Enter your Sign on user name and password.

Forgot password?
Sign In | Subscribe
Start learning today, and be successful in your academic & professional career. Start Today!

Use Chrome browser to play professor video
Bryan Cardella

Bryan Cardella

Cellular Transport

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction to Biology
Scientific Method

26m 23s

Intro
0:00
Origins of the Scientific Method
0:04
Steps of the Scientific Method
3:08
Observe
3:21
Ask a Question
4:00
State a Hypothesis
4:08
Obtain Data (Experiment)
4:25
Interpret Data (Result)
5:01
Analysis (Form Conclusions)
5:38
Scientific Method in Action
6:16
Control vs. Experimental Groups
7:24
Independent vs. Dependent Variables
9:51
Other Factors Remain Constant
11:03
Scientific Method Example
13:58
Scientific Method Illustration
17:35
More on the Scientific Method
22:16
Experiments Need to Duplicate
24:07
Peer Review
24:46
New Discoveries
25:23
Molecular Basis of Biology

46m 22s

Intro
0:00
Building Blocks of Matter
0:06
Matter
0:32
Mass
1:10
Atom
1:48
Ions
5:50
Bonds
8:29
Molecules
9:55
Ionic Bonds
9:57
Covalent Bonds
11:10
Water
12:30
Organic Compounds
17:48
Carbohydrates
18:04
Lipids
19:43
Proteins
20:42
Nucleic Acids
22:21
Carbohydrates
22:54
Sugars
22:56
Functions
23:42
Molecular Representation Formula
26:34
Examples
27:15
Lipids
28:44
Fats
28:46
Triglycerides
29:04
Functions
32:10
Steroids
33:43
Saturated Fats
34:18
Unsaturated Fats
36:08
Proteins
37:26
Amino Acids
37:58
3D Structure Relates to Their Function
38:54
Structural Proteins vs Globular Proteins
39:41
Functions
40:41
Nucleic Acids
42:53
Nucleotides
43:04
DNA and RNA
44:34
Functions
45:07
II. Cells: Structure & Function
Cells: Parts & Characteristics

1h 12m 12s

Intro
0:00
Microscopes
0:06
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
0:58
Robert Hooke
1:36
Matthias Schleiden
2:52
Theodor Schwann
3:19
Electron Microscopes
4:16
SEM and TEM
4:54
The Cell Theory
5:21
3 Tenets
5:24
All Organisms Are Composed of One Or More Cells
5:46
The Cell is the Basic Unit of Structure and Function for Organisms
6:01
All Cells Comes from Preexisting Cells
6:34
The Characteristics of Life
8:09
Display Organization
8:18
Grow and Develop
9:12
Reproduce
9:33
Respond to Stimuli
9:55
Maintain Homeostasis
10:23
Can Evolve
11:37
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
11:53
Prokaryote
12:13
Eukaryote
14:00
Cell Parts
16:53
Plasma Membrane
18:27
Cell Membrane
18:29
Protective and Regulatory
18:52
Semi-Permeable
19:18
Polar Heads with Non-Polar Tails
20:52
Proteins are Imbedded in the Layer
22:46
Nucleus
25:53
Contains the DNA in Nuclear Envelope
26:31
Brain on the Cell
28:12
Nucleolus
28:26
Ribosome
29:02
Protein Synthesis Sites
29:25
Made of RNA and Protein
29:29
Found in Cytoplasm
30:24
Endoplasmic Reticulum
31:49
Adjacent to Nucleus
32:07
Site of Numerous Chemical Reactions
32:37
Rough
32:56
Smooth
33:48
Golgi Apparatus
34:54
Flattened Membranous Sacs
35:10
Function
35:45
Cell Parts Review
37:06
Mitochondrion
39:45
Mitochondria
39:50
Membrane-Bound Organelles
40:07
Outer Double Membrane
40:57
Produces Energy-Storing Molecules
41:46
Chloroplast
43:45
In Plant Cells
43:47
Membrane-Bound Organelles with Their Own DNA and Ribosomes
44:20
Thylakoids
44:59
Produces Sugars Through Photosynthesis
45:46
Vacuoles/ Vesicles
46:44
Vacuoles
47:03
Vesicles
47:59
Lysosome
50:21
Membranous Sac for Breakdown of Molecules
50:34
Contains Digestive Enzymes
51:55
Centrioles
53:15
Found in Pairs
53:18
Made of Cylindrical Ring of Microtubules
53:22
Contained Within Centrosomes
53:51
Functions as Anchors for Spindle Apparatus in Cell Division
54:06
Spindle Apparatus
55:27
Cytoskeleton
55:55
Forms Framework or Scaffolding for Cell
56:05
Provides Network of Protein Fibers for Travel
56:24
Made of Microtubules, Microfilaments, and Intermediate Filaments
57:18
Cilia
59:21
Cilium
59:27
Made of Ring of Microtubules
1:00:00
How They Move
1:00:35
Flagellum
1:02:42
Flagella
1:02:51
Long, Tail-Like Projection from a Cell
1:02:59
How They Move
1:03:27
Cell Wall
1:05:21
Outside of Plasma Membrane
1:05:25
Extra Protection and Rigidity for a Cell
1:05:52
In Plants
1:07:19
In Bacteria
1:07:25
In Fungi
1:07:41
Cytoplasm
1:08:07
Fluid-Filled Region of a Cell
1:08:24
Sight for Majority of the Cellular Reactions
1:08:47
Cytosol
1:09:29
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
1:09:10
Cellular Transport

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Passive Transport
0:05
Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
0:14
High Concentration to Low Concentration
0:36
Opposite of Active Transport
1:41
No Net Movement
3:20
Diffusion
3:55
Definition of Diffusion
3:58
Examples
4:07
Facilitated Diffusion
7:32
Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
7:49
Osmosis
9:34
Definition of Osmosis
9:42
Examples
10:50
Concentration Gradient
15:55
Definition of Concentration Gradient
16:01
Relative Concentrations
17:32
Hypertonic Solution
17:48
Hypotonic Solution
20:07
Isotonic Solution
21:27
Active Transport
22:49
Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
22:51
Example
23:30
Endocytosis
25:53
Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
26:13
Examples
26:26
Phagocytosis
28:54
Pinocytosis
29:02
Exocytosis
29:40
Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
29:43
Opposite of Endocytosis
29:50
Cellular Energy, Part I

52m 11s

Intro
0:00
Energy Facts
0:05
Law of Thermodynamics
0:16
Potential Energy
2:27
Kinetic Energy
2:50
Chemical Energy
3:01
Mechanical Energy
3:20
Solar Energy
3:41
ATP Structure
4:07
Adenosine Triphosphate
4:12
Common Energy Source
4:25
ATP Function
6:13
How It Works
7:18
What It Is Used For
7:43
GTP
9:36
ATP Cycle
10:35
ATP Formation
10:49
ATP Use
12:12
Enzyme Basics
13:51
Catalysts
13:59
Protein-Based
14:39
Reaction Occurs
14:51
Enzyme Structure
19:14
Active Site
19:23
Induced Fit
20:15
Enzyme Function
21:22
What Enzymes Help With
21:31
Inhibition
21:57
Ideal Environment to Function Properly
22:57
Enzyme Examples
25:26
Amylase
25:34
Catalase
26:03
DNA Polymerase
26:21
Rubisco
27:06
Photosynthesis
28:19
Process To Make Glucose
28:27
Photoauthotrophs
28:34
Endergonic
30:08
Reaction
30:22
Chloroplast Structure
31:55
Photosynthesis Factories Found in Plant Cells
32:26
Thylakoids
32:29
Stroma
33:18
Chloroplast Micrograph
34:14
Photosystems
34:46
Thylakoid Membranes Are Filled with These Reaction Centers
34:58
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
35:47
Light Reactions
37:09
Light-Dependent Reactions
37:24
Step 1
37:35
Step 2
38:31
Step 3
39:33
Step 4
40:33
Step 5
40:51
Step 6
41:30
Dark Reactions
43:15
Light-Independent Reactions or Calvin Cycle
43:19
Calvin Cycle
44:54
Cellular Energy, Part II

40m 50s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Respiration
0:05
Process of Breaking Down Carbohydrates to Make ATP
0:45
Glycolysis
1:44
Krebs Cycle
1:48
Oxidative Phosphorylation
2:06
Produces About 36 ATP
2:24
Glycolysis
3:35
Breakdown of Sugar Into Pyruvates
4:16
Occurs in the Cytoplasm
4:30
Krebs Cycle
11:40
Citric Acid Cycle
11:42
Acetyl-CoA
12:04
How Pyruvate Gets Modified into acetyl-CoA
12:35
Oxidative Phosphorylation
22:45
Anaerobic Respiration
29:44
Lactic Acid Fermentation
31:06
Alcohol Fermentation
31:51
Produces Only the ATP From Glycolysis
32:09
Aerobic Respiration vs. Photosynthesis
36:43
Cell Division

