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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
1:00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
1:01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
1:06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
1:09:10
Example 3: Transcription
1:12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
1:14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
1:00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:02:55
Incomplete Dominance
1:02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:26
Epistasis
1:12:51
Example of Epistasis
1:12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
1:17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
1:21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
1:25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
1:28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
1:00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
1:01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
1:00:13
Forams
1:02:25
Radiolarians
1:03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
1:04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
1:04:26
Slime Molds
1:05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
1:09:21
Oomycetes
1:11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
1:13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
1:14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
1:16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
1:17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
1:01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
1:02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
1:00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
1:12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
1:15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
1:16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
1:18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
1:04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
1:06:36
Example 3: Nephron
1:09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
1:10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
1:00:29
Sensory Stimuli
1:00:30
Reflex Arc
1:01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
1:04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
1:06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
1:08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
1:09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
1:00:01
Complement System
1:01:57
Classes of Antibodies
1:02:45
IgM
1:03:01
IgA
1:03:17
IgG
1:03:53
IgE
1:04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
1:05:00
Passive Immunity
1:05:01
Active Immunity
1:07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
1:10:50
Immunodeficiency
1:13:27
Immunodeficiency
1:13:28
Chemotherapy
1:13:56
AID
1:14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
1:15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
1:17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
1:21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
1:23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
1:00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
1:00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
1:02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
1:04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
1:01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
1:01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
1:56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
1:59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
2:00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
2:01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
1:01:36
Multiple Choice 30
1:02:31
Multiple Choice 31
1:03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (6)

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Wed Nov 6, 2013 1:13 AM

Post by Fadel Hanoun on October 30, 2013

You are amazing!

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Mon Mar 26, 2012 8:52 PM

Post by shadad musa on March 24, 2012

you ROCK!!!!!

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Mon Oct 24, 2011 4:05 PM

Post by Senghuot Lim on October 23, 2011

good lecture, prof. eaton

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

  • Seeds and pollen are adaptations that allow seed plants to thrive on land. These structures contain sporopollenin in their walls and are therefore resistant to desiccation.
  • Seed plants are heterosporous, producing two different types of spores, megaspores and microspores. Each microspore develops into a grain of pollen. Female gametophytes develop from megaspores.
  • Gymnosperms have seeds that are not enclosed within fruits. Most gymnosperms are conifers; ginkgoes and cycads are also gymnosperms.
  • The reproductive organ in angiosperms is the flower. The pistil is the female reproductive organ and consists of the stigma, style and ovary. The male reproductive organ is the stamen, which consists of the filament and anther.
  • Double fertilization occurs in angiosperms. One sperm fertilizes the egg to form a diploid zygote and the other fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid endosperm.
  • After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed. The ovary develops into fruit that encloses and protects the seeds.
  • Plants can reproduce asexually through vegetative propagation. The result is an offspring that is genetically identical to the parent plant.

Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Seed Plants 0:22
    • Sporopollenin
    • Heterosporous: Megasporangia
    • Heterosporous: Microsporangia
  • Gymnosperms 5:20
    • Gymnosperms
  • Gymnosperm Life Cycle 7:30
    • Gymnosperm Life Cycle
  • Flower Structure 15:15
    • Petal & Pollination
    • Sepal
    • Stamen: Anther, Filament
    • Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
    • Complete Flowers
  • Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation 20:47
    • Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
    • Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
  • Double Fertilization 25:43
    • Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
  • Angiosperm Life Cycle 29:43
    • Angiosperm Life Cycle
  • Seed Structure and Development 33:37
    • Seed Structure and Development
  • Pollen Dispersal 37:53
    • Abiotic
    • Biotic
  • Prevention of Self-Pollination 40:48
    • Mechanism 1
    • Mechanism 2: Dioecious
    • Mechanism 3
    • Self-Incompatibility
    • Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
    • Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
  • Asexual Reproduction 48:33
    • Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
    • Graftiry
  • Monocots and Dicots 51:34
    • Monocots vs.Dicots
  • Example 1: Double Fertilization 54:43
  • Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization 56:02
  • Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots 58:11
  • Example 4: Flower Structures 1:00:11

Transcription: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

We are continuing our discussion of plants with the seed plants.0002

In previous lectures, I talked about seedless plants.0006

These include the bryophytes such as moss, which are nonvascular, as well as seedless vascular plants such as ferns.0010

Today, we are going to go on and talk about the two groups of seed plants.0018

Seed plants have adaptations that further allow them to adjust to life on land.0024

Remember when we talked about the seedless plants,0031

I discussed adaptations that were made from the ancestral green algae to the early plants such as the bryophytes.0034

As evolution proceeded, more adaptations occurred, which allowed plants to thrive on land.0044

For this reason, the seed plants are the most common type of plants on earth today.0052

Starting out with seeds and pollen, seeds and pollen are resistant to drying because they contain sporopollenin.0059

Both seeds and pollen have sporopollenin in their walls, which makes them resistant to desiccation.0068

In addition, pollen allows the dispersal of sperm without water.0074

Recall that when we talked about moss, I said that sperm are flagellated, and therefore, they have to swim to fertilize the egg within the archegonium.0079

And that tightly ties the seedless plants to having to live in a moist environment.0088

Recall that moss and ferns are found in very moist environments.0094

In addition, the seed is a very complex structure. We will talk about the structure later on today.0100

And it provides not only protection for the developing embryo but also nutrition for the embryo.0105

