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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Animal Behavior

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
II. Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
1:00:00
How They Move
1:00:35
Flagellum
1:02:42
Flagella
1:02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
1:02:59
How They Move
1:03:27
Cell Wall
1:05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
1:05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
1:05:52
In Plants
1:07:19
In Bacteria
1:07:25
In Fungi
1:07:41
Cytoplasm
1:08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
1:08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
1:08:47
Cytosol
1:09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
1:09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
1:00:00
Meiosis II
1:01:04
Prophase II
1:01:08
Metaphase II
1:01:32
Anaphase II
1:02:08
Telophase II
1:02:43
Meiosis Overview
1:03:39
Products of Meiosis
1:06:00
Gametes
1:06:10
Sperm and Egg
1:06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
1:06:27
III. From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
1:00:00
Autosomal Dominant
1:06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
1:09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
1:13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
IV. History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
1:02:13
More on Sexual Selection
1:03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
1:03:26
Examples
1:04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
1:09:41
Phenotype
1:10:01
Only Heritable Traits
1:11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
1:12:00
Temporal Isolation
1:12:59
Behavioral Isolation
1:14:17
Mechanical Isolation
1:15:13
Gametic Isolation
1:16:21
Geographic Isolation
1:16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
1:18:37
Hybrid Sterility
1:18:57
Hybrid Inviability
1:20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
1:20:31
Speciation
1:21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
1:21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
1:21:19
Adaptive Radiation
1:24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
1:24:28
Changes in Appearance
1:24:56
Examples
1:24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
1:27:35
Five Conditions
1:28:15
Equations
1:33:55
Microevolution
1:36:59
Natural Selection
1:37:11
Genetic Drift
1:37:34
Gene Flow
1:40:54
Nonrandom Mating
1:41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
1:41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
1:41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
1:43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
1:46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
V. Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
VI. Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
1:02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
1:03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
VII. Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
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Animal Behavior

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Behavior Overview 0:04
    • Behavior
    • Origin of Behavior
    • Competitive Advantage
  • Innate Behaviors 2:05
    • Genetically Based
    • Instinct
    • Fixed Action Pattern
  • Learned Behavior 5:13
    • Habituation
    • Classical Conditioning
    • Operant Conditioning
  • Imprinting 10:17
    • Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
    • Sensitive Period
  • Cognitive Behaviors 11:53
    • Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
    • Examples
  • Competitive Behaviors 14:40
    • Agonistic Behavior
    • Dominance Hierarchies
    • Territorial Behaviors
  • More Types of Behavior 17:05
    • Foraging Behaviors
    • Migratory Behaviors
    • Biological Rhythms
  • Communication Behaviors 20:37
    • Pheromones
    • Auditory Communication
  • Courting and Nurturing Behaviors 23:42
    • Courting Behaviors
    • Nurturing Behaviors
  • Cooperative Behaviors 26:47
    • Benefit All Members of the Group
    • Example

Transcription: Animal Behavior

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the lesson on animal behavior.0000

Behavior overview first, what is a behavior?0006

It is an animal response to a stimulus.0010

A stimulus is anything in the environment that has done a change, something that is occurring and the animal noticing that.0012

Sometimes, the environment is actually internal though.0019

We will react to things that happen in our own body.0022

We react to things that happen outside of our body.0024

Sometimes, the stimulus is internal and sometimes it is external.0027

A stimulus will initiate a response, that response is the behavior.0031

What is the origin, where does it come from, what is the origin of behavior?0035

Is it from genetics, is it from learning, that is the question.0041

Sometimes, it can be in our DNA, there is something in our DNA that is causing us to have this reaction.0045

Regardless of the environmental exposure that this individual has had, they will react the same way.0052

Sometimes, the environment has given the animal enough information0057

and changes behavior overtime to adjust to the environment.0062

That is the whole nurture and nature thing, like nature referring to the DNA,0066

nurture referring to how they have been exposed to different environmental factors.0071

Sometimes, the behavior is innate, it is completely from the genes, it is instinctual.0076

