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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Classification

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
09:10
Example 3: Transcription
12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
02:55
Incomplete Dominance
02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
10:26
Epistasis
12:51
Example of Epistasis
12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
00:13
Forams
02:25
Radiolarians
03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
04:26
Slime Molds
05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
09:21
Oomycetes
11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
06:36
Example 3: Nephron
09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
00:29
Sensory Stimuli
00:30
Reflex Arc
01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
00:01
Complement System
01:57
Classes of Antibodies
02:45
IgM
03:01
IgA
03:17
IgG
03:53
IgE
04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
05:00
Passive Immunity
05:01
Active Immunity
07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
10:50
Immunodeficiency
13:27
Immunodeficiency
13:28
Chemotherapy
13:56
AID
14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
01:36
Multiple Choice 30
02:31
Multiple Choice 31
03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (3)

0 answers

Post by Hemant Srivastava on June 30, 2015

What category would plants such as Venus Fly Traps or Pitcher plants fall into? Are they considered autotrophs or heterotrophs, or is there some combination of both categories that these special plants fall into?

0 answers

Post by Kumar Sandrasegaran on May 30, 2011

May want to get spelling correct: eukaryotes, prokaryotes

0 answers

Post by Dr Carleen Eaton on February 3, 2011

The correct spelling for two words discussed during the slide titled "Coelomates" is as follows:

deuterostome
protostome

Classification

  • Phylogeny describes relationships among groups of organisms based on evolution.
  • A phylogenic tree visually represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary relationships among organisms.
  • A hierarchical system for the classification of organisms was developed by Carl Linnaeus. In its current form, the system includes the categories Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species.
  • Domain Bacteria contains single-celled prokaryotes. Members of Domain Archaea are also prokaryotes, but have fundamental differences from members of Domain Bacteria. Archaea include extremophiles such as thermophiles and halophiles.
  • Plants, animals, protists and fungi are all eukaryotes and belong to Domain Eukarya.
  • Animals may be classified according to their body plans. Some animals have a body plan that lacks symmetry, while others exhibit radial symmetry or bilateral symmetry.
  • Diploblastic animals have two germ layers, an ectoderm and an endoderm. Triploblastic animals have an ectoderm, a mesoderm and an endoderm.

Classification

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Systems of Classification 0:07
    • Taxonomy
    • Phylogeny
    • Phylogenetics Tree
    • Cladistics
  • Classification of Organisms 5:31
    • Example of Carl Linnaeus System
  • Domains 9:26
    • Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
    • Monera
    • Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
    • Domain Eukarya
  • Domain Bacteria 15:43
    • Domain Bacteria
    • Pathogens
    • Decomposers
  • Domain Archaea 19:43
    • Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
    • Methanogens
  • Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs 24:40
    • Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
    • Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
    • Photoautotrophs
    • Photoheterotrophs
    • Chemoautotrophs
    • Chemoheterotrophs
  • Domain Eukarya 32:40
    • Domain Eukarya
    • Plant Kingdom
    • Protists
    • Fungi Kingdom
    • Animal Kingdom
  • Body Symmetry 39:25
    • Lack Symetry
    • Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
    • Bilateral Symmetry
    • Cephalization
  • Germ Layers 44:54
    • Diploblastic Animals
    • Triploblastic Animals
    • Ectoderm
    • Endoderm
    • Mesoderm
  • Coelomates 47:14
    • Coelom
    • Acoelomate
    • Pseudocoelomate
    • Coelomate
    • Protosomes
    • Deuterosomes
  • Example 1: Domains 53:01
  • Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions 56:00
  • Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea 57:50
  • Example 4: System of Classification 59:37

Transcription: Classification

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

We are going to start our discussion on the diversity of life with the topic of classification.0002

I am going to start out with some definitions and discussing different systems of classifications.0009

And then, we will focus in on the Linnaean hierarchical classification that we will be using.0014

Taxonomy is the science of classifying and naming organisms. This is the science of classification and of naming organisms.0020

This is done according to the evolutionary relationships between organisms.0042

And now, with the advent of molecular biology, a lot of this is based on genetic studies of the relationships between organisms.0048

Formerly, morphology and other similarities between organisms helped us to classify them.0056

Phylogeny is a term that describes the relationships among groups of organisms based on their evolutionary history and their common ancestry.0065

This is relationships among organisms based on evolutionary history and common ancestry. The study of phylogeny is called phylogenetics.0079

What I have shown here is a phylogenetic tree, and what this type of tree does is it shows these or hypothesize relationships among organisms.0115

It is a way of helping us to visualize possible relationships among organisms and which organisms0128

have more recent common ancestors than others and, therefore, are more closely related than others.0133

