) 20:41
    • Annual Rainfall
    • Flora
    • Fauna
  • Temperate Deciduous Forest 22:19
    • Annual Rainfall
    • Flora
    • Fauna
  • Tropical Rain Forest 24:11
    • Annual Rainfall
    • Flora
    • Fauna
  • Lakes 28:05
    • Eutrophic
    • Oligotrophic
    • Zones
  • Estuaries 32:56
    • Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
    • Mangrove Swamps
    • Nutrient Traps
    • Organisms
  • Marine 34:50
    • Euphotic Zone
    • Pelagic Zone
    • Abyssal Plain
  • Conservation Summary 40:03
    • Biodiversity
    • Habitat Loss
    • Pollution
  • Climate Change 47:03
    • Global Warming
    • Greenhouse Gases
    • Polar Ice Caps
    • Weather Patterns

Transcription: Ecology, Part II

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the lesson on ecology, part 2.0000

Another interesting thing you see in ecology is how organisms are able to mimic or look like something else.0007

It is thanks to evolution over time, thanks to particular mutations that worked out for them0014

and are able to pass on to their offspring.0021

If you can look like something that is dangerous but you are not actually dangerous, that is a plus.0023

You are probably not going to be eaten as much.0029

Some animals have developed mutations over millions of years, that allow them to look like other harmful animals.0031

Like Batesian mimicry, this is when a harmless species looks like another species that actually is harmful or toxic.0036

Named after a scientist with the name of Bates.0046

Batesian mimicry, a great example is with the hawk moth larva.0049

These larvae are going to become the hawk moth, when they go to their metamorphosis.0054

They look kind of like a little snake, if you look carefully, it looks like it has little eyes.0061

There are other pictures where depending on the angle they take the photograph,0067

it is remarkable how much it looks like a snake head.0071

There will be birds that normally would eat this larvae, they love to eat these caterpillars,0074

but they think it is a snake, they stay away from it.0080

Way back when, who knows when, one of these larvae was born with this mutation.0084

Since it did not get eaten, it got passed on.0090

Now, it is something that you see throughout the species.0095

It is spread to the point where the hawk moth larvae look pretty intimidating.0097

That is Batesian mimicry, when one that is harmless looks like one that is harmful.0103

That is a success story for the harmless one.0108

Then you have Mullerian mimicry, which is when both species are harmful and they look like each other.0113

They might have different levels of toxicity or how harmful they are, but it turns out that they developed a similar look.0122

I want to just emphasize this that, if you look in most textbooks and a lot of websites,0131

the viceroy butterfly and the monarch butterfly usually you are going to see them described as Batesian.0137

For years, I taught it as Batesian because the thought was that, the viceroy was not toxic0143

meaning it is palatable and the monarch is toxic.0151

You will say that the viceroy, since it looks like the monarch,0156

the animals that have learned to not eat the monarch butterfly, they avoided the viceroy.0160

Research has shown in recent years, that the viceroy actually has a level of toxicity.0166

It is toxic, that actually it is better to call it Mullerian mimicry.0175

They do have slightly different patterns, if you look carefully, you can see that the monarch has this going on,0182

this little black line here that you do not see here.0189

There is a slight difference in the oranges, but nonetheless,0192

they look very same to each other and they both happen to be harmful.0196

That is Mullerian mimicry.0201

Related to mimicry is camouflage.0205

A mimic is where one organism appears like another living organism.0208

Camouflage is where the animal can blend into its background, to whatever its habitat is.0212

Many species have gradually evolved the ability to blend in with their surroundings.0219

This helps them evade detection by predators.0224

This particular bug here, you can see it looks almost like dead leaves.0227

There are other pictures where it would blend way more to its environment.0233

But if it is staying still, a lot of animals that do not see the same colors that you and I do,0237

would mistake this for being plant material.0243

If you are looking for an insect to eat, they are not going to see it.0246

The stick bug, amazingly, when it stays still, can blend into a tree quite easily.0249

You have to look carefully for this one, this is a fish, it is a flounder that is blending into these little pebbles.0258

Its coloration on the scales has maximized the ability for it to blend into the environment.0265

Not only are predators are not going to be able to see it as much but whatever this eats,0274

they may not see the flounder either.0280

This is the most amazing that I have seen, there is actually a reptile here, a kind of gecko that is blending into this log.0282

