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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Vertebrates

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
1:00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
1:01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
1:06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
1:09:10
Example 3: Transcription
1:12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
1:14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
1:00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:02:55
Incomplete Dominance
1:02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:26
Epistasis
1:12:51
Example of Epistasis
1:12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
1:17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
1:21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
1:25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
1:28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
1:00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
1:01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
1:00:13
Forams
1:02:25
Radiolarians
1:03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
1:04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
1:04:26
Slime Molds
1:05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
1:09:21
Oomycetes
1:11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
1:13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
1:14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
1:16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
1:17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
1:01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
1:02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
1:00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
1:12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
1:15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
1:16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
1:18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
1:04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
1:06:36
Example 3: Nephron
1:09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
1:10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
1:00:29
Sensory Stimuli
1:00:30
Reflex Arc
1:01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
1:04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
1:06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
1:08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
1:09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
1:00:01
Complement System
1:01:57
Classes of Antibodies
1:02:45
IgM
1:03:01
IgA
1:03:17
IgG
1:03:53
IgE
1:04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
1:05:00
Passive Immunity
1:05:01
Active Immunity
1:07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
1:10:50
Immunodeficiency
1:13:27
Immunodeficiency
1:13:28
Chemotherapy
1:13:56
AID
1:14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
1:15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
1:17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
1:21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
1:23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
1:00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
1:00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
1:02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
1:04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
1:01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
1:01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
1:56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
1:59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
2:00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
2:01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
1:01:36
Multiple Choice 30
1:02:31
Multiple Choice 31
1:03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: rafael delaflor
Mon Apr 1, 2013 10:22 PM

Post by rafael delaflor on April 1, 2013

Is this lecture on the blink? It just plays to a few seconds in and starts over.

Vertebrates

  • Vertebrates are animals with a backbone and spinal cord. They are members of Phylum Chordata.
  • Chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal, hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal clefts and arches as well as a post-anal tail at some point in their development.
  • Several groups of chordates are invertebrates. These include lancelets, tunicates (sea squirts) and hagfishes.
  • Major classes of vertebrates are:
  • Chondrichthyes - Chondricthyans have skeletons made primarily of cartilage and are ectothermic. Members of this class include sharks and rays.
  • Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) –The bony fishes have skeletons composed of mineralized bone and include both the ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes.
  • Amphibians - Amphibians undergo metamorphosis and live part of their life cycle on land and part in water. They have moist skin that plays a role in gas exchange.
  • Reptiles -Reptiles are amniotes with keratinized scales that prevent them from drying out and eggs that are protected by shells.
  • Aves –In addition to their wings and feathers, birds have light bones as well as other structural and physiological adaptations to allow flight. Birds are sometimes included in the same class as reptiles.
  • Mammals - Mammals are endothermic, have hair and produce milk to nourish their young. They have a four-chambered heart and teeth with specialized functions. Monotremes, marsupials and eutherians are all groups of mammals.

Vertebrates

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Phylum Chordata 0:06
    • Chordates Overview
    • Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
    • Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
  • Invertebrate Chordates 6:48
    • Lancelets
    • Tunicates
    • Hagfishes: Craniates
  • Vertebrate Chordates 10:41
    • Veterbrates Overview
    • Lampreys
    • Gnathostomes
    • Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
  • chondrichthyes 14:23
    • Chondrichthyes Overview
    • Ectothermic and Endothermic
    • Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
    • Oviparous and Viviparous
  • Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes) 18:12
    • Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
    • Operculum
    • Swim Bladder
    • Ray-Finned Fishes
    • Lobe-Finned Fishes
  • Tetrapods 22:36
    • Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
  • Amphibians 23:53
    • Amphibians Overview
    • Order Urodela
    • Order Apoda
    • Order Anura
  • Reptiles 30:19
    • Reptiles Overview
    • Amniotes
    • Examples of Reptiles
    • Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
  • Orders of Reptiles 34:17
    • Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
  • Birds 36:09
    • Birds and Dinosaurs
    • Theropods
    • Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
    • Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
  • Mammals 42:33
    • Mammals Overview
    • Diaphragm and Heart
    • Diphydont
    • Synapsids
  • Monotremes 46:36
    • Monotremes
  • Marsupials 47:12
    • Marsupials: Definition and Examples
    • Convergent Evolution
  • Eutherians (Placental Mammals) 49:42
    • Placenta
    • Order Carnivora
    • Order Raodentia
    • Order Cetaceans
  • Primates 51:41
    • Primates Overview
    • Nails and Hands
    • Vision
    • Social Care for Young
    • Brain
  • Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates 54:33
  • Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term 55:56
  • Example 3: Bird's Anatomy 57:38
  • Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic 59:14

Transcription: Vertebrates

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

We are going to continue our discussion of animals with the vertebrates.0002

Vertebrates are all members of the phylum Chordata.0008

However, as I mentioned at the end of the last lecture, some members of Chordata are invertebrates, so this phylum is mixed.0012

It contains both invertebrates and vertebrates, so we will be covering a few invertebrates at the beginning of the lesson today.0021

The chordates are a group that includes a huge diversity of organisms.0029

Chordates live in fresh water and marine environments. They also live on land.0034

Some walk. Others swim, and still, others fly.0038

Chordates are deuterostomes, and they have a true coelom, so they are coelomates; and they are bilaterally symmetrical.0043