1h 9m 12s

Intro
0:00
Purposes of Cell Division
0:05
Growth and Development
0:17
Tissue Regeneration
0:51
Reproduction
1:51
Cell Size Limitations
4:01
Surface-to-Volume Ratio
5:33
Genome-to-Volume Ratio
10:29
The Cell Cycle
12:20
Interphase
13:23
Mitosis
14:08
Cytokinesis
14:21
Chromosome Structure
16:08
Sister Chromatids
19:00
Centromere
19:22
Chromatin
19:48
Interphase
21:38
Growth Phase #1
22:25
Synthesis of DNA
23:09
Growth Phase #2
23:52
Mitosis
25:13
4 Main Phases
25:21
Purpose of Mitosis
26:40
Prophase
28:46
Condense DNA
28:56
Nuclear Envelope Breaks Down
29:44
Nucleolus Disappears
30:04
Centriole Pairs Move to Poles
30:31
Spindle Apparatus Forms
31:22
Metaphase
32:36
Chromosomes Line Up Along Equator
32:43
Metaphase Plate
33:29
Anaphase
34:21
Sister Chromatids are Separated
34:26
Sister Chromatids Migrate Towards Poles
36:59
Telophase
37:17
Chromatids Become De-Condensed
37:31
Nuclear Envelope Reforms
37:59
Nucleoli Reappears
38:22
Spindle Apparatus Breaks Down
38:32
Cytokinesis
39:01
In Animal Cells
39:31
In Plant Cells
40:38
Cancer in Relation to Mitosis
41:59
Cancer Can Occur in Multicellular Organism
42:31
Particular Genes Control the Pace
43:11
Benign vs. Malignant
45:13
Metastasis
46:45
Natural Killer Cells
47:33
Meiosis
48:17
Produces 4 Cells with Half the Number of Chromosomes
49:02
Produces Genetically Unique Daughter Cells
51:56
Meiosis I
52:39
Prophase I
53:14
Metaphase I
57:44
Anaphase I
59:10
Telophase I
1:00:00
Meiosis II
1:01:04
Prophase II
1:01:08
Metaphase II
1:01:32
Anaphase II
1:02:08
Telophase II
1:02:43
Meiosis Overview
1:03:39
Products of Meiosis
1:06:00
Gametes
1:06:10
Sperm and Egg
1:06:17
Different Process for Spermatogenesis vs. Oogenesis
1:06:27
III. From DNA to Protein
DNA

51m 42s

Intro
0:00
DNA: Its Role and Characteristics
0:05
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
0:17
Double Helix
1:28
Nucleotides
2:31
Anti-parallel
2:46
Self-Replicating
3:36
Codons, Genes, Chromosomes
3:56
DNA: The Discovery
5:13
DNA First Mentioned
5:50
Bacterial Transformation with DNA
6:32
Base Pairing Rule
8:06
DNA is Hereditary Material
9:44
X-Ray Crystallography Images
10:46
DNA Structure
11:49
Nucleotides
12:54
The Double Helix
16:34
Hydrogen Bonding
16:40
Backbone of Phosphates and Sugars
19:25
Strands are Anti-Parallel
19:37
Nitrogenous Bases
20:52
Purines
21:38
Pyrimidines
22:46
DNA Replication Overview
24:33
DNA Must Duplicate Every Time a Cell is Going to Divide
24:34
Semiconservative Replication
24:49
How Does it Occur?
27:34
DNA Replication Steps
28:39
DNA Helicase Unzips Double Stranded DNA
28:49
RNA Primer is Laid Down
29:10
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Continuous Manner
30:07
DNA Polymerase Attaches Complementary Bases in Fragments
31:06
DNA Polymerase Replaces RNA Primers
31:22
DNA Ligase Connects Fragments Together
31:44
DNA Replication Illustration
32:25
'Junk' DNA
45:02
Only 2% of the Human Genome Codes for Protein
45:11
What Does Junk DNA Mean to Us?
46:52
DNA Technology Uses These Sequences
49:20
RNA

51m 59s

Intro
0:00
The Central Dogma
0:04
Transcription
0:57
Translation
1:11
RNA: Its Role and Characteristics
2:02
Ribonucleic Acid
2:06
How It Is Different From DNA
2:59
DNA and RNA Differences
5:00
Types of RNA
6:01
Messenger RNA
6:15
Ribosomal RNA
6:49
Transfer RNA
7:52
Others
8:54
Transcription
9:26
Process in Which RNA is Made From a Gene in DNA
9:30
How It's Done
9:55
Summary of Steps
10:35
Transcription Steps
11:54
Initiation
11:57
Elongation
15:57
Termination
18:10
RNA Processing
21:35
Pre-mRNA
21:37
Modifications
21:53
Translation
27:01
Process in Which mRNA Binds with a Ribosome and tRNA and rRNA Assist
27:03
Summary of Steps
28:39
Translation the mRNA Code
28:59
Every Codon in mRNA Gets Translated to an Amino Acid
29:14
Chart Providing the Resulting Translation
29:19
Translation Steps
32:20
Initiation
32:23
Elongation
35:31
Termination
38:43
Mutations
40:22
Code in DNA is Subject to Change
41:00
Why Mutations Happen
41:23
Point Mutation
43:16
Insertion / Deletion
47:58
Duplications
50:03
Genetics, Part I

1h 15m 17s

Intro
0:00
Gregor Mendel
0:05
Father of Genetics
0:39
Experimented with Crossing Peas
1:02
Discovered Consistent Patterns
2:37
Mendel's Laws of Genetics
3:10
Law of Segregation
3:20
Law of Independent Assortment
5:07
Genetics Vocabulary #1
6:28
Gene
6:42
Allele
7:18
Homozygous
8:25
Heterozygous
9:39
Genotype
10:15
Phenotype
11:01
Hybrid
11:53
Pure Breeding
12:28
Generation Vocabulary
13:03
Parental Generation
13:25
1st Filial
13:58
2nd Filial
14:06
Punnett Squares
15:07
Monohybrid Cross
18:52
Mating Pure-Breeding Peas in the P Generation
19:09
F1 Cross
21:31
Dihybrid Cross Introduction
23:42
Traced Inheritance of 2 Genes in Pea Plants
23:50
Dihybrid Cross Example
26:07
Phenotypic Ratio
31:34
Incomplete Dominance
32:02
Blended Inheritance
32:27
Example
32:35
Epistasis
35:05
Occurs When a Gene Has the Ability to Completely Cancel Out the Expression of Another Gene
35:10
Example
35:30
Multiple Alleles
40:12
More Than Two Forms of Alleles
40:23
Example
41:06
Polygenic Inheritance
46:50
Many Traits Get Phenotype From the Inheritance of Numerous Genes
46:58
Example
47:26
Test Cross
51:53
In Cases of Complete Dominance
52:03
Test Cross Demonstrates Which Genotype They Have
52:52
Sex-Linked Traits
53:56
Autosomes
54:21
Sex Chromosomes
54:57
Genetic Disorders
59:31
Autosomal Recessive
1:00:00
Autosomal Dominant
1:06:17
Sex-Linked Recessive
1:09:19
Sex-Linked Dominant
1:13:41
Genetics, Part II

49m 57s

Intro
0:00
Karotyping
0:04
Process to Check Chromosomes for Abnormal Characteristics
0:08
Done with Cells From a Fetus
0:58
Amniocentesis
1:02
Normal Karotype
2:43
Abnormal Karotype
4:20
Nondisjunction
5:14
Failure of Chromosomes to Properly Separate During Meiosis
5:16
Nondisjunction
5:45
Typically Causes Chromosomal Disorders Upon Fertilization
6:33
Chromosomal Disorders
10:52
Autosome Disorders
11:01
Sex Chromosome Disorders
14:06
Pedigrees
20:29
Visual Depiction of an Inheritance Pattern for One Gene in a Family's History
20:30
Symbols
20:46
Trait Being Traced is Depicted by Coloring in the Individual
21:58
Pedigree Example #1
22:26
Pedigree Example #2
25:02
Pedigree Example #3
27:23
Environmental Impact
30:24
Gene Expression Is Often Influenced by Environment
30:25
Twin Studies
30:35
Examples
31:45
Genetic Engineering
36:03
Genetic Transformation
36:17
Restriction Enzymes
39:09
Recombinant DNA
40:37
Gene Cloning
41:58
Polymerase Chain Reaction
43:13
Gel Electrophoresis
44:37
Transgenic Organisms
48:03
IV. History of Life
Evolution

