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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

The Respiratory System

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
1:00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
1:01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
1:06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
1:09:10
Example 3: Transcription
1:12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
1:14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
1:00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:02:55
Incomplete Dominance
1:02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:26
Epistasis
1:12:51
Example of Epistasis
1:12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
1:17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
1:21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
1:25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
1:28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
1:00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
1:01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
1:00:13
Forams
1:02:25
Radiolarians
1:03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
1:04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
1:04:26
Slime Molds
1:05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
1:09:21
Oomycetes
1:11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
1:13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
1:14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
1:16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
1:17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
1:01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
1:02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
1:00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
1:12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
1:15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
1:16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
1:18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
1:04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
1:06:36
Example 3: Nephron
1:09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
1:10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
1:00:29
Sensory Stimuli
1:00:30
Reflex Arc
1:01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
1:04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
1:06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
1:08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
1:09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
1:00:01
Complement System
1:01:57
Classes of Antibodies
1:02:45
IgM
1:03:01
IgA
1:03:17
IgG
1:03:53
IgE
1:04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
1:05:00
Passive Immunity
1:05:01
Active Immunity
1:07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
1:10:50
Immunodeficiency
1:13:27
Immunodeficiency
1:13:28
Chemotherapy
1:13:56
AID
1:14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
1:15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
1:17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
1:21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
1:23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
1:00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
1:00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
1:02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
1:04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
1:01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
1:01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
1:56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
1:59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
2:00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
2:01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
1:01:36
Multiple Choice 30
1:02:31
Multiple Choice 31
1:03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (2)

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Wed Mar 26, 2014 6:48 PM

Post by Josie Charles on March 16, 2014

How do I jump exactly to a specific section (e.g. Transport of Carbon Dioxide) if I do not want to listen to the whole lecture?

The Respiratory System

  • Respiration is the process through which gas exchange occurs. During respiration, animals take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide.
  • Gas exchange in simple aquatic animals occurs via diffusion across the whole surface of the body. In more complex aquatic animals, gills provide a surface across which gas exchange can occur.
  • Some animals rely on diffusion across the skin for gas exchange. More complex animals have internal respiratory surfaces that include branched tubes or folded structures.
  • In insects, air enters the body through small openings called spiracles. Air then passes into air ducts called tracheae, which branch into tracheoles that reach the cells of the body so that gas exchange can occur.
  • In mammals, air enters the nasal cavity, passes through the pharynx and larynx and then into the trachea. Next, the air enters the bronchi, which branch into bronchioles, ending in alveoli, the site of gas exchange.
  • Ventilation occurs during the process of breathing. During inspiration, air is pulled into the lungs by the negative pressure created when the thoracic cavity expands. The reverse process occurs during expiration.

The Respiratory System

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Gas Exchange in Animals 0:17
    • Respiration
    • Ventilation
    • Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
  • Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals 3:05
    • Simple Aquatic Animals
    • Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
    • Countercurrent Exchange
  • Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals 13:46
    • Earthworms
    • Internal Respiratory
    • Insects
    • Circulatory Fluid
  • The Human Respiratory System 21:21
    • Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
    • Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
    • Pulmonary Surfactants
    • Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
  • Ventilation 30:28
    • Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
    • Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
  • Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects 39:08
  • Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange 42:09
  • Example 3: Respiratory System 44:10
  • Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing 45:31

Transcription: The Respiratory System

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

Today is the first in a series of lectures on animal physiology.0002

Throughout these lectures, we are going to talk about various groups of animals but, the focus is going to be on human anatomy and physiology.0007

And we will be starting out with the respiratory system.0015

First, an overview of gas exchange in animals, respiration is the process through which gas exchange occurs.0019

And during respiration, animals take in a respiratory media such as air or water.0026

And they extract out the oxygen and release carbon dioxide back into the air or for aquatic animals, into the water.0033

This is a necessary process for aerobic respiration, so as you will recall, animals undergo aerobic respiration in which they generate ATP.0042

After taking in the gas, the oxygen, it will diffuse down its concentration gradient into the cells of the animal.0055

And the CO2 will diffuse down its concentration to leave the animal's body.0064

Ventilation is the movement of air across a respiratory surface, so when we talk about ventilation in humans, we are talking about breathing,0070

so, breathing in and allowing the air to move across the respiratory surface of the lung.0080