Other times, it is learned over time.0083

Behavior give a competitive advantage, that is why they have been retained.0086

Over evolutionary periods, they can be enhanced and modified for the better.0089

Darwin talked about descent with modification, it is baby steps that get to the point0096

where you have these amazing behaviors today.0100

But of course, if the behavior gives any competitive advantage, it can either be passed on via genes0103

or passed on with teaching it via learned behavior, it will be retained.0108

It is going to benefit.0114

Natural selection is a big part of it, here we have some chimps playing around.0116

There are lots of interesting behaviors that you can see in primates.0121

Innate behaviors, these are genetically based, they are not learned.0126

Innate pretty much means instinct.0132

It is within, you are born with it.0135

A stimulus triggers an innate response, here is an example.0139

Dogs and members of the wolf group, canines, they communicate via howling.0144

It depends on what is going on, sometimes they will bark, sometimes they will howl.0150

If you have a pet dog, and an ambulance drives by with the sirens, the dog would start doing that.0155

That is an innate response, it will take a long time for it to realize that is an ambulance.0163

Maybe, with the owner disciplining the dog, maybe they will stop doing it.0170

To the dog, it sounds like a howl from an animal a little ways away.0174

They just have that automatic reaction, that is an innate response.0180

It is observed in animals population even in different environmental conditions.0185

Even in different environmental conditions, that is a way you can eliminate the environments impact on it and modify the behavior overtime.0189

Because, if you have two animals of the same species that are in very different environmental conditions but still do the same thing,0198

that is a good sign that it is probably programmed within their DNA, which they have a lot of similarities because it is the same species.0204

One example of an innate behavior is a fixed action pattern, or FAP.0212

A fixed action pattern, here are two example.0218

Goose with eggs, a lot of geese, the mother, has this automatic reaction where,0221

if the egg moves too much, she will start moving the egg like this with her beak.0227

She automatically does it, pushing it.0235

Even if you move the egg away from her, she will still keep doing this.0237

It is just she is programmed to do this egg moving.0242

To move and protect her eggs and keep them alive.0246

It is an interesting reaction, it is just fixed action.0252

She is just going to do this thing, when that particular stimulus is noticed.0256

Another one with birds is baby cuckoos knocking out other eggs.0261

With a cuckoo bird, typically, the mother will lay eggs in some other nest.0267

Another birds nests, it is not the same species.0273

When her babies hatch, they have an automatic reaction to push eggs out of the nest because that is competition for resources.0276

Does the baby bird realize what it is doing, that it is pushing them out, as a selfish thing, I do not know.0285

What we do know is that it automatically does it, it is not a learned behavior.0292

Long time ago, a baby had this tendency to do that, it did it.0297

It was passed on, in terms of this urge and this tendency to do it, and it is via what they are born with, it is that innate DNA.0304

Learned behavior, this results from an interaction between innate behaviors which come from DNA, and experience.0314

It is the environment impacting that and changing it overtime.0322

Habituation is one example, a decrease in response after repeated exposure.0326

We have all experienced habituation.0331

If you are exposed to the same stimulus over and over on a daily basis, and it has no negative impact on you,0333

you are going to start to ignore it, that is habituation.0340

I have heard that people who work in a perfume store or store that has a very strong smell, they eventually get habituated to it.0343

They eventually stop noticing it.0353

But, when their friends go and visit them at work, they will ask how do you stand it in here, you do not notice it anymore.0355

That is habituation.0361

Another example with birds would be, when a baby bird hatches in its nest, they will react to everything that is up above them, like a leaf will hit them and they will freak out.0362

Something will fly overhead that is not a predatory bird, and they will freak out and react to it.0372

Over time, if they keep seeing that particular stimulus and noticing it, and there is no negative effect with it,0378

it is actually better for them to ignore it, it is a waste of energy if they keep ignoring it.0386

That is habituation.0390

Classic conditioning, this is when unrelated stimuli are associated together and has an impact on the animal's behavior.0392

The classic example is Pavlov's dogs, a Russian scientist named Ivan Pavlov.0400

He was interested in dogs reaction to food, physiologically.0406

Here you have a dog that has been preserved with taxidermy, it is no longer alive but it is preserved.0411

This is what Pavlov did with a lot of them, he tied this device to catch saliva in this little area and measure saliva secretions.0417

He also measured secretions from the gut, the gastric secretions, in response to food exposure.0427

