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Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Cellular Energy, Part II

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
II. Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
1:00:00
How They Move
1:00:35
Flagellum
1:02:42
Flagella
1:02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
1:02:59
How They Move
1:03:27
Cell Wall
1:05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
1:05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
1:05:52
In Plants
1:07:19
In Bacteria
1:07:25
In Fungi
1:07:41
Cytoplasm
1:08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
1:08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
1:08:47
Cytosol
1:09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
1:09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
1:00:00
Meiosis II
1:01:04
Prophase II
1:01:08
Metaphase II
1:01:32
Anaphase II
1:02:08
Telophase II
1:02:43
Meiosis Overview
1:03:39
Products of Meiosis
1:06:00
Gametes
1:06:10
Sperm and Egg
1:06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
1:06:27
III. From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
1:00:00
Autosomal Dominant
1:06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
1:09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
1:13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
IV. History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
1:02:13
More on Sexual Selection
1:03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
1:03:26
Examples
1:04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
1:09:41
Phenotype
1:10:01
Only Heritable Traits
1:11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
1:12:00
Temporal Isolation
1:12:59
Behavioral Isolation
1:14:17
Mechanical Isolation
1:15:13
Gametic Isolation
1:16:21
Geographic Isolation
1:16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
1:18:37
Hybrid Sterility
1:18:57
Hybrid Inviability
1:20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
1:20:31
Speciation
1:21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
1:21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
1:21:19
Adaptive Radiation
1:24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
1:24:28
Changes in Appearance
1:24:56
Examples
1:24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
1:27:35
Five Conditions
1:28:15
Equations
1:33:55
Microevolution
1:36:59
Natural Selection
1:37:11
Genetic Drift
1:37:34
Gene Flow
1:40:54
Nonrandom Mating
1:41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
1:41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
1:41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
1:43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
1:46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
V. Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
VI. Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
1:02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
1:03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
VII. Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
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Lecture Comments (21)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Jan 7, 2018 4:23 PM

Post by Yuyun Kusuma on January 7 at 09:34:22 AM

Hello, first of all, thanks for the all the video lessons you've made. All of them are interesting and informative. I've already watched some of them. But actually I don't know why a few months ago, I could watch all of educator's videos easily without much buffering, while recently, the "buffering" has been very often, in fact, and it occurs every a few seconds... I know my internet connection here is a bit slow, but still I can watch many videos on youtube, but not even 1 here.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sat Mar 18, 2017 4:21 PM

Post by Kapil Patel on March 17, 2017

where are oxidative phosphorlation located in what type cells animals cells or plant cells

5 answers

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Oct 20, 2016 11:34 AM

Post by Lydia Radden on October 16, 2016

Pro. Cardella you stated we get sugars from the plants we eat which our cells convert into energy. We being omnivores, however what about carnivores how do their cells process sugars into energy. Meaning which food product do they eat to get the sugars needed to convert to energy.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Fri Jun 24, 2016 2:12 PM

Post by Scott Pearce on June 24, 2016

Sorry to Bother you, I have attended the University Of Minnesota Crookston. I understand you might not know in detail what is required in the general Biology course there if you have not been there. But Do you think I might be required to know in detail to which you have shown for Photosynthesis and  aerobic respiration. for example to know the different names for the sugars in Glycolosis ( Glucose, fru 1,6-DP) and where atp is used and where NADH is used ?

2 answers

Last reply by: Scott Pearce
Wed Jun 22, 2016 8:46 AM

Post by Scott Pearce on June 11, 2016

sorry to bother you but from one kreb cycle couldn't you get 4 NADH, i think you say 3

5 answers

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Thu Feb 12, 2015 5:55 PM

Post by Carroll Fields on February 10, 2015

Prof. Cardella can you please recommend an excellent book that we can use to study biology concepts( some Gen. & AP Bio), to greater conceptually understanding and in preparation for the AP Bio exam.
     Also I live near the DC area in Maryland, and am a homeschooled high school student. I am looking for Biology and Chemistry labs, and was wondering if you had any suggestions.