Chordates are united by the four characteristics that they share, and these are characteristics that they may not possess as adults.0057

But at some point in a chordates development, it possesses these four characteristics.0065

The first one is a notochord. Also, they have a dorsal hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal clefts and arches and a post-anal tail.0071

Starting with a notochord which means back string, a notochord is a rod-shaped flexible structure, and it is located dorsal to the GI tube.0084

So, the notochord is right here. This blue tube represents the GI tube.0097

Now, some terminology: dorsal means above, and ventral means below.0106

The notochord here is dorsal to the GI tube, but it is ventral or below the nerve chord.0113

Here, we have the notochord and just above it, the nerve chord.0123

Now, as I mentioned, this is a flexible rod-type structure, and be careful to not mixed it up with an actual backbone or a vertebral column, it is not.0130

In chordates that are invertebrates, those that lack a backbone, this structure, the notochord, can fulfil the functions of providing support, for example.0142

But most adult chordates lack a notochord.0152

Most chordates are vertebrates, and along the way in development, the notochord disappears.0156

And it is replaced by the backbone, by the vertebral column, and there are only vestiges of the notochord that remain in most adult chordates.0162

The notochord is composed of large cells that are surrounded by a strong fibrous tissue.0172

OK, that is the first structure that all chordates possess at some point in their development.0178

The second structure is a dorsal hollow nerve chord, so dorsal, it is above the notochord.0183

And we have talked about nerve chords before, but one thing that makes this type of nerve chord different is the fact that it is hollow.0192

The nerve chord differentiates into the central nervous system, and we will talk about this system later on when we talk about animal physiology.0201

But, the CNS right now, just what you just need to know is that the CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.0211

The third structure is pharyngeal clefts and arches.0222

These slits right here represent the pharyngeal clefts and arches, and these are located in the pharynx, which is located just behind the mouth.0227

Visceral arches begin as pouches, so they begin as pairs of pouches in the pharynx with grooves or clefts between them.0241

We have a series of pouches with grooves between them, and eventually, these grooves or clefts develop so they open up to the outside of the body.0251

The result is that there are these slits that allow communication between the outside of an organism's body and the pharynx on the inside.0263

That is at some point in development in the embryo as the organism is developing.0272

But eventually, these arches and clefts develop into different structures depending on the species of animal and its life style.0278

For example, if you look at filter feeders like some of the simpler chordates,0286

the pharyngeal clefts and arches will develop into structures that the animal can use to string water and catch food.0291

For filter feeders, these slits might develop into the filtration device.0298

For aquatic chordates such as fish, these structures can develop into gills. They could develop into a filtration device, so I will just put filter.0304

They could develop into gills, and remember that for aquatic animals, gills allow for gas exchange.0314

In tetrapods, we are going to talk about tetrapods.0323

But, tetrapods are animals that either have four limbs or descended from an ancestral animal that had four limbs for example mammals, birds and reptiles.0325

In tetrapods, the pharyngeal clefts differentiate into parts of the ear such as the Eustachian tubes.0337

So, I will just put "part of the ear" and some glands that are located in the neck, glands in the neck.0344

The pharyngeal clefts and arches differentiate along various pathways depending on the species of organism.0353

That is the third structure that all chordates possess at some point.0360

Finally, all chordates possess a post-anal tail, a tail that is located posterior to the anus, and some species retain this tail into adulthood.0365

And it can even be very muscular and help the animal with balance on land or swimming in the water.0376

Many species simply have a tail during embryological development, and they lose it later on.0385

In humans, the tail is lost. It is reabsorbed, but humans have a vestige of this tail and that is the coccyx or tailbone.0390

This is an overview of the phylum Chordata. Now, we are going to focus in on the invertebrate members of this phylum.0402

Chordates originated during the Cambrian period over 500 million years ago.0411

And the two invertebrate groups that we are going to start with are members of the subphylum Cephalochordata. That is the lancelets.0416

And we are going to talk about subphylum Urochordata. These are the tunicates also known as sea squirts.0425

And then, in a few minutes will cover the hagfishes.0432

Starting out with the lancelets. They get their name from their shape.0434

They are shaped like a blade or a lance, and lancelets, again, are invertebrate chordates. They are bottom dwellers.0438

So, they are bottom dwellers. They live at the bottom of the ocean.0447

They are also filter feeders.0452

They are small. They are just a few centimeters long, and they burrow into the sands.0458

Lancelets retain the chordate structures that I mentioned into adulthood.0465

So, even as adults, lancelets have a notochord, a tail, pharyngeal slits and a nerve chord.0470

They need the notochord for support since they are invertebrates, and they lack a backbone. They lack bones.0477

The second group of invertebrate chordates are the tunicates or sea squirts, and as larva, sea squirts can swim; and they have tails.0484

So, the larva have, tails, and they swim. However, the adults are sedentary filter feeders.0500

And morphologically, the adults are quite different than the larva.0514

Adult tunicates have a siphon.0519

And this is how they got their name sea squirts because they draw water in one siphon and then, squirt water out the outgoing siphon.0521

The third group of invertebrate chordates are the hagfishes.0536

The hag fishes are jawless marine animals, and they are scavengers. They have a notochord that they retain into adulthood.0544