Let's say we have a bunch of species, species A, B, C, D and E. And here, we have an ancestral organism way back.0142

What occurred here is a branch point where the two groups diverged, and this is a later ancestor of A and B.0158

This is a later ancestor or more recent ancestor of C, D and E. Then, these two branched out.0173

We have A and B. Over here, these two groups branched, and then, another branch point occurred.0182

So, D and E have a more recent common ancestor than C, D and E.0188

Therefore, D and E are more closely related than C and D, and D and E are more closely related than E and C.0194

This allows us to sort of organize and visualize these relationships and, therefore,0203

look at which groups are more closely and less closely related based on ancestry.0210

Cladistics is a method of classification that is based on organisms having a shared common ancestor, so classification based on common ancestry.0217

An ancestor and all of its descendants are called a clade.0239

For example, if I looked at this ancestor organism back here plus A, B, C, D and E, that would be a clade.0244

Or I could just say "OK, this branched out here, and we have this later ancestor plus C, D and E". This would be a clade.0253

This would be a separate clade as long as I include the ancestor and all of the descendants.0263

If I just said "OK, this ancestor and one descendant", that is not a clade.0268

I could look at this because there was a branch here, and then, there is a common ancestor here for D and E. This is a clade.0275

Now, what is a little bit difficult is that there is overlap between these systems, but they do not always perfectly align.0286

Taxonomists can give a name to an organism and classify it in a certain way.0299

And then, based on phylogenetic relationships, the classifications might be slightly different.0303

The two, they do not always match, but as we are doing more and more molecular studies and better understanding of relationships among organisms,0308

systems are being developed to hopefully help these to all align better; but for now, we are just going to work with the system that we have.0317

And we are going to talk more now about taxonomy, the names given to organisms and the hierarchal relationships between them.0325

The system that we are going to use is sometimes called The Linnaean system.0333

And this comes from the name Carl Linnaeus, whom we discussed in a previous lecture.0337

He lived in the 18th century, and he developed the two part binomial nomenclature system that we still use today.0343

We are going to go through this example with a cat but Homo sapiens for humans. The genus is the first part of the name.0354

The two part is binomial system, and then, sapiens gives the species. The genus is capitalized.0365

The species is not, and the whole thing should be put in italics.0373

Now, under The Linnaean system, there were kingdoms, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.0378

Domains were added later, and I am going to talk about some history and explain why domains were added in the past couple of decades.0386

But just right now, focusing on this example and how this works and how it is hierarchical, if we just take the domestic cat as an example,0396

the domestic cat belongs to the domain Eukarya, and starting from the top going down, the top is the broadest category.0404

The organisms in that category are more loosely related than the organisms in the next category. There is fewer organisms in kingdom Animalia.0412

The cat is part of the domain Eukarya, but then, again, so are plants and fungi.0421

Then, we get down to the kingdom. There are fewer organisms there, and they are more closely related.0426

The common domestic cat is part of the kingdom Animalia, phylum Chordata, class Mammalia.0431

Fewer organisms, there are still because there are many animals that are members of this phylum chordates that are not mammals0442

But now, we are down just even fewer organisms, order Carnivora, family Felidae, genus Felis and then, finally, species Felis domesticus.0449

Just to talk more about how this works, if you look at family, lions, domestic cats and cougars or mountain lions all belong to this family.0464

But if I go down to the genus, lions are not part of the genus Felis, however, cat and cougars are.0486

Therefore, cougars and cats are more closely related than lions and cats.0497

This two are more closely related to each other than relationship between cats and lions or cougars and lions, and then, finally, we get down to cats.0503

The groups are nested within each other, and the groups became broader. They encompass more organisms who are less closely related.0519

Talking about how we ended up with domains because it is used to just be kingdom on down, how did we end up with domains and why?0529

So, let's go onto some history.0537

In the 4th century, Aristotle, philosopher, divided organisms in to two kingdoms- Plants and Animals.0540

However, much later, microscopic organisms were discovered and there needed to be a kingdom to include these.0549

More kingdoms were added, and by about the1960s, the system had expanded to include the following.0558

We are going to talk about domains as we trace this history of kingdoms.0568

Kingdoms, at one time, expanded to encompass Monera, Protista.0574

and those both included microscopic organisms, unicellular organisms, Plantae - plant kingdom -, Fungi, and Animalia.0581

Monera included prokaryotes, protist, mainly unicellular eukaryotes.0598

The problem was that Monera contained what was at one time called the Eubacteria or the true bacteria and Archaebacteria or the ancient bacteria.0606

These two were together in the kingdom Monera.0629

The problem was that scientists later realized that these two had differences that were as great as0631

some of the differences between bacteria and eukaryotes or archaebacteria and eukaryotes.0638

