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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Population Genetic and Evolution

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
09:10
Example 3: Transcription
12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
02:55
Incomplete Dominance
02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
10:26
Epistasis
12:51
Example of Epistasis
12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
00:13
Forams
02:25
Radiolarians
03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
04:26
Slime Molds
05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
09:21
Oomycetes
11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
06:36
Example 3: Nephron
09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
00:29
Sensory Stimuli
00:30
Reflex Arc
01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
00:01
Complement System
01:57
Classes of Antibodies
02:45
IgM
03:01
IgA
03:17
IgG
03:53
IgE
04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
05:00
Passive Immunity
05:01
Active Immunity
07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
10:50
Immunodeficiency
13:27
Immunodeficiency
13:28
Chemotherapy
13:56
AID
14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
01:36
Multiple Choice 30
02:31
Multiple Choice 31
03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (6)

0 answers

Post by David Saver on August 13, 2014

The farthest we have ever drilled down to layers which are supposed to be billions of years old we consistently find oxidized rock.

There is actually no evidence whatsoever that indicates that the early atmosphere had little or no oxygen.

If anything, we find that it may have had even more oxygen than in the present day.

1 answer

Last reply by: Shannen Brown
Thu Nov 7, 2013 9:08 PM

Post by Muna Lakhani on May 11, 2013

In your example, isn't q^2 supposed to be 0.09 to give a 9% of homozygous recessive allele?

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Thu May 3, 2012 6:25 PM

Post by Tara Ray on May 2, 2012

i need help

Population Genetic and Evolution

  • Evolution is a change in the genetic composition of a population over time. Natural selection is one mechanism for evolution.
  • Genetic drift is the change in allele frequency due random chance and usually occurs in small populations. The founder effect and the bottleneck effect are examples of genetic drift.
  • The movement of alleles into or out of a population is called gene flow and can result in a change in the frequency of alleles.
  • The Hardy-Weinberg Equation, p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1, can be used to predict the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in populations that meet the following conditions:
    1. Mating is random
    2. No mutations occur
    3. No natural selection is occurring.
    4. The population is large.
    5. There is no immigration or emigration.

Population Genetic and Evolution

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Review of Natural Selection 0:12
    • Review of Natural Selection
  • Genetic Drift and Gene Flow 4:40
    • Definition of Genetic Drift
    • Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
    • Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
    • Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
    • Gene Flow
  • Quantifying Genetic Variation 14:32
    • Average Heterozygosity
    • Nucleotide Variation
  • Maintaining Genetic Variation 18:12
    • Heterozygote Advantage
    • Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
    • Diploidy
    • Geographic Variation
    • Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
    • Neutral Traits
  • The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 31:11
    • The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
    • The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
    • The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
    • The Hardy-Weinberg Example
  • Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions 42:28
  • Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 44:31
  • Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 49:10
  • Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation 51:30

Transcription: Population Genetic and Evolution

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

We are going to continue our discussion of evolution by talking about population genetics and mechanisms of evolution in addition to natural selection.0002

We are going to start out with a very important mechanism of evolution, and that is natural selection.0014

That was covered in depth in a separate lecture, but we are going to go ahead and review it here.0019

Recall that evolution is a change in the genetic composition or the genetic makeup of a population over time.0024

Natural selection is a mechanism for evolution that allows populations to become better adapted to their environments.0036

According to natural selection, individuals who possess traits that are favorable to survival will have a higher probability of living, producing offspring.0045

And, therefore, the frequency of those traits will increase in the population over many generations.0056

Recall that Darwin made some observations during his studies of animals especially on other organisms in the Galapagos Islands.0065

He observed that individuals within a population vary in the traits that they possess.0075

Second: that species produce more offspring, then, can be supported by the environment.0097

And the offspring must compete for survival; so I will just put "competition for survival".0102

But the underlying idea is that there are limited resources and that populations may produce more individuals than can be supported by the environment.0112

And finally, offspring inherit traits from their parents.0120

And if you look at this photograph here, it shows a butterfly whose wings look pretty similar to wood.0132

So, you could think about how natural selection may have resulted in this trait.0138

If there is an ancestral butterfly, and some of those individuals within a population had wings that were darker, they were brownish,0142

they looked a little more like wood, those butterflies may have had a less chance of being caught by a predator.0151