Hagfishes are shaped like snakes. They look, kind of, like snakes, although, they are not snakes; and they live on the floor of the ocean.0559

Now, the difference between this group and the two groups that I just talked about is that they belong to a taxonomic group called the craniates.0565

All of the vertebrates are craniates.0574

Remember, we are taking about phylum Chordata. We are talking about invertebrate chordates, and then, we are going to talk about vertebrates.0579

All of the vertebrates are craniates as are the hagfishes, and as the name suggests, they have a head end.0587

We talked earlier about cephalization, for example, with the invertebrates. We have discussed that molluscs have cephalization.0595

There is a head end where sensory organs are concentrated, and hagfishes have cephalization, and they are craniates.0603

There are other members of Chordata that are now extinct that I could discuss.0613

But, we are going to focus today on those chordates that are still in existence, so I am focussing on these groups along with the vertebrates.0621

Those are the three groups of invertebrate chordates that you should be familiar with.0633

And now, we are going to spend the majority of time on the vertebrates- the focus of today's lesson.0638

Vertebrates have a backbone or a vertebral column, and this is a structure that is strong yet, flexible.0644

It allows for movement but at the same time protects the spinal cord that it is surrounds.0654

The first vertebrates were jawless fish.0662

We talked about hagfishes, which are jawless fish, but they are invertebrates. Well, the early vertebrates were also jawless fish.0665

There are group of jawless fish that survived today called the lampreys.0677

And lampreys have vertebrate that are made of cartilage as did other early vertebrates.0687

Lampreys look somewhat like eels, and they are parasites that feed off other fish. They suck the blood from other fish.0692

The early vertebrates were somewhat along this line. They were jawless, and they probably had vertebrates that were composed of cartilage.0701

The vertebrate animals that developed later in evolution had jaws.0714

And they also had mineralized skeletons, which is what most vertebrates in existence today have.0718

And by mineralized skeleton, I mean bone that contains calcium, so it is calcified- a very strong structure.0725

I mentioned that the lampreys are jawless.0738

Vertebrates with jaws are known as gnathostomes, so these are vertebrates that have jaws.0741

And gnathostomes are believed to have arisen about 50 million years after chordates originally arose during the Cambrian period.0754

And then, evolution continued on for hundreds of millions of years and resulted in the diverse array of vertebrates that we have today.0765

And we are going to be talking about six major groups of vertebrates.0773

Now, I want to explain the reptiles in more detail because I mentioned six major classes, and then, you see, OK, there is five.0778

There is Amphibians, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes, Reptiles and Mammals.0787

Many groups also or many texts include Aves as a separate class.0794

In a lot of system, you are going to see Aves. However, Reptiles are what is called paraphyletic class.0802

That means that they do not contain all of the descendants of a common ancestor.0810

So, to somewhat rectify the situation, some classification systems include Aves as part of Reptiles.0818

So, you can count it as six with Aves, or some text you will see just use five and place Birds as part of Reptiles.0825

Again, when we talk about the Protists, and when we talk about the Fungi,0837

classification systems are undergoing constant change based on molecular evidence.0844

An earlier classification was based on life cycles and morphology, physiology and biochemistry.0848

And those do not always align with what we are finding out according to molecular biology regarding the evolutionary relationships of animals.0855

The important thing is just to note the characteristics of each group.0864

And we are going to start with the chondrichthyans, and members of this class that you are probably familiar with include the sharks and rays.0868

Chondrichthyans have skeletons that are primarily made of cartilage. Also, this group is ectothermic or cold-blooded.0878

You have probably heard the term cold-blooded, and this means that the animal regulates its body temperature externally.0889

The body temperature of an ectotherm is based on the environment rather than regulating their body temperature internally like a warm-blooded animal.0904

Warm-blooded animal, we call that animal an ectotherm, or we say it is endothermic. It is not endotherm, it is endothermic.0914

These are warm blooded animals.0923

As a representative organism from this class, we are going to focus on sharks.0929

Sharks are predators, and they have a lateral line system. A lateral line system is something you will also hear about with fish.0933

Most fish have a lateral line system. Some amphibians have it, as well.0944

And what a lateral line system is, is a sensory system that allows animals to detect movement, vibrations and changes in pressure in the water,0948

so allows for detection of movement in the water.0957

For a predator, this is very useful. It is useful for a prey, too, because you know if something is coming.0960

In the case of a shark, if they sense something is swimming nearby, that is possible prey.0966

The structure of a lateral line system is that it consists of neuromasts.0971

And neuromasts are receptors that are located in the strip along the shark's head and the sides of its body.0977

Usually, neuromasts are right on the surface or just under the surface of the scales0986

and located near pores to allow for detection of movement and vibrations in the water.0996

Sometimes, people say that this is analogous to the sense of hearing that land animals have.1005

Sharks are not inherently buoyant. Therefore, they must continue to swim.1013

If they do not, they sink.1018

As far as systems in a shark, the respiratory system, well, gas exchange is via gills.1021

Oxygen is pulled in from the water via gills, and then, carbon dioxide is removed from the animal via the gills.1031

Some groups of Chondrichthyans lay eggs and are, therefore, what is called oviparous. These are animals that lay eggs.1045

We will talk later about groups of animals that are viviparous meaning that the offspring develop within the female, and the young are born live.1058