They were not necessarily more closely related to each other than they were to the eukaryotes.0645

They were group together but had major differences.0649

To solve this, what happened is Monera got broken up into two kingdoms.0654

We, then, end up with kingdom Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia, Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. Now, we are up to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 kingdoms.0661

Other problems emerged though.0674

For example, the protists - as we will see in the lecture on this topic - are just a very loose group of organisms.0676

And they contained organisms that actually are more closely related to plants than, say, to each other, so they were another like Monera.0684

They were another kingdom that just seemed to have a bunch of organisms put in it because they were0693

small or had morphological similarities but were not necessarily closely related in the evolutionary sense.0698

Because of this, a couple things happened.0705

One is domains were added. The other is that most scientists no longer recognized many of these kingdoms.0708

The three domains that we have now are Bacteria, Eukarya and Archaea, and what I am showing here, it is a phylogenetic tree.0719

It is sometimes called the tree of life, and bacteria contains what used to be called eubacteria.0730

And in a minute, we are going to go into each of the domains and the features of their members, but these contain the Bacteria.0738

Archaea contain what was called the archaebacteria, and they have some similarities to bacteria; but they have some important differences as well.0747

Bacteria are prokaryotes. Archaea are prokaryotes, but there are some very important differences between them; and then, Eukarya are eukaryotes.0755

Eukarya includes, so talking about the domain Eukarya, it does include some kingdoms that are still recognized- Kingdoms: Plants, Animals and Fungi.0770

Protists are part of this group, but they are for the most part, no longer recognized as a kingdom.0792

You may have seen some books with them described as part of a kingdom.0803

It is a convenient group, but although we sometimes just can say protist and talk about certain organisms under that, they are not a formal group.0807

And in fact, there has been proposals to split the protists into several different kingdoms so that we would have Eukarya, kingdom Plant, kingdom Animal, kingdom Fungi0815

and then, a few three, four or maybe even more protist kingdoms to separate out organisms that are not that closely related.0825

Because things are influx, what we are going to do is work with what is happening right now in science and that is to go by these three domains system,0833

recognize three kingdoms plus the group of protists that fall under Eukarya and then, Bacteria and Archaea separate.0842

And in fact, talking about how Bacteria and Archaea are used to be grouped together as Monera, you will see the way this tree is set up.0852

It shows a common ancestor, the origin of life down here with the common ancestor.0861

And then, we have a branch point here into the domain Bacteria and then,0867

the evolution and later branching in two directions that gave us domain Archaea and domain Eukarya.0879

and there is evidence that Archaea and Eukarya, those members, are more closely related to each other than they are to Bacteria.0886

And this is hypothesized right now but again, just more support for the idea that Archaea belong in their own group.0896

What you need to know is that when you are looking at this hierarchal classification system, domain is at the top.0902

It is the broadest group, and there are three domains, then, beneath that, Kingdoms, Plants, Animals, Fungi0909

and Protists just as a loose group that is still in the works as far as classification.0921

Next, what I am going to do is talk about the characteristics of member of these domains.0927

And then, in later lectures, we are going to go into detail about these separate groups0932

and even the kingdoms, separate set of lectures on plants, animals etc.0937

Starting out, though, with just understanding some of these domains, domain Bacteria, we discussed bacteria earlier on when we0942

talked about prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cells, but to review here, members of this domain are unicellular prokaryotes.0950

Prokaryote means that the cell lacks a true nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.0959

Bacteria do have ribosomes, but these ribosomes are different than those found in eukaryotic cells.0966

The genome of bacteria is a circular genome. There are no histones associated with the DNA, and there are no introns in the bacterial genes.0986

Many bacteria are pathogens meaning they cause disease.1003

Some examples would be Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism.1013

These organisms secrete a toxin when food is canned improperly, and then, if a person ingests that toxic, it can make them very ill.1033

Although in recent decades, there has been some medical uses found for very, very dilute amounts of botulinum toxin.1041

A second pathogenic bacteria is Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the name pretty much tells you what it causes, which is TB or tuberculosis.1052

Many other bacteria, for example Salmonella, Shigella, some species of Streptococcus that cause strep throat,1060

many pathogenic bacteria, which you all probably already knew, but bacteria certainly are not always pathogenic.1082

And they do play an important role for other organisms. They may be decomposers.1088

In other words, they break down organic material and allow that material to be recycled or reused by other organisms.1095

A second very important function of bacteria is in nitrogen fixation.1111

We are going to talk about this in detail in the lecture on plants, but just briefly, atmospheric nitrogen cannot be used by most plants,1116

and so, what nitrogen fixation does is the bacteria that are nitrogen fixers have a symbiotic relationship with plants.1125