Greater chance of survival, they, therefore reproduced, and their offspring would carry forward this trait of brownish wings.0158

And overtime, as butterflies were selected for that had wings that looked like wood,0167

over many, many generations, the butterfly population had an increase in frequency in that trait0175

and ended up very well adapted to the environment, able to blend in and able to survive.0183

If the environment changed, then, there would be a selection pressure in a different direction that might alter the wing color over a long period of time.0188

In order for natural selection to occur, there must be a variety of traits in a population in the first place for the selection pressure to even act upon.0198

Remember that an individual has the traits he has. If a butterfly has brown wings or green wings, that is what they have.0209

Natural selection does not occur in individuals. It occurs in populations.0218

Populations can change on average over many generations, in terms of their allele frequencies, their genetic makeup.0222

Individuals do not change in terms of their genetic makeup.0230

Looking at this from a molecular genetics perspective, what is actually happening is an increase0235

in the frequency of the DNA sequences that code for a particular trait within that population.0240

Looking at this type of butterfly versus looking at the butterfly population, 10,000 years ago,0246

the modern butterfly population may have a greater frequency of a DNA sequence that allows the wings to look this particular way.0254

What is very, very important about natural selection is it allows species to adapt to their environment. However, that is not the only mechanism of evolution.0263

Evolution is a change in the genetic composition of a population, and there are other ways in which this can occur such as genetic drift.0271

Genetic drift is a change in allele frequency due to random chance.0282

So, we see that it is a mechanism of evolution because there is a change in the allele frequency of a population, but it is not due to selection.0286

It is due to random chance. Because it is due to random chance, the result of genetic drift is not necessarily that the population becomes better adapted.0294

It could be neutral or the result could even be that the population is less fit for survival because this is just due to chance.0302

Genetic drift occurs in small populations. Just looking at an extreme case, let's say that there are 30 individuals in a population, so a very small population.0312

And among them, we have 25 with brown eyes and 5 with blue eyes, and then, let's say there is a cholera epidemic.0324

It comes along, and it wipes out many, many individuals, and in this population of 30 individuals, let's say 20 died.0342

Of those that died, 15 have brown eyes, and all 5 of the blue-eyed individuals die.0353

That leaves survivors- 10 brown-eyed individuals.0362

Now, the fact that all 5 individuals with blue eyes died, it was not due to selection against people with blue eyes.0377

It is not that the blue eyes made these individuals less fit for survival. It was random chance.0384

Because this population is so small, it just so happened that 5 of the people who died, all 5 of those people had blue eyes.0389

Due to random chance, we have now had a change in the allele frequency in the population.0398

And if these individuals stay isolated and just have mating and offspring within this population,0404

we can see that this result will be a change in the allele frequency in the population.0415

Now, because blue eyes are recessive, there could be some survivors who are carriers for that blue-eyed allele.0422

The blue-eyed allele. It might not have died out completely, but it is possible that it did die out completely.0428

And even if did not, it has decreased frequency now, so genetic drift is a change in allele frequency due to random chance.0435

It could change again. It could increase again, but for now, what we have had is the change in allele frequency.0442

One example of this, a specific type of genetic drift, is something called the founder effect.0448

This is when a small group of individuals becomes separated from the original larger population they were part of, so this is a group of founders.0460

And if the group of founders is small, it is very possible that the allelic frequencies in that little group that breaks off do not reflect that of the larger group.0468

The allele frequencies or the genetic composition of a small group that breaks off0478

and founds a new colony or something does not reflect that of the larger population.0492

Let's say that the population of 10,000 people and 50 of these individuals leave.0517

So, we have 10,000 people, and 50 leave; and they sail up somewhere and set up their own colony.0524

And let's say that within this population of 10,000 people, there is an allele for a disorder, and this allele frequency is 1 in a 1000 in the population.0535

But it just so happens that of the 50 people that leave, 2 of them carry this allele.0546

This is a greater frequency than is found in the general population just by chance.0555

So, when these individual leave, they settle. They have offspring.0563

The frequency of this disorder in their population is going to be greater than in the parent population, and there are examples of this.0567

For example, the Amish are group of individuals in the US mainly living in the Pennsylvania and North-eastern area.0574

And polydactyly, which means having an extra digit, an extra finger, an extra toe,0582

is more common among the Amish population than in the general population, and this is thought to be due to founder effect.0588