What he is famous for is, he would actually expose dogs to meat or meat powder.0433

When he did that, he will ring a bell, the dogs kept associating the bell with the food.0440

Every time they get fed with the bell, they would salivate because they are going to get fed.0447

After doing enough time and tying it together, the unrelated bell with the food,0453

Eventually, he just rings the bell and the dogs would start salivating because they are tying together those two stimuli.0458

That just shows that depending on what animals are exposed to in their environment, it can impact their reactions.0465

Operant conditioning is a little bit different from classical conditioning,0471

because it comes with a positive or negative rewards.0474

You can consider back to classical, the Pavlovian thing with the animal is rewarded with food.0478

No, the food was just normal part of its day, being fed like it normally would.0484

It was associating something completely unrelated to the feeding aspect with that.0489

With operant conditioning, you are pairing some kind of exposure with either positive or negative rewards.0496

The animal that gets the positive reward will keep going to do that.0504

The animal that gets the negative reward will probably stop doing that.0507

Here is an example, BF Skinner, the scientist who used rats.0511

He actually had this little lever inside their cage, when they will bump into the lever, a piece of food will come out.0517

At first, when they bumped the lever they will just eat the food and would not even realize what they have done.0523

But after doing it enough times, they realized that every time I hit this lever, this awesome thing happens, I get food.0528

I will keep doing this, that is when you finally paired together like hit the lever, get the prize, and they keep doing it.0537

They will keep overfeeding themselves, doing it over and over.0545

There are other versions that are not pleasant to think about where the animal get shocked, if it hit something.0548

It is probably going to stop hitting that thing, if it has that negative reward which is really not quite a reward at all.0555

That is operant conditioning.0562

Another example in the wild would be jays, a kind of bird, and monarchs a kind of a butterfly.0563

Monarch butterflies, they have a toxic substance inside of them.0569

Jays that will initially eat monarchs, it is not instinctive for them to avoid it.0575

They will eat a monarch and it will taste nasty, some of them get sick.0582

They realize it that they are not doing that again.0586

It is a negative reward, they do not want to again, they are probably not going to go after that particular stimulus, that particular monarch.0589

They might even avoid viceroy butterflies because viceroy butterflies look very similar but they are not toxic,0597

they are palatable, they are pretty tasty and will give nourishment.0605

That is an example of animal in the wild noticing not to do it again, their behavior has changed because of environmental factors.0609

Imprinting, this is a kind of a learned behavior that can only occur in a very specific time period.0618

Usually, it is early on in life, that the examples that we talked about with imprinting.0624

It occurs during what is known as a sensitive period.0629

A classic example is newly hatched birds.0632

There are lots of bird species that, when they hatch, whatever image they see after being hatched,0636

they think that is mother, I need to follow mother around.0643

That is a good thing, it ensures that babies are attached to something, specifically the mother,0647

that is going to care for them and nourish them until they are old enough to live on their own.0652

It is interesting when scientists play around with that.0657

There have been examples of birds following around an old man, a human man,0660

because they imprinted on him when they were born and thought he was the mother.0666

They have done this, they played around the sensitive period in a lab setting numerous times,0671

showing that this does exist in the animal kingdom.0676

Salmon with chemicals, here is a little drawing of salmon.0681

Amazingly, they have this ability to smell with olfaction, this particular chemical signature0685

where they know to go back to a certain stream to spawn every year.0693

That is something where they were exposed to that unique smell early on in their life, in that sense of that period.0697

They just know where to go to get that smell, and they know when they have basically made it home0704

to spawn with other salmon and make babies.0710

Cognitive behavior, cognition is all about thinking, using your brain, and figuring out the world and problem solving.0715

This is thinking, reasoning, and processing information.0722

Any cognitive behavior, it is going to give you an advantage in making it as an animal.0726

Birds, primates like us, and even octopi, have been observed engaging in these types of behaviors.0731

The bigger brain you have, the more likely it is you are engaging in cognition.0737

Two examples, ravens or crows are very smart animals.0741

You might not think at first glance that they are, but there are a lot of examples.0749

I have seen a video of a raven actually using a crosswalk.0752

With enough observation of its surroundings, it can realize that, if I do not want to get hit by a car and0757