It is really tough to see, there is the head and here is the body.0291

You have to look carefully but it is grasping onto this log.0303

There is its eyes and that is a gecko, it is really tough to see but an amazing case of camouflage,0310

where this has a coloration pattern that looks so much like a log.0317

Succession is about, if you have an environment with no plants,0323

what are the steps you get to having like a full-on forest, a full-on dense population of plants or dense community of plants?0329

There are two types, primary succession is primary because it is the first time that you have had plants colonizing it.0339

Primary succession, you have to start out with this right here.0349

Number one is bare rock. Usually, if this were to occur today, it would be lava rock.0353

If you have volcanic activity in the ocean, you have enough lava that ends up coming through to the surface.0365

You can have a small island developing.0373

Once that lava cools, it is new earth, in a sense.0375

Yes, it starts out very hard and it starts out to the point where you cannot have roots digging into because it is so dense and so hard.0380

Over time, you can get tiny little plant life settling in there.0389

You are probably going to start out with stuff like algae, lichens, things that do not have deeper roots0394

and do not depend on rooting themselves to get that height.0401

You will start out there and you will have that for years.0404

You will have those very tiny little plants.0407

Eventually, you will get to the point where you have some very tiny little grasses growing after that point.0411

It has to do with that lava rock or the hard rock getting to the point0419

where it is broken down a bit to get more like soil that we are used to seeing.0424

Eventually, grasses can lead do having these low level bushes.0428

Eventually, these little bushes is going to become larger shrubs.0433

Shrubs one day can lead to tress getting in there.0437

Over time, more and more trees, they get larger and larger.0441

It is this gradual succession, accumulation of plant life to the point where the soils are getting softer and softer,0446

and able to be colonized by these larger plants.0455

It is how you get from bare rock to a forest.0459

The other kind is secondary succession.0464

It is when you have a natural disaster of some kind that has decimated the plant life.0467

There are already lots of plant species there, a fire, something of that nature,0476

unintended something of that nature, is destroying everything.0483

Here we have a lovely forest in picture 1, the sun is shining, life is good.0486

And then there is a spark, it could be lightning, it can be manmade.0494

The fire destroys everything, no more plant life.0500

Since, you already had an established soil there, the times it takes to get to level 8 compared to primary succession is way less0508

because you do not have to break down that rock over time and soften the soil to get those larger plants.0517

The amount of time it takes to get from these little grasses and shrubs and tiny trees, up to point where we have big trees is less.0523

Something else to keep in mind is once you get to level 8, this last level, whichever succession it is,0532

you are probably going to have less amount, in terms of the numbers of these low level plants.0538

You can see that actually in this illustration, they get crowded out.0546

The more large trees you have with big canopies, the more that sunlight will get blocked out from these little plants down below.0551

That tends to be the trend with forests that have been around for a long time.0560

You do not have as many grasses and shrubs at the lower levels.0566

Now onto biomes, biomes are these different types of ecosystems on earth.0572

They vary according to temperature, altitude, rainfall, and the flora and fauna.0578

By the way, flora is the plant life and fauna is the animals.0584

I’m going to use these terms flora and fauna for the rest of this lesson.0600

You are going to have terrestrial biomes, the different types of ecosystems on land.0606

Also in the water, you are going to have different kinds of life in lakes and in the oceans.0611

These water based ecosystems, they have quite a variety too.0620

If you look at this map, you got a pretty cool illustration of the major kinds of terrestrial biomes.0624

It is tough to read some of these but some examples.0629

Tundra, it is up at the top here, very high latitude, it is very cold.0633

The other extreme would be, when you look at the rain forest or tropical rain forest is this dark green.0640

You tend to see that along the equator.0646

In between, lots of differences, it has to do with the latitude, it has to do with how high it is.0650

For instance, look what you see here, you have the Himalayan mountains here, huge mountain range, very high up because it is so high up, it is very cold.0659

The atmosphere pressure is different, it does not support a lot of life in this mountain range.0668

Altitude has an impact in addition to the latitude, the rainfall, and the temperature.0674

The first terrestrial biome we will talk about is the desert.0681

Annual rainfall, pretty low, lowest rainfall of the major terrestrial biomes, less than 25 cm of rain annually.0684

It certainly depends on the desert, there are parts of the Sahara that get hardly anything.0694

These are color coded here according to how intense the desert is.0701

You do have pockets where it is just incredibly dry and really no life is being supported.0707