1h 47m 19s

Intro
0:00
The Scientists Behind the Theory
0:04
Fossil Study and Catastrophism
0:18
Gradualism
1:13
Population Growth
2:00
Early Evolution Thought
2:37
Natural Selection As a Sound Theory
8:05
Darwin's Voyage
8:59
Galapagos Islands Stop
9:15
Theory of Natural Selection
11:24
Natural Selection Summary
12:37
Populations have Enormous Reproductive Potential
13:45
Population Sizes Tend to Remain Relatively Stable
14:55
Resources Are Limited
16:51
Individuals Compete for Survival
17:16
There is Much Variation Among Individuals in a Population
17:36
Much Variation is Heritable
18:06
Only the Most Fit Individuals Survive
18:27
Evolution Occurs As Advantageous Traits Accumulate
19:23
Evidence for Evolution
19:47
Molecular Biology
19:53
Homologous Structures
22:55
Analogous Structures
26:20
Embryology
29:36
Paleontology
34:54
Patterns of Evolution
40:14
Divergent Evolution
40:37
Convergent Evolution
43:15
Co-Evolution
46:07
Gradualism vs. Punctuated Equilibrium
49:56
Modes of Selection
52:25
Directional Selection
54:40
Disruptive Selection
56:38
Stabilizing Selection
58:07
Artificial Selection
59:56
Sexual Selection
1:02:13
More on Sexual Selection
1:03:00
Sexual Dimorphism
1:03:26
Examples
1:04:50
Notes on Natural Selection
1:09:41
Phenotype
1:10:01
Only Heritable Traits
1:11:00
Mutations Fuel Natural Selection
11:39
Reproductive Isolation
1:12:00
Temporal Isolation
1:12:59
Behavioral Isolation
1:14:17
Mechanical Isolation
1:15:13
Gametic Isolation
1:16:21
Geographic Isolation
1:16:51
Reproductive Isolation (Post-Zygotic)
1:18:37
Hybrid Sterility
1:18:57
Hybrid Inviability
1:20:08
Hybrid Breakdown
1:20:31
Speciation
1:21:02
Process in Which New Species Forms From an Ancestral Form
1:21:13
Factors That Can Lead to Development of a New Species
1:21:19
Adaptive Radiation
1:24:26
Radiating of Various New Species
1:24:28
Changes in Appearance
1:24:56
Examples
1:24:14
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
1:27:35
Five Conditions
1:28:15
Equations
1:33:55
Microevolution
1:36:59
Natural Selection
1:37:11
Genetic Drift
1:37:34
Gene Flow
1:40:54
Nonrandom Mating
1:41:06
Clarifications About Evolution
1:41:24
A Single Organism Cannot Evolve
1:41:34
No Single Missing Link with Human Evolution
1:43:01
Humans Did Not Evolve from Chimpanzees
1:46:13
Human Evolution

47m 31s

Intro
0:00
Primates
0:04
Typical Primate Characteristics
1:12
Strepsirrhines
3:26
Haplorhines
4:08
Anthropoids
5:03
New World Monkeys
5:15
Old World Moneys
6:20
Hominoids
6:51
Hominins
7:51
Hominins
8:46
Larger Brains
8:53
Thinner, Flatter Face
9:02
High Manual Dexterity
9:30
Bipedal
9:41
Australopithecines
12:11
Earliest Fossil Evidence for Bipedalism
12:24
Earliest Australopithecines
13:06
Lucy
13:35
The Genus 'Homo'
15:20
Living and Extinct Humans
16:46
Features
16:52
Tool Use
17:09
Homo Habilis
17:38
2.4 - 1.4 mya
18:38
Handy Human
19:19
Found In Africa
19:33
Homo Ergaster
20:11
1.8 - 1.2 mya
20:14
Features
20:25
Found In and Outside of Africa
20:41
Most Likely Hunted
21:03
Homo Erectus
21:32
1.8 - 0.4 mya
22:04
Upright Human
22:49
Found in Africa, Asia, and Europe
22:52
Features
22:57
Used Fire
23:07
Homo Heidelbergensis
23:45
1.3 - 0.2 mya
23:50
Transitional Form
24:22
Features
24:36
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis
24:56
0.3 - 0.2 mya
25:23
Neander Valley
25:31
Found in Europe and Asia
21:53
Constructed Complex Structures
27:50
Modern Human and Neanderthal
28:50
Homo Sapiens Sapiens
29:34
195,000 Years Ago - Present
29:37
Humans Most Likely Evolved Once
29:50
Features
30:26
Creative and More Control Over the Environment
30:37
Homo Floresiensis
31:36
18,000 Years Old
31:40
The Hobbit
32:09
Brain and Body Proportions are Similar to Australopithecines
32:16
Human Migration Summary
32:49
Origins of Life

40m 58s

Intro
0:00
Brief History of Earth
0:05
About 4.5 Billion Years Old
0:13
Started Off as a Fiery Ball of Hot Volcanic Activity
1:12
Atmospheric Gas of Early Earth
2:20
Gases Expelled Out of Volcanic Vents
3:10
Building Blocks to Organic Compounds
4:47
Miller-Urey Experiment (1953)
5:41
Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
5:48
Amino Acids Were Found in the Sterile Water Beneath
7:27
Protobionts
8:07
Ancestors of Cells as We Know Them
8:19
Lipid Bubbles with Organic Compounds Inside
8:32
Origin of DNA
12:07
First Cells
12:12
RNA Originally Coded for Protein
12:44
DNA Allows for Retention and a Checking for Errors
12:55
Oxygen Surge
14:57
Photosynthesis Changes Oxygen Gas in Atmosphere
16:36
Cells Absorb Solar Energy with Pigment and Could Make Sugars and Release Oxygen
17:05
Endosymbiotic Theory
18:22
First Eukaryote was Born
19:54
First Proposed by Lynn Margulis
22:43
Multicellular Origins
23:08
Cells That Kept Close Quarters and Stayed Attached Had Safety in Numbers
23:28
Hypothesis
23:45
Cambrian Explosion
26:22
Explosion of Species
27:10
Theory and Snowball Earth
28:24
Timeline of Major Events
32:00
Biogenesis

27m 25s

Intro
0:00
Spontaneous Generation
0:04
Spontaneous Generation
0:14
Pseudoscience
1:45
Individuals Who Sought to Disprove This Theory
2:49
Francesco Redi's Experiment
3:33
17th Century Italian Scientist
3:36
Wanted to Debunk the Theory That Maggots Emerge From Rotting Raw Meat
3:48
Lazzaro Spallanzani's Experiment
6:33
18th Century Italian Scientist
6:36
Wanted to Demonstrate That Microbes Could Be Airborne
6:58
Louis Pasteur's Experiment
9:47
19th Century French Scientist
9:51
Disprove Spontaneous Generation
11:17
Pasteur's Vaccine Discovery
13:47
Motivation to Discover a Way to Immunize People Against Disease
14:00
Cholera Bacteria
14:42
Vaccine Explanation
16:42
Inactive Versions of the Virus are Generated in a Culture
16:47
Antigens Injected Into the Person
17:45
Common Immunizations
22:00
Effectiveness
22:03
No Proof That Vaccines Cause Autism
26:33
V. Diversity of Life
Taxonomy

35m 21s

Intro
0:00
Ancient Classification
0:04
Start of Classification Systems
0:56
How Plants and Animals Were Split Up
2:46
Used in Europe Until 1700s
3:27
Modern Classification
3:52
Carolus Linnaeus
3:58
Taxonomy
5:15
Taxonomic Groups
6:57
Domain
7:14
Kingdom
7:29
Phylum
7:39
Class
7:49
Order
8:02
Family
8:09
Genus
8:25
Species
8:45
Binomial Nomenclature
12:10
Genus Species
12:22
Naming System Rules
12:49
Advantages and Disadvantages to Taxonomy
14:56
Advantages
15:00
Disadvantages
17:53
Domains
20:31
Domain Archaea
21:10
Domain Bacteria
21:19
Domain Eukarya
21:43
Extremophiles
22:48
Kingdoms
25:09
Kingdom Archaebacteria
25:17
Kingdom Eubacteria
25:25
Kingdom Protista
25:52
Kingdom Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
27:18
Cladograms
28:07
Relates Evolution to Phylogeny
28:12
Characteristics Lead to Splitting Off Groups of Organisms
28:20
Viruses

44m 25s

Intro
0:00
Virus Basics
0:04
Non-Living Structures have the Potential to Harm Life on Earth
0:14
Made of Nucleic Acids Wrapped in a Protein Coat
2:15
5 to 300 nm Wide
3:12
Virus Structure
4:29
Icosahedral
4:41
Spherical
5:33
Bacteriophage
6:20
Helical
8:56
How Do They Invade Cells?
11:24
Viruses Can Fool Cells to Let Them In
11:27
Viruses Use the Organelles of the Host
12:29
Viruses are Host Specific
12:57
Viral Cycle
16:18
Lytic Cycle
16:34
Lysogenic Cycle
18:53
Connection Between Lytic/ Lysogenic
23:01
Retroviruses
30:04
Process is Backwards
30:52
Reverse Transcriptase
31:08
Example
31:47
HIV/ AIDS
32:38
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
32:42
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
36:27
Smallpox: A Brief History
37:06
One of the Most Harmful Viral Diseases in Human History
37:09
History
37:53
Prions
41:32
Infectious Proteins That Damage the Nervous System
41:33
Cause Transmittable Spongiform Encephalopathies
41:51
No Known Cure
43:42
Bacteria

46m 1s

Intro
0:00
Archaebacteria
0:04
Thermophiles
1:10
Halophiles
2:06
Acidophiles
2:29
Methanogens
2:59
Archaea and Bacteria Compared to Eukarya
4:25
Archaea and Eukarya
4:36
Bacteria and Eukarya
5:37
Eubacteria
6:35
Nucleoid Region
7:02
Peptidoglycan
7:21
Binary Fission
8:08
No Membrane-Bound Organelles
8:59
Bacterial Shapes
10:19
Coccus
10:26
Bacillus
12:07
Spirillum
12:44
Bacterial Cell Walls
13:17
Gram Positive
13:47
Gram Negative
15:09
Bacterial Adaptations
16:13
Capsule
16:18
Fimbriae
17:51
Conjugation
18:30
Endospore
21:30
Flagella
23:49
Metabolism
24:36
Benefits of Bacteria
27:28
Mutualism
27:32
Connections to Human Life
30:56
Diseases Caused by Bacteria
35:05
STDs
35:15
Respiratory
36:04
Skin
37:15
Digestive Tract
38:00
Nervous System
38:27
Systemic Diseases
39:09
Antibiotics
40:26
Drugs That Block Protein Synthesis
40:40
Drugs That Block Cell Wall Production
41:07
Increased Bacterial Resistance
41:36
Protists