When we talk about aquatic animals, then, we are talking about ventilating the gills, so movement of water across the respiratory surface of the gills.0089

Gas exchange occurs across different surfaces in different animals.0099

In some animals, it is the skin like in earthworms. In other animals, like I mentioned, the lungs, and still on others, it is gills.0105

Although the respiratory surfaces differ, there are some characteristics they have in common,0113

so general characteristics of respiratory surfaces such as lungs, gills or even skin.0119

Characteristics include the fact that the respiratory surface is generally thin to allow diffusion, to allow gas to diffuse across that surface.0134

Second, the surface is moist. Lung tissue is moist.0144

The skin of a frog, of amphibians, that use their skin as a respiratory surface is thin and moist. Finally, these structures have a large surface area.0149

In simple animals such a sponges, Hydra and flatworms, all of the body cells are in contact with the external environment.0165

So, gas exchange can take place across all the body surfaces.0174

However, as you are going to see in most animals, there are specialized surfaces for gas exchange.0177

We are going to start out by talking about gas exchange in aquatic animals.0187

Gas exchange in simple aquatic animals occurs via diffusion across the whole surface of the body.0196

That is what I just mentioned, and simple aquatic animals would include Hydra and jellies.0204

These are some of the simpler aquatic animals, and all of their cells are in contact with the water.0214

And therefore, oxygen can diffuse directly into the cells, and carbon dioxide can leave the cells and exit into the water.0221

However, in more complex aquatic animals such as fish, sharks, crustacean, gills are the means of gas exchange.0230

And the specific structure and location of gills varies among the different species. However, there are those common characteristics that I talked about.0240

Gills have a large surface area due to extensive foldings, so this increases the area available for gas exchange to occur.0251

As I also mentioned, ventilation is the movement of the respiratory media, in this case, water across the respiratory surface.0260

The gills are ventilated. Water is moved across the gills, so ventilation by movement of water across the gills, and this can occur is two essential ways.0271

One is that if we are talking about a fish, the fish moves, and water flows across the gills. The fish swims.0293

It keeps its mouth open. Water will enter the mouth, and it will flow across the gills.0307

However, even if a fish stays still, even if it stops swimming, it can still undergo ventilation. It still needs that flow of oxygen containing water.0311

So, this can occur a second way in that structures move the water across the gills.0320

In the fish, what it does is that the fish will draw water into its mouth, and then, the water will exit across the gills.0335

So, it is not just swimming, and the water is just passively entering the mouth. It is actually drawing water into the mouth.0343

And recall when we talked about the structure, the anatomy of fish, that there is a structure called an operculum- the bony structure.0348

It is a flap that protects the gills, and it also, helps keep the water moving through the gills.0360

In other aquatic animals, there are various other structures that push or move the water through.0365

An important concept in gas exchange in aquatic animals is that of countercurrent exchange.0373

Countercurrent exchange, this picture here, shows countercurrent exchange.0381

An example of it is the exchange of materials between fluids that are flowing in opposite directions, so exchange of materials or heat.0387

So, I am going to note that it can be an exchange of materials or heat between fluids moving in opposite directions.0404

In this case, we are talking about the exchange. We are going to focus on the exchange of oxygen.0420

This exchange occurs across a semipermeable membrane.0428

What happens is, there is water that enters the gills, and it is going to be flowing in this direction as shown.0432

Meanwhile, there is blood in the capillary, and this blood is returning from the tissues and cells of the body; so it is very low in oxygen.0444

It would not actually go all the way down to zero, but just for simplicity, I am going to show the water entering from the gills at 100% oxygen saturation,0455

and the water that is in the capillaries coming back from the body at 0% oxygen saturation and then, going on and increasing from there.0467

So, it is just for simplicity.0477

So, what happens is, the blood from the capillaries is depleted of oxygen, and it is flowing in this direction.0480

The water is entering the gills flowing in the opposite direction, and it is flowing across the gill, flowing across the gill; and oxygen is being extracted from it.0488