And they take atmospheric nitrogen and put it in a form plants can use.1136

One final word about bacteria structure, they have cell walls that contain peptidoglycan.1158

And we are going to talk in the lecture on bacteria about how bacteria can be classified based on the amount of peptidoglycan they have in their cell walls.1169

So, that is domain Bacteria.1182

Domain Archaea: members of this domain are also all prokaryotes.1184

So far, there have not been any archaea found that are pathogens, so I am going to go ahead and write that they are not pathogens.1190

These include these extremophiles. Extremophiles, just like the name suggests, live in extreme environments.1199

By extreme environments, it could be a very hot environment.1206

Thermophile means heat loving. These organisms tolerate extremely hot temperatures.1209

They can live in temperatures from, let's say, 120°F up to 180 or even higher.1216

They are found in areas such as the hot springs in Yellowstone park or near hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean.1222

These live in very hot environments that other organisms could not tolerate.1231

Halophiles, this means salt loving. The halophiles live in environments with very high salinity.1234

They can live in water that has even up to ten times the salt concentration of sea water.1246

An example would be organisms that are found in the Great Salt Lake in Utah, so these are couple kind of extremophiles.1251

There are other archaea that are not extremophiles. An example would be the methanogens.1258

These organisms produce methane from hydrogen, so they take carbon dioxide plus hydrogen and form methane.1267

Oxygen is actually usually toxic to these organisms.1282

They are found in areas in wetlands such as marshes. They are also found in the GI tracts of cattles and humans.1286

Now, I mentioned that these are prokaryotes, but they do have differences from bacteria.1301

Let's talk about what these differences are and what some of the similarities are.1304

They are prokaryotes, therefore, no true nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles,1312

no Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum and all those things, no membrane-bound organelles.1320

They do have a circular genome, so circular genome, circular piece of DNA. However, they may have histones.1332

Some types of archaea do have histones, so in this way, they are more similar to eukaryotic cells.1344

These cells have similarities to bacterial cells and to eukaryotic cells. They may have histones associated with their DNA.1352

Another difference is they may have introns. Some genes in certain archaea have introns.1362

Again, that is more similar to eukaryotic cells- two members of Eukarya.1371

In addition, they have no peptidoglycan in the cell walls. There are differences in cell membrane structure.1380

The cell membrane structures contain branched hydrocarbons, whereas, in bacteria, cell membranes only contain unbranched hydrocarbons.1395

So, I am just going to put "different membrane structure than bacteria".1403

Bacteria have growth that is inhibited by certain antibiotics.1419

And then, when we look at different antibiotics such as streptomycin and chloramphenicol, we will see that they do stop the growth of bacteria.1423

However, the growth of members of archaea is not stopped by chloramphenicol and1429

streptomycin just as eukaryotic cell growth is not stopped by these antibiotics.1434

So, that is another difference between bacteria and archaea.1439

OK, to sum up, members of domain Archaea are prokaryotes. They do not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles.1444

They have a circular genome. However, unlike members of domain Bacteria, they may have histones associated with their DNA.1450

Some of their genes contain intron. They do not have peptidoglycan in their cell walls, and they have a different cell membrane structure than bacteria.1458

And the members of Archaea include extremophiles that can grow in very extreme conditions like hot temperatures or salty environments.1468

Before we go on and talk about domain Eukarya, organisms can be classified based on the1478

source of energy that they use, as well as their method of obtaining organic compounds.1483

So, we are going to go ahead and take a minute to discuss what phototrophs, autotrophs chemotrophs and heterotrophs are,1488

and how those different modes can be combined, and how they differ, so let's start out just by talking about phototrophs and chemotrophs.1494

These two have to do with the source of energy.1516

When we talk about phototrophs versus chemotrophs, we are classifying according to the source of energy used.1524

Phototrophs use light as an energy source. An example would be plants that perform photosynthesis using light as an energy source.1529

There are protists such as algae that are phototrophs. Some bacteria, the cyanobacteria are phototrophs.1549

Now, we are going to look at chemotrophs, so this is classification based on source of energy.1557

Second grouping is chemotrophs. Chemotrophs use chemical source of energy.1566

What I mean by this is the energy stored in chemical bonds. Animals are an example, humans.1574

What we do during cellular respiration is release energy that is stored in chemical bonds and then, use that to make ATP to fuel the cellular functions.1585

So, rather than light, the source is energy stored in the chemical bonds of organic compounds.1595

Alright, so that is classification based on the source of energy.1601

The second type of classification is the method of obtaining organic compounds.1605

Can an organism make organic compounds, or does it have to obtain them from elsewhere?1610

So, these are the two possibilities.1616

Autotrophs are often called the producers because they can make organic compounds from inorganic compounds. Again, an example is plants.1617