There are areas like in the American Southwest where there is quite a bit of life in the deserts0715

because the temperature is extreme, is not always so bad.0720

It does get incredibly hot but there is enough rainfall to support the life.0726

The temperature range speaking of extremes is 7° C tolerable up to 40° C, or maybe 100 ℉, extremely hot.0731

The desert you will usually find around 30° latitude north or south.0745

Equator is right around here and that is 0° latitude.0752

30° is right about here, look at what we got, we got a lot of desert surrounding that area.0764

Down here at about 30°, look at what we got.0772

That is an interesting trend when you look at the latitude lines, north and south,0780

how you tend to get deserts in those areas.0785

One of the reasons why deserts have such a low amount of water annually is not just the lack of rainfall,0787

it is also the lack of the cloud cover in terms of like keeping it cooler.0795

A lot of times there is hardly any clouds at all, it heats up the area quite a bit.0801

The dry winds are blowing away a lot of the moisture that settles in other biomes.0807

When we look at the different kinds of plants, it is not the case where like deserts are lifeless.0815

Typically, you are going to see cacti, cactus has a thick cuticle, it is able to retain water and0820

they can deal with lack of rainfall for long periods of time.0826

Non succulent shrubs, they are not succulent plants which tend to be very full of moisture.0830

These are shrubs that can deal with the dryness and sagebrush among others.0839

You will see things like Joshua trees in the American Southwest as well, it really depends on the desert you are in.0845

Fauna, the different animals and I’m not going to list all of them but these are some major players.0855

Lots of insect, species, lizards, snakes, running birds like the roadrunner, rodents.0860

I have actually seen kangaroo rats in the wild, I did a study in college where we trap them,0867

in a way that was not harmful to the kangaroo rats.0874

Tagged them and studied the populations of kangaroo rats, they are adorable.0877

Foxes and hawks, you are going to have those top consumers, those tertiary level consumers.0882

That is the desert. Next up is the tundra.0888

Tundra, very harsh environment and you can see that it is concentrated up at the highest latitudes here in the northern hemisphere.0892

Annual rainfall from 20 to 30 cm, temperature range -50° C to a tolerable 12, in the summer months.0900

I put an exclamation point because -50 are you kidding me, it is harsh.0911

It covers approximately 20% of the land mass in the terrestrial sense.0916

You can see that is found at high latitudes and also high altitude.0922

There will be pockets in mountain ranges that really are very much like the tundra at low altitudes.0927

Because it is so high up that you get this freezing soil portions and not a lot of trees and the harsh temperatures.0937

Speaking of the frozen soil, this term permafrost, it is like basically saying it is always super duper cold.0948

Just below the top layer of soil where you have the plant life with its little roots there, beneath that it is always frozen.0958

You are not going to get trees.0967

The fact that there is this permafrost layer that is impenetrable, does not support roots digging into it,0969

you are not going to see pine trees and large trees.0976

When you look out at the tundra terrain, you are going to see a low lying plant life like mosses0979

which is the most low lying plant you get in kingdom plantae.0987

Lichens which is that combination of the fungus with algae, grasses and low lying bushes.0991

The fauna, the kinds of animals you tend to see, insects, birds, and small and large mammals.1000

It really depends on the specific area. You will see polar bears, you will see foxes occasionally.1006

It really depends on the specific tundra region.1016

The taiga, also known as the boreal forest, also called the alpine forest, also called the coniferous forest.1021

It tends to have conifers, those cone bearing trees.1030

The annual rainfall 30-85 cm, more rainfall than you see in the tundra, than you will see in a desert.1035

The temperature range is not quite as harsh as the tundra and not quite as harsh as the desert, about 10° below 0-20° C.1043

It is the largest terrestrial biome.1052

You can see it covers quite a bit of area in the northern parts of the Americas and the northern parts of Europe and Asia.1056

It is only in the northern hemisphere, interestingly enough.1064

Here is why, if we once again draw a line where the equator is,1068

you can see that the majority of the landmass by far is in the northern hemisphere.1077

There is a lot less in the southern hemisphere.1082

That is another thing that is preventing an extensive taiga from developing down here.1084

Also, it has to do with altitude differences, rainfall differences, and temperature differences down here.1090

The conditions are right up at the northern north hemisphere for the taiga.1098

You can see that it is basically just south in latitude from the tundra.1105

You are going to a point where the soil is not as frozen and you have support of trees.1110