I want to pick up a piece of food on the ground where the cars are,0762

I’m going to wait for something to happen with the light and people walking.0766

I have seen them waiting for the little man to appear to signal walk, that is pretty amazing, that is a cognitive behavior.0770

That is not something they were born knowing.0778

They figured out something with their environments to do it.0781

Another example is, there is a study done with a little vending machine for ravens or crows.0784

There was a reward system that took weeks for the birds to get.0791

They realized that, if they took little coins on the ground,0795

if they pick them up with their beak and put them in a slot, peanuts would come out.0798

They would eat the peanuts.0802

Eventually, the other birds of the same population nearby caught on,0804

the one who figured it out was not very happy. That is an example of cognition.0808

Figuring out something in the environment, realizing here is my advantage,0815

and that is definitely something that can be helpful with the organism towards survival.0819

Chimps have been observed doing so many different cognitive behaviors.0824

I have seen a lots of videos, one where they will take a stick, rip off branches from a tree,0828

and they will put it down in an ant colony and they get ants on it, it is a little snack for them.0836

Without sticking the branch inside the ant colony, it will be really hard for them to get access to those insects, but that is cognition.0842

Another one, you could say that in lab settings, there have been examples where, it is a similar task,0850

we are trying to get something deep down.0859

But, there will be a long tube where they cannot stick their hand down and there is food at the bottom,0861

and they are given glasses of water.0866

Some of them will realize, if I take this water and poured it into the tube, I can make that thing float and grab it.0868

It definitely happened in a lab setting, that is a cognitive behavior, for sure.0875

Competitive behaviors, competition between individuals for control over resources.0881

A few examples, agonistic behavior, this is between two individuals of the same species, like bears or rams.0887

Two bears, especially male bears, who were fighting over food or potential mates.0896

They might look like they are about to kill each other.0902

But typically, it would not lead to death.0904

It is possible for them to get a little harmed or injured. Eventually, what is usually going to happen is one of them is going to go away.0906

It is going to be the defeated one and the other one is the winner, get access to the food or potential mates.0912

That agonistic behavior has benefits to the one that succeeds.0919

Dominance hierarchies, top rated animal has access to resources above all others, like a pecking order with hens.0923

With hens, with chickens, you will have females where there is the one top female.0935

She will literally peck at the lower females, if they try to challenge her and get in the way,0941

and that she wants access to the roosters exclusively.0946

There is the top one, that is dominance hierarchy.0949

It is a competitive behavior where she has dominance over the others.0954

There are also examples where there is the α male, that is their dominance hierarchy.0959

In terms of one α male having exclusive rights to a harem, to a bunch of females.0964

Eventually, another male will challenge him and possibly win, and become the new α male and have access to those females.0970

There is also territorial behavior that attempts to control an area from other animals of the same species.0978

You can see this with primates and birds, especially there will be a group of primates in the forest or jungle that have their own little area.0983

If others come close, they will start shouting, they will start fighting, it could actually result in one group killing the others.0991

It is that serious, in terms of maintaining a territory, this is their space, this is their food.1000

That behavior is meant to increase their survival rate.1005

Not just chimps, with birds, birds have been observed actually pecking each other and harm each other over a territory.1009

They are the same species, they are just two different populations occupying slightly different territories.1018

More types of behavior, foraging behaviors, this is finding and eating food.1027

Individuals who spend the least amount of energy in foraging are generally favored.1030

Here is where it comes down to, the cost of you hunting for the food and trying to find the food,1037

and weighing that with the actual energy you get.1043

If it takes too long for you to find food, the method that particular animal is using is not going to be successful.1046

It is this cost versus benefit kind of thing.1053

Individuals who are going to be successful, they will use the least amount of energy as they can, to get the most amount of resources,1059

in terms of them finding food whether it is berries or ants, or leaves, whatever it might be, it could be fruits.1065

Migratory behaviors, the move, the migration increases chance of survival in various species.1073

Let us take birds, wildebeests do it.1080

Here is a wildebeests found in Africa, but let us talk about birds.1083

It is very common for birds in North America during the winter to fly south. Why is that?1087

The North America winter can be kind of harsh for those birds.1093

In terms of the amount of food available here during the winter, that is not abundant.1096