What plants are able to do is to take carbon dioxide and water and use it to make glucose.1648

And then, oxygen is released as a by-product, which we talked about in the lecture on photosynthesis.1654

Plants do not need to ingest organic compounds.1659

They can just survive of water, mineral, carbon dioxide and some sunlight and make their own organic compounds.1663

Whereas, if we look at heterotrophs, heterotrophs are also known as consumers.1670

Heterotrophs cannot produce organic compounds. Therefore, they need to ingest other organisms.1682

Animals, for example, eat plants, other animals and fungi.1700

As we talk about different groups of organisms, in subsequent lectures, we are going to talk about their modes of nutrition.1708

And when you combine phototrophs, chemotrophs, sources of energy and sources of organic compounds,1714

you come up with four possibilities for the type of organism that you have.1725

The first type is photoautotroph. This is combining phototrophs that use light for energy and can produce organic compounds.1731

Plants are an example of this. Organisms that perform photosynthesis use light as energy, and they synthesize organic compounds.1757

That is photoautotrophs.1767

The second would be photoheterotrophs. Photoheterotrophs also use light for energy.1769

However, they cannot produce organic compounds.1779

They must consume other organisms as a source of organic compounds, so cannot produce organic compounds. Some bacteria fall into this category.1782

Those are the two groups that use light as an energy source, and then, we have two different means of obtaining organic compounds.1800

Now, looking at organisms that use chemical sources of energy, you could have an organism that is a chemoautotroph.1807

They obtain energy from a chemical source.1817

And chemoautotrophs that exist do fall in within - some of them - the domain of Archaea and also some Bacteria.1820

What some organisms can do is oxidize inorganic compounds for energy for example hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, iron compounds.1831

So, by oxidizing inorganic compounds, these organisms can get an energy source.1855

However, they are able to - because they are autotrophs - make organic compounds from inorganic compounds.1860

So, just to keep these straight, the difference between a photoautotroph and a chemoautotroph is that the photoautotroph uses light for energy.1882

The chemoautotroph oxidizes inorganic compounds for energy, so it uses a chemical source of energy.1889

However, both of them are able to produce organic compounds.1894

Finally, chemoheterotrophs, such as animals, they derive energy from organic compounds.1898

And they cannot make organic compounds from inorganic compounds.1908

So, they need to use chemical source of energy and cannot produce organic compounds.1914

Photoautotrophs: light for energy, make organic compounds. Photoheterotrophs: light for energy, cannot produce organic compounds.1927

Chemoautotrophs oxidize inorganic compounds to produce energy- can form organic compounds.1936

And finally, chemoheterotrophs get their energy from chemical bonds and need to ingest other organisms as a source of organic compounds.1944

Now, going on to talk about the domain Eukarya, this domain contains eukaryotic organisms.1958

We talked about eukaryotic cell structure in one of the earlier lectures in the course.1967

And you will recall that eukaryotes have a true nucleus, and they also have membrane-bound organelles, so true nucleus, membrane-bound organelles.1971

Some members of Eukarya have cell walls, but they do not contain peptidoglycan. No peptidoglycan in the cell walls.1990

They do have introns and histones, so introns in the genes.2007

Recall that introns are sequences that are sometimes thought of as interrupting sequences between genes that are noncoding sequences.2017

Histones are proteins associated with DNA, and the DNA is not circular like with bacteria. It is organized in a different way.2030

The growth of these organisms is not inhibited by antibiotics.2052

So, those are some characteristics of the domain Eukarya, and this domain contains three kingdoms plus the group of protist.2057

First kingdom is the Plant kingdom. These are all autotrophs.2065

They can produce organic compounds from inorganic compounds, and they are multicellular.2078

We have several lectures on this, and plants range from the more primitive plants such as moss,2089

which do not have true roots and leaves, to ferns, which are vascular plants but lack seeds.2095

Then, we are going to go on to talk about seeded plants such as conifers and then, finally, flowering plants such as angiosperms.2103

The cell walls of plants contain cellulose, so various categories: mosses, seed plants like ferns, conifers2110

Actually, correction, vascular plants such as ferns, conifers, more advanced, these are seed plants and angiosperms, which are flowering plants.2133

And we are going to go through these different categories in detail.2145

Next, we have protists, which are not a kingdom but a group of organisms. Many of which are unicellular, but some of which are multi cellular.2149

This group includes both heterotrophs and autotrophs, mostly unicellular.2163

Some members form colonies, others, such as what is commonly known as seaweeds, which are actually types of usually brown algae or red algae.2176

Those seaweeds are multicellular like kelp. Also, it is multicellular.2196

Again, the classification systems that have been proposed involve splitting these up into different kingdoms.2207