For instance, the flora you see is conifers like pine trees and the like, mosses and lichens.1118

Extensive forests, it is breathtaking going up to the taiga.1124

Fauna, small rodents, lynxes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and large mammals like moose, bears, and such.1129

Quite a bit of life that is dependent on the taiga.1143

Temperate grasslands, the term temperate refers to the fact that you would see some seasonal changes here.1148

You can see what the range of temperatures, in the winter’s -5 it does get quite cold,1155

up to room temperature during the summer, that 20°C is quite comfortable.1161

The annual rainfall is more than 25 cm annually but not enough to support trees.1167

Trees depend on a lot of rain to support themselves, their large mass.1176

If you had more rain, we would see those trees but that is what makes it a grassland is you do not see a lot of trees.1183

If there were a lot more trees, it would be a kind of forest.1190

You are going to see very cold winters, when it is that -5 and hot dry summers.1194

You are going to tend to see rainfall not during those summer months.1199

The ability to get by in those hot dry summers until the rainfall comes back in is very important for these organisms.1204

The flora tends to be grasses, short grasses, tall grasses.1213

The fauna, bison or buffalo, you would see those along the great plains in America.1219

Antelope, mice, rabbits, hawks, snakes, batters, coyotes, foxes.1227

You can see in the grasslands, quite extensive in numerous continents.1235

Tropical grasslands tend to be closer to the equator, tend to be around the tropics, also known as a savanna.1243

You can see the one continent that has just extensive Savanna is Africa.1251

That is kind of peoples classic depiction of what this looks like.1256

Annual rainfall, pretty significant 30-150 cm per year.1261

Temperature range, it stays warm year around because you are near the equator 27-30° C.1266

Extensive deep roots in plants, you do have some trees like acacia trees.1273

Part of that is more rainfall than a temperate grassland will tend to get.1279

Not as many trees as a forest, of course.1286

This particular terrain, this particular biome, has the greatest variety of large herbivores of any of the terrestrial biomes.1289

When you consider herbivores are depending on grasses for food, it makes sense.1298

If you got a tropical area where the temperature is pretty stable around, you got a lot of grasses,1304

it makes sense that you have a lot of these big animals depending on a lot of grass to sustain themselves.1310

Flora is mostly grasses.1317

Fauna, here you have the big ones, elephants, giraffes, antelopes, zebras, termites.1319

You are going to see huge termite and ant mounds in parts of the savanna.1325

Lions, hyenas, leopards, you are going to have the animals that are eating the herbivores.1331

Temperate deciduous forest, deciduous forest means it is not evergreen.1341

You will see that term evergreen come up a little later in this lesson.1347

Deciduous means that the leaves do not last year around.1350

The leaves tend to fall off during autumn or the fall.1354

Winter, leafless trees usually and then in the spring that comes back.1358

You see seasonal changes in these temperate deciduous forests.1363

I gave you another busy diagram just to bring us back to the fact that, there is so much variety on planet earth and in these terrestrial biomes.1367

If you are wondering what color is the temperate deciduous forest, this light green is the temperate deciduous forest.1376

Really extensive in parts of the Americas, Europe, and Asia,1383

you can see these temperate deciduous forests in these regions.1388

Rainfall is significant amount to support trees.1391

Temperature range because of that seasonal changed, -30°C up to 30°C on the positive end.1395

Found south of the taiga, that dark green is the taiga.1405

Found south of that is usually and slightly lower latitudes in North America, Europe, and Asia.1409

You can see that here, that dark green is right above and that is slightly higher latitude.1415

Like I mentioned earlier, the trees loses their leaves in autumn or the fall, and they come back in spring.1421

Flora, deciduous trees, these are the trees that lose their leaves, shrubs, mosses, and ferns.1425

Fauna, some tree dwellers like squirrels, rabbits, beavers depending on trees for making their dam,1430

insects, numerous birds, amphibians and frogs.1443

Quite a lot of biodiversities in the temperate deciduous forests.1447

The tropical rainforests, everybody's favorite.1452

The annual rainfall, more than 190 cm annually.1456

On an average day, it is raining.1464

It is raining year around, there are can be days without rain but typically it is raining.1466

Temperature range pretty stable because we are looking at areas that are right around the equator, 20-25° C.1475

By the way, if you are wondering what about up here, what is this, this is not really tropical.1482