So, what you will see is that as oxygen diffuses across the membrane of the capillary from the water into the capillary,0497

what is going to happen is the oxygen saturation is going to drop.0509

So, maybe, this goes down to 90 and then, say 80, 70, 60, 50 and on and on down, but it is only going to go as low as 10- what I am showing here.0514

As the water flows across the gill, it is giving up its oxygen to the blood flowing in the opposite direction in a nearby capillary.0530

When the water enters the gill, it is going to pass very close to capillaries with blood flowing in the opposite direction, so this oxygen saturation is dropping.0540

Meanwhile, the blood in the capillary is picking up oxygen, so the saturation of the oxygen in the capillary is increasing.0552

At any point, though, in this exchange system, the percent of oxygen or the partial pressure of oxygen0564

- you can look at it that way - in the water is higher than the percent of oxygen in the blood.0575

So, even though this oxygen is increasing, and this one is decreasing, at any given point,0583

let’s say right here in the blood, there is 80 percent oxygen 70, 60, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10,0590

if I pick any point right here, even though this water has lost a lot of its oxygen, it still has more oxygen than the blood passing by at that same point.0603

So, oxygen will still diffuse down its concentration gradient.0616

The water in the gill essentially stays ahead of the blood in terms of oxygen concentration.0621

At any point in the system, the oxygen concentration in the water is greater than the oxygen concentration in the blood.0631

And what this allows is for there to be the exchange of gasses throughout the entire length of the system, the entire length of the capillary.0656

In this way, the blood is able to continually, as it moves through, pick up oxygen, and the water is able to give up its oxygen.0666

And if you look here, what this blood is encountering is water that has depleted of a lot of its oxygen.0678

However, this blood has even lower oxygen because it is just returning from the body.0689

So, it is set up so that the oxygen concentration of the blood at any point is lower than the oxygen concentration of the water.0694

And that is the essential point.0702

Now, as I said, heat can also be exchanged through a countercurrent system, and this is a mechanism for temperature regulation.0705

So, countercurrent exchange is used in thermoregulation. These systems are used in thermoregulation in some animals.0714

As an example, marine animals that have their legs or flippers submerged in cold water can use this system.0728

If an animal, say, has its legs submerged in cold water, the blood in the extremities is going to be very cold.0738

And what happens is, the vessels carrying the cold blood, the veins carrying the cold blood... so, let's show this here.0746

This is a vein, and this is going to be blood from the extremity; and this is cold because it has been submerged.0760

The animal's paw has been submerged in water. It gets very cold, and the blood returning to the heart is cold.0772

Meanwhile, arterial blood is going to be in nearby arteries that are running in the opposite direction.0779

The blood is flowing in the opposite direction, and this is blood coming from the heart. It is coming from their body core that is warmer.0789

And what will happen is heat will be transferred at every point along this countercurrent exchange system.0797

And that, then, warms the blood that is returning to the core of the body and cools the blood going out to the extremities.0806

And the result is that there is not as much heat loss from the extremities, so it maintains the body temperature- thermoregulation.0816

Alright, so, this is gas exchange in aquatic animals.0827

Now, we are going to talk about gas exchange in terrestrial animals, in land animals0831

starting out with simpler animals that rely on the diffusion of gasses across the skin.0839

Now, we talked about very simple animals where all cells are in contact with the external environment like in a flatworm.0849

The gas can just diffuse in, and oxygen can diffuse in. CO2 can diffuse out.0858

If you look at a little bit more complex animal, an earthworm - so, let's talk about earthworms, which are annelids, segmented worms -0863

gas exchange occurs across the skin.0873

So, the skin is not just a surface for protection in these animals, it is also a respiratory organ, and this is an external respiratory surface.0881

In us, we have lungs. They are located inside our bodies.0896

Those are internal respiratory surfaces. This is an external respiratory surface.0899

And what happens is the oxygen enters the skin, and then, it encounters a rich network of capillaries.0904

And the oxygen enters those capillaries. Carbon dioxide leaves the capillaries and diffuses across the skin.0911

However, in many animals, the skin alone is not sufficient for gas exchange.0917

So, when we talked about amphibians like frogs, gas exchange across the skin is just a supplement for gas exchange via the lungs.0922

And then, in many larger, more complex animals, the skin is not a respiratory organ. In fact, there are just internal respiratory surfaces.0930