And there are two groups of seed plants: the gymnosperms, and the gymnosperms are primarily the conifers.0112

There are some groups of gymnosperms that are not conifers. However, most of them are conifers, and they are also the angiosperms.0122

The angiosperms are the flowering plants.0130

Seed plants are heterosporous. Recall that when we talked about ferns, I mentioned that ferns are homosporous as well as other seedless plants.0136

Homosporous means that the plant produces one type of spore.0148

And that type of spore develops into a single type of gametophyte, which produces both male and female gametes.0151

In contrast, the seed plants are heterosporous meaning that they produce two different types of spores: megaspores and microspores.0159

So, within the megasporangia are produced megaspores.0169

From these megaspores develop the female gametophyte, and within the female gametophyte are the eggs.0184

Microsporangia are the other type of spores, so microsporangia are the site of production via miosis of microspores.0200

These develop into pollen grains, and within the pollen grain is the male gametophyte and the sperm nuclei, which fertilize eggs.0214

Another adaptation that seed plants have to terrestrial environments is the reduction of the gametophyte generation.0232

Recall that in moss, the gametophyte generation is dominant.0238

If you go and see a bunch of moss growing on the ground, you will see this big mat of moss, and that is actually the gametophyte.0242

That is the dominant generation in moss, and in fact, the sporophytes are just small structures that project out from the gametophyte.0249

And those sporophytes are completely dependent on the gametophyte in moss.0258

In ferns, the gametophyte generation is reduced, and the sporophyte generation is dominant; but the gametophytes are still small independent plants.0262

Here, now, we see the gametophyte is just extremely reduced. The sporophyte is completely dominant.0271

And the gametophyte is just very small microscopic structures within the larger sporophyte and dependent on the sporophyte for nutrition and protection.0277

So, when you go outside and see the fir trees and bushes and vegetables and the vast majority of the plants you see,0286

which are seed plants, what you are seeing is the sporophyte.0297

And the gametophyte, you would have to really open the plant up, look for - get on a microscope - very, very small structure.0301

This is another way in which seed plants have adapted to life on land because it allows the sporophyte to protect the developing gametes.0308

We are going to start out by talking about gymnosperms. Gymnosperms were the earliest seed plants.0319

Flower plants developed more recently in evolution, and gymnosperms are primarily composed of the conifers such as firs, pine trees, spruces, red woods.0326

However, not all gymnosperms are conifers.0339

In fact, there is a couple of few other small phyla such as the Ginkgos and the cycads, which are also gymnosperms.0343

Cycads look somewhat like palms, and they were actually very common in the age of the dinosaur. Though, there is not many species of cycads left today.0351

Conifers often live in dry environments, and the needles of conifers are actually, they are leaves.0360

They are modified to minimize water loss since conifers live in dry environments.0367

And they do this because needles have a relatively low surface area compared with a large, flat leaf.0371

Gymnosperm seeds are described as naked seed. These are seeds that are not enclosed within fruits, so these are described as naked seeds.0379

And this is in contrast with the flowering plants, and the flowering plant, what happens is the ovary, which surrounds the ovule,0390

when the ovule is fertilized, when the egg is fertilized, the ovule becomes the fruit - excuse me - the ovary.0399

The ovary becomes the fruit, and the seed in enclosed within the fruit in flowering plants.0408

In gymnosperms, there is no fruit, so the seeds are just exposed.0413

The seeds are, instead, in the conifers located on cones. Cones are also modified leaves.0419

And if you look at most types of conifers, you will actually two types of cones, and here, within this photo is an example.0425

The larger cones are the ovulate cones.0431

And the smaller cones are called the pollen cones where pollen is produced versus where the female gametophyte and eggs are produced.0436

So, let's go ahead and take a look at the life cycle of a typical gymnosperm.0447

There are differences in specific species, but this is just going to be a generalized life cycle of a typical conifer.0452

We are going to start out with the mature sporophyte, and that is what this is.0460

So, you go out. You see a fir tree.0464

You see a pine tree. What you are looking at is the mature sporophyte generation, and all the areas with the white background are diploid.0466

Remember that the sporophyte is diploid.0473

And as I mentioned, there are two types of cones. There is the larger ovulate cone and the smaller pollen cones, and cones have many scales on them.0476

So, if you take one of these scales and look at it and see what all the parts are, and we are able to see and name the parts,0487

what you would see is that one of the structures is an ovule; and we will look at, kind of, a close-up of the ovule structure.0495

But for right now, what you should know is that the ovule is covered by what is called an integument.0504

And that is going to develop into the seed coat after the fertilization of the egg, so it becomes the seed coat.0517

On the scale of the ovulate cone are ovules. Surrounding the ovule is a covering called an integument.0527

And within the ovule is a megasporangium - plural is sporangia - and the megasporangium contains megasporocytes, and these are diploid.0533

And the megasporocytes undergo meiosis, so that is what occurs right here at this step- meiosis.0552

It halves the chromosome number, as you know, which is going to result in megaspores.0564

And from the megaspores develop the egg, so this is what is going on with the ovulate cone.0572

Meanwhile, over here with the pollen cone, we have microsporangium, and within the microsporangium are the microsporocytes.0583

Again, meiosis needs to occur to produce haploid microspores, so this should be down here in the haploid area.0601

The microspores are haploid, and those develop into pollen grains. Pollen grains contain the male gametophytes.0612

Pollen grains are covered, and they have a protective covering around them, as I talked about, impregnated with sporopollenin.0622