32m 46s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Protista Basics
0:04
Unicellular and Multicellular
0:28
Asexual and Sexual
0:48
Water and Land
1:06
Resemble Other Life Forms
1:32
Protist Origin
2:04
Evolutionary Bridge Between Bacteria and Multicellular Eukaryotes
2:06
Protist Ancestors
2:27
Protist Debate
4:18
One Kingdom
4:30
Some Scientists Group Into Separate Kingdoms Based on Genetic Links
4:37
Plant-like Protists
6:03
Photoautotrophs
6:12
Green Algae
6:44
Red Algae
7:12
Brown Algae
7:57
Golden Algae
9:10
Dinoflagellates
9:20
Diatoms
9:41
Euglena
10:17
Euglena Structure
10:39
Ulva Life Cycle
12:08
Fungi-Like Protists
15:39
Heterotrophs That Feed on Decaying Organic Matter
15:41
Found Anywhere with Moisture and Warmth
16:04
Cellular Slime Mold Life Cycle
17:34
Animal-like Protists
21:45
Heterotrophs That Eat Live Cells
21:50
Motile
22:03
Amoeba Life Cycle
25:24
How Protists Impact Humans
29:09
Good
29:16
Bad
32:18
Plants, Part I

54m 22s

Intro
0:00
Kingdom Plantae Characteristics
0:05
Cuticle
0:38
Vascular Bundles
1:18
Stomata
2:51
Alternation of Generations
4:16
Plant Origins
5:58
Common Ancestor with Green Algae
6:03
Appeared on Earth 400 Million Years Ago
7:28
Non-Vascular Plants
8:17
Bryophytes
8:45
Anthoworts
9:12
Hepaticophytes
9:19
Bryophyte (Moss) Life Cycle
9:30
Dominant Gametophyte
9:38
Illustration Explanation
9:58
Seedless Vascular Plants
15:26
Do Not Reproduce With Seeds
15:33
Sori
15:42
Lycophytes
15:54
Pterophytes
16:30
Pterophyte (Fern) Life Cycle
17:05
Dominant Generation
17:08
Produce Motile Sperm
17:17
Seed Plants
23:17
Most Vascular Plants Have Seeds
23:25
Cotyledons
23:43
Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm
24:50
Divisions
25:48
Coniferophytes (Cone-Bearing Plants)
27:05
Examples
27:07
Evergreen or Deciduous
27:44
Gymnosperms
28:26
Economic Importance
29:28
Conifer Life Cycle
30:10
Dominant Generation
30:13
Cones Contain the Gametophyte
30:25
Illustration Explanation
30:31
Anthophytes (Flowering Plants)
38:01
Every Plant That Has Flowers
38:03
Angiosperms
38:28
Various Life Spans
38:03
Flower Anatomy
40:25
Female Parts
40:54
Male Parts
42:49
Flowering Plant Life Cycle
44:48
Dominant Generation
44:56
Flowers Contain the Gametophyte
45:05
Plants, Part II

44m 40s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Varieties
0:05
Parenchyma
0:11
Collenchyma
1:37
Sclerenchyma
2:03
Specialized Tissues
2:56
Plant Tissues
3:17
Meristematic Tissue
3:21
Dermal Tissue
6:46
Vascular Tissues
8:45
Ground Tissue
13:56
Roots
14:24
Root Cap
15:59
Cortex
16:17
Endodermis
17:02
Pericycle
17:42
Taproot
18:11
Fibrous
18:20
Modified
18:49
Stems
19:49
Tuber
21:43
Rhizome
21:58
Runner
22:12
Bulb and Corm
22:49
Leaves
23:06
Photosynthesis
23:09
Leaf Parts
23:32
Gas Exchange
25:55
Transpiration
26:25
Seeds
27:41
Cotyledons
28:42
Seed Coat
29:29
Endosperm
29:37
Embryo
30:10
Radicle
30:27
Epicotyl
31:57
Fruit
33:49
Fleshy Fruits
34:46
Aggregate Fruits
35:17
Multiple Fruits
35:50
Dry Fruits
36:27
Plant Hormones
37:44
Definition or Hormones
37:48
Examples
38:12
Plant Responses
40:42
Tropisms
41:00
Nastic Responses
43:04
Fungi

26m 20s

Intro
0:00
Fungi Basics
0:03
Characteristics
0:09
Closely Related to Kingdom Animalia
2:33
Fungal Structure
2:58
Hypae
3:03
Mycelium
5:00
Spore
5:24
Reproductive Strategies
6:15
Fragmentation
6:23
Budding
6:35
Spore Production
7:03
Zygomycota (Molds)
7:50
Sexual Reproduction
8:04
Dikaryotic
9:47
Stolons
10:32
Rhizoids
10:53
Ascomycota (Sac Fungi)
11:43
Largest Phylum of Fungi on Earth
11:47
Ascus
12:20
Conidia
12:30
Example
12:46
Basidiomycota (Club Fungi)
14:51
Basidium
15:14
Common Structures In These Fungi
15:37
Examples
16:17
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi)
17:25
No Known Sexual Life Cycle
17:31
Penicillin
18:00
Benefits of Fungi
18:51
Mutualism
18:56
Food
21:41
Medicines
22:30
Decomposition
23:08
Fungal Infections
23:38
Athlete's Foot
23:44
Ringworm
24:09
Yeast Infections
24:27
Candidemia
24:56
Aspergillus
25:15
Fungal Meningitis
25:44
Animals, Part I

35m 28s

Intro
0:00
Animal Basics
0:05
Multicellular Eukaryotes
0:12
Motility
0:27
Heterotrophic
0:47
Sexual Reproduction
0:57
Symmetry
1:14
Gut
1:26
Cephalization
1:40
Segmentation
1:53
Sensory Organs
2:09
Reproductive Strategies
3:07
Gonads
3:17
Fertilization
4:01
Asexual
4:53
Animal Development
7:27
Zygote
7:29
Blastula
7:50
Gastrula
9:07
Embryo
12:57
Symmetry
13:17
Radial Symmetry
14:14
Bilateral Symmetry
15:26
Asymmetry
16:34
Body Cavities
17:22
Coelom
17:24
Acoelomates
18:39
Pseudocoelomates
19:15
Coelomates
19:40
Major Animal Phyla
20:47
Phylum Porifera
21:15
Phylum Cnidaria
21:33
Phylum Platyhelmininthes, Nematoda, and Annelida
21:44
Phylum Rotifera
21:56
Phylum Mollusca
22:13
Phylum Arthropoda
22:34
Phylum Echinodermata
22:48
Phylum Chordata
23:18
Phylum Porifera
25:15
Sponges
25:23
Oceanic or Aquatic
26:07
Adults are Sessile
26:26
Structure
27:09
Sexual or Asexual Reproduction
28:31
Phylum Cnidaria
28:49
Sea Jellies, Anemonse, Hydrozoans, and Corals
28:57
Mostly Oceanic
30:42
Body Types
31:32
Cnidocytes
33:06
Nerve Net
34:55
Animals, Part II

48m 42s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Platyhelminthes
0:04
Flatworms
0:14
Acoelomates
0:33
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
0:46
Simple Nervous System
2:46
Reproduction
3:38
Phylum Nematoda
4:20
Unsegmented Roundworms
4:25
Pseudocoelomates
4:34
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
4:53
Full Digestive Tract
5:29
Reproduction
7:07
C. Elegans
7:24
Phylum Annelida
8:11
Segmented Roundworms
8:20
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
8:42
Full Digestive Tract
8:56
Accordion-like Movement
11:26
Simple Nervous System
12:31
Sexual Reproduction
13:40
Class Oligochaeta
14:47
Class Polychaeta
14:56
Class Hirudinea
15:13
Phylum Rotifera
16:11
Pseudocoelomates
16:26
Terrestrial, Aquatic
16:42
Digestive Tract
16:56
Phylum Mollusca
18:55
Snails, Slugs, Clams, Oysters
19:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
19:14
Mantle
19:29
Full Digestive Tract with Specialized Organs
21:10
Sexual Reproduction
24:29
Major Classes
24:58
Phylum Arthropoda
28:16
Insects, Arachnids, Crustaceans
28:19
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
28:41
Head, Thorax, Abdomen
28:50
Excretion with Malpighian Tubes
32:48
Arthropod Groups
34:06
Phylum Echinodermata
38:32
Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars, Sea Cucumbers
38:37
Oceanic or Aquatic
39:36
Water Vascular System
39:43
Full Digestive Tract
40:38
Sexual Reproduction
42:01
Phylum Chordata
42:16
All Vertebrates
42:22
Terrestrial, Oceanic, or Aquatic
42:40
Main Body Parts
42:49
Mostly in Subphylum Vertebrata
44:54
Examples
45:14
Animals, Part III