So, let's talk about internal respiratory surfaces like lungs.0939

One major advantage to an internal respiratory surface is that they minimize water loss, so an internal respiratory surface minimizes water loss.0945

Recall that respiratory surfaces need to be moist, and therefore, if the skin is a respiratory surface like in a frog, it needs to be moist.0957

And the animal is restricted to a moist environment, so an earthworm in a dry environment will dry out.0967

Gas exchange will not occur. It will die, so internal respiratory surface allows animals to live in drier environments.0973

The internal respiratory surfaces are moist, and they are lined with epithelium.0984

But as I said, this moist epithelial surface is confined to the inside of the animal's body.0993

Before we go on to talk about mammalian and specifically human respiratory systems, we are going to talk about arthropod respiratory system.0999

So, we are going to focus actually on insects and just use that as an example of a different type of respiratory system, although, it is an internal system.1008

If we look at gas exchange in insects, what happens is air enters the body through openings in the body called sphericals,1016

so, openings that are called sphericals, the gas enters.1029

So, air enters the sphericals then, goes into tracheae. Singular would be trachea.1037

The tracheae branch, and they become smaller and smaller; and these smaller structures are called tracheoles.1055

Air enters the sphericals then, goes to the tracheae and a trachea will branch into a tracheole.1064

And these will get smaller and smaller and smaller and branch more and more until they reach the various cells in the body.1072

And they will deliver the air directly to the cells.1081

So, gas exchange occurs at the epithelial surfaces that are at the end, so branching, branching, branching.1086

And then, here at the end of the tracheole, we have a spherical where the air enters.1093

And then, it is the trachea and then, tracheoles, and then, at the end of the tracheoles is an epithelial surface.1105

And the body cells, there will be an organ or a structure right here, and then, gas exchange occurs.1115

Notice that the gas, the oxygen is not going into blood like it does in us.1125

It is not going from a lung to blood and then, being delivered to cells. It is going directly from the respiratory surface to the cells.1130

And oxygen diffuses out to the cells. CO2 is picked up.1140

Something important here, a fundamental difference between this system and, say, our system is that the circulatory fluid.1149

In arthropods, the circulatory fluid, and we will talk about this in detail on the lecture in circulation about the circulatory fluids.1155

The circulatory fluid in arthropods is called hemolymph, and although, hemolymph sometimes delivers oxygen in certain arthropods,1164

in most arthropods, the job of hemolymph, of the circulatory fluid, is to deliver nutrients, hormones, pick up waste products.1173

But, it is not a source of gas exchange or gas transport. Oxygen and CO2 does not usually transport oxygen- like I said, not usually.1183

In some animals, it does, and we will talk about that later.1199

But for now, what you should know is that in insects, the respiratory surface directly delivers the oxygen and picks up the CO2 from cells.1202

It does not use the intermediary circulatory system to deliver oxygen and pick up CO2.1213

Now, in larger insects they need even more air to supply their tissues, and they sometimes will then have air sacs at the end of the tracheae.1219

And what happen is, as the insect moves, the air sac will expand.1232

And this allows the sac at the end - sort of like an alveolus - allows for a greater amount of oxygen to be delivered.1237

So, this is an example of a system in a non-mammal.1250

One thing, though, that is a commonality between various respiratory surfaces, as I said, is their large surface area.1259

And we talked about the folding of gills. Folding is one way to increase the surface area.1267

Here, there is branching, so these are highly branched structures.1272

Branched tubes and folded structures, those are commonalities in respiratory surfaces.1276

Now, we are going to talk about the human respiratory system.1282

And many of the structures that we are going to discuss such as lungs are found in mammals1286

other than humans and even non-mammalian vertebrates like reptiles and amphibians.1292

Even some of the invertebrates have lungs, but I am really going to be focusing on the human respiratory system.1299

And that is what is really important especially to know for the Advanced Placement Exam.1304

We are starting out at the top air containing oxygen is going to enter via the nasal cavity.1310

So, it enters via the nasal cavity, and a few things occur in the nasal cavity.1319

The air is warmed. The air is also humidified.1326

It gains moisture, so it is moistened or humidified, and finally, it is filtered. There are hairs in the nasal cavities that catch particulates such as dusts.1332