And within the pollen grains are the male gametophytes.0629

Now, the pollen grains are released, and then, they are carried via wind to the ovule.0638

When the pollen grains reach the ovulate cone, they can germinate and form a pollen tube.0645

And the pollen tube is the means by which the sperm enters the female gametophyte.0652

However, things are a little bit complicated in terms of the timing.0658

And in fact, this entire life cycle can take two or three years because the pollen does not0662

just land on the ovulate cone where the egg is ready and then, undergo fertilization.0667

In fact, what happens is that pollination occurs back here before formation of megaspore, formation of the eggs.0672

What is going on the ovule is that the cells are still diploid.0682

So, what happens is the pollen pollinates the ovulate cone, or it lands on the ovulate cone; and the pollen tube begins to grow.0686

We are still at the stage where there is megasporocytes, which are diploid.0697

As the pollen tube grows into the ovule, as it reaches the ovule, then,0701

the diploid megasporocyte, at that point, will undergo meiosis to produce four haploid megaspores.0707

So, I gave you the overview.0719

But as far as the timing, the meiosis does not occur within the ovule until after the pollen tube has grown and pollination has occurred.0720

And it can take a year for the pollen tube to grow, so this is not a fast process.0731

Meiosis, then, occurs, so now, we have four haploid megaspores in a megasporangium.0736

Usually, only one megaspore survives, and that megaspore, within that develops the female gametophyte.0742

And notice that this gametophyte is contained within the ovule, which is within this large sporophyte plant and completely dependent on it.0755

Now, within the female gametophyte are several archegonia, and within each of these archegonium develops an egg.0767

So, we have gone from the diploid megasporocytes. Meiosis has occurred to produce four haploid megaspores.0784

One of those will survive and develops into a female gametophyte. Within that are archegonium, and within each of those is an egg.0794

The formation of the pollen tube has occurred, so now, we have finally got the egg ready.0804

The pollen tube has grown into the ovule near this egg so that the sperm can reach the egg.0809

At this point, sperm nuclei are released through the pollen tube, and they fertilize the egg.0815

So, with fertilization, so now, I am going to have the sperm reaching the egg via the pollen tube.0821

With fertilization, the plant is returned to the diploid part of its life cycle because the zygote is, of course, diploid.0830

Sperm nuclei can fertilize multiple...one sperm can fertilize one egg in an archegonium, and another can fertilize another egg.0839

But usually, only one of those will survive, and then, this zygote becomes an embryo.0848

Just to talk a little bit about structure, remember that the integument becomes the seed coat, so now, the zygote is protected within.0858

Here is the seed, and the outer layer is this, so this whole thing is the seed. The outer layer is the seed coat.0867

And within that is the embryo. In addition, there are nutrients within the seed to nourish the developing embryo.0874

Then, what happens is, so now, these seeds are located on this ovulate cone.0884

And eventually, the scales separate, and they are dispersed by the wind.0888

If the seeds land in a hospitable environment, then, they will germinate, and they will begin to grow.0893

They will form a young sporophyte, continue to grow and then, eventually, a mature sporophyte.0900

And as I said, the cycle can take two or three years, and it could take a whole year just for the pollen tube to form.0906

So, this is a typical gymnosperm life cycle.0912

Now that we have talked about the gymnosperms, we are going to go ahead and focus on flower structure and angiosperms.0916

Most plants on earth today are flowering plants, and the angiosperms are all members of one phylum; and this is the phylum Anthophyta.0923

And we are going to start talking about the angiosperms focusing on one of the structures that makes them unique which is flowers.0937

And this is the reproductive structure of flowering plants.0944

Starting out with structure you are already familiar with, petals, these are brightly colored in order to attract insects, birds and other pollinators.0950

And the thing that differentiates pollination by an insect or a bird or another animal is that it is more precise than wind pollination.0960

With the wind pollination we talked about with the gymnosperms, huge quantities, masses of pollen, need to be produced.0968

And then, they are blown around because it is imprecise.0975

It is just sheer numbers, and then, hopefully, some of that pollen will land on an ovulate cone where pollination and then, fertilization can take place.0978

Whereas, if there is an insect pollinator, that insect will go and land on a flower, take the pollen and then,0987

take it over, hopefully, to another flower, carry it over, so it is much more efficient.0994

Now, there are some angiosperms that use wind pollination.1000

They do not all use an animal pollinator, but this is in advance that came with the angiosperms.1004

So, petals help to attract pollinators.1011

The second structure are the sepals. The sepals are green modified leaves that wrap around the flower.1014

So, before the flower buds, they can provide protection for it.1022

Next, we get to the male and female reproductive organs.1027

The stamen is the male reproductive organ, and the pistil or carpal is the female reproductive organ.1030

And we are going to start out with the male reproductive organ- the stamen.1045

There are two structures here. One is the long filament, and on top of the filament, at the end of the filament, is the anther.1051

The anther contains the microsporangia. I just talked about microsporangia when we talked about the gymnosperm life cycle.1058

The microsporangia are within the anther. These are also called pollen sacs, and they are the site of production of pollen.1068

Now, the female reproductive organ, the pistil, you might see in some sources called a carpal. I am going to use them interchangeably.1076

Many sources use them interchangeably. Some sources differentiate and say that a pistil is one structure, and that a pistil refers to a set of fused carpals.1090

So, sometimes, they are differentiated in that a pistil is a set of fused carpals. I am just going to use them interchangeably as is common.1103