35m 45s

Intro
0:00
Characteristics of Subphylum Vertebrata
0:04
Vertebral Column
0:16
Neural Crest
0:38
Internal Organs
1:24
Fish Characteristics
2:05
Oceanic or Aquatic
2:16
Locomotion with Paired Fins
3:15
Gills
4:18
Fertilization
8:14
Movement
8:30
Fish Classes
8:58
Jawless Fishes
9:06
Cartilaginous Fishes
10:07
Bony Fishes
10:46
Amphibian Characteristics
12:22
Tetrapods
12:29
Moist Skin
14:22
Circulation
14:39
Nictitating Membrane
16:36
Tympanic Membrane
16:56
External Fertilization is Typical
17:34
Amphibian Orders
18:20
Order Anura
18:27
Order Caudata
19:15
Order Gymnophiona
19:59
Reptile Characteristics
20:31
Dry, Scaly Skin
20:37
Lungs for Gas Exchange
22:00
Terrestrial, Oceanic, Aquatic
22:12
Ectothermic
23:07
Internal Fertilization
24:13
Reptile Orders
26:28
Order Squamata
26:33
Order Crocodilia
27:32
Order Testudinata
27:55
Order Sphenodonta
28:30
Bird Characteristics
28:43
Feathers
29:42
Lightweight Bones
31:33
Lungs with Air Sacs
32:25
Endothermic
33:47
Internal Fertilization
34:03
Bird Orders
34:13
Order Passeriformes
34:29
Order Ciconiiformes
34:46
Order Sphenisciformes
34:55
Order Strigiformes
35:20
Order Struthioniformes
35:25
Order Anseriformes
35:38
Mammals

38m 39s

Intro
0:00
Mammary Glands and Hair
0:04
Class Mammalia Name
0:20
Hair Functions
1:53
Metabolic Characteristics
3:58
Endothermy
4:01
Feeding
4:48
Mammalian Organs
8:43
Respiratory System
8:47
Circulation
9:26
Brain and Senses
10:29
Glands
11:56
Mammalian Reproduction
12:55
Live Birth
13:03
Placental
13:17
Marsupial
14:41
Gestation Periods
16:07
Infraclass Marsupialia
17:42
Australia
17:59
Uterus/ Pouch
18:33
Origins
18:53
Examples
19:24
Order Monotremata
20:21
Egg Layers
20:25
Platypus, Echidna
20:55
Shoulder Area Has a Reptilian Bone Structure
21:07
Order Insectivora
22:21
Insectivores
22:23
Pointy Snouts
22:32
Burrowing
22:53
Examples
23:10
Order Chiroptera
23:32
True Flying Mammalian Order
23:38
Wings
23:59
Feeding
24:21
Examples
25:08
Order Xenarthra
25:14
Edentata
25:18
No Teeth
25:23
Location
25:50
Examples
25:55
Order Rodentia
26:33
40% of Mammalian Species
26:38
2 Pairs of Incisors
26:45
Examples
27:28
Order Lagomorpha
28:06
Herbivores
28:30
Examples
28:41
Order Carnivora
29:19
Teeth
29:36
Examples
29:42
Order Proboscidea
30:37
Largest Living Terrestrial Mammals
30:40
Trunks
30:48
Tusks
31:12
Examples
31:33
Order Sirenia
32:01
Large, Slow Moving Aquatic Mammals
32:15
Flippers
32:26
Herbivores
32:37
Examples
32:42
Order Cetacea
32:46
Large, Mostly Hairless Aquatic Mammals
32:50
Flippers
33:06
Fluke
33:18
Blowhole
33:29
Examples
34:10
Order Artiodactyla
34:30
Even-Toed Hoofed Mammals
34:33
Herbivores
34:37
Sometimes Grouped with Cetaceans
34:52
Examples
35:35
Order Perissodactyla
35:57
Odd-Toed Hoofed Mammals
36:00
Herbivores
36:12
Examples
36:27
Order Primates
36:30
Largest Brain-to-Body Ratio
36:35
Arboreal
37:03
Nails
37:33
Examples
38:29
Animal Behavior

29m 55s

Intro
0:00
Behavior Overview
0:04
Behavior
0:08
Origin of Behavior
0:36
Competitive Advantage
1:26
Innate Behaviors
2:05
Genetically Based
2:07
Instinct
2:13
Fixed Action Pattern
3:31
Learned Behavior
5:13
Habituation
5:26
Classical Conditioning
6:31
Operant Conditioning
7:51
Imprinting
10:17
Learned Behavior That Can Only Occur in a Specific Time Period
10:20
Sensitive Period
10:28
Cognitive Behaviors
11:53
Thinking, Reasoning, and Processing Information
12:02
Examples
12:22
Competitive Behaviors
14:40
Agonistic Behavior
14:46
Dominance Hierarchies
15:23
Territorial Behaviors
16:19
More Types of Behavior
17:05
Foraging Behaviors
17:08
Migratory Behaviors
17:53
Biological Rhythms
19:15
Communication Behaviors
20:37
Pheromones
20:52
Auditory Communication
22:18
Courting and Nurturing Behaviors
23:42
Courting Behaviors
23:45
Nurturing Behaviors
26:04
Cooperative Behaviors
26:47
Benefit All Members of the Group
27:01
Example
27:08
VI. Ecology
Ecology, Part I

1h 7m 26s

Intro
0:00
Ecology Basics
0:05
Ecology
0:18
Biotic vs. Abiotic Factors
1:25
Population
2:23
Community
2:45
Ecosystem
3:04
Biosphere
3:27
Individuals and Survival
4:13
Habitat
4:23
Niche
4:37
Symbiosis
7:07
Obtaining Energy
11:14
Producers
11:24
Consumers
13:31
Food Chain
17:11
Model to Illustrate How Matter Moves Through Organisms in an Ecosystem
17:15
Examples
18:31
Food Web
20:29
Keystone Species
22:55
Three Ecological Pyramids
27:28
Pyramid of Energy
27:38
Pyramid of Numbers
31:39
Pyramid of Biomass
34:09
The Water Cycle
37:24
The Carbon Cycle
40:19
The Nitrogen Cycle
43:34
The Phosphorus Cycle
46:42
Population Growth
49:35
Reproductive Patterns
51:58
Life History Patterns Vary
52:10
r-Selection
53:30
K-Selection
56:55
Density Factors
59:02
Density-Dependent Factors
59:29
Density-Independent Factors
1:02:21
Predator / Prey Relationships
1:03:59
Ecology, Part II

50m 50s

Intro
0:00
Mimicry
0:05
Batesian Mimicry
0:38
Müllerian Mimicry
1:53
Camouflage
3:23
Blend In with Surroundings
3:38
Evade Detection by Predators
3:43
Succession
5:22
Primary Succession
5:40
Secondary Succession
7:44
Biomes
9:31
Terrestrial
10:08
Aquatic / Marine
10:05
Desert
11:20
Annual Rainfall
11:24
Flora
13:35
Fauna
14:15
Tundra
14:49
Annual Rainfall
15:00
Permafrost
15:50
Flora
16:06
Fauna
16:40
Taiga (Boreal Forest)
16:59
Annual Rainfall
17:14
Largest Terrestrial Biome
17:33
Flora
18:37
Fauna
18:49
Temperate Grassland
19:07
Annual Rainfall
19:28
Flora
20:14
Fauna
20:18
Tropical Grassland (Savanna)
20:41
Annual Rainfall
21:01
Flora
21:56
Fauna
22:00
Temperate Deciduous Forest
22:19
Annual Rainfall
23:11
Flora
23:45
Fauna
23:50
Tropical Rain Forest
24:11
Annual Rainfall
24:16
Flora
27:15
Fauna
27:49
Lakes
28:05
Eutrophic
28:21
Oligotrophic
28:29
Zones
29:34
Estuaries
32:56
Area Where Freshwater and Salt Water Meet
33:00
Mangrove Swamps
33:12
Nutrient Traps
33:52
Organisms
34:24
Marine
34:50
Euphotic Zone
35:16
Pelagic Zone
37:11
Abyssal Plain
38:15
Conservation Summary
40:03
Biodiversity
40:33
Habitat Loss
44:06
Pollution
44:55
Climate Change
47:03
Global Warming
47:06
Greenhouse Gases
47:48
Polar Ice Caps
49:01
Weather Patterns
50:00
VII. Laboratory
Laboratory Investigation I: Microscope Lab

24m 51s

Intro
0:00
Light Microscope Parts
0:06
Microscope Use
6:25
Mount the Specimen
6:28
Place Slide on Stage
7:29
Ensure Specimen is Above Light Source
8:11
Lowest Objective Lens Faces Downward
8:34
Focus on the Image
9:36
Adjust the Nosepiece If Needed
9:49
Re-Focus
9:57
Human Skin Layers
10:42
Plants Cells
13:43
Human Lung Tissue
15:20
Euglena
18:26
Plant Stem
20:43
Mold
22:57
Laboratory Investigation II: Egg Lab

11m 26s

Intro
0:00
Egg Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:37
Time
1:24
Day 1
1:28
Day 2
3:59
Day 3
6:05
Analysis
7:50
Osmosis Connection
10:24
Hypertonic
10:36
Hypotonic
10:49
Laboratory Investigation III: Carbon Dioxide Production

14m 34s

Intro
0:00
Carbon Dioxide Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:56
Time
2:39
Part I
2:41
Put Water in Large Beaker
3:09
Exhale Into the Water
3:15
Add a Drop of Phenolphthalein
4:31
Add NaOH
5:33
Record the Amount of Drops
6:10
Part II
6:24
Add HCL
6:39
Exercise for Five Minutes
7:26
Return and Re-Do the Exhaling
7:58
Analysis
9:11
Aerobic Respiration Connection
13:18
As Aerobic Respiration Occurs In Cells, Carbon Dioxide Is Produced
13:21
Increase Output of Carbon Dioxide
13:29
Number of Exhalations Increase
14:17
Laboratory Investigation IV: DNA Extraction Lab