Some of these areas are actually temperate rainforests.1489

The temperate rainforest has quite a bit of rainfall but the temperature is a bit different1499

because since it is not at the equator, it is not tropical.1508

You are not seeing that stable temperature range and that heat exposure year round,1512

but quite a lot of dense vegetation and rainfall year round in some of these temperate rainforests.1517

When we look at the tropical rainforest, it has the most biodiversity.1524

Scientists estimated that 50% of the earth species, of all species are in the rainforests.1529

There are so many species undiscovered in the rainforest and in the oceans.1534

But of all the terrestrial biomes, there is so much dense vegetation and areas1540

cut off from the ability of scientist to get in there and really identify species.1547

There are so many, probably millions of species undiscovered in the rainforests.1552

Because of that stable temperature, that rainfall year round supports a lot of life.1557

When we look at the levels of the rainforests, there is a forest floor where you get life crawling around,1564

a lot of decomposition on the forest floor.1571

You have a lot of decomposers, fungi, insects, and such, other animals walking around.1573

The ground story is the largest, in terms of like volume of this area.1579

The other story is, once you get up in the trees above the forest floor but not quite to the top of the trees, that is another story.1585

You are going to see all kinds of animals crawling around the trees, frogs, reptiles, monkeys, and insects.1593

And then, when we finally get to the canopy, the canopy is like a living roof.1600

It is going to be very bright up there because you are at the top of the trees.1612

The under story depending on how dense the vegetation is, it can be a little bit darker.1616

The canopy, you are up at the photosynthesis zone.1620

You have a lot of organisms depending on fruits and leaves up there.1625

There is quite a lot of activity at the top of the rain forests.1630

When we look at the flora, evergreen trees meaning they always have their leaves as long as they are alive, evergreen.1634

Eventually they die and they decompose.1642

Epiphytes, these are the plants that end up wrapping around trees and being assisted with their growth,1645

in terms of being able to get up to the sunlight.1653

Epiphytes, they take advantage of the branches and trunks of other trees.1655

Ferns, a very ancient plant form, very plentiful, seedless tree.1660

Fauna, we got numerous insects, birds, frogs, reptiles, mammals, so many to name, so many species.1669

Just to do an internet search of rainforest species, you are going to spend hours.1680

Now, on to the aquatic biomes, when we look at lakes, usually lakes are freshwater.1687

There are saltwater lakes but the majority are freshwater.1692

We can classify lakes by their nutrient status.1695

There are eutrophic lakes and oligotrophic lakes.1698

Eutrophic lakes, nutrient rich, quite an abundance of nutrients available, you are going to see a lot of life in those lakes.1701

You can also have lakes that are oligotrophic, those are nutrient poor.1709

They can become eutrophic through the process of eutrophication.1714

There are various ways that you can get nutrients back into the lake.1719

Sometimes, human intervention can help adjusting species,1723

in terms of like how many particular kind of organism are in the lake can adjust it.1728

What I mean is, sometimes you will get certain organisms having a bloom, they get out of control.1733

Maybe a keystone species, like I have mentioned before in the previous ecology lesson.1742

A keystone species can actually be removed and something it was feeding on gets out of control,1747

in terms of its population density or population numbers.1753

And then, they end up consuming too many nutrients and that can make it where the food web in the lake gets completely altered.1758

The lake can become nutrient poor in the long run.1767

Those are the two kinds of lakes based on the nutrient levels.1770

When we look at the levels of the lake from the top, the surface of the lake, down to the bottom.1774

Let me do this for you, I’m going to do the water in blue, we will do the soil in black.1781

Up here you have got, here is a person, standing up there, and the lake is here.1795

The littoral zone, we will do that in red.1811

Littoral zone tends to be here, right around there, closest to shore.1816

In the littoral zone, you have got rooted plants there hanging out in the water.1823

Clinging organisms to that plant life, protozoans a kind of a protist, invertebrates crawling around there,1828

and fish that can sometimes eat those invertebrates or eat of the plant life in that area.1837

Just below that, the limnetic zone, we will do that in green.1843

This whole area here, this is full of light, it is well lit, that is an exclamation point.1852

This is all well lit and let us say this is a very deep lake.1866

The effectiveness of the light getting really deep, it only can travel so far,1871

in terms of it hitting the bottom is not quite as much light hitting the bottom.1877

But up here, a lot of photosynthesis going on.1882

You are going to have a lot of algae, fish, phytoplankton, and zooplankton.1885

That is the well lit limnetic zone, below that, let us do this in purple, the profundle zone.1892