There are three parts to the pistil. The first part is the stigma, and the stigma is sticky.1111

It is the top-most structure, so if pollen lands here, it will stick to the stigma.1117

Then, when the pollen germinates, the pollen tube will grow down this long, thin style, which leads to the final structure- the ovary.1122

The ovary, here, contains the ovules. Once the ovule is fertilized, it develops into a seed.1134

And with fertilization, the wall of the ovary thickens, and it becomes a fruit.1144

Fruit like peaches or grapes or apples, those are actually the fertilized ovules of a flowering plant.1151

Now, a couple advantages to a fruit for the plant, one is that it provides protection for the seeds.1157

But, another is the advantage it provides in dispersal. It is a way to disperse the seeds.1164

Instead of just dispersal by wind, what can happen is an animal can eat the fruit, and the fleshy part, the fruit itself, will be digested by the animal.1170

But, the seeds will pass through the animal's GI tract undigested.1180

And then, when the animal defecates, that seed will be eliminated into the ground along with natural fertilizer from the animal's waste.1184

And then, the seed can germinate.1196

So, this is a method of dispersal that the fruit also helps with dispersal as well as protection.1197

These structures that I talked about - the petal, sepal, stamen and pistil - are all modified leaves.1205

And they are sometimes called/known together as the floral organs.1211

Complete flowers have all four of these structures, so they have all four structures meaning sepals, petals, stamens and pistils.1215

Incomplete flowers are missing one or more structures.1231

And we will talk about situations where a flower may have pistils but not stamens or just stamen and not a pistil, and that is an incomplete flower.1234

Alright, now, I am going to focus on gametophyte formation in angiosperms.1245

Although, I do have a picture here, as well, of the gymnosperm ovule for comparison.1251

First, starting out with the male reproductive organ, the anthers of the flower contain four microsporangia, so these are pollen sacs.1258

First, starting with the anther, let's start with the anther, and this contains the microsporangia or pollen sacs.1275

These are diploid, so these are 2n; and they contain microsporocytes, so the microsporocytes within the sporangia.1291

These structures are also diploid, so they are 2n. They undergo meiosis, and they, therefore, produce four haploid microspores.1304

From these four haploid microspores come four grains of pollen, so each of the microspores develops into pollen grains.1334

The pollen consists of the male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall, so within that is the male gametophyte.1347

But, what you should know is that the male gametophyte consists of two cells: a tube cell and a generative cell.1364

The pollen tube forms from the tube cell. Two sperm are produced from the generative cell.1377

Now, that is the male gametophyte development and the production of sperm and the pollen tube.1388

Now, let's look at what is going on with the female reproductive structure.1396

Within a flowering plant, here, we have the style and the ovary. Within the ovary is the ovule.1400

Recall that as I mentioned in gymnosperm, here is a gymnosperm ovule. It is covered with an integument.1410

With the gymnosperm, there is usually one layer of integument, whereas, there are two layers around the angiosperm ovule.1416

This gap right here in the integument is called a micropile.1426

And the pollen tube can grow down and then, reach the egg by entering that opening called the micropile.1433

The ovule contains the megasporangium, which is diploid, and within the megasporangium are diploid megasporocytes.1444

Within the ovule are the megasporangium, then, within that are diploid megasporocytes.1455

What happens is meiosis produces the megaspores, and again, as we talked about with gymnosperm, usually, only one megaspore survives.1462

So, we started out with diploid megasporocytes. They undergo meiosis to produce the haploid megaspore.1474

The megaspore, then, undergoes mitosis to develop into a female gametophyte. This is also called an embryo sac.1482

One of the cells within this gametophyte is an egg, so there is going to be one egg cell, and there are also two polar nuclei.1507

These are the major cells you should be familiar with as far as the female gametophyte, so one egg and two polar nuclei.1518

These polar nuclei share a cytoplasm.1524

Now, we have gotten to the point where the egg has been formed. Pollen has been formed, and we talked about formation of the sperm and the egg.1532

So, that takes us to the next step, which is fertilization.1541

In an angiosperm, fertilization is actually double fertilization, and I will explain now why it is called double fertilization.1544

Starting with pollination, pollen is released, and it travels via wind or via animal and lands on another flower.1554

When it lands on another flower, self-fertilization can occur.1565

But most fertilization is cross fertilization, which means that a pollen from one flower will pollinate another flower.1570

And we will talk about how self-fertilization is prevented, but for right now, let's just focus on the process of fertilization, itself.1579

So, the pollen is released. It somehow gets to another flower, and it attaches, then, to the stigma.1587

Remember that the stigma is sticky. The pollen will land on the stigma and attach there.1593

Then, the pollen grain may germinate. If it germinates, what will happen is from that tube cell will be produced a pollen tube.1598

Remember in a male gametophyte, there is a tube cell and a generative cell.1607

The pollen tube is produced from the tube cell, and then, the pollen tube is going to grow down the style towards the ovary.1611

It will reach the ovule by passing through that opening in the integument, which is that opening called the micropile and reach the ovule.1624

At this point, the nucleus of the generative cell within the pollen grain divides.1633

So, within the pollen grain, there is a tube cell and a generative cell.1644

The generative cell divides and produces two sperm nuclei, and these sperm nuclei are released into the ovule via the pollen tube.1646

Now, there are two sperm nuclei, and here, within the ovule, is the egg as well as the two polar nuclei that share a cytoplasm.1663