And we are just going to discuss each group later on and the different characteristics that they have rather2213

than trying to divide them up into kingdoms, since that system is still in the works, and it is just a proposal at this point.2219

Next we have Fungi. This is also a kingdom.2228

The organisms in this kingdom are all heterotrophs. They are mostly multicellular- maybe unicellular, though.2234

The cell walls of fungi contain chitin, and these organisms obtain nutrition through absorption.2247

What fungi do is they actually secrete digestive enzymes outside of their body.2269

The nutrients are, then, broken down outside the organism, and then, the fungi absorb these already digested nutrients.2275

So, this is an external method of digestion.2282

An example of a fungus is yeast. Candida is a type of yeast.2285

Humans carry Candida. but when it overgrows, when it gets out of balance with the other organisms in the body, it can cause symptoms.2292

One disease or disorder that can develop is called thrush, and sometimes, when thrush occurs, you can even see whitish plaques growth on the tongue.2300

And that is a Candida infection, which is actually a fungus infection.2312

Finally, we get to the Animal kingdom. These organisms are heterotrophs, and they are multicellular.2317

It encompasses a huge range of organisms from insects to jellyfish ranging up to elephants.2330

And what we are going to do later on is study invertebrates versus vertebrates, the major animal phyla.2335

And then, we are going to go into some detail in animal physiology and anatomy.2342

Right now, what I would like to focus on concerning animals is some of the ways in which we divide them up, not necessarily according to genus or species.2349

But according to characteristics of their body plans, as well as characteristics of their embryological development,2358

one way in which we can group animals is according to body symmetry.2368

Some animals are asymmetrical. Others have what is called radial symmetry, and still, others have bilateral symmetry.2374

Very simple animals lack symmetry, so they are asymmetrical.2382

An animal that lacks symmetry would be very primitive like a sponge, and these organisms are going to be non-motile or what is called sessile.2390

Because if an organism is not symmetrical, it makes it harder to move, so most of these are going to be non-motile.2406

Now, when we go up a step, we get to organisms that are radially symmetrical. More advanced organisms have bilateral symmetry.2414

An example of an animal that has radial symmetry is the sea anemone or jellyfish. Here, we see the example of the sea anemone.2425

And what radial symmetry means is that if you put a plain through a central axis anywhere, the two sides are going to be mirror images.2435

So, if I go through this central axis, and I cut anywhere here; and then, I just look at the two halves, or I could cut here and see two halves,2446

or I could cut here and say "OK, here is one half, here is the other half", it is going to be symmetrical.2455

You can think of it as radiating outward. Sometimes it is compared to the spokes on a bicycle wheel.2462

This is a circular body plan, and these organisms can be motile. However, their movement is not as directional.2469

They tend to, just like a jelly fish, kind of, float along or be carried along compared to more advanced organisms that can move in a very deliberate manner.2482

We have radial symmetry with animals such as jelly fish and sea anemone.2491

Now, we go up to the more complex animals.2496

Whereas, with radial symmetry, the animal might have a top and a bottom, there is no left or right side. There is a top and bottom, though, often.2498

Contrast that with an organism that is bilaterally symmetrical like humans. They have a top, a bottom and a left and right side.2517

So, if I divide this organism along the center using a long longitudinal axis here, I am going to see that it is a mirror image.2528

The legs, the two halves of the body, the antenna, it is a mirror image of each other.2537

This allows an organism to move very deliberately.2542

It could walk, or it could swim somewhere; and this is a type of body plan that you are going to in a more advanced organism.2545

Just to go on to some terms that are useful when we are talking about the anatomy of an organism, anterior is the front or the head end of an organism.2554

It is in the front. Posterior is in the back.2571

Dorsal is going to be the top, so this is dorsal; and then, if you went underneath in the belly, that is going to be ventral or the bottom.2579

This organism is crawling along, and if you look down at the top, you are looking at the dorsal side.2593

If you flipped it over and looked at the underside, that is the ventral side.2600

The end where the head is anterior. The back end is posterior and the idea of anterior.2603

And the idea of anterior and posterior ends brings us to the topic of cephalization.2609

This is the development of the concentration of sensory organs in the central nervous system at the head end of the organism,2618

so concentration of sensory organs in CNS at what is called the head end or the anterior end.2628

What happened was animals that are bilaterally symmetrical over the period of evolution came to have sensory organs.2644

Their sense organs were concentrated in one area so eyes, ears, nose, and in addition, the CNS was also concentrated in that area.2652

The CNS became very well developed, formed a brain, and that brain is able to interpret the information that is coming in from the sense organs.2662

And this allows organisms to have a very complex set of behaviors and movements that are not possible with more primitive organisms.2672