So, the air is warmed, humidified and filtered.1344

So, that air enters the nasal cavity, and the next structure that you need to be familiar with is the pharynx.1348

After passing through the pharynx, a little bit lower down is the larynx.1360

Within the larynx is the voice box, so in addition to being a respiratory structure, the larynx is important for speech.1368

And vibration of the vocal cords within the larynx is what produces speech.1377

There is a structure called the epiglottis.1384

And when we swallow food or fluids, then, the epiglottis covers the larynx so that food or fluid does not enter the lung.1389

Instead, the food or fluid goes into the esophagus, and we are going to look at the structure of the epiglottis more when we talk about the GI system.1398

But for now, just know that the epiglottis protects the airway and that it covers1406

the opening to the larynx so that food and fluid cannot end up in the lung.1411

So, the air has gone through the pharynx and larynx and then, enters the trachea, continues on down into the right and left bronchi.1419

So, here, we are just looking at one side.1433

If he is facing you, then, this is his left bronchus, so focusing on this one side, but the same structures are also found over here on the other side.1435

Air continues into the bronchus.1451

Then, the bronchus branches into these smaller structures called bronchioles,1456

which terminate in very small sac-like structures called alveoli or singular, alveolus.1464

So, this is the pathway of air through the respiratory system:1474

nasal cavity or mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchiole and alveolus, which is the site of gas exchange.1478

A couple things you should know is that the trachea contains cartilaginous rings, so rings of cartilage.1490

This maintains the strength, the structure and the support to hold this into a tube shape, so these cartilaginous rings.1501

The other thing you should be aware of is that the respiratory tract is lined with cilia, so the respiratory tract is lined with cilia and contains mucus.1511

So, what happens is certainly, the nose, the nasal cavity has filtered out some of the particulates but not 100%.1526

So, other particulates can be trapped in this mucosal layer, and then, the cilia move.1533

And what they do is they push the mucus upwards to remove any more particulates from the respiratory system.1540

So, the air has now made its way down to the alveolus, and this is the surface across, which gas exchange occurs.1551

The alveoli are microscopic structures, and taken together, they have a huge surface area.1561

They have a surface area of about - if you put them all together - 100 square meters.1567

Let's say this is an alveolus, and then, there will be a nearby capillary.1577

And oxygen will go down its concentration gradient from high concentration of oxygen in the alveolus to the lower concentration of oxygen in the capillary.1588

Meanwhile, CO2 is going the other way, so gas exchange occurs across the membrane of the alveolus.1600

The alveolus is surrounded by fluid, and then, it will cross the capillary membrane and enter the blood.1611

Again, this is in contrast to the tracheole system that we talked about in insects.1617

In insects, the tracheae branched and branched into tracheoles that, then, deliver their oxygen right to the body cells.1622

So, it could be the leg of the insect. It could be the sensory organs of the insect, the nervous system.1632

It is all getting delivered directly there, whereas here, there is not a respiratory surface next to all parts of the animal's body.1643

There is not an alveolus over in the hand or going all the way down into the leg to directly deliver gas.1651

Instead, the respiratory surface gives the oxygen to the circulatory system to the blood.1658

And the circulatory system, then, delivers that gas to the tissues and organs in the body.1664

So, the alveoli are surrounded by tiny capillaries.1671

Oxygen diffuses out of the alveolus into nearby capillaries, and CO2 diffuses in the opposite direction and then, can be exhaled out.1676

Pulmonary surfactants are substances found in the lung that lower the surface tension in the alveolus, in the alveoli.1686

What this does is it prevents alveolar collapse, so it prevents the collapse of the alveoli.1706

Premature infants sometimes suffer from a syndrome called RDS. This is respiratory distress syndrome.1719

And the reason is that surfactant does not developed until late in gestation until late in pregnancy.1729

So, if a baby is born prematurely, and there is not enough surfactant being produced, then, they are at risk for respiratory distress syndrome1736

because their lungs are not ready to be taken over that function of breathing, and the result is respiratory distress.1744

OK, before we go on and talk about ventilation, just a brief discussion of the circulatory system since it is very closely related to the respiratory system.1755

Although, there is going to be another lecture on that topic.1764

Once the oxygen is picked up by the capillaries, it enters red blood cells, and the red blood cells contain hemoglobin.1767