And here is why it is called double fertilization.1676

Two fertilizations occur. Two sperm are released into the ovule.1679

One of those sperm fertilizes the egg to form a zygote. The other sperm fuses with the two polar nuclei to form an endosperm, which is triploid or 3n.1683

So, what we have is sperm nuclei. Each of these is haploid.1697

They are n.1702

When you unite the sperm, which is haploid, with the egg, which is also haploid, the result is a zygote, which is diploid.1703

The other sperm nuclei is haploid, and that is united with the two polar nuclei.1721

Each of those is n, n + n, to give a total of 3n or triploid endosperms, so this structure is called an endosperm.1730

And the endosperm is a source of nutrients for the developing embryo, so once fertilization has occurred, the ovule, then, becomes the seed.1743

The endosperm is the nourishment for the embryo within the seed, and then, the wall of the ovary thickens to become the fruit.1758

So, within the fruit is the seed, and then, within the seed is the plant zygote, which is going to develop into an embryo.1771

Now, I focused on gametophyte formation and fertilization, the most complex steps of this life cycle.1777

And now, I am going to put that into the context of the overall angiosperm life cycle.1784

Again, we will start out with the mature sporophyte plant.1788

So, you go around. You see some flowers on a plant.1792

What you are seeing is the diploid sporophyte structure and then, just looking specifically at the reproductive organ, which is the flower.1795

Recall that the pistil of the flower includes the ovary, and the ovules are contained within the ovary.1805

And inside the ovules are the megasporangia, so inside the ovules are the megasporangia.1816

And the megasporocytes are created within the megasporangia.1826

Meiosis produces the megaspores, so within the ovule, meiosis occurs to produce haploid megaspores.1834

One of the megaspores, as I said, will survive and undergo mitosis and develop into the female gametophyte or embryo sac.1845

One of the cells within the gametophyte is the egg, and there are also the two polar nuclei, so just a review of gametophyte formation.1854

Meanwhile, in the anther are the microsporangia, and within the microsporangia are the microsporocytes that undergo meiosis to produce microspores.1864

The microspores develop into pollen, and within the pollen is the sperm nuclei. The male gametophyte and the sperm nuclei form.1879

Alright, so, we are at the point where we have talked about formation of the male gametophyte and the female gametophyte, the egg and the sperm.1895

So then, pollination occurs. The pollen is released from the flower.1903

It travels via wind, water, animals, some method to reach another flower, and it attaches to the stigma there.1908

And so, pollination has occurred, and the pollen grain will germinate.1917

And these have certain conditions such as water to trigger germination, and when that occurs, the tube cell will form the pollen tube.1922

The pollen tube is going to grow down through the style towards the ovary, pass through the micropile.1929

And the two sperm nuclei are released within the ovule.1936

One of these will fertilize the egg to create a zygote. The other will fuse with the two polar nuclei to form an endosperm.1941

So, this is actually the double fertilization that is occurring.1950

Here, we are talking about haploid, sperm and egg, and then, fertilization occurs; and we end up with the diploid zygote.1954

The ovule is going to develop into a seed, so this is the seed. The developing embryo is going to be within the seed.1961

Also, the endosperm is going to be within the seed to provide nourishment for the developing embryo while the ovary will thicken.1970

And then, this seed will be contained within a fruit. The fruit, then, will drop or go off the tree or somehow be dispersed.1979

And then, the seed will eventually end up on the ground, hopefully, where it can germinate and then,1991

grow into a young sporophyte plant and then, eventually a mature sporophyte plant, and then, this cycle continues on.1999

So, this is the entire angiosperm life cycle just generalized.2006

Now, we are going to look at the structure that makes the seed plants, seed plants in a little bit more detail.2012

We are going to look at seed structure as well as development of the embryo within the seed.2018

Remember that after fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed.2024

And in an angiosperm, the ovary develops into a fruit that encloses and protects the seed.2028

As I have already mentioned, the outer covering of the seed is called a seed coat, and it contains sporopollenin.2034

It is very resistant to drying, to other environmental stressors, so it can protect the developing embryo.2044

And it can remain dormant and protect that embryo until conditions are favorable for germination.2050

The endosperm, which is triploid, contains nutrients like starches that nourish the embryo.2056

Seed dispersal, I mentioned, are by animals. Some seeds, however, are light.2065

They are aerodynamic, and they are actually just dispersed by the wind like maple seeds.2071

Maple seeds have structures that are wing-shaped, so they travel really well on the wind.2075

Others, aquatic plants, have seeds that are dispersed by water.2080

With fruits, again, one of the advantages of fruits is that animals can disperse the seeds after they eat the fruit and then, eliminate the seeds.2086

Other seeds actually are distributed by animals because the seeds actually have spines on them, and they are carried away.2095

Also, seeds can be buried by animals, which is a big help to the seed as long as the animal does not come back and eat it.2103

So, a squirrel might bury some seeds to eat later on and then, never actually end up getting to those, and then, those can germinate.2111

After the seed is developed, has been dispersed, the zygote will develop. It will undergo mitosis and form an embryo.2119

And that is what we are looking at now, is the structure of the embryo within the seed.2129

And this structure consists of the embryonic root and the seed leaves. The seed leaves are called cotyledons.2133

So, what is being shown here is a seed that has been sectioned opened. It has been split open, and there are actually two seed leaves.2145

There are two cotyledons, so if there are two cotyledons, the plant is called a dicot.2153

Angiosperms have been broadly divided into two major groups: the monocots and the dicots.2161

Those plants that have only one seed leaf, one cotyledon, are called monocots.2167