They are not contained within an egg, and that is viviparous.1071

The young are born already developed. They are not contained within an egg.1078

The next group that we are going to cover within of the vertebrate chordates are the bony fishes or Osteichthyes.1090

Osteo means bone, so that is where the name comes from.1101

Now, some scientists consider Osteichthyes to be a superclass not a class.1105

And then, they further divide the bony fish into two classes, which are the ray-finned fishes and the lobe-finned fishes.1110

Or other classification systems just group them together as Osteichthyes.1118

Osteichthyes are the largest group of vertebrates.1125

And both the ray-finned fishes and the lobe-finned fishes have skeletons that are made of mineralized bone, not cartilage.1128

So, skeleton is composed of mineralized bone, meaning that the bone is calcified. It contains calcium.1137

Gas exchange occurs via gills in fish, and the gills are covered by a structure called an operculum.1147

The operculum is a bony flap that covers the gills, and the function is to help keep the water moving through the gills and to protect the gills.1158

Fish draw water into their mouth, and it exits across the gills; and gas exchange can occur.1170

Oxygen can be grabbed from the water and CO2 can be released out.1175

We talked about how sharks have to keep swimming, or they sink.1180

By contrast, fish can stop swimming, and they will stay afloat because they are buoyant.1184

However, fish have...so, this is one structure they have, and another structure that they have is a swim bladder.1190

Now, remember they are already naturally buoyant. However, the swim bladder allows them to control their buoyancy.1199

So, it is an air sac. It is an air sac that allows fish to control their buoyancy.1210

When the air sac is filled with gas, the fish will rise. When gas leaves the air sac, the fish will sink.1220

Like sharks, bony fishes have a lateral line system.1229

Now, let’s get into these two separate groups of fish.1234

The ray-finned fishes are what you think of probably when you think of a fish.1238

These are fish like salmon or goldfish, minnows, halibut, so the vast majority of fish are ray-finned fish; and this is in contrast to the lobe-finned fish.1247

The lobe-finned fish have fins that look different than what you would typically think of.1262

And the difference is that they have fleshy muscular fins that are supported at the base by bones and muscles, so fleshy muscular fins.1270

These are thought to have been in an evolutionary sense, precursors to limbs of terrestrial animals.1286

This extra support at the base along with their shape, their shape is more cylindrical instead of the flatter, thinner shape with the fins on a ray-finned fish.1294

So, it is more of a cylindrical shape, and what the theory is, is that the lobe-finned fish would sometimes actually crawl out of water to find food.1304

And eventually, through evolution, these fins developed into limbs that allowed for a fish to walk in on land.1316

There are only a few groups of lobe-finned fish that still exist. One of these are the lungfishes.1326

Lungfishes have both gills and lungs, so they could obtain oxygen from the water or from the air.1337

And again, this is the type of fish that may have been the predecessor to land animals.1344

And we are going to talk now about some different groups of land animals.1352

Tetrapods are vertebrates with four limbs or who descended from an ancestor with four limbs.1359

Now, snakes are tetrapods. They do not have these limbs anymore, but they were lost secondarily during evolution.1369

They are believed to be descended from this ancestral four-limbed organism.1377

And when I was talking about the lobe-finned fish, it was probably an ancestral lobe-finned fish that left the water occasionally to search for food,1381

and over many generations, gained an advantage by having those fins developed into limbs that1390

allowed the animal to move around on land and seek food there and survive in that environment.1396

We are going to be focusing on the Amphibians, the Reptiles, and the Mammals,1403

the three groups within the superclass tetrapod and then, focusing on these classes.1407

Again, Reptiles could be split into two.1415

You could have the Reptiles and the Birds, class Reptilia and class Aves, or some books will just group these all as Reptiles.1419

We are going to start out by covering the Amphibians.1429

The Amphibians include the frogs, salamanders and newts and another group called the caecilians.1434

Amphibian: let's breakdown the word, so amphi means double, and bio means life.1443

What this word is referring to is double life, and it gets the name from the fact that some members of this group undergo a dramatic metamorphosis.1450

And they live one part of their life cycle in the water where they will have a certain morphology, and then, they will change.1461

They will go through a metamorphosis and live another part of their life cycle on lands, so it is like they have two different lives.1469

Amphibians are more closely tied to the water than the other tetrapods that we are going to discuss, and this is for several reasons.1475

Most species of amphibians have moist skin, so it is soft, moist skin; and it is very smooth, which allows it to be permeable to gas.1484

This is important because in amphibians, skin often does play a role in gas exchange.1497

So, although, in amphibians many have lungs, the lungs are not as efficient as they need to be for gas exchange.1502

They cannot take on the whole load of the gas exchange, so skin also plays a role in gas exchange.1511

Amphibians live primarily in fresh water, although, some species can survive in brackish water.1517

Amphibians are ectothermic, so remember, that means they are cold-blooded.1523

As adults, amphibians have a three-chambered heart, and another reason that they are tied to the water is that their eggs dry out easily.1529

They have only a thin covering, so they can become desiccated pretty quickly.1539

The eggs must be laid in water or in a moist environment so that they do not dry out.1546

We are going to start out with order Urodela. This is one order of amphibians, and these are the salamanders and newts.1551

These animals have four limbs, and the front and hind limbs are roughly similar in size. They also have a tail in adulthood.1569