Thank You,
Rusty

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Mon Oct 13, 2014 3:25 PM

Post by A K on October 13, 2014

Thank you! Your lectures are really helpful.

Question: How does the cell determine whether the pyruvate will go through either the anaerobic or aerobic respiration?

We discussed this in class briefly, but I had difficulty understanding.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Fri Jun 27, 2014 1:44 AM

Post by David Gonzalez on June 26, 2014

In Glycolysis, the two electron carriers pick up the electrons/protons from the two G3P molecules? Thanks.

Cellular Energy, Part II

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Aerobic Respiration 0:05
    • Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
    • Glycolysis
    • Krebs Cycle
    • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Produces About 36 ATP
  • Glycolysis 3:35
    • Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
    • Occurs in the Cytoplasm
  • Krebs Cycle 11:40
    • Citric Acid Cycle
    • Acetyl-CoA
    • How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation 22:45
  • Anaerobic Respiration 29:44
    • Lactic Acid Fermentation
    • Alcohol Fermentation
    • Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
  • Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis 36:43

Transcription: Cellular Energy, Part II

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the lesson on cellular energy, continued.0000

This is the second part of cellular energy, the first part was about energy in general, pertaining to life and photosynthesis.0006

Photosynthesis is how plants and plant like organisms make sugars.0014

Without those sugars, every single organism that eats will not be able to get energy.0019

Once an animal or single celled organism actually obtains sugars to its diet, where does it go from there?0023

How does it actually extract energy from those sugars?0029

That is what we get into what it is called cellular respiration, the process of breaking down sugars to get that energy.0033

Aerobic respiration is the first kind under this umbrella of cellular respiration.0039

Aerobic respiration is the process of breaking down carbohydrates with the help of oxygen to make ATP.0045

Oxygen (O₂) is the key to making this aerobic respiration.0052

You will see later on that anaerobic respiration is without oxygen.0056

ATP is that energy molecule discussed in previous part of the lesson.0060

Energy molecule meaning it is the kind of energy currency that cells need,0064

to do all the processes that maintain homeostasis and keeps the cell alive.0069

Most of this process occurs in mitochondria.0074

Mitochondria are those powerhouses of the cell.0078

They were discussed in the previous lesson on cells and different organelles, the parts of the cell.0082

Mitochondria, a really efficient site for breaking down sugars and maximizing the output of ATP.0086

They use oxygen as part of the process of maximizing that output.0095

If we will breakdown aerobic respiration to a few different parts,0100

chronologically, it starts out with glycolysis, sugar breakdown.0104

Next is the Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, this is the first part that actually takes place inside the mitochondria.0108

Citric Acid cycle is the nickname because citric acid is a molecule that is made in the very beginning of the Krebs cycle.0115

Krebs named after the doctor who first discovered it.0121

Oxidative phosphorylation that is also known as the electron transport chain,0125

but it is more than just electron movement through the mitochondria.0129

It is also movement of protons, as the other half of the process.0133

That is the most important part of the process of aerobic respiration0137

because you get a lot of output of ATP at the end of that.0141

And at the end of the whole process, all these put together,0145

it produces approximately 36 ATP from one glucose molecule, which is pretty good.0148

The reason why there is little approximation symbol is, depending on cellular conditions,0154

you could actually get 38, you could actually get 34, but 36 is typically the most common output0158

that you would get from breaking down 1 glucose molecule with the help of oxygen.0165

Here is an actual micrograph of mitochondria, this is the actual look inside of the cell.0170

You cannot see this close to light microscopes, this is from electron microscopes.0177

Here is a more cartoony looking drawing of a mitochondrion.0181

You could see that there is this inner membrane which you can also see in here, these little folds called cristae.0185

You are going to see that glycolysis actually takes place outside mitochondria.0191

The Krebs cycle takes place in this middle part, notice the matrix, see that word there.0195

And then, oxidative phosphorylation takes place along the cristae.0200

Cristae is all of that folding membrane inside of it, numerous sites for oxidative phosphorylation inside the mitochondria.0205