Another example: Huntington’s disease in the Afrikaner population is South Africa.0595

Huntington's disease is more common among this population possibly due to founder effect.0603

Recall that Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder.0609

One type of genetic drift or one example is the founder effect, so this is genetic drift.0617

A second example is what is called the bottleneck effect. It is still genetic drift, but it is due to a slightly different cause.0628

If there is a disaster such as a fire, a flood or an earthquake, that could suddenly reduce the size of a population.0640

We actually saw that here with this cholera epidemic. That was essentially a bottleneck effect.0646

The disaster is the bottleneck, so I think of the individual as being inside a bottle at the neck of the bottle.0651

That is the bottleneck, which is an earthquake, a cholera epidemic, a flood, and many, many individuals die. They are stuck in a bottle.0659

Some, though, make it out to the other side. Those individuals are, sort of, like the founders in the founder effect.0670

Population has been greatly reduced.0677

Whoever happened to survive the disaster, those individuals as a group, may have a different allele frequency than the larger population did.0679

The group that survived is cut off from the original population, but it is not due to distance. It is not due to migration.0691

It is due to death of most of the individuals in the population.0698

And again, it might just be that the survivors have more of an allele,0704

a greater frequency of a certain allele or a smaller frequency of another allele, than the original large population.0710

The bottleneck effect can impact species of animals that are brought back from the brink of extinction.0716

This time, the bottleneck could be due to habitat destruction.0722

Let's say there is a species of rhino, and its habit is destroyed; and we are down to only 20 rhinos in the world.0725

And then, we take those rhinos. We put them in protection programs, and they mate; and they bring their numbers back up.0731

Well, with only 20 rhinos left, we are starting out with a smaller pool of genes.0739

And the bottleneck effect, therefore, could have occurred, where there is a change in the allele frequency compared with the original population.0745

And that might leave this population less able to adapt because of less genetic variation. This is genetic drift.0753

We talked about mechanisms of evolution. Natural selection is one.0762

Genetic drift is two. Another is gene flow.0765

Again, evolution is a change in the genetic composition of a population.0768

And another way to change the genetic composition would be to have individuals come into the population from the outside or leave the population.0771

When we talk about gene flow, another term for this is gene migration.0782

And what we are talking about is the movement of alleles into and out of a population.0790

For example, let's say that there is a species of plant growing along a river.0812

There is this one species of plants, and they are along a river. It has a certain allelic composition in that population.0818

And then, downstream, there is another population of the same plant species growing.0825

Well, wind of insects could carry the pollen from one plant population to the other plant population and introduce new alleles.0831

And therefore, there is gene flow going on between those two populations.0841

Or if a group of individuals leaves their home country, goes and settles in another country and then, marries into that population, produces offspring,0846

now, we have alleles being brought in from one group, and entering the population that was existing in that country already.0856

So that is a form of gene flow and evolution, if it ends up changing the allelic composition of the population over time.0864

We have talked about some mechanisms of evolution, and we have talked about how important genetic variation is in order for natural selection to occur.0873

And we have talked about mechanisms for variation in the previous lecture.0882

What are some ways that we can quantify genetic variation? How widely does a population's genetic composition vary?0888

Well, there is a couple of ways to measure this.0897

One is via average heterozygosity, and the other is by measuring the nucleotide variation in the population.0900

Average heterozygosity, we will cover first. The higher the average heterozygosity is, the greater the genetic diversity in a population.0909

Let's think about this. Remember that being heterozygote means an individual has two different alleles for a trait.0946

So, if somebody is a heterozygote for eye color, they have, say, a blue-eyed allele and a brown-eyed allele.0954

If someone is a homozygote, they have two of the same alleles, either both brown or both blue.0959

Therefore, heterozygotes carry more genetic variation.0964

So the more heterozygotes and for different traits are in a population, the greater the genetic variation.0969

And what we are looking at here is alleles and what is made from those alleles, which is often proteins.0976

So, you could look and see what the individual is producing and measure it that way.0983

Looking at blood types, if somebody has the AB blood type, they are producing both A antigen and B antigen on their red blood cells.0988

You could measure that.0997

Whereas, if somebody is a homozygote for type A, they are just type A blood type, or they could actually be a heterozygote carrying that.0998