Some species in this order are solely aquatic, but many live on land.1577

Those that do live on land, live in areas where there is moist soil, or they will stay under a log or leaves because again,1585

they need to stay moist for their skin to function correctly in gas exchange.1593

These are predators. They feed on animals like insects and worms.1598

They undergo metamorphosis, so they do go from a larval form to an adult form; but it is not as dramatic as what we are going to talk about with frogs.1603

Some species have lungs- those that live on land. Others have gills, and fertilization occurs internally.1615

The next group we are talking about are the caecilians or order Apoda. These are legless animals.1624

They look similar to worms, although, they are not worms; and they evolved from an ancestor with legs and lost their legs along the way in evolution.1641

And this fits their lifestyle because these animals are burrowers, so they like to burrow down and legs are not needed for that and, in fact, could inhibit it.1652

Most of these live in tropical areas. They are found in tropical areas where they burrow down into moist soil in South America, Africa and Southeast Asia.1664

The next group that we are going to talk about includes the frogs, so this is order Anura.1676

Frogs like salamanders have four limbs, but the difference is their hind legs are stronger. They are more muscular.1691

They are very well-developed, and that allows them to hop along very well.1697

Fertilization is external and requires a wet environment or moisture to prevent the eggs from desiccating.1702

On the larva in frogs that you are probably familiar with are called tadpoles, and tadpoles have gills and a tail.1709

They live in water, and they are herbivores. This is in contrast to an adult frog.1720

The frog undergoes a metamorphosis and changes into its adult form.1731

And during this time, the gill and tail is reabsorbed into the frogs body, and legs and lungs form, so replacement of those systems.1738

In addition, the GI tract undergoes changes because although, the larva are herbivores, the adults are predators, and they are carnivores.1747

So, adults develop legs, lungs. They live on land, and they are predators.1757

We talked about the moist skin where gas exchange occurs. A little more detail about that, frogs secrete mucus.1770

They have mucus secreting cells in their skin glands, so they secrete a mucus layer.1778

And some frogs also secrete toxins that are on their skin, and that is a protection from predators.1784

Frogs vocalize well particularly the males as vocalization is important for mating.1792

So, those are the groups of amphibians, and one of the major points is that they undergo a metamorphosis.1800

The other major point is that they are intimately tied with the water because1806

they need it to keep their skin moist for gas exchange and for reproduction.1811

Now, let's contrast that with the reptiles, the next group we are going to cover, and I am going to cover birds separately.1817

We are just focusing on other reptiles like lizards and snakes and turtles right now.1824

Reptiles are well-adapted to life on land. They first appeared about 350 million years ago.1830

They are the first part of a group that we are going to cover called the Amniotes.1838

Reptiles are amniotes. Birds are amniotes, so birds, reptiles and mammals.1844

Dinosaurs were also amniotes.1857

The amnion is a membranous sac that protects the embryo, so it contains fluid.1863

You might have heard of amniotic fluid. It protects the embryo.1868

Also, amniotes have other components. They provide nutrition to the developing embryo.1872

They allow for the elimination of waste.1881

We are going to talk more about these other groups, and remember, reptiles are the first amniotes.1885

Now, reptiles are more well-adapted to land than amphibians. They can live their entire life cycle on land, and why is that?1892

Well, one reason is they have scales that are thick and made of keratin, so they have scales that are keratinized.1900

And remember, keratin is the same material that is found in our nails, and this is in contrast to the moist, more delicate skin of an amphibian.1910

The scales, however, cannot grow.1921

So, as a reptile needs to grow, they are going to shed their scales or molt and then, replace this covering as they grow.1922

Another difference between reptiles and amphibians is that the eggs of reptiles are very well-protected.1933

With mammals, the eggs are protected because the fertilized egg just remains inside the mother's body and develops there.1941

So, the mother's body provides protection.1950

Reptiles lay these fertilized eggs. The fetus develops inside the egg, but the egg has a very thick covering or casing.1952

The eggs are protected by shells. They do not have to be in the water.1962

Covering some specific groups of reptiles, reptiles include lizards,1967

a group that you may not be familiar with called the tuataras, turtles, snakes, crocodiles, alligators and so on.1975

Fertilization is internal, and I have mentioned this before.1991

And this means that the sperm is deposited within the reproductive tract of the female, and this makes sense.1995

With the amphibians, some amphibians like frogs have external fertilization, so the sperm is deposited on the eggs externally.2000

But, since reptilian eggs have this thick casing, the sperm would not be able to penetrate that thick casing.2007

So, this fertilization needs to occur before that thick casing develops, this hard shell.2014

Reptiles are cold-blooded, so they are ectotherms.2019

If you see a lizard, you might see it laying out in the sun to warm up, or if it is very hot out, they will go and seek a cool environment.2027

That is their way of regulating their temperature. They have to do it externally.2033

Gas exchange in reptiles is via lungs, and reptiles have a three-chambered heart.2038

The three-chambered heart consists of two atria and one ventricle, and the ventricle is partly divided.2048

So, let's talk about some of the different orders of reptiles.2058

The first order we are going to talk about are the Crocodiles- Crocodilia, not just the crocodiles. Crocodiles and alligators are members of this group.2062

We have four major orders. The first one are the crocodiles and alligators.2075

The next are Sphenodontia, and these are the tuataras that you may not have heard of.2080