We focus on glycolysis, the first part of cellular respiration.0216

We can really break up the word into two pieces to better help you understand what it means.0220

It is glycolysis, glyco means sweet or sugar, lysis comes from the lyse, the break down.0229

It really does mean sugar breakdown.0239

If you recall lysosomes, an organelle in cells specializes in breaking down products,0241

whether it is a food molecules, waste products, foreign invaders.0246

Glycolysis literally means breakdown of sugar and it is the breakdown of sugar into pyruvates.0251

Pyruvates, they are half the size of a glucose molecule.0259

Each of those pyruvates is modified to go into the next part, the Krebs cycle.0264

Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm, the part of the cell that is outside of the mitochondria.0268

If you recall the cytoplasm is that whole area that is bound by the plasma membrane, but outside of the nucleus.0274

The cytoplasm has a lot of fluid in there, a lot of enzymes, a lot of ions floating around,0282

and of course the majority of the organelles are in there, and that is where glycolysis takes place,0288

then the pyruvates enter the mitochondria.0292

We look at this step by step, you can see that we are starting out with this thing here that got 6 purple dots.0296

This purple kind of magenta looking dots, they actually represent carbon atoms because this is the breakdown of glucose.0304

Glucose is C₆H₁₂O₆ that is the molecular formula for glucose.0311

We are keeping track of the carbon atoms, keep in mind that,0321

attached to each one of these carbons, you would have hydrogen and oxygen.0324

But this just makes it a little simpler looking at glucose, just focusing on the carbons.0328

You could see by the end when we get to these pyruvates, they each have 3 carbons.0332

The first step that has to happen in what they call phase 1 is an energy investment phase.0336

If you want to get energy into breaking apart the sugar molecule, you got to invest some energy.0342

Two ATP's are used, the output once they are used is 2 ADP.0352

If you recall from the previous part of the cellular energy lesson,0359

you have got ATP as that usable energy source, 3 phosphates and ADP 2 phosphate.0362

The third phosphate has come off, where did they go, here they are.0369

π stands for inorganic phosphate, here they are attached to what was glucose.0373

Now, it has a different name, fructose 16 diphosphate, there it is.0378

If you are wondering why do you have to invest this energy?0387

If the whole process here is devoted towards getting energy out of it, why do we have to use energy?0389

You have to invest some energy to get that output at the end.0394

It is a worthwhile investment, it is kind like investing in the stock market but it is better chances here.0397

Investing in a stock market is a risk because you have to buy stock, and the stock value may not go up.0403

When you sell, you might end up with the same amount of money or more like you would like.0408

But in this case, the energy investment is always worth it.0413

Spending this ATP is guaranteed to get you more ATP, by the end.0416

It is a worthwhile investment using those energy molecules.0420

Where do we go from here, now that we have this 6 carbon molecule with the 2 phosphates here?0424

It ends up breaking apart, and keep in mind that the catalyst to all of these steps is an enzyme,0430

as discussed in the previous part in the cellular energy lesson.0436

Enzymes help get these processes going from start to finish.0439

Once they break apart, we have got another step occurring.0444

NAD+, two of them pick up electrons and protons and become NADH.0462

NAD+ that stands for a very long name.0473

NAD is an acronym and it is positively charged, now becomes what is called NADH.0478

What is going on here? Electrons and protons are stripped off of this molecule and they are picked up here.0483

Once electrons and protons bond here to NAD+, you have NADH.0492

It is now an electron carrier, that is kind of its nickname.0496

The electrons and protons that it is carrying, it will dump those off to a later part of the process,0500

further on down the line to help make a lot of ATP.0505

Think of it this way, the formation of two of these NADH,0508

when electrons and protons bond to this is another way of making ATP.0513

Later on, they are going to really contribute to that process of producing that 36 number.0519

Next up, when this split apart, you have a little void for something to bond there.0526

Carbon always likes to make 4 bonds.0534

There is a carbon, there is a carbon, it is bound to its neighboring carbon.0536

This carbon is bound to its neighboring carbon, there is hydrogen and oxygen here0539

but something else can bind there, and guess what does? 2-3 phosphates, inorganic phosphates here.0542