Again, these are concepts that we will talk about when we discuss embryology and development, but just to give you an idea, now,2682

of some ways in which organisms can be categorized and terms we are going to use when we talk about the diversity of life,2687

organisms can also be divided according to the germ layers that they have.2696

So, germ layers or tissue layers are found in embryos, and as the embryo develops, various tissues and organs form from these layers.2700

Specific tissues or organs form from certain layers.2713

Diploblastic animals have two germ layers - di meaning two - and those two layers are an ectoderm and an endoderm.2719

Triploblastic animals have three layers - tri meaning three - so they have an ectoderm and an endoderm as well as a mesoderm.2726

And briefly, if we look at ectoderm, what types of tissues and organs does it become?2736

Well, the ectoderm forms the outer layer. It becomes the outer layer of an organism.2744

It develops into the epidermis. This accompanies things such as hair, nails, also in the outer layer of the organism, the covering of the organism.2750

The CNS is derived from the ectoderm.2763

The endoderm: the linings of the gastrointestinal tract, the GI tract, the lining of the respiratory tract,2768

the linings of the tubes in our bodies, those come from endoderm, also glands.2785

For example the pancreas are derived from endodermal tissue.2796

Finally, the third layer, the mesoderm: the mesoderm develops into the circulatory system and the musculoskeletal system, so muscles and bones.2801

Some triploblastic animals developed a fluid-filled body cavity called the coelom, and these organisms are known as coelomates.2825

Starting actually with organisms that do not have a coelom, these are called acoelomates.2837

Now, why is this coelom important anyways, and what would be the disadvantage of being acoelomate?2842

Well, like I said, a coelom is a body cavity. It is actually a fluid-filled body cavity, and what it does is it provides a separate space for the internal organs.2847

This way, the internal organs are contained in an area where they are protected because the body cavity is often fluid-filled.2863

And there are tissues that the organs are attached to, they are suspended from.2871

This provides for cushioning, and it also allows the internal organs to form and move and grow separately from the outer wall of the body.2877

The kidney can grow without having to grow right along with the outer wall of the body.2885

It forms a separate protected cavity that cushions internal organs and allows for their2891

separate growth and allows them to be less affected by the movement of the outer body.2897

Looking at acoelomates, what we have is ectodermal tissue, which forms the covering, and then, we have...here is some mesoderm.2903

And then, just stuck right through the mesoderm, no body cavity, there is the GI tract derived from endoderm.2918

Flatworms, you see how this is shaped, sort of, flattened out? So, in acoelomate an example would be a flatworm.2931

Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity, but it is called a pseudocoelom because it is not just derived from the mesoderm.2939

So, it is not what is called a true coelom. It is a pseudocoelom.2948

It is derived from both mesodermal and endodermal tissue.2952

Again, we have the ectoderm. We have this outer covering and the mesoderm, but here, you can see the pseudocoelom.2955

This is a body cavity, and then, within that derived from the endoderm, is the GI tract.2964

Finally, we get to the coelomates, so these are organisms with a true coelom.2971

And we have the ectodermal tissue, which is going to form the outer covering and then, the mesodermal tissue.2977

Well, here, we have the coelom. We have the cavity, and we also have mesodermal tissue.2990

And what this tissue does - it is the yellowish brown hair - the mesoderm provides tissue lining the body cavity that the organs can be suspended from.2996

Annelids are coelomates as are mammals and other more advanced animals.3014

So, this coelom allows for the separation of internal organs from the outer wall of the body.3020

We can divide coelomates further into two categories called protostomes and deuterostomes.3032

Protostomes exhibit a development of cleavage pattern that is a spiral pattern.3047

So, I am just going to say spiral cleavage, and this is what is called a determinate cleavage pattern.3053

Meaning that, in the embryo, even at a very early stage, let's say the 4-cell stage, those cells are already destined to go down a certain pathway.3061

If you took an embryo at the 4-cell stage, separated out one cell, it would not develop into a full organism.3070

It would just develop into the part of the organism that it is destined to become.3076

By contrast, deuterostomes exhibit a cleavage pattern that is known as radial cleavage, and radial cleave is indeterminant.3082

So, if you took a cell from a very early embryo, and you separated it out, then, it would be possible for that cell to develop into an entire organism.3094

And this how identical twins result is the zygote divides into two, and two embryos form because those cell types have not yet been determined.3104

In addition with protostomes and deuterostomes, there is an opening that forms called a blastopore.3108

So, I am just going to write that word here, and one difference, just to be aware of, is the outcome of what that blastopore forms.3127

In protostomes, the mouth develops from the blastopore, and the anus develops from a second opening.3137

In deuterostomes, that first opening actually becomes the anus. This blastopore becomes the anus, and the second becomes a mouth.3147