It is lower, less light, here you going to have a lot of crayfish and mollusks hanging out.1901

Relatives of lobsters and crustaceans like that, mollusks like clams, snails, things like that.1916

You can say that there are some fish down there as well, but it is lower than that well lit limnetic zone.1927

Below that, you are going to have, let us do it in yellow, the benthic zone.1933

Down here, this is the lake bottom, that is the benthic zone and here is a little snap shot of what you can see there.1944

Worms, decomposers, and shrimps, you can have mollusks as well.1953

You will see a few worms and other things eating the bits of dead bodies down there, mostly.1960

Decomposers, that can help recycle nutrients in this particular ecosystem.1967

Estuaries are areas where freshwater and saltwater meet.1978

Typically, it is because a river is coming in contact with the oceans.1982

You get this interesting mix of saltwater and freshwater, and very interesting organisms there.1986

They are also called mangrove swamps, marshes, mud flats, it depends on where you are, they have different names.1992

Organisms in these areas need to be able to deal with varying salinity levels.1998

Because depending on the specific area, depending on how close you get to the ocean water,2005

how far up you get to where it is more fresh water, you are going to have varying amounts of salt.2010

Depending on how much river water is rushing down, depending on the tide of the ocean,2017

it is going to be altered throughout the day with slightly different salinities.2024

Being able to deal with those changes is very important here.2029

Usually, estuaries can be nutrient traps because the ocean running into it,2033

the nutrients that are flowing down from the mountains to the river,2040

they do not all empty into the ocean consistently or effectively.2043

A lot of times you will get nutrients hanging out in these areas and gradually ending up in the ocean.2050

You get nutrient traps and that can be very good for the organisms in this estuary region.2058

Organisms can include phytoplankton, little tiny organisms, plants, fish.2064

A lot of fish spawn in these areas, salmon, we will find in the river that they will spawn in and swim upstream.2069

Oftentimes, through the estuary and up to where it is pure freshwater.2075

Salmon have to deal with that varying salinity because they are going through this area back upstream, and shellfish too.2081

Marine, onto the oceans, when we look at the oceans in terms of the zones, from top to bottom, there are three major zones.2094

The euphotic, I will do that in green, corresponding to algae.2104

The pelagic and the dark abyss, I will do that in black.2109

The euphotic zone, 'eu' meaning trophotic light, it is well lit.2116

The largest concentration of organisms is up there.2122

It makes sense, you got a lot of algae, you got little organisms feeding off the algae, organisms feeding off of that, and so on.2124

A great example of what you would see in euphotic region where it is well lit, is coral reefs.2132

Keep in mind that, when you are away from shallow areas, when you get to the parts of the ocean2138

that could get really deep, you are going to have euphotic zones without coral reefs.2144

Coral reefs need to be anchored to the level of the sea floor that was beneath it.2149

You will have areas like in the middle of Pacific or middle of the Atlantic,2157

where euphotic zone is just water, and you will have a lot of organisms there as well.2159

When we look at coral reefs, it is undeniable how much biodiversity you have.2164

This tends to be shallow, warm tropical waters, where you see this.2168

The major organism there is coral, as you see in this picture here are little cnidarians, relatives of sea jellies or jellyfish,2174

little relatives of sea anemones that are like a large apartment complex of cnidarians.2180

They also have zooxanthellae associated with them, with this mutual relationship.2191

This is a kind of algae that helps sustain coral and it is the photosynthesis that makes it have to be in shallow areas.2196

The zooxanthellae are able to do photosynthesis, have oxygen as a waste product that helps out the cnidarians.2206

I have read that zooxanthellae can also help with the toxin levels that sometimes end up in these cnidarians.2214

Sponges, you are going to see those throughout coral reefs, crabs, sea urchins, sea stars, and more, lots of fish too.2223

The pelagic zone, most of oceans volume.2232

If up here you have got the euphotic zone, the pelagic zone is just a lot of area.2235

We can break down the pelagic zone into a few sub zones.2242

The epipelagic, lots of light because it is right below the euphotic but less nutrients than the euphotic zone.2248

Sharks are going to be found there, dolphins, sea turtles.2256

Of course, you will have dolphins and some of these going up into the euphotic.2259

They hang out in the epipelagic quite a bit.2265

The mesopelagic, less light than the epi, you will see shrimp, squid, other fish.2268