We did not have to use additional ATP for this to happen, they are attached there by an enzyme.0549

Now, we have 1, 2, 3, 4 phosphates that are available on these two molecules.0555

What ends up happening is you get 4 ADP picking up the 1, 2, 3, 4 phosphates to make 4 ATP.0561

Then, that goes away and you finally have 2 pyruvates, 2-3 carbon molecules.0580

If we add up everything we gained at the end, we end up getting as the products.0588

2 pyruvates also known as pyruvic acid, you will see that in certain text books,0598

instead of pyruvates, pyruvic acid, same things just a different way of naming it.0604

2 pyruvates, 2 NADH, and some textbooks will actually write +H + here, signifying the additional proton that it picks up.0609

To simplify things, we are just going to call it NADH.0623

Keep in mind that, it is transporting electrons and protons to the later part of aerobic respiration.0626

The other thing we have is a net gain of 2 ATP.0631

What do we mean by net gain, we actually made 4 ATP here, we used 2.0641

The net gain is, we made 4 ATP but we have to subtract 2 because they went away,0650

they had to be used to make this process occur.0658

That ends up equaling 2 ATP, and that is a net gain.0661

Kind of like with salary, you are living for year, you make a gross salary, the total amount of money you take in.0664

After paying taxes, you get your net salary, after subtracting those taxes that are paid.0671

It is the same idea here, we made 4, have to subtract 2 because the energy investment phase, net gain is 2 ATP.0676

Those are the products you get at the end of glycolysis.0684

The pyruvates enter the next part of the cycle, the Krebs cycle.0687

2 ADH will be used later on, on oxidative phosphorylation.0691

And these 2 ATP, you can use for anything the cell needs at that moment.0695

Now the Krebs cycle, it is also known as the citric acid cycle.0701

Dr. Krebs discovered it, I mistakenly thought when I was a student that it is ‘s, but his name is Kreb.0705

It is actually Krebs, that was his last name.0713

The Krebs cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, sometimes you will see CA cycle or CAC in textbooks.0717

The pyruvates from glycolysis get modified into something called acetyl-coa, kind of an interesting name here.0725

The acetyl is a 2 carbon molecule that comes from a pyruvate, the coa stands for coenzyme A.0735

I will show you how that happens.0742

It takes 2 pyruvates, Krebs cycle attaches them to a 4 carbon molecule and breaks down to make electron carriers.0745

This is a summary of what happens, when I say it takes 2 pyruvates, they actually have to get modify into this first.0751

Those get attached to the 4 carbon molecule called oxaloacetate or oxo-acyclic acid.0760

I will write it down for you a second.0766

The modification that it has to happen to begin the Krebs cycle is,0768

let us talk about that 3 carbon molecule that we know as pyruvate.0773

Just modeling this after the previous slide, we had those purplish, magenta looking dots, each dot representing a carbon atom.0786

Here they are, here your carbon atoms of pyruvate.0794

What ends up happening is, an enzyme, let me make a little box for it, called coenzyme-A helps modify this to get it in the Krebs cycle.0797

Here is what happens, as CO₂ leaves, one of those red dots, one of those carbons leaves as CO₂.0812

That CO₂ is waste, you know we exhale CO₂ as do animals, and that is a waste product of respiration.0826

You can see that, once that leaves, we are left with just 2 carbons.0835

This is the acetyl that I am telling you about.0844

The other thing that happens is you end up producing a little bit more of that NADH molecule.0850

Just like in glycolysis, this NAD+ picks up electrons and proton becomes NADH0866

and that will be used later on aerobic respiration.0872

Remember, this enzyme attached to there, this enzyme remains there for a bit.0875

That is how you get acetyl-coa, there it is.0884

That is what you need to actually start the Krebs cycle.0889

The acetyl portion combines with that 4 carbon molecule inside the mitochondria matrix,0892

inside that very center part bound by that cristae inside the mitochondria.0898

You will see on a future slide in this lesson an image of the mitochondria, I’m reinforcing that for you.0904