So, there are differences in the way the organism develops. There are differences between protostomes and deuterostomes.3152

OK, what we talked about today is taxonomy classifying organisms according to domains and phylums and classes and all.3159

We also talked about different ways of thinking about and dividing organisms3169

according to methods of nutrition, obtaining energy, body plans, embryology.3172

So, now, we are going to go ahead and review some of these concepts starting with example one.3179

List two similarities between domain Archaea and domain Bacteria.3184

And then, list two similarities between members of domain Archaea and members of domain Eukarya.3192

Starting out with two things that are similar about Archaea and Bacteria, well, one major one is that they are both prokaryotes.3197

Prokaryotes lack a true nucleus.3211

You could put these as separate, or you could just, sort of, put them on both being prokaryotes- no true nucleus and no membrane-bound organelles.3215

Second similarity, we are talking about similarities, that they both have circular chromosomes. That gives us two.3236

Now, we are looking at two similarities between the domain Archaea and members of the domain Eukarya.3247

Well, they both lack peptidoglycan in their cell walls.3254

Bacteria have peptidoglycan, but both these domains do not. They both lack peptidoglycan in cell walls for members that have cell walls.3261

Second similarity is they may have introns. Members of Eukarya have introns, and some genes in some members of Archaea also have introns.3275

The same goes for them both having histones. Some members of Archaea have histones and members of Eukarya have histones.3293

Another similarity, actually, between these two that I did not go over but I am going to mention now is that members of domain Archaea3306

and domain Eukarya have several kinds of RNA polymerase, whereas, members of domain Bacteria only have one kind of RNA polymerase.3315

Finally, the growth of Archaea and Eukarya members is not inhibited by the antibiotics we discussed:3331

strep for streptomycin and chloramphenicol, which are both antibiotics.3347

So, two similarities between these two groups, and I listed five similarities for the other two groups; but you would just have to list two.3352

OK, example two, some matching: match the following terms with their descriptions- cephalization, protostomes, coelomates and mesoderm.3361

Cephalization: the layer of germ tissue that develops into the circulatory system, muscles, and bone in triploblast.3373

Concentration of sensory organs in the CNS at one end of the organism.3382

C: organisms that have a body cavity derived from the mesoderm.3387

D: organisms with a spiral cleavage pattern resulting into determinate cleavage.3391

Well, when we talk about cephalization, we are talking about development of a head end of the anterior end3397

of an organism that has sensory organs, and the central nervous system function is all concentrated in there.3407

So, that is B, so I am going to put B right up here next to cephalization.3414

Protostomes: we talked about protostomes versus deuterostomes and how they have different cleavage patterns.3420

And protostomes have a spiral cleavage pattern and determinate cleavage.3427

Whereas, deuterostomes have a radial cleavage pattern and indeterminate cleavage, so protostomes- D. That is done.3433

Coelomates: recall that a coelom is a fluid-filled body cavity, and organisms that have a body cavity derived from the mesoderm are called coelomates.3444

Finally, mesoderm is one of the germ layers, and it is the layer that does develop into the circulatory system, muscles and bones.3457

Example three: kingdom Monera included Bacteria and members of what is now domain Archaea. Why was Monera eliminated?3470

Well, with the advent of molecular genetics, we could compare organisms on a completely different level than3479

we were able to before when we just had to look at morphology and nutritional modes and biochemistry metabolism.3484

Now, we can actually look at the genomes, and additional structures, as well, were looked at more carefully.3490

And what was found is that members of Archaea and Bacteria were as different from each other as they were from some of the eukaryotes.3499

They were scattered in a kingdom although, they were not as closely related as we thought.3510

They were split because Bacteria and Archaea have fundamental differences.3515

And Archaea are, in some ways, as different from Bacteria as they are from eukaryotes.3532

And therefore, this kingdom was originally split into two: Eubacteria and Archaebacteria.3565

And then, eventually, those kingdoms were eliminated and turned into domains.3570

Example four: A new organism is discovered. Its cells contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.3577

It has cell walls that are made of chitin. It cannot perform photosynthesis and ingest nutrients through absorption.3584

What kingdom will this organism mostly likely be classified in?3594

Let's look at the characteristics of this organism. Its cells contain a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles, so I know that this is a eukaryote.3598

Therefore, it is going to be in the domain Eukarya. It is asking me the kingdom.3608

It has cells walls that are made of chitin. It cannot perform photosynthesis.3616

Plants have cell walls containing cellulose, and they can perform photosynthesis; so it is not a plant, and it ingests nutrients through absorption.3621

Given the chitin in the cell wall and this nutritional method of ingesting nutrients through absorption, this is most likely a member of the kingdom Fungi.3632

That concludes this session of Educator.com on the classification of organisms.3645