Oh, but let's just look at homozygous for A blood type. They are only going to produce the A antigen.1010

Somebody who has only B blood type is only going to produce the B antigen. The heterozygote is going to be producing both.1018

This is one measure of genetic variation. The second measure is nucleotide variation.1023

If we went and actually sequence the DNA in a population, we could, then,1032

look and see how widely those nucleotides sequences vary among individuals in a population.1038

The larger the nucleotide variation, the greater the genetic diversity in the population.1044

For example, let's say that we looked at a population of birds, and we found that on average,1051

if we just took any 2 birds from the population on average, they had a nucleotide variation of 2%.1059

So, let's say 98% of their DNA sequences are the same. 2% is different.1064

Then, I go look at a population of lizards, and I sequence their DNA; and I say "OK, they have a 3% nucleotide variation".1070

So 97% of their sequence is the same. 3% is different.1079

The lizard population has a greater nucleotide variation than that bird population so two different ways to quantify genetic variation.1083

Now, we talked about quantifying it. How does it maintain?1092

Because if you think about natural selection, you would think that it might even wipe out genetic variation.1095

So, we talked about the peppered moths in the previous lecture and that there were light-colored peppered moths1101

that existed in England almost exclusively- not completely but almost exclusively - until about the mid-1800s.1107

These were light-colored moths with some darkish flaps, and they blended in with trees.1115

And predators could not see them that well, hopefully, because they were camouflaged.1121

But then, when the cities in England became industrialized and polluted, and soot covered everything,1125

those moths stuck out and got killed off, and selection favored moths who were dark.1130

Those moths blended in with the tree trunks, so selection favored the dark moths.1137

Now, if genetic variation was not maintained in the population, the moth population could not have adapted to the changing environment.1142

And once the environment got cleaned up, the moth population needed to, again, adapt towards lighter-colored moths, again,1152

who would blend in with the trees that were not covered with soot anymore.1162

So, the only way selection can happen is if genetic variation is maintained. Yet, selection is working against genetic variation, so how can it be maintained?1164

Well, there is a bunch of mechanisms.1173

Genetic variation can be maintained through heterozygote advantage, diploidy, geographic variation, neutral traits, frequency-dependent selection and outbreeding.1174

Starting with the heterozygote advantage, what this is talking about is a survival advantage for heterozygotes.1185

Heterozygotes have a survival advantage.1194

Recall that we just said that heterozygote maintains the genetic variation of a population because they have two alleles.1200

The more heterozygotes you have, the more variation that is because they are carrying two different alleles for a trait instead of the same allele.1209

If heterozygotes have a survival advantage, that will maintain the genetic variation in a population.1216

And there are examples of this- a classic one being that of sickle-cell anemia.1223

Recall that sickle-cell anemia is an inherited disorder that involves the hemoglobin.1231

Individuals with two sickle-cell alleles have sickle-cell anemia, and this abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to sickle.1239

They are not their normal biconcave shape.1250

They, sort of, fold up in this sickle-shape, and the result is that they block blood vessels; and then, there is poor blood flow to tissues and organs.1252

And this obviously is not a survival advantage, having this disease.1264

However, individuals who are heterozygous for sickle-cell have what we call sickle-celled trait.1272

They have one allele for normal hemoglobin and the other allele for sickle form.1286

These individuals generally do not exhibit symptoms of sickle-cell disease.1293

Under extreme conditions like very low oxygen, they could have some symptoms.1297

But it is not in the range of what an individual with sickle-cell anemia would experience.1302

So, for the most part, these individuals are not affected by problems from having the sickle allele, but they have an advantage.1307

They are less severely affected by malaria.1314

We could have an individual...we will say big S here is the normal allele. Little s is the sickle-cell allele.1331

Here, we have a person with this sickle-cell anemia. It would be big S-big S, or excuse me, little s-little s.1341

Here, we have our heterozygous individual with sickle-celled trait. They are big S-little S.1349

And then, we have an individual with just the completely normal genotype and phenotype; and they are big S-big S.1355

This individual, well, this individual up here has sickle-cell disease. They are the disadvantaged.1362

This individual with the normal genotype, big S-big S, is more likely to be severely affected by malaria, so they are the survival disadvantaged.1368

The heterozygote will not have the problems with the individual with sickle-cell disease, and they will not be as severely affected by malaria.1378