The hemoglobin contains iron, and the iron is capable of binding the oxygen.1780

So, the red blood cells use hemoglobin, and the iron within the hemoglobin, to carry oxygen to the cells.1787

And we will talk all about the structure and function of hemoglobin in the next lecture.1796

Carbon dioxide: some of it is transferred by hemoglobin.1800

But, most carbon dioxide is transferred in the blood plasma via a buffering system, so most CO2.1805

So, hemoglobin transport oxygen, whereas, most CO2 is actually transported in the form of bicarbonate ion in the plasma.1813

Alright, we have talked about the flow of air through the respiratory system and how gas exchange occurs.1824

Now, we are going to talk about ventilation in the human respiratory system.1829

Recall that ventilation is the process of moving air - in this case air - across the respiratory surface, which is the lung.1834

Ventilation occurs during the process of breathing.1843

So, breathing consists of inspiration, taking the air in, and expiration in which the air is moved out of the body.1846

And ventilation or breathing occurs differently in various species.1857

For example birds lack diaphragms, and we are going to talk about the diaphragm muscle.1863

Birds do not have diaphragms, yet, they still breath very effectively.1868

We are going to focus on mammalian ventilation, and in mammals, there is a sheet of muscle called a diaphragm.1872

This is a sheet of skeletal muscle that is located in the thorax.1881

So, you have the lungs, and then, just below that, it is a dome-shaped muscle. That is the diaphragm, and the diaphragm separates the body cavities.1887

Up here, above the diaphragm is the thorax, and then, below is the abdominal cavity.1902

Contraction of the diaphragm moves it downward, so it flattens out somewhat and the result... so, it moves downward1912

So, as you can imagine then, you have the lungs here, but then, the diaphragm drops down along with the...1921

The lungs expands as well. Did we draw that?1932

So, we have expansion, then, of the thoracic cavity, so the thoracic cavity becomes larger.1936

Right here, it states that air is pulled into the lungs by negative pressure.1947

And this negative pressure, meaning that the pressure in the thoracic cavity becomes lower than1951

the pressure outside in the atmosphere, is a result of the increase in size of the thoracic cavity.1958

So, increased size of the thoracic cavity is the result of the diaphragm contracting.1966

The diaphragm contracts and moves downward, and the rib muscles contract.1975

And when the rib muscles contract, the ribcage moves outward, so the ribcage expands. It moves outward.1995

The downward movement of the diaphragm combined with the outward movement in the ribcage results in a cavity that is larger than it originally was.2006

So, the thoracic cavity becomes larger. The result is negative pressure, and air is pulled into the body; and it is pulled into the lungs, as well.2016

As the thorax expands, the lungs expand and air rushes in.2024

In exhalation, the reverse process occurs, so this is during inhalation or inspiration of air. During expiration, the opposite occurs.2029

During expiration, the diaphragm relaxes. Rib muscles relax.2043

And we end up with a thoracic cavity that is decreased in size - decreased size thoracic cavity - and therefore, the air rushes out of the body.2057

Not every single last bit of air leaves the lungs during exhalation. There is a little bit of residual air left.2067

Alright, so, we talked about the process of breathing. Now, what controls the breathing? The breathing control center.2075

The breathing control center is located in the brain stem in a couple of structures called the medulla oblongata or just the medulla and the pons.2086

So, the medulla and pons are the breathing control center, and what the medulla does is it monitors the CO2 level in the CSF.2098

CSF stands for cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid is the fluid surrounding the brain.2111

Actually correction, it monitors pH. It monitors pH, which is closely related to the CO2 level, OK?2120

So, it monitors the pH in the CSF, and the pH in CSF is reflective of the pH in the blood.2134

What happens in the blood is the blood goes to the cells and the tissues of the body, and then, it picks up CO2.2142

And in the red blood cell, the CO2 combines with water to form carbonic acid,2152

which dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen, so bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ions.2162

Therefore, if there is a lot of CO2 in the blood, the blood will be a little bit more acidic because a lot of CO2 is going to push this reaction.2172

It is a reversible reaction, but it is going to be pushed to the right if you are putting CO2 into the system.2185