10m 38s

Intro
0:00
DNA Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:45
Time
2:03
Part I
2:06
Pour Sports Drink Into the Small Cup
2:08
When Time Expires, Spit Into the Cup
2:53
Add Cell Lysate Solution
3:21
Let it Sit for a Couple Minutes
4:04
Part II
4:10
Slowly Add Cold Ethanol
4:13
DNA Will Creep Up Into the Ethanol Layer
5:01
Analysis
5:59
DNA Structure Connection
8:49
DNA is Microscopic
8:54
Visible DNA
9:39
Extracted DNA
9:49
Laboratory Investigation V: Onion Root Tip Mitosis Lab

13m 12s

Intro
0:00
Mitosis Lab Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
1:42
Part I
1:49
Mount the Slide and Zoom Into the Root Apical Meristem
1:50
Zoom In
3:00
Count the Cells in Each Phase
3:09
Record Your Results
3:52
Microscope View Example
3:58
Part II
6:49
Move to Another Part of the Root Apical Meristem
6:55
Count the Phases in this Second Region
7:02
Analysis
9:07
Mitosis Connection
11:17
Rate of Mitosis Varies from Species to Species
11:21
Mitotic Rate Was Higher Since We Used An Actively Dividing Tissue
12:16
Laboratory Investigation VI: Inheritance Lab

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Inheritance Lab Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:53
Time
2:00
Explanation
2:03
Basic Procedure
5:03
Analysis
8:00
Inheritance Laws Connection
11:23
Law of Segregation
11:31
Law of Independent Assortment
12:49
Laboratory Investigation VII: Allele Frequencies

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Allele Frequencies Introduction
0:05
Purpose
0:08
Materials
1:34
Time
2:10
Part I
2:12
Part II
7:05
Analysis
7:51
Evolution Connection
10:45
Meant to Stimulate How a Population's Allele Frequencies Change Over Time
10:47
Particular Phenotypes Selected
11:31
Recessive Allele Keeps Dropping
12:18
Laboratory Investigation VIII: Genetic Transformation

16m 42s

Intro
0:00
Genetic Transformation Introduction
0:06
Purpose
0:09
Materials
0:57
Time
3:31
Set-Up
4:18
Starter Culture with E. Coli Colonies
4:21
Just E. Coli
5:37
Ampicillin with No Plasmid
6:24
Ampicillin with Plasmid
7:11
Ampicillin with Plasmid and Arabinose
7:33
Procedure
8:35
Analysis
13:01
Genetic Transformation Connection
14:59
Easier to Transform Bacteria Than a Multicellular Organism
15:03
Desired Trait Can be Expressed from the Bacteria
15:52
Numerous Applications in Medicine
16:04
Loading...
This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.
For more information, please see full course syllabus of Biology
  • Discussion

  • Download Lecture Slides

  • Table of Contents

  • Transcription

  • Related Books

Lecture Comments (6)

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Wed Feb 22, 2017 3:44 PM

Post by Kapil Patel on February 22, 2017

1.  A cell is in a solution of 40% water. If this cell swells, what can you state about the relationship of the cell to its solution? 2. Bacteria found in a pond is 90 % solvent. If the pond contains 30 % solute what will happen to the bacteria?  Is the pond hypertonic, isotonic or hypotonic to the bacteria? 3.  Two cells are in a beaker.  Cell A shrinks and cell B explodes. What is the relationship of cell A to cell B?   What is the relationship of the solution to cells A and B? 4. If a cell is 90 % water and it is in a solution that is 10% salt, what will happen to the cell? 5.  There are 5 cells in a beaker. Cell A crenates, Cell B remains unchanged, Cell C swells, cell D lyses and cell E becomes even smaller than Cell A.  What is the relationship of each cell to its solution? 6. A cell is 25% salt and it is placed in a beaker with 10 % salt.  What will happen to the cell? 7. Red blood cells are .9% solute.  If I place that cell in 5%, .5%, 10% and .9% solute, what is the tonicity of the outside environment? 8.  A plant cell is .9% solute.  What solution would the cell most like to be in, 5%, 0.5%, 10% or 0.9%?

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Tue Sep 30, 2014 10:41 AM

Post by King Calculus on September 29, 2014

You speak of the neuron and the electrical energy that takes place along the axon. Is this similar to what is going on in Parkinson's disease where there is too much electrical activity in the neuron, or is it too little neural activity in the in the basal ganglia or too much in the substantia nigra? By the way, you're a great teacher, thanks for doing what you do, you're a hero.

1 answer

Last reply by: Bryan Cardella
Sun Jul 13, 2014 11:47 AM

Post by Brady Dill on July 12, 2014

Osmosis: What is the reason water is pulled to areas of lower water concentration? What force pulls it? Some sort of pressure?

Cellular Transport

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Passive Transport 0:05
    • Movement of Substances in Nature Without the Input of Energy
    • High Concentration to Low Concentration
    • Opposite of Active Transport
    • No Net Movement
  • Diffusion 3:55
    • Definition of Diffusion
    • Examples
  • Facilitated Diffusion 7:32
    • Definition of Facilitated Diffusion
  • Osmosis 9:34
    • Definition of Osmosis
    • Examples
  • Concentration Gradient 15:55
    • Definition of Concentration Gradient
  • Relative Concentrations 17:32
    • Hypertonic Solution
    • Hypotonic Solution
    • Isotonic Solution
  • Active Transport 22:49
    • Movement of Molecules Across a Membrane with the Use Energy
    • Example
  • Endocytosis 25:53
    • Wrapping Around of Part of the Plasma
    • Examples
    • Phagocytosis
    • Pinocytosis
  • Exocytosis 29:40
    • Releasing Material From Inside of a Cell
    • Opposite of Endocytosis

Transcription: Cellular Transport

Hi, welcome back to www.educator.com, this is the lesson on cellular transport.0000

When we talk about cellular transport, there are two main categories, passive or active.0006

We are going to start with passive transport,0011

which is the transport that happens across the membranes of cells without the use of energy, it is very natural thing.0013

So this is the natural movement of surfaces in nature, without the input of energy.0020

You do not need ATP, you do not need to force molecules against where it is going, it just happens naturally.0024

It is about particles bumping into each other and kind of spreading out over time.0030

It is a movement from a high concentration to a low concentration, whether it is solute or solvent.0036

Solute this is particles dissolved in water.0043

We will talk about diffusion in a bit.0057

Diffusion is passive transport of particles in water or air.0059

The term solute is usually used to describe something dissolved in water, salt, sugar, food coloring, a lot of different things.0065

And then, solvent is the H₂O, that is nature solvent.0073

In other science, you will talk a lot about other solvents, other liquid substances.0080

But water, that is the classic solvent for biology.0089

Sometimes, we talk about diffusion of the solvent which is actually osmosis.0093

We will talk more about that on later slide.0098

Passive transport is the opposite of active transport.0102

Like I said, active transport will be the use of energy, forcing molecules against what is called the concentration gradient.0105

Let me give you an example of passive transport, a practical example, one you can do at home.0112

This is a container with water in it.0119

Here is a bunch of solvent, we are going to put solute in there.0123

This is a bunch of red food coloring, dye.0131

And then, on this side, on the right hand side, I am going to put a bunch of blue food coloring and just let it sit.0135

We are not going to mess with it, we are not going stir it because that would be applying energy,0147

adding a force in there to expedite the process.0152

But if we just let it stay, you can probably guess what is going to happen.0156

The red spreads out, the blue spreads out, and we get a purple solution.0163

If you know enough about paints and the color wheel, you have heard of this, red and blue makes purple.0174

I want you to think that once you know the blue spreads out, once the red spreads out, they just stay still.0183

There are still going to be movement of the food coloring molecules around but there is no net movement.0191

The term no net movement means that, if you measure everything as it is in a whole system,0198

you do not have a significant change in where the things are.0211

Across a membrane will make more sense, let me give you some examples of that later on this lesson.0214

You can still have red food coloring and blue food coloring moving around, they are not static.0219

But there is no net movement all in all in the whole solution, to reach what is called dynamic equilibrium.0225

I will bring up that term a little bit later.0232

Diffusion, this is a kind of passive transport involving the movement of particles in air or water,0237

from a high concentration to a low concentration.0243

That food coloring example in the previous slide, a good example of diffusion of that food coloring substance.0246

Here this could be sugar or salt.0253

you drop a sugar cube in water, it is very highly concentrated in that sugar cube.0256

Overtime, gradually those pieces dissolved and eventually spread out throughout the fluid, throughout the solid.0262

Obviously, if you do not put a spoon in there like poke it,0271

you are going to accelerate the process but then that would not be entirely passive, right?0273

Here you have a case where it is reached dynamic equilibrium.0278

Equilibrium meaning like kind of equal, in terms of being balanced, and dynamic meaning not static.0293

Static is just still an unchanging, but it is dynamic because you still get these little red dots,0299

whatever molecule this is, it could be sugar, kind of moving around through the fluid.0305

But all in all, the concentration here and here remains about equal.0311

It has reached equilibrium, they cannot spread out any more than they are, but it is not static.0319