In dicots, food storage is transferred from the endosperm to the cotyledons, so the cotyledons are a site of food storage.2180

In monocots, food storage remains in the endosperm.2189

Other structures within the embryo are first, the epicotyl. The epicotyl eventually becomes the shoot system.2194

So, this develops into the shoot system meaning the stem and leaves.2201

In some plants, just below the epicotyl is the hypocotyl, is the structure that forms the roots.2209

However, in some plants, there is actually another structure lower down called the radical that forms the roots.2216

If there is a radical that forms the roots, then, the hypocotyl usually becomes the lower stem.2222

We have the shoot system, epicotyl, the hypocotyl, which is the lower stem or the roots.2229

And then, there may be a radical that forms the roots instead of the hypocotyl.2234

We are going to talk in a little while using a table to talk about differences between monocots and dicots.2239

But, just to start thinking about it, some examples of monocots are grasses. Many grasses like wheat and corn are actually examples of monocots.2245

Dicots are many wood plants such as oaks, willows.2257

Other plants that are herbaceous plants like marigolds, a lot of garden vegetables like tomatoes and pea plants, those are also dicots.2263

When we talked about the life cycle of angiosperms, I did touch upon pollen dispersal, and I would talk about that now in more detail.2278

To maintain genetic diversity, pollen from one flower needs to travel to the pistil of another flower where pollination and fertilization can occur.2285

So, there are various methods of dispersing the pollen, and these are broadly categorized as abiotic or biotic.2295

Biotic mechanisms require a living organism like biotic biology- life. Abiotic would be without a living organism.2303

So, starting with some methods of abiotic- pollination. The first one is wind.2312

This is the method that is used by gymnosperms, but as I mentioned, some angiosperms use this, as well.2319

Most flowering plants actually rely on animals for pollination, but some angiosperms use wind pollination.2325

As mentioned, wind pollination is not as exact as the other methods, so very large quantities of pollen need to be produced.2334

They blow around on the wind, and you can sometimes some days see the pollen in the air. That can cause allergies for some people.2341

So, wind pollination, large quantities of pollen are produced. Many grasses and trees utilize this method pollination.2349

The second abiotic method is water. Aquatic plants may rely on water to disperse their pollen.2357

These methods - abiotic - account for about 20% of angiosperms. The majority of angiosperms, 80%, rely on biotic methods.2365

These are living organisms: pollinators such as these shown here, animal pollinators such as bees, birds, butterflies, various other insects.2377

So, what happens is the flowers on the plant are often very showy for those that rely on biotic pollination.2397

And what the flower is trying to do is attract a pollinator.2407

There may be nectar produced by these flowers, which is the payoff for these insect pollinators. It is what draws the insect pollinators.2415

And nectar is very rich in carbohydrates, so as a bird or an insect feeds on the nectar, the pollen will stick to their body.2422

Then, they go to the next flower to feed on nectar, and some of that pollen will drop off and attach to the stigma of the next flower.2430

So, about 80% of angiosperms rely on biotic methods of pollination.2437

Now, as I mentioned, what is ideal is to maintain genetic diversity, so plants have many means of preventing self-pollination.2443

Some plants do self-pollinate. However, in most plants, cross-pollination is favored.2452

Cross-pollination, again, means that the pollen from one flower fertilizes, pollinates, another flower, not the same flower, to maximize genetic diversity.2458

Mechanisms to prevent self-pollination: 1. The pistils and stamen mature at different times.2469

Even though the pollen may be ready - the stamen matures, the pollen is ready - the egg is not mature, so therefore, self-fertilization cannot occur.2485

Another method is that some plants produce flowers that contain either stamens or pistils but not both.2498

These are called dioecious plants, so dioecious plants have flowers with stamens - staminate flowers or pistilate flowers - or pistils.2506

Monoecious plants have flowers that produce both, flowers with both male and female reproductive structures,2527

so preventing self-pollination by having a flower that has either a stamen or a pistil but not both on the same flower.2545

The third mechanism is the structure of the flower. The flower may be structured such that it makes it difficult for self-pollination to occur.2553

For example, if there is a flower, and the stamen is short; and then, the pistil is very tall, it makes it much less likely that self-pollination will occur2562

because if pollen drops, it is not going to end up here in the pistil, so various structural adaptations to prevent self-pollination.2578

The most important mechanism, however, is a biochemical mechanism, and this is called self-incompatibility right here.2589

And self-incompatibility refers to biochemical methods of blocking fertilization in a plant when it is the2604

same plant or preventing fertilization that is attempted by a plant that is very genetically similar.2617

Plants can recognize self as their own genetic makeup or very similar genetic makeup, and they recognize non-self a different genetic makeup.2626

And they will allow fertilization with non-self but not with self, so how did they do this?2636

There are a set of genes called S genes on plants that allow the plant to recognize its own pollen.2642

So, a flower will have S genes, and it will be able to recognize if pollen comes from a plant with the same or various similar S genes.2651

If these S genes are the same, growth of the pollen tube is blocked, so block pollen tube from pollen with same or similar S genes.2659

There are two mechanisms through which this occurs. One is called gametophytic self-incompatibility or GSI.2679

In this case, if the S-allele on the pollen matches one of the S-alleles on the flower it is trying to fertilize or pollinate, the fertilization is blocked.2698

The pollen tube stops growing, so if the style recognize the pollen tube is self, it will destroy the RNA from that pollen tube.2710