When they fly south as a group, they go to an area where it is not winter.1100

They are going to an area where it is actually very nice, in terms of the weather and amount of food available.1104

And then, once that warmer period is ending down there,1110

they will fly back to where it is more springtime, summertime, in North America.1113

They will have plenty of food and they will breed during that period.1119

How do they actually know where to go?1124

There are innate signals that guide those populations.1127

There are other theories that birds are sensitive to the magnetic pole that the earth has,1129

the magnetic field that we do not sense within our heads.1135

We have machinery that can definitely measure it.1140

But birds, they may actually have a sense of magnetic fields and that guides them to specific spot.1142

They may also pay attention to stars, it is hard to tell.1150

Biological rhythms, these are cycles cued by environmental changes.1154

These rhythms are rooted in our DNA but cues in the environment are signaling different patterns to occur with day versus night, usually.1158

We are talking about circadian rhythms.1167

Circadian rhythms, you can find in almost any organism.1170

It is reactions to light versus dark, over and over.1173

Animals who are nocturnal, who are awake at night,1178

they are going to have a different kind of circadian rhythm pattern than animals like us, we are diurnal, during the day.1181

If an animal is diurnal, awake during the day and sleep at night, when light is hitting us,1186

when we actually can notice light, there is a wake period that occurs.1196

When the sun goes down, we are more likely to start falling asleep or being sleepy.1200

There have been studies where they take an animal out of the environment where they get 12 hours of lights and 12 hours of dark.1205

They start making it 24 hours are dark or altering it in some other way.1212

Eventually, after few days, their sleep pattern just starts getting more radical and not consistent.1216

Because, their body is used to seeing light versus day, and cueing these circadian rhythms.1222

That is important in terms of the animal being successful finding food,1227

getting rest when it is supposed to, and waking up and tackling the day again, or the night again, if it is nocturnal.1232

Communication behaviors, pheromones is one way that animals can communicate with each other.1239

If it has to do with success of the species and making offspring, that is going to be something that is retained and favored overtime.1244

Pheromones are airborne chemicals usually associated with relaying messages between the sexes,1251

males and females, so that they can get together and reproduce.1258

There are pheromones in humans that are probably impacting us.1261

We are just not aware of them consciously, but humans definitely secrete pheromones.1265

In animals, we definitely study them a lot.1272

With moths, here is a male moth, look at this.1276

Look at this antennae, they are quite branched.1283

They look like little feathers coming out of its head.1287

This male moth, once it actually has emerged from its cocoon, in its adult form, its mission is to find a female and make babies.1289

It waits for the pheromones, these pheromones, these chemical secreted from the female could come from miles away.1298

All it takes is a few little molecules hitting these filaments.1304

These filaments have a lot of surface area, just waiting for those chemicals to be noticed.1308

They fly towards that chemical signature, towards that pheromone.1313

That is how they are able to get the female and mate.1317

That is definitely an important thing for them, in terms of communication behavior.1319

Deer will leave some secretions like they will rub a gland against a tree.1324

A male do it and signal the females that I’m here, and signal other males like this is my area, I’m going to find a mate here.1330

Auditory communication, it can be hoops, howls, barks, chirps, etc.1338

There are a lot of calls that animals will make.1342

It could sometimes be about mating.1344

There are mating calls, very common with birds to do that.1347

It is common with primates too.1352

Lots of different animals do mating calls.1355

Sometimes, it is a warning about predators.1358

When it comes to meerkats, they will make a call to warn the rest of their troop that there is something overhead that can eat us.1361

Sometimes, it is just about territory, like with howling monkeys.1372

They make these crazy loud howls that can go for a couple miles, in terms of being able to hear them.1376

They are telling the others in the jungle or in the forest that this is our territory, stay away.1383

You know what, language, that is how language started with us, just calls and signals, vocalizations that have differences.1388

Warning signals versus vocalizations that are about like, I care for you, we are friends, let us groom each other.1398

There are very simple things that would have happened millions of years ago in our ancestors that led to a more evolved language,1406

in terms of the etymology in us having words, that mean more complicated thoughts.1414

Courting and nurturing behaviors, courting behaviors is like mooing, it is about getting a mate and making babies.1423