They can still get malaria. They are not just resistant to malaria, but they will not get as ill.1387

They will not be as likely to die, and so, this gives them a survival advantage.1392

And in fact, in areas of the world like in parts of Africa where malaria is endemic,1398

we see that the sickle-cell gene is much more common than in areas of the world where you do not see much malaria.1405

There has been a selection for this sickle-cell allele particularly the heterozygotes have an advantage.1412

And that maintains a genetic variation is the population.1419

OK, that is one method of maintaining genetic variation. A second is diploidy.1424

Humans, like many other organisms, are diploid. That means that we carry two copies of each allele, so we are 2n.1428

This allows us to carry the recessive form of a gene without the phenotype being revealed.1441

So, let's say the dominant phenotype is at advantageous. Let's say that individuals with brown eyes are at an advantage.1448

The blue-eyed allele can still be maintained in the population in heterozygotes.1456

This is not heterozygote advantage because if someone has the brown-eyed phenotype, they are at equal advantage.1462

A heterozygote is neither at an advantage nor a disadvantage, so they are not being selected for.1469

What they are doing is they are just carrying this silent pool of genes.1475

So it allows the population to carry a silent pool of alleles; and these are the recessive alleles. Let's look at an example.1478

Let's say there is a lizard population and that lizards can be either green, and that is dominant; or brown, and let's say the brown is recessive.1496

If an individual is homozygous dominant, he is green. If he is heterozygous, he is green.1512

If is homozygous recessive, he is brown.1518

These individuals are at a survival advantage.1522

Now, if the recessive allele is fairly rare, and if being brown makes the individual selected against, let's say there is a lot of greenery.1524

And the green lizards blend in better. They will not be as likely to be killed by predators.1534

The green phenotype is being selected for, but there is still this silent allele being carried around.1539

Every so often, two heterozygotes will meet up and produce an offspring who is brown, who does not have a great survival chance, might get killed off.1548

But, there is still some heterozygotes around just carrying that allele.1555

Now, let's say a lot of the greenery is killed off. The environment changes.1561

Things are just browner and trees and a lot more brown less green.1566

Now, every so often, when two heterozygotes meet up, mate, and, let's say, produce a recessive phenotype offspring,1571

little g-little g, who is brown, that lizard would have a survival advantage.1582

It might leave more offspring, and the allele frequency for the brown phenotype would increase.1586

So, by maintaining this pool of silent alleles, the genetic variation is maintained, so that if conditions change,1593

there is still something to be selected for- individuals with this different variant.1601

OK, we went through heterozygote advantage, diploidy and now, geographic variation.1609

Populations of species may differ in their allelic composition due to geographic isolation.1616

For example, let's say there is a group of wolves, a species of wolf.1623

And if you looked at these wolves in the very northern area of a country, they would, let's say, have a much thicker coat.1629

And as you go south, you notice that the coats are thinner.1637

And this could be due to a difference in alleles that the northern population has more of the thick coat allele and the southern, thinner coat.1641

And ecocline, or just sometimes it is a cline, is a gradient.1652

If a trait changes along a gradient, we say that it is a cline, so it not an either-or situation.1660

Coat thickness, we would say "oh, there is a cline", or coat color.1671

In the northern areas, the coats might be white so that the animals could blend in with the snow.1676

The farther south you go, the darker the coat color might be. That could be a cline.1681

And, so this geographic variation, it maintains genetic variation within that species.1686

Frequency-dependent selection: in frequency-dependent selection, the more common phenotype is at the selective disadvantaged.1696

So more common phenotype is at a selective disadvantage.1708

When would this occur? Well, one example is a predator-prey situation.1722

Sometimes, predators develop an image of what they are looking for in their prey.1728

So they are looking for this picture in their mind of what a prey looks like, and it may have to do with size, the shape of the head, the shape of the body.1736

And they are looking for that, and when they see something that fits the image, they go after it.1747

An individual who has the more common phenotype, who looks like the typical animal of its species might be more likely to be attacked by the predator.1752

The more common phenotype is selected against.1761

Let's say, now, there is an individual who has a different body shape. The predator might not be as likely to attack them.1763

And so that individual is selected for, more likely to survive, pass on his genes, pass on those traits, and those traits increase in frequency.1772