If it recognizes that it is non-self, it will not, and this is also called haploid incompatibility.2717

And you think of it this way: the gamete, the pollen is haploid, and it is the haploid genotype that is being looked at.2723

Just to illustrate this, let's say there is pollen, and the parent plant from the pollen are the two S genes- Sa, Sb.2729

And this particular pollen grain, of course, only gets one of these alleles, and let's say it gets S Sa.2749

So, here is the parent plant from the pollen. Here is the pollen, itself.2756

Up here is the parent, and it goes to fertilize a flower; and this flower - not the egg, itself but diploid structures on the pistil - will have two alleles.2760

So, it will be diploid, and let's say it is Sa, Sc. This flower will recognize this Sa allele as self, and fertilization will be blocked.2774

However, if this Sa pollen went and tried to fertilize an Sc, Sd, plant or flower, fertilization can occur.2786

See, the Sb, pollen grains could actually pollinate this flower, so this is haploid incompatibility or gametophytic self- incompatibility, GSI.2800

The other method is called sporophytic self-incompatibility, SSI.2811

Now, sporophytes are diploid, and in this mechanism, it is the diploid genotype. It is the parent genotype, the parent of the pollen that matters.2822

So now, let's look back at this plant again. We have the parent of the pollen-producing plant is Sa, Sb.2831

The pollen is Sa. Then, this pollen goes and tries to fertilize an Sa, Sc flower.2839

What the flower is going to be looking at is the parent genotype from the pollen. Well, how does it know the parent genotype?2849

We have just got the pollen here. We do not have the whole parent plant.2856

Well, some cells from the parent plant stick to the outside of the pollen.2859

And the style, the pistil, is able to recognize, to look at, those cells that have stuck to the pollen and to check out what their genotype is.2864

Now, what this flower will do is say2874

"OK, I have Sa, Sc. You have Sa, That is self. I am going to block fertilization. I am going to block the growth of pollen tube".2878

This is haploid in compatibility, gametophytic, just the haploid genotype of the pollen is being looked at.2888

Here is the diploid genotype. It is the parent of the pollen that has the genotype that matters.2895

The major thing to understand here is that this is a biochemical mechanism of2901

preventing fertilization based on a plant recognizing self versus non-self pollen, and it maintains genetic diversity.2905

We have been talking about sexual reproduction, which is mostly what occurs in plants. However, plants can reproduce asexually.2915

This occurs through cloning, and in cloning, the result is going to be offspring that are genetically identical to the parent plant.2921

And this is called vegetative reproduction.2928

A part of the plant like the root or the stem can contain cells that are undifferentiated.2932

And those cells can produce the other specialized tissues of the plant, so from just one part of the plant like the root can come an entire plant.2938

For example, you could go to someone's house, and you see a plant that you like; and you might say "oh, can I take a cutting?".2948

So, you take a part of the plant. In certain plants, it might be the root, or it could be a stem or even the leaf in certain plants.2953

Then, you go home, and you put that cutting in water; and you hope that it sprouts roots, it forms roots.2960

And then, you would go plant it in the ground, and you will have a whole plant from that cutting,2965

which is genetically identical to the plant that you got it from; so this is a form of asexual reproduction- vegetative reproduction.2969

Tulips can reproduce through bulbs, and bulbs are actually part of the stem, so this is a type of vegetative reproduction.2977

The eyes of potatoes are called tubers, and they are also a modified part of a stem.2989

And again, this is reproduction that is asexual, so it is vegetative reproduction.2999

Bulbs and tubers are both structures that can initiate a sexual reproduction.3005

And this vegetative reproduction can occur in nature without human intervention. However, humans have also used this to our benefit.3011

In grafting, the stem of one plant is grafted or fused onto the root of another plant.3020

And this allows us to take the qualities that we want from the roots and from the other parts of the plant.3039

Now, the plant that provides the root is called the stalk or root stalk. This is the stalk, and the plant that provides the stem is called the scion.3044

Qualities that we want in the fruit, which is often what we are growing it for, are maybe the flowers for beauty.3058

The fruit or the flowers are determined by the stem.3064

However, maybe there is a plant that produces really large tasty fruit, but it is getting killed by some disease.3067

And there may be another plant that has fruit that does not taste that great, but it has roots that are resistant to disease.3075

So, what could be done is to take the stem from the plant with the great fruit and graft that onto the disease-resistant root.3082

That is how we have used that to our advantage in agriculture.3090

We talked about monocots being plants that have one embryonic seed leaf/cotyledon and dicots being plants that have two cotyledons or seed leaves.3095

This table summarizes differences between the two groups, and I do want to note that dicots have been further divided up into several groups.3110

Most dicots are now in a group called the eudicots, and then, the rest of the dicots were put in several other groups.3120

And this is based on DNA evidence of evolutionary and genetic relationships.3128

And as we have talked about with the protists and the fungi and throughout this course,3133

divisions that were once made based on morphology and biochemistry and life cycles are being overturned because of molecular evidence.3138

But, I am going to stick with these traditional divisions, and they do have some useful differences that we can focus on.3147

As you will see in the pictures down here, some monocot leaves, they tend to have leaves that are longer and narrower than dicots.3158

Also, looking at - let's start out with the leaves - the vein pattern in the leaf, a monocot like this has a vein pattern with parallel leaves.3166

Whereas, if you look at a dicot leaf like this one, it is a net-type pattern.3174

So, that is one difference between monocots and dicots- monocots with one cotyledon, dicots with two.3179