Once coenzyme A gets this to the Krebs cycle, it leaves.0910

This coa will go bye and this acetyl portion will combine with a 4 carbon molecule,0914

like I mentioned earlier called oxaloacetate, oxoacelic acid.0931

That is your 4 carbon molecule combines with the 2 carbon molecule to get 6 carbon molecule known as citric acid.0941

Remember that was the nickname of the Krebs cycle, the citric acid cycle, here it is.0958

Some textbook will call that citrate, same idea with calling this oxoacylic acid or pyruvate, pyruvic acid.0967

Citric acid, we now have officially begun the Krebs cycle, that is formed.0976

The next two steps are actually very similar.0982

Two things happened in each of these first two steps of the Krebs cycle.0989

Once again, carbon dioxide leaves, there is the carbon and carbon dioxide, there is the carbon and carbon dioxide.0994

Citric acid, once CO₂ leaves, 6 - 1 is 5.1001

There are 5 carbons and another one leaves here, like in glycolysis these steps are catalyzed by enzymes.1012

We are down to 4 and do not worry about the names, they all have different names.1023

In the average biology course, those individual names are not stressed.1029

Taking in advanced course like AP Bio or a college level of biochemistry course, you have to know the names.1033

This 4 carbon molecule, notice by the end we still have a 4 carbon molecule.1042

No more CO₂’s will leave after this point because you are generating another 4 carbon molecule, by the end.1048

The CO₂ leaves, what else happens?1058

You will make some more NADH, that is what else happens.1065

More fuel for making ATP, later on in the aerobic respiration process.1083

Those two steps, pretty much the same.1092

Next thing that happens, we end up making ATP.1096

Where is the phosphate come from that ends up been attached to ADP?1103

I will put a little flash of light around it ATP to show you energy.1111

The phosphate gets attached there by virtue of another molecule being broken down.1120

There is actually a GTP molecule that is donating its phosphate to the molecule here,1126

and then that phosphate comes off to make ATP.1133

It is all catalyzed by enzymes, but you end up producing an ATP here which is great, that is more fuel for cellular energy.1138

Still have a 4 carbon molecule of course.1147

Just to save time, I preferred it making those little bonds there but I think you get the picture.1157

A couple more steps remain.1162

Next, we make a new molecule you have not seen yet but I am doing it in green because it does the same thing as NADH.1169

A molecule called FAD picks up some hydrogen in the form of electrons and protons, of course, and it gives FADH2.1179

FAD and NAD+ have the same basic function, they carry electrons and protons to later step1190

after the Krebs cycle to make a lot more ATP.1196

You make one FADH2, one step remains in this magical Krebs cycle.1200

Without it, we would not be able to live.1208

Next up is one more NADH is made.1214

Look at that, it is complete.1230

By the end of this, by the time you have this particular 4 carbon molecule1233

being converted to oxoacetate, you are back to square one, that is the whole point of the cycle.1239

It is a cyclical process where you regenerate what you start with.1245

As long as you keep bringing this acetyl which came from pyruvate, which came from glycolysis,1249

you will continue to do the citric acid cycle within mitochondria.1256

This is happening all the time in the mitochondria.1259

It has to, to keep your cells functioning.1262

It is just something that is millions of times over in cells, in the mitochondria.1266

By the end, what do we have?1272

If we add together all the CO₂ used, including from this intermediate step, total number of CO₂ 1, 2, 3.1275

Total number of NADH is 1,2,3, total number of FADH2 choose one of those and 1 ATP.1290

But, you have to multiply all this by 2 for every glucose,1298

because what do we get from one glycolysis in the previous slide?1302

We got 2 pyruvate, this molecule right here.1306

This is talking about what happens to the 1 pyruvate that is modified and brought into the citric acid cycle.1308

You have to multiply it by 2, in the end, because of Krebs cycle from 1 glycolysis,1319

you get 6 CO₂, you get 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 NADH and 2 FADH2, and 2 ATP.1325