It is for attracting mates.1430

A visual display is something you see a lot with birds.1432

This is actually one of the many species of birds of paradise, found usually in tropical areas.1435

This is the male, in this particular painting.1447

This male has a quite elaborate feather display.1452

The female, not nearly as exciting looking but that is okay, she does not need to look exciting.1456

The males desire her more than anything, and she is the choosy one.1460

It happens with peacocks as well.1464

By the way, peacocks and peahens are very different.1467

Peacocks male, peahens female.1474

Together they are called peafowl or peabirds.1478

The male peacocks, like with birds of paradise, the pressure is on them with those feathers1482

and that display to try to catch the other female and she is the choosy one, in terms of choosing a mate.1486

Sometimes combat is a way that they court or mate, like with rams, they are bashing their horns together.1492

One of them is going to be dominant, one of them is going to win.1502

Females will be like, you are the winner.1504

Song, with birds it is very common for them to have pressure to make a unique song, a complicated song that they invent.1508

They have been exposed in their environment, to certain songs that they heard, before they will able to mate.1518

Once they are old enough to mate and they are expected to win a female,1525

male songbirds will come up with actually unique songs, based on what they have heard.1530

The more complicated, the more variation, probably the more it is going to catch the ear of the female.1536

Dancing, the blue footed booby of the Galapagos. It has this bright blue feet and it does a dance and displays its feet.1542

The female likes it, they will choose him.1560

Nurturing behaviors, parents are providing care to their offspring.1563

If they are nurturing them, it does take a lot of energy but it is worth the cost of that energy.1566

It is about ensuring that their offspring is going to be more successful.1571

It involves providing food to their babies, protection from predators,1575

from even other animals of the same species, skills too, for survival.1580

When it comes to primates, they definitely have the best examples of long-term care.1586

Actually, baby orangutans will spend years with their mother.1592

They have been known to nourish their young for up to two years.1596

They spend several more years tagging along with mom until1599

they are ready to go out on their own in the forest, and make their own family.1603

Cooperative behaviors, these are behaviors that actually a population of organisms within a community will do1609

to ensure survival or benefit to others, rather than themselves.1616

It benefits all the members in the group in the long run, but sometimes you are going to end up in self sacrifice.1622

Here is an example, altruism, altruistic behavior is a cooperative behavior that benefits the other with a cost to itself.1628

An example is naked mole rats or meerkat. With naked mole rats, there is actually examples of non mating individuals.1637

There are individuals in this population, you can see they are huddled together here.1646

This is probably an exhibit at some kind of museum or animal park, that is why we have this nice view here.1650

You will have animals here within the naked mole rat population that are not breeding with the queen mole rat.1657

But they help care for the babies, they help ensure survival of the population even though they are not directly tied,1668

they are not directly the offspring of the individual.1678

It is all about ensuring success of the population, in general.1681

The theory there is kin selection.1685

If the animal that you are caring for is your kin, meaning related to you in some way, sharing similar genetics.1688

Maybe, they are distant cousin in this animal population.1694

But, preserving some of your genes in the long run is beneficial because the mission for animals,1697

even though they may not cognitively realize this, they want to pass on their genes.1705

It sounds selfish but that is all about contributing biologically to the next generation.1711

Even if they may suffer or may die in the process of doing something,1717

kin selection is all about ensuring that some of your genes still keep going on.1722

At least organisms related to you, somewhat closely, will be successful.1728

The same goes for meerkats, meerkats usually they are in the Kalahari Desert.1733

They will have what is called a sentry, it is kind of like a look out.1739

That is what this meerkat is doing, it is looking at up above because there are airborne predators,1748

eagles and such, that will want to fly down and pick off a meerkat for lunch.1757

They have one that is on the lookout for the rest.1761

If they notice one, they are going to give a call and the signals like go under ground1765

because they have this awesome burrowing community underneath.1769

Sometimes, in the process of this making that call and those signals,1772

it can be vulnerable to the actual bird coming down and eating it.1777

In the process of potentially sacrificing itself, it is ensuring that a lot of its buddy meerkats and its related meerkats survive.1780

That is definitely a cooperative behavior that falls under altruism.1790

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.1794

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