In terms of membrane, I will bring it up in a little bit.0326

Air freshener definitely diffuses through the air, same with cologne or perfume.0329

I did an example in class with students where I spray cologne and as they smell it, as they can actually smell it, they stand up.0334

And then, standing up in sequence as the cologne molecules spread out0344

or defused through the classroom is a good visual depiction of like how these molecules are actually spreading out.0350

In terms of like air freshener, spraying that in a room comes out highly concentrated from that container.0357

And then, it diffuses, it spreads out through the room and it reaches its dynamic equilibrium.0365

But, it does not stop there and eventually goes away because there is the hole under the door,0370

there is the vent, and there is the window.0376

It will eventually leave, that is why air fresheners does not last forever, same with cologne or perfume.0379

Eventually, it comes off your body, it is not going to stay there forever.0384

Oxygen in your blood stream, definitely is a practical diffusion example for organisms.0390

Every time you inhale oxygen out of the air, it goes from your lungs into your bloodstream.0395

The oxygen gets highly concentrated in your bloodstream, compared to what it once was.0401

You needed oxygen, that is why you inhale it.0405

Now, it is highly concentrated in your blood because of your heart beating, gets pumped through out of your body.0407

As the blood comes up to the neighboring cells that it delivers oxygen to,0413

you do not have to use energy to get oxygen into the cells, it just naturally diffuses in there.0417

It goes from a high concentration in your bloodstream to a lower concentration,0422

as your cells needed it, it was lacking in oxygen, into the cells.0427

That is how it spreads out in your cells through this passive process known as diffusion.0431

CO₂, carbon dioxide goes the opposite direction also passively.0436

As it builds up in your cells because of some waste product of metabolism,0441

it ends up in your bloodstream and goes the opposite direction back to your lungs that you can exhale it.0445

Facilitated diffusion, if you facilitate a process in real life with the social circumstance, you are helping it along,0454

you are helping make it happen and kind of leading it, right.0465

Facilitated diffusion is still diffusion, in terms of cellular movement, moving something in and out of a cell.0468

But here, we have an assistance, something that is helping it along.0476

But no energy is used, this is still passive.0480

It is a type of diffusion which membrane proteins assist with the movement of particles from high to low concentration.0484

Still diffusion but membrane proteins assisting it along.0490

Here is the extra cellular fluid meaning the fluid, the aqueous environment outside of the cell.0494

Here is the intra cellular fluid also known as cytoplasm, with your cytosol.0500

Here are membrane proteins imbedded in the phospholipid bilayer, you can see here.0506

Here is the molecule we are talking about, there is definitely a higher concentration outside than inside, you can tell it visually.0512

Diffusion would move it gradually inside but it is not just simple diffusion here, you have facilitation of that.0521

These protein and these, are helping move these molecules.0528

It could be an amino acid, it could be a hormone, it could be sugar molecules.0534

Regardless what it is, it is helping to move it in without the use of energy.0543

Think of it as like a saloon door, you do not have to really push very hard on a saloon door.0548

You know the one that go like this to get inside or to get outside.0553

You are just going to barely bump the door then it will move.0557

It is the same idea here, proteins that do this, you do not need to attach an energy molecule0561

to manipulate them, in order to do this.0566

They will naturally do it to help diffusion along across the membrane.0569

Osmosis, this is talking about diffusion of water.0575

Now, we are focusing on the solvent rather than solute.0579

This is the natural movement of water from a high concentration to low concentration of water.0582

We are focusing on water here, not salt or sugar.0591

Another way to think of it is this, you can also think of it as water moves to where there is more solute, which is less water.0594

It is by concentration.0606

I will give you some examples below so that this will make sense,0615

in terms of why we are focusing on concentration rather than volume.0619

You can think of it as more solute is where it is going because on one side of the membrane,0624

if you have more solute, like more salt, well then there is less water.0628

If you consider all that solution, if there is 100% of it there, well if it is 5% salt, it is 95% water.0633

On the inside of the cell, if it is 1% salt, it is 99% water, in terms of what is in the solution.0642

Let us give some examples here.0649

I am now drawing a U Tube not the web site, this is the original U tube.0654

See, it is a U tube, it is literally a U tube.0665

We have water in this U shaped tube, another important aspect is this.0669

This is a membrane that is permeable only to water.0675

It is a semi permeable membrane, it is only letting water back and forth, nothing else will go across.0691

Salt would not, sugar would not, amino acids would not, food coloring would not, just water, H₂O.0696

That is important for this osmosis distinction0704

because we are talking about the movement of the water, not movement of particles, in this case.0706

Here is the water level, I want to say it starts out being about equal on both sides.0713

Water here, water here, equal volumes on both sides,0719

but we are going to have a difference in the amount of particles on both sides.0722

On this side, there is that concentration of solute.0728

On this side, we have a lot more of, let us say it is salt.0737

Clearly, I made a lot of dots here.0748

Visually, you could tell there is a higher concentration of solute here and slightly less concentration of water compared to the other side.0751

Since water goes to where there is less concentration of water, goes to a lower concentration of water,0758

or to where there is more solute, where is it going to go?0765

It is going to go to the left.0770

Water will go to the left to try to equalize the concentration of solute on both sides, until it reaches dynamic equilibrium.0774

And if it cannot, it will keep going until there is no water here and it is overflowing at the top on the other side.0782

That is the movement that osmosis makes happen.0788

Let me give you a different example, just so that we can make sure the distinction is correct, in terms of the understanding.0793

Semi permeable membrane only permeable to water, but now a slightly different case.0804

We are going to say that we are starting out with very different levels of water on both sides of the membrane.0813

Here is still our membrane.0823

We are starting out with less than half of the volume on this side and this side.0826

Let us say it is a little bit different.0832

You got just a little bit of solute there, but on this side now, we have got a lot of solute, sugar, salt, whatever it is.0834

Okay, that is good enough.0851

Now, the question is, what direction it is going to go? Is it going to the left? Is it going to go to the right?0853

Well, since water goes to where there is less concentration of water, not to where there is less in volume.0859

The water this time goes to the right.0867

This is an important distinction because if you are thinking that the definition is wrong,0870

if you think that water is going towards where there is less water by volume,0873

meaning the ml of water, you think it is going to go here but it does not.0876

Even there is less amount of water here, there is a higher concentration here of water.0881

Let us say, it is 99% water and 1% salt, over here could be 97% water and about 3% salt,0887

which is close to the ocean level of salt concentration.0895

This really does suck water out of the left, water goes from left to right.0899

It will continue to do that until there is an equalization of the concentration of solute on both sides,0904

and concentration of water on both sides.0910

There is osmosis.0912

This is why drinking seawater, if you are stranded in the middle of ocean on a raft, will be a problem.0915

Try to catch a fish and eat the meat inside of there and will be enough water to let you survive for a while.0923

But, drinking seawater will actually hasten how quickly you will reach your demise because this exact scenario will occur.0930

You will be drinking this stuff that is really highly concentrated with salt.0941

As it goes down your digestive track, in your bloodstream, it will suck water because of osmosis,0945

out of your cells and will dehydrate you even faster.0950

Concentration gradient, whether we are talking about diffusion or osmosis,0956

concentration gradients are gradual changes in solute or solvent concentrations over a distance, in a particular solution.0961

Here actually, we are talking about concentration gradient of solute, of stuff dissolved in liquid.0968

Here, we have got a little arrow that shows the concentration gradient from high to low.0974

It is going in this direction for Na⁺, sodium ions.0980

These little hexagons represent all the sodium ions.0985

Outside of the cell, there is more of them and you can see the arrow is pointing in here because they are gradually going this way.0988

The interesting thing is, when you look at amino acids, the arrow is going this way, as if they have been pulling amino acids in.0997

If that is the case, amino acids this would be actually active transport,1006

if they are still getting pulled in against the concentration gradient.1012

Maybe this particular membrane would not let this particular Na⁺ diffuse naturally.1017

But, if these are being put out like this one is, they are being pushed out into the extracellular space,1024

this will actually be active transport of these amino acids.1030

If I were to erase all of these arrows, we would be saying that,1035

actually the concentration gradient would move all of these little amino acids out of the cell.1039

Because, the concentration gradient for the amino acids, in this case would be the opposite direction as the sodium ions.1046

Relative concentrations, when we look at cells in relation to the amount of solute inside and outside the cell,1054

some things will happen in terms of movement, in terms of movement of water, specially.1062

Let us pretend we got a red blood cell here, they are really, really tiny but we are zoomed in.1068

Here is a red blood cell and RBC, let us say you put the red blood cells in what is called a hyper tonic solution.1075

Hyper, that does not mean just like you are hyper.1082

In terms of a prefix, hyper like if you say hyper speed, that is really fast excessive speed.1087

Hyper here can mean too much excess, like hyperglycemic means the sugar level in your blood stream is too high,1094

or hypertonic means too much solute or excess solute.1102

Tonic here is referring to solute, think about tonic water.1107

It is like club soda but with a little bit extra tonicity, a little bit extra solute in there like quinines,1113

is an ingredient in there that gives little extra flavoring.1120

Tonic here, we are talking about hypertonic excess solute in the solution outside of the cell.1123

This red blood cell has been put in an environment where there is a lot more solute outside of it than inside of it.1132

Let us assume that this membrane is only permeable to water, just like with that U tube example from a couple of slides ago.1144