It depends, if you are taking a test, you have to pay attention to the question,1338

if it says from one Krebs cycle, how many NADH do you get? You get 3.1341

But from Krebs cycles that came from 1 glucose, the total number would definitely be more.1347

You have to add up these 3 times 2, and then add up the ones that you got from these particular steps, that is the Krebs cycle.1354

After the Krebs cycle, it leads to oxidative phosphorylation.1366

Oxidative is actually a term that means when a molecule loses electrons.1372

I know the tendency here is to think that it means that it has to do with oxygen.1378

You could remember it that way because oxygen is critical in this particular process.1383

You can see the O₂ right there.1388

But oxidative is the opposite of reductive.1390

A reduction reaction in chemistry or biology means that electrons are added to a molecule.1394

Oxidation or oxidative means the opposite.1403

It is because NADH and FADH2, they are going to give up,1406

they are going to give up those electrons and protons they gain, they will be oxidized.1409

Phosphorylation means attaching the phosphate to something.1414

In this case, we are attaching a phosphate to ADP to make ATP, that was the whole point of aerobic respiration.1418

This is a simplified view of the mitochondrion.1426

If you remember, mitochondria tend to be drawn like this.1430

If I were to make it more 3 dimensional, I would go like this.1440

This is looking inside of a mitochondrion.1446

In here is the matrix, that is where the Krebs cycle takes place.1448

This is known as the cristae, that is what you are seeing here.1452

This is a really simplified cristae, the intramembrane space is in here.1455

It is called intramembrane because it is between the cristae and the outer membrane,1460

which is actually a double membrane on the outside of mitochondria.1465

This part of the drawing is happening here.1471

This region is happening all along here.1474

Just taking this very folded cristae and simplifying it here.1477

Here is where the Krebs cycle happened, that is citric acid cycle.1481

You end up producing NADH and FADH2, and they give up what they gained.1486

They give up electrons and protons.1494

What ends up happening? The electrons go one way, the protons go another way.1496

Let us color code this with red and blue.1501

Let us say that, we are going to use blue for electrons and we are going to use red for protons.1504

From this NADH, protons go here and keep mind that there is a lot of NADH.1518

If you count them all up, there are actually 10 that you get from the breakdown of 1 glucose.1527

Protons will actually go here too.1535

H+ is just another way of thinking about protons, because H meaning-hydrogen,1538

hydrogen atom is a proton with an electron spinning around it.1545

Electrons are negatively charged, protons are positively charge.1549

You take away that negatively charge electron.1556

Protons, positively charged, and you take away the negative, all you have left is these positive.1559

H+ is saying it is a hydrogen atom without an electron which is just a proton.1565

E- is oftentimes what you will see to symbolize electrons.1570

7 But all these H+ or protons building up in the intermembrane space1574

creates just tons of these positive charges, all throughout here.1578

They buildup and build, and they all want to go somewhere, they want to diffuse elsewhere.1582

They end up going through what is called ATP synthase.1588

ATP synthase is a great name for this molecule because it literally means it synthesizes or makes ATP, that is what this is right here.1591

There are tons of these, of all of these membrane proteins found throughout the cristae membrane.1601

All of these H+ build up end going through here, you get a spinning action with ATP synthase.1610

It ends up putting together ADP, adenosine diphosphate with other phosphates, this reaction, to get ATP.1616

You had a lot of ATP in this process.1630

Meanwhile, as that is happening, electrons are being moved through the membrane proteins.1631

Not across the membrane, they are being moved through.1639

These are little electron carriers, you see 1, 3, 4, all these different proteins, they are just moving electrons through.1644

The proteins go across the membrane, electrons go through, and they have a final destination.1656

The electron’s final destination is to meet up with O₂ oxygen gas.1662

This is why oxygen is important for aerobic respiration, that is what makes it aerobic.1669

Oxygen actually takes those electrons, gives them a final destination, they have a place to go,1673

and they end up binding with oxygen along with protons to help make water.1680

Which is actually one of the final products of aerobic respiration, a little bit of water.1685