There is only a couple species left, and they both live in New Zealand. They look a lot like lizards, so New Zealand and similar to lizards.2090

The next group, which has about 8000 species in it, are order Squamata. These are lizards and snakes.2102

Lizards have four limbs, so it is obvious they are tetrapods.2111

I mentioned before, snakes are also tetrapods, but their legs were lost during evolution; so snakes are good burrowers.2115

Interestingly, snakes retain remnants of these ancestral limbs in the form of a vestigial pelvis.2123

Snakes are carnivores, so they are capable of swallowing large prey because they have a very flexible jaw that can open widely.2132

The Testudines include turtles and tortoises. There are about 300 species in this group.2142

And what is distinctive about them is the hard shell that they possess that provides protection.2149

If under threat, a turtle will withdraw its head and limbs so that it is well-protected within the shell.2155

Some members of this order live on land. Others live in aquatic environments.2161

Now, we are going to go on and cover the birds, which are sometimes group as reptiles.2169

So, I am going to go ahead and cover these separately because they have many distinctive features.2174

Of the living animals, birds are the ones that are thought to be most closely related to dinosaurs.2179

I am going to take a minute now and talk about dinosaurs.2186

Although, we are really mostly focusing on species of animals that are still in existence, we are going to talk a little about dinosaurs.2189

Birds are warm-blooded, so they are endotherms; and it used to be thought that dinosaurs are cold-blooded. They are like reptiles.2196

However, new discoveries in the past decade have led scientists to believe that some species of dinosaurs were warm-blooded, as well.2206

Dinosaurs, some were herbivores, some were carnivores, and they radiated out to occupy many niches on land.2216

They varied from quite small to huge and were found on every continent during their peak.2222

There are multiple theories about why the dinosaurs became extinct.2229

One that has gained more support in recent years is the theory that there was a large2233

asteroid that collided with the earth about 65 million years ago during the Cretaceous period.2237

And the result of such a large asteroid hitting the earth is that all kinds of dust and debris were thrown up into the air,2250

which then, blocked sunlight from reaching the earth.2257

The results of that is that photosynthesis could not occur. Plants could not grow.2258

And since plants are at the bottom, they are at the base of the food chain and other photosynthetic organisms,2264

when photosynthesis is limited, it is going to have a severe effect on all organisms.2270

So, that is one theory on why the dinosaurs died out.2278

Birds are believed to have evolved from a group of dinosaurs called the theropods, and theropods were bipedal.2281

They moved on two feet, and they had three toes like birds. Most of these were carnivores.2290

So, it is believed that birds evolved from this group of dinosaurs.2302

They evolved to adapt to many diverse environments. You will find birds in very extreme cold like the Arctic or in hot dessert environments.2308

They have eggs that are covered with shells and are well-protected.2318

While some birds like ostriches cannot fly, most do, and when you look at a bird,2323

it is not just the feathers and wings but many, many other features that the bird has that allow it to fly, that are adapted to flight.2329

Almost any system or structure on the bird's body, if you look at and think about it, in some way has been adapted to allow for flight.2336

For one thing, birds have a high metabolism. In order to fly, it takes a lot of energy.2345

It takes a lot of oxygen. It takes a lot of glucose, so birds have a respiratory system that is very efficient.2357

They have an efficient respiratory system that does an excellent job of extracting oxygen from the air.2365

Their lungs are structurally different than those of mammals, and birds lack a diaphragm.2377

A diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that when you breathe, it helps to move air in and out of the lungs.2382

Birds lack a diaphragm. Birds have a four-chambered heart.2389

Again, flight requires a lot of energy. It requires oxygen, so you are going to need a very efficient respiratory and circulatory system.2393

So, this four-chambered heart has two atria and two ventricles and is extremely efficient in supplying oxygenated blood to the body.2402

Birds, as I mentioned, are endothermic. They are warm-blooded, and so, they can regulate their body temperature internally.2417

And in fact, due to their high metabolism, they have a body temperature that is slightly higher than the body temperature of mammals.2425

The bones of birds are strong but lightweight, and to make them lightweight, some areas of the bird's bones are even hollowed out.2432

So, there are hollow areas in the bones.2446

Certain bones such as the lower vertebrate and those with the pelvis are fused together, and the sternum serves as a keel.2448

The pectoralis muscles, those are the chest muscles.2458

The chest muscles are anchored to the sternum to the breast bone.2462

And those chest muscles are very well-developed because they power the wings they allow for flight.2467

Feathers: feathers are made of keratin. We already talked about keratin when we talked about the scales on the other reptiles.2477

Feathers allow for flight, and they also provide insulation to the bird.2486

In addition to the light bones that I mentioned, birds are designed to not have anything2491

that is not absolutely essential because that extra weight is a big problem in flight.2498

For example, birds have a beak, but they lack teeth, so that helps them to be lighter.2503

They also do not have a urinary bladder, and in many species, the females only have one ovary instead of two.2507

Again, it is all about not carrying unnecessary weight when they are flying.2515

Birds have relatively large brains for their body size. They are good communicators.2520

Considering their flying, they also need to have good sight and navigational skills.2527

They have good communication skills, and birds are known for their different songs that are used for communication or mating.2535