Eventually, though, if that body type becomes the most common, predators will develop an image of that body type.1782

And then, the other body type will be selected for.1788

So, you can see how it can go back and forth between a couple of traits, so it maintains that variation.1791

When one trait becomes too common, it is selected against. This is also called, sometimes, the minority advantage.1796

Alright, finally, outbreeding: outbreeding refers to the mating of individuals who are not closely related.1809

And you probably heard about animals becoming inbreds, so certain breeds of dogs have particular problems like hip dysplasia.1819

And part of it is due to the fact that they have been bred with individuals that they are too closely related to.1827

And then, these alleles become concentrated in the population, these traits.1834

So, with outbreeding, if a population, then, breeds with some individuals from another area from outside their immediate population,1840

that brings in different alleles and maintains the genetic variation.1851

Neutral traits, it is exactly what it sounds like. These are traits that do not confer an advantage, nor do they cause a disadvantage.1857

OK, since we are talking about population genetics,1872

we are going to go on and discuss a very important equation that you should be familiar with called the Hardy-Weinberg equation.1877

And this general topic is the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.1884

The Hardy-Weinberg principle states that given certain conditions, if natural selection is not occurring, and these conditions are met,1889

the frequencies of genotypes and the alleles in a population will not change over generations.1898

In other words, the gene pool is in equilibrium.1906

So the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium says that genotype and allele frequencies do not change over generations if a population is not undergoing natural selection.1909

So, if the population is in equilibrium, and conditions are met,1946

we can use this equation, p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 in order to predict the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population.1953

Now, I have mentioned that we need to be at certain conditions, so here are the conditions.1964

One: mating is random. For a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we have to have a population in which mating is random.1969

Two: no mutations occur. Now, you can see how in real life this could not happen.1981

We cannot prevent mutations from occurring, but in a large population, you could get close enough to these conditions that these equation is useful.1987

Three: no natural selection is occurring. If natural selection is occurring, the allele frequency is not going to stay the same.2002

Genotypes or phenotypes will be selected for and selected against.2013

We need a large population, so the population is large.2019

Finally, there is not immigration or emigration. We do not have gene flow occurring.2027

The population is isolated.2036

Assuming that these conditions are met, we can use the Hardy-Weinberg equation.2041

So, what does this occasion mean? Let's look at each part of it.2046

p is the frequency of the dominant allele, and we are looking at a situation where we just have two alleles for a trait.2050

q is the frequency of the recessive allele.2061

Now, p + q = 1, and this must be because as you know, in probability, we have to have the frequencies of all the possibilities equal to one.2072

So, if I only have two alleles, let's say brown eye allele and blue eye allele,2085

and the frequency of the brown eye allele is 0.3 - let's say p = 0.3 - well, then, q must equal 0.72090

because there is only two alleles, and they have to add up to 100%.2102

And, of course, you can work in decimals. You can work in percentages just depending on what the questions ask you to do.2106

This is p and q. What, then, is p2?2112

Well, if we look at what p2 is, it is the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype.2116

q2 is the frequency of the homozygous recessive phenotype.2131

Finally, that leaves us with 2pq. 2pq is the frequency of the heterozygous genotype.2142

So, we have this equation p + q = 1, where p is the frequency of the dominant allele. q is the frequency of the recessive allele.2162

And here, we have p2 that is the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype.2169

q2 is the frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype, and 2pq is the frequency of the heterozygous genotype.2175

And there is only three possibilities for genotypes, and these are the three; so the frequencies of these three must add up to one.2183

Now, let's put this to use. Let's say that we have a population of 100 people, 100 individuals, and that 9 of these have blue eyes2193

And we are going to talk about simple Mendelian genetics, where there are two alleles. One is brown.2214

One is blue. Brown is dominant over blue.2220

Therefore, p is going to be the frequency of the brown allele. That is my dominant allele.2224

q is going to be the frequency of the recessive allele, which is the blue allele.2234

I have this population of 100 individuals. 9 of whom have blue eyes, and the question I want to figure out is the frequency.2244

I want to figure out the answer to this, the frequency of the genotypes in the population.2254

What is the frequency of each of these genotypes?2262

Well, what I am starting with is 9 individuals have blue eyes. Who is going to have blue eyes?2266