For most organisms, it is not enough to hydrate them but actually have to drink water, or get it from the food they eat.1691

But there are some organisms out there that actually can get barely enough water from this process to survive,1697

but that is pretty rare.1704

Here is more water being made.1706

The reason why that happens is because O₂ + 4 electrons + 4 protons, 4H+ that give you 2H₂O.1708

That is balanced out for you because you can see that O₂, O times 2,1727

these together actually make 4 hydrogen atoms, 4 electrons + 4 protons H₂ x 2.1735

For every 4 electrons, 4 protons and 1 oxygen gas molecule, you will get 2 water molecules.1741

Of course, you get a lot of ATP, thanks to the movement of electrons and protons.1748

The proton specifically, moving through ATP synthase, helps fuel the production of this.1754

Like we said before, you get a total of 36 ATP from this process.1759

But, from just this alone, ignoring the Krebs cycle, ignoring glycolysis,1765

you will get a number in the lower 30 of the amount of ATP from just oxidative phosphorylation.1772

This is the beauty of how you break down sugars and get energy to fuel your cells.1777

Anaerobic respiration, this would be the cellular respiration without oxygen.1785

Aerobic literally means not air, without air, but specifically means without oxygen, in terms of biology.1799

After glycolysis, glycolysis means by itself is anaerobic,1807

meaning glycolysis happen in cells whether or not oxygen gas is available.1813

When we look at something like a bacterium or yeast that do anaerobic respiration constantly,1819

they do glycolysis just like we do.1826

What happens after that is a little bit different.1829

Glycolysis by itself as anaerobic.1831

After glycolysis, when oxygen is needed to continue with the Krebs cycle and eventually end up at oxidative phosphorylation,1834

If enough O₂ is not available, the pyruvates you got from glycolysis undergo something called fermentation.1841

Fermentation, there are two types and typically an organism does one or the other.1850

Two types of fermentation, they do either lactic acid fermentation which is what we do,1856

animals do in general, and there is alcohol fermentation.1862

Lactic acid fermentation, for example animals do it.1866

Alcohol fermentation, yeast, like I said you know bacteria will do too.1875

Animals produce lactic acid, especially in their muscles.1884

When your muscles are working really hard, and maybe a lot of energy to do what you are asking to do.1887

If not enough O₂ is gone to the muscle for what you are asking it to do,1893

you get a burning sensation, and that is thanks to the buildup of lactic acid.1897

It eventually goes away, you end up breathing in more oxygen.1902

Lactic acid can be converted back into pyruvate, takes it to the processes in your liver.1905

Alcohol fermentation is another form of fermentation, and yeast do it.1910

That is how we end up being able to make beer, wine, and liquor.1914

They are able to make bread, lots of other foods, thanks to fermentation.1919

The release of CO₂ from fermentation will make the bread rise in the oven.1924

The thing with aerobic respiration from this as a whole, the only ATP you get is what you got from glycolysis.1930

After glycolysis do fermentation, there is no production of ATP.1938

In terms of efficiency of breaking down sugars to get a lot of ATP out of it, not nearly as good as aerobic respiration.1942

How these processes occur, well lactic acid fermentation, I will draw it here in black.1951

If we have those pyruvates with 3 carbons, an enzyme helps modify it1963

into what is known as lactic acid, to make this fermentation happen.1977

No CO₂ leaves because lactic acid has the same number of carbon atoms 1, 2, 3 as pyruvate.1985

I should actually make this singular because it is 1 pyruvate, but it does happen to each one of them.1993

A pyruvate is modified into a lactic acid.1999

What needs to happen is, NADH gives back what it gained and converts back to NAD+.2003

It gives back electrons and protons it gained to the process of making pyruvate to turn it into lactic acid.2014

Research has shown that the building of lactic acid in the human body, specifically the muscles, encourages you to inhale more oxygen.2021

It is a nice mechanism to get a lot more oxygen in your system,2031

so you can stop doing lactic acid fermentation and get back to aerobic respiration which can give you a lot more ATP.2034