As I mentioned, in monocots, the nutrient storage remains in the endosperm.3184

In dicots, nutrient storage is transferred from the endosperm to the cotyledons.3190

Floral parts: floral parts in monocots are usually in multiples of three, so here we see 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 leaves.3197

This is likely a monocot, whereas, with dicots, usually, the floral parts are in multiples of four or five.3209

Finally, or two more, vascular bundles in stems in monocots, and we talked about this when we talked about plant structure.3220

The vascular bundles, if you cross-section the stem and looked at it, you would see that the vascular bundles,3229

the xylem and phloem, are scattered throughout that cross-section.3235

So, the vascular bundles would just be scattered around in a monocot.3240

Whereas, if you looked at a dicot, what you would see are the xylem and phloem arranged in a ring.3244

Finally, root systems: most monocots have a fibrous root system.3253

Remember that that is a root system that is shallower, but it is very spread out; so it helps prevent erosion.3257

Grasses are effective in preventing soil erosion, whereas dicots usually have a tap root system.3262

A tap root system has one main root, a central root, that grows very deeply and runs much deeper into the ground,3269

so difference between monocot and dicot roots.3276

So, you should be familiar with these two groups and their similarities and differences.3279

Example one: why is the process of fertilization in angiosperms called double fertilization?3284

Recall that two sperm nuclei are released into the ovule, and one of those - one sperm nucleus - goes ahead and fertilizes the egg.3290

This is typical, and the result is a zygote.3311

Recall that the sperm is haploid. The egg is haploid.3314

Therefore, the zygote is diploid. However, the second sperm nucleus is released, and it fertilizes the two polar nuclei.3317

These two polar nuclei are separate nuclei, but they usually share a cytoplasm.3332

The sperm is haploid. Each of the polar nucleus is haploid, so n + n to give triploid or 3n; and this structure is called an endosperm.3339

And it provides nutrients to the developing plant embryo, so double fertilization because there are two fertilizations that occur in angiosperms.3352

Second example: list three mechanisms by which a plant prevents self-fertilization from occurring.3363

There are more than three, but you only need three to answer this.3370

The first is that in some plants, the pistils and the stamen mature at different times.3373

So, the pollen may be ready, but the female gametophyte is not yet developed.3385

A second mechanism is that there are some plants that are called dioecious, and they produce flowers that contain either stamens or pistils but not both.3393

So, I will put "Flowers have either stamens or pistils, not both. Therefore, self-fertilization cannot occur".3404

Next: there are flower structure that discourages, prevents, self-fertilization.3419

The example I gave before is that the stamen may be shorter than the pistil.3435

So, it is less likely that pollen grains will just settle or land on the stigma of that same flower.3441

Finally and the most important one is self-incompatibility. This involves a set of genes called the S genes- self-incompatibility.3448

And with this mechanism, the plant recognizes self and non-self, and it blocks fertilization. Usually, it is pollen tube formation.3464

It blocks fertilization by self-pollen.3482

So, I gave you four. You only needed three of these to complete this question.3488

Next: complete the following chart, which compares monocots and dicots.3493

Monocots, well, number of cotyledons: mono tells you it has one cotyledon in the seed, whereas dicots, di means two, so two cotyledons.3500

Nutrient storage in seeds: remember that in monocots, nutrient storage remains in the endosperm.3511

Whereas in dicots, the nutrient storage is transferred to the cotyledons.3517

Next: this says parallel and net-type. Well, recall that the monocot leaves tend to be longer and narrower with this parallel vein pattern.3525

Whereas, in a dicot, it is usually more of a net-type spread out pattern of veins, so this is the vein pattern in leaves.3535

Next, what do we find in monocots that is in threes, whereas, in dicots in fours and fives?3548

Well, that is the floral parts like the sepals in the petals are found in threes in monocots and, generally, in fours and fives in dicots.3555

The vascular bundles in stems: if I cut a stem, I cross-sectioned it, and I looked at it,3565

what I would see in monocots are that the vascular bundles are just scattered.3570

They are scattered throughout the stem, so it is a monocot.3577

If I sectioned a dicot, I would see these vascular bundles - xylem and phloem - arranged in a ring.3582

Finally, roots: most monocots have fibrous roots. These go less deep, and they are more spread out; so they are very good at preventing soil erosion.3592

Whereas, dicots usually have a tap root system. In a tap root system, there is a central root that usually goes deep into the ground.3602

Example four: label the fine structures on the drawing of the flower below.3613

OK, stigma, so stigma is the part of the pistil that is sticky, and pollen lands on it; so it is right here at the top. That is the stigma.3617

Pistil will hold onto that, so we have done the other structures on the pistil such as the style, the long, thin structure that the pollen tube travels through.3627

Next, ovary: the ovary is the structure within which are the ovules.3640

And we were not asked to label ovule, but I will go ahead and just label the ovule right there.3647

All these put together comprise the pistil, the female reproductive structure.3652

Sepals: the sepals are the green leaf-type structures that surround the flower when it is closed. They provide protection for it.3662

Petals: petals are the brightly colored structures that help to attract animal pollinators.3676

Next, filaments: so, the male reproductive structures, I will put in blue.3685

The filament is the long, thin structure that is topped off by the anther, which is the site of pollen formation.3689

And these two, if you put these combined, they are called the stamen, which is the male reproductive structure.3697

So, that concludes this discussion on seed plants here at Educator.com.3705

Thank you for visiting.3710

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