Again, many of the main features of birds have to do with allowing them to fly, and that goes beyond just having wings and feathers.2544

Now, we are going to move on to cover the mammals.2553

Mammals are endotherms, so they are warm-blooded. They also have hair, and they produce milk to nourish their young.2556

Milk is produced in the mammary glands, which are modified sweat glands, and milk is a liquid that is very rich in proteins and fat.2564

Mammals have high metabolism, and we are going to go into detail about respiratory and circulatory2575

and all these different structures when we talk about physiology but just briefly, the respiratory system.2582

Air is moved into and out of the lungs by the diaphragm.2589

So, the diaphragm, I said birds do not have a diaphragm. It is a sheet of muscle that aids in respiration.2593

Mammals have a four-chambered heart, again, two atria and two ventricles.2613

Another unique thing about mammals is that their teeth are highly specialized, and they are what is called diphyodont.2625

A diphyodont has two sets of teeth. The first set is, in some cultures, called baby teeth or milk teeth.2636

And then, those teeth are lost and then, replaced by a second set, which are the adult set.2646

And as I mentioned, the teeth are specialized for different functions.2652

For example, the incisors and the canines that are located in the front of the mouth are used for cutting and tearing.2655

Then, if you go a little further back, you will see the premolars. They are used to shred up the food.2663

And then, finally in the back, the molars, which are used for grinding.2668

Mammals have large well-developed brains, and fertilization in mammals is internal.2673

Fossils for mammals date back to the Triassic period about 200 million years ago.2682

And mammals are believed to have descended from a group called the synapsids.2688

These were amniotes, and they had a characteristic opening called a fenestra.2694

They had a fenestra, and a fenestra is a hole or an opening behind the eye socket.2701

Fenestra is just a general name for opening, but the opening behind...2706

They had a fenestra that was actually located behind the eye socket.2710

And it is thought to be a place where the jaw muscles anchored, but it is just something that distinguishes this group, so fenestra behind the eye sockets.2714

Mammals are thought to have evolved from this group around the Jurassic period, and for a time, mammals did coexist with dinosaurs.2730

But they were, sort of, limited, and it is thought to be because dinosaurs were filling a lot of the niches in the environment.2738

Once the dinosaurs died out, mammals went through an enormous adaptive radiation.2745

And they filled a lot of the environmental niches that had been occupied by dinosaurs, and now, they are found in every continent on land, in the sea.2750

The only flying mammal is the bat, but there are other mammals such as whales and dolphins that have adapted to life in the sea.2760

In this case, although they are tetrapods, evolved from a four-limb animal, what happened is that the four limbs became adapted to swimming.2767

And there are about 5000 species of mammals.2780

And they are divided into the three taxonomic groups that we are going to discuss: the monotremes, the marsupials and the eutherians.2785

We are going to start with the monotremes. There are only five species of monotremes left in existence, and most of them live in Australia.2794

These include the platypus and echidnas, which are the spiny anteaters, and what is very unique about monotremes is that they actually lay eggs.2807

When we think of mammals, we do not think of them as laying eggs, but this group does.2816

So, they lay eggs. They do not deliver their young fully live outside of an egg.2820

It is unique to this group among the mammals.2828

A group of mammals that you are probably more familiar with are the marsupials. Marsupials include kangaroos, wombats, koala bears and many others.2832

And the distinctive characteristic of this group is that they have a pouch where the fetus finishes its development.2843

Marsupials have a relatively short gestation period, so they deliver their young early in their development.2850

At the point that a marsupial offspring is born, the hind legs are usually just small buds.2857

What happens is the developing new born is born. It is tiny.2862

It has these little hind legs or buds really, and then, it uses the four limbs to climb up and reach the pouch.2868

Once inside the pouch, the marsupial will attach to a nipple and feed of milk.2877

It will nurse there and stay in the pouch and finish out its development there.2884

Now, marsupials evolved in isolation in Australia, and when we talked about evolution, I mentioned that.2890

And because of this isolation, marsupials went and radiated out, filled all kinds of niches in Australia,2899

while in the rest of the word, placental mammals which are called eutherians went and developed similar niches.2908

As a result, there are many examples of convergent evolution among marsupials and placental mammals, so convergent evolution.2913

I mentioned some of those in the evolution lecture, but just to recap, an example would be the wolf in North America, the placental wolf,2923

And then, if you look in Australia, you would see an animal that looks pretty similar or has many similar features called the Tasmanian wolf.2933

The flying squirrel in North America and the sugar glider in Australia,2950

although, they have many superficial similarities, if you looked at one of these marsupials,2960

they are actually more closely related to other marsupials than they are to their counterpart placental mammal.2966

We are going to, now, go on and talk about some of these placental mammals and why they are in a different group.2975

To start with, eutherians is one name, but you will often hear them called placentals or placental mammals.2983

Although, marsupials have a placenta, it is not as well-developed as it is in this group of mammals, and that is how they got their name.2989

The placenta in placental mammals is a very well-developed structure.2997

And what the placenta does in utero is it provides the fetus with a means for gas exchange, nourishment and a means to eliminate waste.3003

Eutherians have a longer gestation period because they complete their gestation in utero,3023

in contrast to marsupials that are born much earlier and complete their development in the pouch, so a much longer gestation period.3030