Now, I’m going to show you alcohol fermentation in blue.2043

Here is how alcohol fermentation is a little bit different.2049

We still have these 3 carbon pyruvate, there is a major difference though.2052

A carbon leaves, there is a carbon leaving there via CO₂,2065

and we end up with the 2 carbon molecule known as ethanol or ethyl alcohol, same thing.2069

Ethanol, the alcohol that is in liquor, wine, and beer,2076

that is what you get from alcohol fermentation that is why it is called that.2082

Just like in lactic acid fermentation, NADH gives back what it gained and AD+ forms.2087

It gives back those electrons and protons to help turn pyruvate in ethanol.2102

The CO₂ release that what makes bread rise.2106

The CO₂ release also explains bubbles in champagne, in beer, sparkling wine.2109

Oftentimes, breweries will let the natural carbonation just go to vapor and leave the liquid,2117

and they will put back a specific amount of carbon dioxide back in.2128

Traditionally, the bubbles that were there when your alcohol was first made, is from this process,2132

from this natural process of alcohol fermentation.2139

It comes from glycolysis, that is how you got pyruvate.2143

It is just from not having that O₂, that is the main difference with anaerobic respiration.2147

You can think of it this way, glycolysis and then there is a fork in the road.2153

When there is O₂, you get Krebs and oxidative phosphorylation.2162

When you have no O₂ available, you get fermentation.2172

This kind of a fork in the road, glycolysis is what aerobic and anaerobic respiration have in common.2180

Definitely, anaerobic respiration is something that is done by yeast and certain kinds of bacteria,2186

and done on your muscles, particular times when we are really exhausted.2192

Not as efficient, not as beneficial as something like aerobic respiration, it gives you a lot more ATP.2196

When we compare aerobic respiration versus photosynthesis, I wanted to show you some interesting things here.2204

Let us do aerobic respiration in purple.2211

And of course, we will do photosynthesis in green.2242

At first glance, there is a certain kind of perimysium here.2270

You can see that the reactants of one are the products of the other, and vice versa.2276

The only difference is what kind of energy we are talking about.2281

The output of energy from the breakdown of sugars to aerobic respiration, that energy ends up being encapsulated in ATP.2285

All that energy release from the breakdown of this, gives you those approximate 36 ATP.2293

Conversely, the energy that is required to make this process build sugar is from the sun.2299

This is not saying, we have to breakdown ADP.2307

No, this is particular energy here, this is from sunlight, of course, solar energy, used to make the product of glucose.2310

Oxygen, waste product for photosynthesis, but plants will use oxygen.2319

Plants, oftentimes do aerobic respiration with their mitochondria, once they have built a sugar like glucose,2323

they will break it down to get ATP to keep their cells going.2331

This process up on top, aerobic respiration in general, exergonic, release of energy.2334

This endergonic, storing of energy, input of energy that has to happen to build a sugar.2347

These processes constantly fuel each other because think about it, if this process makes glucose,2360

releases oxygen, that is how you get this process being possible.2368

Animals and other organisms that eats, that have to consume, if you are a heterotrophy,2374

the taking in of energy source, they need glucose, they need oxygen to breakdown efficiently.2379

What they end up producing helps to fuel this, they really do keep it going around.2385

Other things that they have in common, not necessarily difference is electron transport.2394

Both of them have an electron transport chain, both of them have ATP synthase,2399

both of them have proteins that transport electrons, that transport protons, and help make ATP as part of the process.2404

One of them has ATP being made, as kind of the end of it.2415

One of them has ADP being made in the beginning.2419

If you think about the timing of electron transport in photosynthesis and aerobic respiration,2422

in terms the sequence, it happens very early on in the light reactions of photosynthesis.2427

It happens towards the end of aerobic respiration,2432

that just lends itself to this reversal of how things are happening with these processes.2434

It is amazing to look at them and compare them, and think about how they fuel each other2441

for billions of years, they will continue to do so.2446

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.2449

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