What is going to be the genotypes of individuals with blue eyes?2272

Well, since blue eyes is recessive, the only people who are going to have blue eyes are those who are homozygous recessive.2277

Homozygous recessive is represented by q2.2284

The frequency of homozygous recessive individuals in this population is going to be 9 out of 100 or 9%, so 0.9, so homozygous recessive.2288

The frequency is going to be 0.9 or 9%, actually 0.09 or 9%.2308

Now, what is going to be the frequency of individuals who are homozygous dominant, the homozygous dominant genotype?2321

One way I can figure that out is to say "OK, I know that people is q = 1". I know what q2 is, so q2 = 0.09.2333

So, if I take the square root of q2, that is square root of 0.09, that is going to give me q = 0.3. I, now, know what q is.2351

I have p + 0.3 = 1. Therefore, p = 0.7, so p = 0.7.2366

So, you see where I start out from. I knew that I had 9 individuals with blue eyes.2383

Therefore, q2 = 0.09. Then, that allowed me to figure out, by taking the square root of that, that q = 0.3.2388

So, this people is q = 1. p + 0.3 = 1.2401

1 - 0.3 is 0.7, so p = 0.7. If p = 0.7, then, p2 = 0.72 or 0.49.2408

The frequency of the homozygous recessive genotype is 0.09. The frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype is 0.49.2424

Now, all I have to do is plug back into here.2437

I have got p2 is 0.49 + 2pq, which is the heterozygous genotype, and that is what I am trying to figure out; and q2, which is 0.09.2440

When you calculate that out, you take one; and you subtract 0.09, and you subtract 0.49,2464

what you will come out with is that the frequency of heterozygotes is 42% or 0.42, and this is heterozygotes.2472

What we have ended up with is p2, which is 49% plus 2pq, which is 42% plus q2, which is 9% equalling 100%.2486

OK, this shows you how you can use the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to figure out genotypes.2512

We could also talk about the phenotypes that individuals with blue eyes, 9%, and here, 91% have brown eyes.2520

So we could talk about phenotypes, as well, and we could talk about alleles.2532

So, we know the frequency of the alleles in the population, p and q of the genotypes2538

and of the phenotypes assuming that the population meets these conditions.2543

Example one: match the following terms to their descriptions- genetic drift, nucleotide variability, gene flow and frequency-dependent selection.2549

The first is genetic drift. The more common phenotype is at a selective disadvantage.2562

Genetic drift does not refer to a selective disadvantage or advantage. That would be natural selection.2569

Change in allele frequency due to random chance: a measure of the difference2577

in nucleotide sequence within a population, or the entry and exit of alleles in a population.2582

Well, genetic drift is a mechanism of evolution, but it is due to random chance; and it particularly occurs in small populations, so this is actually B.2588

We have a change in allele frequency, but it is not due to selection. It is just due to chance such as through founder effect, so we cross out B.2597

Nucleotide variability, that is not having to do with selection. A measure of the difference in the nucleotide sequence within a population, that is correct.2606

The greater the genetic variability, the greater variation. The greater the nucleotide variability, the greater the genetic variation within a population.2618

Average heterozygosity and nucleotide variability are two ways of measure genetic variation in a population.2629

Gene flow: gene flow refers to the entry and exit of alleles in a population.2636

New individuals may come in to the population. Some individuals may leave, and that can change the genetic composition of the population; so this is D.2642

And finally, frequency-dependent selection refers to the fact that the more common phenotype may be at the2652

selective disadvantage such as when a predator develops an image of a prey and goes after that common or typical-looking prey.2656

And therefore, selection is acting against those with the common phenotype.2666

Example two: 4% of a population is affected by a neurological disorder that is recessive, so recessive, and it is 4% of the population.2672

If the population fits the criteria for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, what percentage of the population will exhibit the normal phenotype?2682

What percentage will be carriers of the disorder?2693

Well, we know that if this is a recessive disorder, and 4% of the population is affected; so what percent is going to be normal?2695

That is pretty easy because it has got to add up to 100%, so those who are affected and those who are unaffected have to total 100% of the population.2704

So, here, I have 4% affected plus those individuals who are unaffected equalling 100%. Therefore, those with the normal phenotype- 96%.2716

Right here, this is 96%. What percentage will be carriers for the disorder?2732

This is a little more complicated. Remember our Hardy-Weinberg equation, p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1.2738