Some orders of eutherians include Carnivora. Examples here would be dogs and cats, Rodentia, so rodents such as rats, mice and squirrels,3049

also, the Cetaceans, and these include aquatic dwelling mammals such as whales and dolphins,3075

and finally, the group we are going to focus on, which are the Primates.3090

Humans belong to this order as do many other animals, so we are going to talk about the Primates in more depth right now.3094

Primates include monkeys, orangutans, lemurs, chimps, gorillas and humans among others.3103

Rather than claws, primates have flat nails, so we are talking about some differences between Primates and other groups of mammals.3120

They have no claws, so they lack claws. Instead, they have nails, flat nails.3129

They also have hands that have an opposable thumb, and most primates are good climbers.3136

And some species spend the majority of their time up in the trees in arboreal habitat.3144

It makes sense that an opposable thumb would allow for grasping. The hands of primates have good dexterity and are highly innervated.3150

The fingers are very sensitive and highly innervated, and this allows primates to be very successful at performing tasks requiring fine motor skills.3160

Primates have a flatter face than most other animals, and their eyes are forward looking, so closed-set forward-looking eyes.3172

And this is an advantage up in the trees, climbing around in an environment where you need to have good depth perception.3188

Those closed-set eyes allow for good depth perception and in general, good visual acuity and hand eye coordination. They are very dextrous.3194

In addition, most primates are quite social, and they care for their young for extended periods- extended care for their young.3208

Primates have large brains particularly the cerebrum. The forebrain is well-developed, and primates tend to be highly intelligent.3226

They are capable of learning. They have very flexible behavior relative to other groups of animals.3240

Humans are primates with especially large brains and that walk upright.3246

Although, other primate groups can use tools, humans do so in a way that is much more complex than other members of the primate group.3252

So, today, we looked at a lot of different chordates starting with the invertebrates and then, finishing out with the vertebrates including the primates.3262

Now, we are going to go ahead and do some questions to review the lesson.3271

Example one: list the four distinguishing characteristics of chordates.3275

At some point in development, all chordates have four things, four structures.3281

One is a notochord. Remember that this is a rod-type structure that is located dorsal to the GI tube and ventral to the nerve chord.3287

It is not a vertebral column, but it can function similarly in invertebrate chordates.3298

The second structure that chordates all have at some point is a dorsal hollow nerve chord.3305

This nerve chord differentiates into the CNS, which includes the brain and spinal cord.3315

Next, all chordates have pharyngeal clefts and arches, and these differentiate into various structures depending on the animal.3322

It could be a structure to allow for filter feeding. It could be gills.3335

It could be parts of the ear, so it depends on the animal.3339

And finally, all chordates have a post-anal tail at some point in development.3346

So, these are the four structures that are characteristic of chordates.3352

Match the following descriptions to the correct term.3357

The only group of mammals that lays eggs- so, recall there is three groups of mammals that we covered.3361

Marsupials do not lay eggs, although, they are mammals. Reptiles- no, amphibians.3367

It is the monotremes, so the monotremes are mammals, but they lay eggs.3374

Two: live a part of their life cycle in water and a part on land. They have moist skin that is used for gas exchange.3381

So, recall that amphibian means two lives or double life, and that is because amphibians like frogs live part of their life cycle in the water and part on land.3391

And they do have moist skin that is used for gas exchange in addition to the lungs. Therefore, no. 2 is C.3401

Three: ectotherms with scales made of keratin. Their eggs are covered by thick protective casings.3411

Marsupials are not covered with scales. It is the reptiles.3419

And remember that those thick scales and the covering and casings that their eggs have3423

allow reptiles to live fully on land and not be as dependent on the water as amphibians are.3431

Finally, mammals who complete their development in the pouch- those are the marsupials such as kangaroos.3440

The young are born early in development, make their way into a pouch where they nurse.3445

They feed on milk and continue their development protected within a pouch.3453

What are three ways in which a bird's anatomy is adapted to allow for flight? Well, I am going to expand that out to anatomy and physiology.3459

So, we are going to talk about structure and function here, and that would include the existence of feathers.3468

These are made of keratin, and they also provide insulation. They have wings, so those are the obvious two.3475

Others are the fact that they have light bones. Their bones are strong but light.3483

Certain bones such as the pelvic bones are fused, and lower vertebras are fused.3488

They also have no teeth. This allows them to be lighter to allow for flight.3497

There are other ways in which birds are lighter such as many species only have one ovary, which allows them to be light.3505

Physiologically, birds have a fast metabolism. They need a lot of energy, a lot of oxygen also, to be able to fly, oxygen and glucose and forms of energy.3512

Therefore, they have very efficient respiratory systems and circulatory systems.3528

So, I listed many more than three, but you only had to remember three out of these ways in which a bird is adapted to allow for flight.3544

Finally, example four: a vertebrate animal living in a marine environment has the following characteristics.3556

Ectothermic, so that means it is cold-blooded, a skeleton composed of cartilage.3563

It is living in the water- cold-blooded. It has a cartilaginous skeleton and a lateral line system.3568

Well, this could describe the bony fish except for the fact that we are talking about a skeleton that is composed of cartilage.3575

This sounds like a chondrichthyan like a shark, so this is a chondrichthyan or a member of the phylum Chondrichthyes.3581

That concludes this session on the vertebrates at Educator.com.3604

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