Beneath that, you do not have light.2275

We are talking pretty deep here, bathypelagic, you are going to see particular carnivores and scavengers down there.2278

The lower you get, the creepier it gets.2289

By that, I mean the abyssal plain, the abyss, the deepest parts.2293

We are talking bottom of the ocean where it is like over 1000 ft deep, it is insane.2299

In the bottom of the ocean, you have intense pressure because of so much water up above you, and extreme cold temperature.2307

There is never any light at all, the only light down there would be the occasional bioluminescence.2315

Bioluminescence meaning that, you do have some organisms with little bits of bacteria2325

that they harbor in their body that will make light displays.2335

Sometimes to scare off predators or to attract mates, or to attract prey.2340

But other than the bioluminescence which is not actual sunlight, you do not have light there.2346

One example is, this is actually a drawing, you can find photographs too, this is the vampire squid.2352

Its genus name is vampyroteuthis.2360

Really crazy organism that actually does this bioluminescence in these little areas at the edge of its tentacles,2363

it has these glowing pockets.2372

It is just really weird creepy looking squid and it is definitely a predator.2375

You can find that in the deepest parts of the ocean.2382

Also, there are just crazy freakish looking fish that look like they are sci-fi, it just looks make believe.2385

But they exist, and some of them have never seen light and will never see light in the abyss.2396

A little consummation summary for you, this is a good way to end biology as a subject because the earth is our home,2404

the earth is precious and without it, life as we know would not exist.2414

We need to do our best to conserve what is going on, in terms of biodiversity and2420

to conserve life so that we can be supported and we can also support life.2428

In terms of biodiversity, the number of species on planet earth, it is hard to know exactly how many2433

but there are probably between 10 to 15 million species on planet earth, that includes bacteria and on up, all the way up to animals.2438

There could even be 100,000,000, it is possible, but this is our best estimate.2452

From what I have read, not quite 2 million species have been cataloged and identified.2458

1 million something species we actually know of, we have names for.2465

We are ways to go, in terms of discovering what is out there.2470

Threatened species versus endangered species.2473

If a species is threatened, it is at risk of becoming endangered.2476

The numbers have been lessened quite a bit.2481

Possibly it has to do with habitat destruction, possibly due to climate change.2484

Oftentimes, it is due to poaching, illegal hunting.2489

Threatened species, if they are not protected can become endangered.2493

This is when they are at extreme risk of becoming extinct.2497

In the last hundred years alone, we have watched various species become extinct.2502

There are rhinoceros species that no longer exist.2508

In the 20th century the Tasmanian wolf became extinct.2513

There are a lot of species that we could have stepped in and helped, but too much hunting, habitat destruction, causes them to go away.2517

What is the point, why even protect them? Survival of the fittest.2527

If we think about it in selfish terms, some people who were kind of against saving species,2533

they think if they cannot survive, whatever, we will do what we need to do to survive.2542

But if you think about it in selfish terms, saving these species actually does help humankind.2546

Here is the value of the biodiversity we have out there, medicinal value, if we say goodbye to a lot of these plants and animals,2553

the kinds of drugs and studies in terms of curing cancer, curing diseases, there is less out there for us to use.2563

Especially with plants, the amount of medicines we have obtained from plant life is astounding.2572

Also research, in terms of how certain animals were spawned to disease and2580

how they deal with illness or viruses has informed us in terms of saving human lives.2586

There are agricultural benefits, in terms of us having crops and us having produce.2593

If all the rainforests gets destroyed, that will be just an incredibly sad thing to happen, in terms of all the biodiversity loss.2603

But just one snapshot, think about cashews, it come from a plant that is found in the rainforest.2611

If all of a sudden you could not eat a cashew, what is that is your favorite nut, it will be sad.2620

There is a lot of cultural benefits to the biodiversity that we have out there.2626

And then consumptive, the products that we obtained to make2630

what we make as humans in modern day society, we get them from nature.2635

There is consumptive value, in terms of maintaining a level of biodiversity out there, in plants and animals and fungus.2639

Habitat loss, as I hinted earlier it is becoming more of a concern.2646

In terms of us taking from nature without doing it in moderation.2653

Tropical rainforest and coral reefs are the most in danger.2660

There are acres of tropical rainforests being destroyed every day.2664

Coral reefs, the phenomena of the bleaching of coral reefs has come to light in recent years.2669