And I know that this is a recessive disorder.2748

So those who have the phenotype that are actually affected by the disorder must be homozygous recessive; so q2 = 4% or 0.04.2750

Now, what I am looking for is carriers. Who is going to be a carrier? Heterozygotes.2770

What this is really asking is the frequency, so heterozygotes.2778

Remember that p is the frequency of the dominant allele. q is the frequency of the recessive allele.2785

A heterozygote is going to be PQ, and the frequency of the heterozygotes or carriers in a population is going to be 2pq.2793

So, we have p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1. I know what q2 is.2809

In order to figure out 2pq, I need to know what q is, so I know q2. I also know that p + q = 1, so since I know q2, I can figure out q.2816

I can just take the square root of q2 equals the square root of 0.04. Therefore, q = 0.2.2830

I know that I have p + 0.2 = 1. That give me p = 1 - 0.2 or p = 0.8.2845

Going back to here, carriers are heterozygotes, so they are PQ. The frequency of the carriers equals 2pq.2857

I have 2 x p, which is 0.8, times q, which is 0.2, so that give me 2 x 0.16 = 0.32 = 32%.2869

The frequency of individuals with a normal phenotype is 96%. The percentage that will be carriers is 32%, so carriers equals 32%,2891

And just to take this a little bit farther, a homozygous dominant is going to be p2,2905

which is going to be 0.82, which is going to be 0.64 or 64%.2914

Another way that I could have figured out - although it would have been more complex - is those with the normal phenotype would be.2921

I can add the frequency of those with the homozygous dominant genotype, which is 0.64 and those with the heterozygous genotype, which is 0.32.2930

And I am going to get 0.96 or 96%, so I am just double-checking that this is correct.2943

Example three: in a population of dogs, brown coat color is dominant over yellow coat color.2952

If the frequency of the dominant allele is 0.7,2958

what percentage of dogs in the population will be predicted to have yellow coats if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?2963

What percentage of dogs will be homozygous dominant for coat color?2972

The dominant allele is p, so the frequency of the dominant allele is p; so that is 0.7.2975

And what they are asking me is what percentage of dogs will have yellow coats.2985

Yellow coats are recessive, so in order to have yellow coats, the individual has to be homozygous recessive; and the frequency of that is q2.2990

That will tell me the frequency of yellow coats in the population. I know that p is 0.7, and I know that p + q = 1, so I end up with 0.7 + q = 1 or q = 0.3.2998

Now that I have q = 0.3, all I have to do is square it to get q2. Therefore, q2 = 0.09 or 9%.3023

So, this is the percentage of dogs in the population with yellow coats. It is going to be 9%.3041

The next question: what percentage of dogs will be homozygous dominant for coat color?3052

The frequency of homozygous dominant is p2 equals the frequency of homozygous dominant, and I know that p is 0.7.3060

So I just need to square p, so p2 = 0.49, which equals 49%.3073

So, yellow coats is 9%, and homozygous dominant is 49%.3082

Example four: if a phenotype is favorable to survival in producing offspring,3092

the allele frequency for that phenotype will increase through natural selection after multiple generations.3096

What are some mechanisms by which a population maintains genetic diversity despite selection pressure?3103

How does a population keep from just ending up with one allele- that favorable allele?3109

Well, there is a bunch of mechanisms. They asked for four.3115

One is heterozygote advantage.3117

As with sickle-cell anemia, if the heterozygotes have a survival advantage,3121

they are going to increase the genetic variation of a population by carrying two different alleles.3125

Diploidy: because we are diploid, we are carrying a pool of recessive alleles that are silent but maintain genetic variation.3131

Geographic variation: populations in different areas may have different allele frequencies.3143

Neutral traits: an example of a neutral trait can be something like blood type.3153

It is not selected for. One type is not selected against, but it maintains diversity in the population.3159

So, that is four, but there are more.3166

Frequency-dependent selection: recall that in frequency-dependent selection,3169

the more common phenotype is selected against, so this favors diversity in the population.3174

Finally, outbreeding: Individuals breeding, mating, with individuals outside their immediate group brings different alleles into the population.3182

This is actually six mechanisms, and you only had to state four.3193

So, that concludes this lecture at Educator.com.3196

Thanks for visiting.3200