The membrane of a red blood cell only will let water through.1151

Here, we are not going to talk about diffusion, we are going to talk about osmosis.1155

What direction will osmosis move the water?1159

Water will leave the cell and it will shrivel up like a resin.1164

It will probably die especially if the relative tonicity, the hypertonicity outside the cell is way more than on the inside.1174

You know if there is a tiny bit more cellular on the outside, maybe there is just a little bit of water will move out,1183

and then there will be no net movement because it is balanced out the concentration and it has reached a dynamic equilibrium.1190

Oftentimes, putting a red blood cell in the solution like ocean water or salt water, it is going to shrivel out.1197

Next scenario, here is red blood cells again, hypotonic solutions.1206

Hypo means the opposite of hyper, like hypoglycemic too little sugar content in the bloodstream.1210

If you are going to be weak, you need to eat something, if you are hypoglycemic.1219

Hypodermis means the layer of tissue beneath your dermis like deep in your skin, that is below or under.1223

This means like too little, under, below, same with tonic, this is the opposite.1232

You have got hardly on the outside of the cell compared to the insides.1241

The inside, definitely you got a hypotonic solution.1246

I can even erase these and make it pure H₂O, that would be the most hypotonic you can get.1252

As you may guess, it is going to be the opposite here.1259

If the membrane is only permeable to water, water will rush in and it will swell, potentially pop.1264

Especially, if you have a huge difference in the amount of water concentration on either side,1273

it might swell so much that just pops.1277

A red blood cell will burst and rupture, typically in that case.1281

Isotonic, I think you can catch where this is going.1285

Iso means equal, here we got a case where the solution is just fine and dandy.1291

I’m going to visually try to indicate that it is the same concentration on the inside and outside.1298

Now, that does not mean that you have literally the same amount of solute particles1306

on the outside, as you do on the inside.1309

Because, on the inside there is less fluid than what it is in, it is about percentages.1311

Isotonic would be like, if the outside is 1% salt, the inside is 1% salt.1316

Keep in mind also, this does not mean there is no movement of water at all back and forth.1322

There is no net movement meaning for the amount of water that is going in,1327

the same amount is going out, it is equalized.1340

This is a dynamic equilibrium situation.1343

Thankfully, your red blood cells in your bloodstream are in isotonic environment.1345

The plasma, the fluid of your blood, that is not going to make your red blood cells shrivel and pop, that would be terrible.1351

You will be losing a lot of red blood cells all the time.1358

Your red blood cells get damage for other reasons but thankfully, your bloodstream is not isotonic scenario for your blood cells.1361

Active transport, this is the movement of the molecules across a membrane with the use of energy,1371

and usually we are talking about ATP.1378

There are other energy molecules in a cell but usually ATP is used to pump particles against the concentration gradient.1382

That is the big deal, against the concentration gradient.1390

If it is going with the concentration gradient, just let it happen.1392

It is going to happen naturally, the stuff will gradually come in or gradually go out.1397

But, if you have a lot more than out, and you have some tiny bit on the inside1401

but you want to force them out, you got to use energy.1405

An example is the Na⁺ K⁺ pump, sodium potassium pump, I am going to give you a little drawing here of a neuron.1409

This relates to physiology, here is a neuron, this is the cell body, there is the nucleus.1430

Here are these things called dendrites that allow it to receive a signal.1436

What happens is, you have what is called an action potential that gets the electric flow along what is called the axons.1443

This is the axon of the neuron.1449

Thanks to active transport, your neurons function will actually get an electric signal across the axon to the next nerve cell,1453

or the next neuron, or to a gland or to a muscle, or to whatever needs to be stimulated.1463

This is the receiving end, the neuron receives a signal.1470

What has to happen is you need what is called an action potential to exist here,1473

which is kind of an electrical stimulation that stimulates the next region.1477

It is a domino effect of electric flow along this, how does that happen?1482

This first part, you get sodium coming in and potassium moving out.1486

Na⁺ comes in, potassium goes out, and then that triggers the next part.1507

What actually happens here, that triggers the next part to do the same thing.1515

You get this influx of positive ions and efflux, the moving out of positive ions with potassium.1519

You will get this like up and down kind of electrical graph that stimulates next regions, and it happens in fractions of a second.1526

That has to happen through active transport, it is a pumping in of sodium and it is a pumping out of potassium.1535

Thanks to using ATP in pumping those charged ions, you actually can get electrical stimulation.1542

It happens all the time, every second of your life, all throughout your body.1548

Endocytosis, the next two examples that I am going to give you are regarding cells, in the sense that,1554

if you have particles that are too big to move through membrane proteins,1561

channels like those sodium potassium pumps or facilitated diffusion, how do you get it inside of the cell?1567

Well, endocytosis is the wrapping around of part of the plasma membrane to consume large molecules,1574

macromolecules, that otherwise would not fit through membrane proteins.1580

Amoeba is a classic example of doing endocytosis.1584

Here is an amoeba, you have got your nucleus here, ribosomes, particles dissolved, little vacuoles.1588

And what this amoeba will do is, let us say here is our amoeba,1595

and there is a little protist or little bacteria that want to swallow it up.1603

That little cell is not going to fit through their little membrane proteins but here is what the amoeba can do.1609

It can actually use energy to push and pull on its plasma membrane to,1616

here is what it really does, it uses energy to push and pull on the cytoskeleton.1628

Remember, the cytoskeleton from the cell lesson,1634

it is like microtubules and microfilaments that are touching the inside of plasma membrane.1636

Using energy, you can pull uncertain parts of it, let loose the other parts,1641

and you can make the plasma membrane do something where it actually looks like a mouth.1645

It looks like it is going to wrap around this bacterium or this little unicellular protist,1651

and that is exactly what is going to happen.1658

It forms what is called pseudopodia.1660

Pseudopodia means fake feet, it looks like it is kind of crawling or swimming through the water.1663

It uses these pseudopodia, I will label that for you.1672

This is a pseudopod and plural would be pseudopodia.1679

This little cell, it is lunch.1688

The next step, the last thing that will happen is this just pinches off.1690

The beauty of endocytosis is now, this is inside the cell contained its own little vesicle.1694

If you remember lysosomes from the cell lesson, lysosomes will fuse with this.1702

And that little enzymes will break down the cell into little bits of food particles for the amoeba to eat,1710

and let us not forget the nucleus.1718

And that is how amoebas typically consume food is endocytosis,1720

pulling in those large cells or large molecules that cannot fit through their little membrane of proteins.1724

Two types of endocytosis, phagocytosis is cell eating, that is just what you saw here, cell eating is bringing in solid stuff.1733

Pinocytosis replace what ended up in that little vesicle with what looks just like fluid, cell drinking.1743

Now, it is not that they are just drinking.1751

If we would to talk about this as being a vesicle that they took in and it is mainly water,1755

oftentimes, they do because of what is in the water and it might be ions.1762

It might be tiny dissolved particles, but they still call it cell drinking because1767

it looks like it did not take in a solid structure like a cell or macromolecule, like a large sugar, that is endocytosis.1772

Exocytosis is the releasing of material from inside of the cell,1781

by fusing a membranous vesicle with a plasma membrane in dumping that stuff out.1785

In a sense, it is the opposite of endocytosis.1789

Think about that sequence with the amoeba taking in that molecule, just reverse it.1793

Imagine, the amoeba having little vesicle and just fusing and dumping it out.1797

This happens all the time in your body, even if there is not an amoeba moving around through you,1804

Here is the end of the neuron, this is called the axon terminal.1809

This is the receiving end, part of the cell body of what is called the postsynaptic neuron.1814

It is because this region right here is called a synapse.1821

It is a little tiny space between two neurons.1827

This neuron is about to communicate with this one.1831

These little red arrows is about sending signals and starting the action potentials down this neuron.1833

Here is how it works, number one there is a mitochondrion.1841

Let us focus on number 2, this is what is called a synaptic vesicle.1845

A synaptic vesicle is just a little container of neurotransmitters at the end of a neuron, at the end of an axon, specifically.1850

Neurotransmitters are little signal molecules that get dumped out into the synapse1863

to bind with the receiving end of this neuron to stimulate.1868

It was just kind of like a little messenger molecule that connects them.1874

To get them out there in the synapse, a synaptic vesicle which is made up of that phospholipid bilayer material,1878

that always is the same as what is lining here.1884

It just fuses with it and that little sac, once it fuses with it, opens up and through exocytosis dumps these across.1888

They move across by passive transport, they just drift across and they bind to these little protein receptors here,1896

to start the process of an action potential on this neuron.1905

This has to happen to allow neurotransmitters to get dumped into a synapse,1908

and allow your brain to communicate with itself and communication from your body into your body.1913

Thank you for watching www.educator.com.1920

Educator®

Please sign in for full access to this lesson.

Sign-InORCreate Account

Enter your Sign-on user name and password.

Forgot password?

Start Learning Now

Our free lessons will get you started (Adobe Flash® required).
Get immediate access to our entire library.

Sign up for Educator.com

Membership Overview

  • Unlimited access to our entire library of courses.
  • Search and jump to exactly what you want to learn.
  • *Ask questions and get answers from the community and our teachers!
  • Practice questions with step-by-step solutions.
  • Download lesson files for programming and software training practice.
  • Track your course viewing progress.
  • Download lecture slides for taking notes.

Use this form or mail us to .

For support articles click here.