It has to do with, climate change has to do with what is ending up in the ocean, the temperature rise in the ocean.2678

Overfishing, there is a lot of theories why coral reefs are fading away.2684

There is incredible amount of biodiversity and beauty in those coral reefs, and we should what we can to conserve them.2689

Pollution is a major factor in various biomes being harmed and life forms being harmed.2695

Acid deposition, things we do in our society have exposed a lot of areas to increased acidity.2704

We are also talking about acid rain here.2713

What we put in the atmosphere can end up in clouds and it can end up coming back down to the earth in rain droplets.2715

Eutrophication, I mentioned this earlier, sometimes what we put into the water has drastic effects2723

in terms of nutrient balances with the food webs in various lakes and rivers.2733

Ozone depletion, I have a picture right here.2740

There is a huge hole in the ozone layer that is right next to Antarctica, the bottom of the earth.2743

You can see that the total ozone, in terms of how concentrated it is, if it is purple, it is really low.2752

If we continue to put certain chemicals up at the atmosphere, we will damage ozone which is actually O₃ as molecule.2759

O₂ is oxygen gas but O₃ is 3 oxygen atoms in triangular form that makes up ozone.2768

That is a protective layer, it prevents a lot of radiation coming into the earth.2777

If we had no ozone, life would be in a lot of trouble, we will be in a lot of trouble for sure.2782

Organic chemicals, waste products from manufacturing and factories.2790

Those in the water supply, in the soil, have had terrible effects on life.2797

Thinking about what we do with our waste and the wastes that accumulate2803

because of our demand for certain products, is something that we need to think about.2808

Here I have the gray wolf canis lupus, it is definitely endangered,2813

in terms of the numbers that there are used to be of this awesome animal.2818

Climate change, we got to talk about this.2824

Global warming is definitely being affected by human activity.2826

To what exact agree is debatable, what is not debatable in a scientific sense is that2829

humans are having an impact on the warming of the planet.2836

Some of it is natural, there is a lot of evidence in earth's history that the earth has an actual warming periods and cooling periods.2842

Ice ages followed by very warm periods and back to ice ages.2852

But, it is undeniable that post industrial evolution, we have had an impact on the atmosphere and water, certainly.2858

Greenhouse gases have an undeniable effect on the atmosphere.2868

Here is an explanation here, basically as heat comes into the atmosphere from the sun,2871

a lot of it is absorbed by the earth's surface and the oceans.2878

But, there is a lot of radiation and a lot of solar energy that ends up2883

being reflected back in. It is supposed to exit the atmosphere and go back into space.2887

However, some of the infrared radiation is absorbed and re-emitted in all directions by greenhouse gas molecules.2891

You can see that right here in this explanation.2900

The more CO₂ and the more methane we have in the atmosphere,2903

there are other greenhouse gases, the more they trap heat in, and that is the greenhouse effect.2909

One way that we can help lower this number is planting more trees, trees like CO₂ and they soak it up.2916

Methane, this comes from a lot of fossil fuel burning.2924

Overpopulation can contribute to it.2930

It is something to keep in mind, we got to curb the emitting of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.2934

Polar ice caps, over the last several decades, and other ice areas are melting faster and faster.2941

The more the polar ice caps melt, the more that that solid water turns into liquid water, ocean levels gradually can rise.2948

You got coastal communities, cities, right on the edge of a continent that would be in danger of flooding in the long term.2956

Also the less polar ice caps, the less of that white surface you have on the earth,2964

the white actually does the job of reflecting solar radiation back into space.2970

The less of that white area, those polar ice caps, the more you actually are going to get the ocean getting warmed up.2976

The more the ocean warms up, the more we are in danger of affecting ocean life in the permanent, unfortunate sense.2986

There is a balance that needs to be maintained.2996

Ocean temperatures are steadily rising.2998

A lot of people have noticed in recent years that weather patterns have gotten crazy.3001

Insane amount of hurricanes, tropical storms, extremely harsh winter, areas where the drought is just out of control.3006

This was predicted and foretold years ago that, as global warming gets more intense and climate change is un curve,3017

in terms of what we can do about it, we are going to cause areas to have extreme drought,3027

areas to have way more rainfall and storms than is normal.3033

It is not too late but as time goes on, the less we do about climate change, the more out of control it is going to get.3038

But there is hope, education is a big part of it.3046

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.3050

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