And the result is going to be an increase in hydrogen ion, and when hydrogen ions go up, pH goes down.2189

So, the pH of the blood is usually...a typical pH is 7.4, but when you are exercising a lot, then, the pH of the blood could drop a little bit.2196

During periods of activity, you are running, you are exercising, you need more oxygen.2208

And therefore, you need to breathe faster, and the way your body knows that you need more oxygen is you are generating CO2.2214

By generating CO2, you are going to be generating hydrogen ions, and the pH in your blood will drop.2223

When the pH in the blood drops, so decreased pH in the blood will be reflected in the CSF.2230

So, decreased pH in the blood triggers an increase in the rate and depth of breathing- increased breathing, rate and depth.2238

So, this is triggered. You are going to breath more quickly and more deeply.2252

And then, once pH rises back up to its normal level, then, the medulla will slow the rate back down.2257

Therefore, breathing, respiratory rate is primarily determined by carbon dioxide and not by oxygen.2264

The body, via looking at the pH, is actually monitoring the CO2 level.2272

Now, oxygen does play a role.2277

The term for low oxygen is hypoxia, and there is a second set of mechanisms that can detect low oxygen.2280

They are actually oxygen sensor, for example, located in the arteries in your neck, in the carotid arteries.2291

So, if oxygen became concerningly low, that system would kick in and tell you to breathe.2297

But primarily, breathing is a function of the CO2 level and not oxygen levels.2306

I mentioned the medulla, and the medulla sets the rate of breathing.2313

However, the pons modulates or modifies the breathing rhythm. It just makes sure that it is nice and even and smooth.2318

So, the breathing rate is set by the medulla, but it is adjusted or modulated. The rhythm of breathing is modulated by the pons.2326

OK, today we talked about the respiratory systems in different animals especially in humans.2336

We talked about gas exchange, ventilation and structures involved in respiration.2342

And now, we are going to do some practice questions starting out with example one.2347

Describe the tracheal system in insects. Include the terms spherical, trachea and tracheole in your discussion.2352

Well, in insects, air enters via openings in the body called sphericals.2360

It, then, enters tracheae, and these tracheae branch and become smaller and smaller and form tracheoles.2371

The tracheoles reach the cells of the body, and gas exchange occurs.2382

So, the respiratory system brings air directly to body tissues and cells.2390

Oxygen is picked up by the cells, so oxygen is picked up, O2 delivered to the cells; and CO2 is picked up.2399

The circulatory fluid, the hemolymph generally does not deliver the oxygen or pick up the CO2.2415

It is delivered directly by the respiratory system.2423

Also, in some insects, there are air sacs. There may be air sacs at the end of the tracheoles to increase the amount of air that can be delivered.2426

Also, note that the larger branches of this system contain chitin for support, so there is some chitin in the tracheae.2439

How does the tracheal system differ from the respiratory system found in mammals? Well, obviously there are different structures that we talked about.2454

The respiratory system in mammals, we talked about structures such as the pharynx, the larynx, the bronchi, the alveolus.2464

But, a major difference - just a concept that you should understand - is that in the tracheal system, tracheal system delivers air directly to body cell.2474

So, oxygen is delivered directly by the respiratory system.2492

CO2 is picked up directly by the respiratory system, whereas, in mammals oxygen is delivered by the blood, by the circulatory system.2497

And CO2 is picked up by the blood.2510

The circulatory system does not act as a delivery route in insects for gas exchange.2517

Whereas, in mammals the circulatory system plays this intermediary role.2524

What role does the countercurrent exchange system play in gas exchange in fish?2531

Well, first, recall what a countercurrent exchange system is. It is fluids that are flowing near each other, but they are going in opposite directions.2536

So here, we have water enters the gills and flows in this direction.2547

Meanwhile, we have blood in a capillary nearby, and it is flowing in the opposite direction; and this is blood from the body that is deoxygenated.2556

So, this blood is going to have a very low O2 saturation. We will just call it zero, and this is going to increase, let say 20, 40, 60, 80.2572

Meanwhile, the water entering the gills is going to start out with oxygen, let’s say, up at 100, and that is going to drop.2589

As the water passes near this blood, the oxygen is going to diffuse down its concentration gradient and enter the blood.2605

Meanwhile, CO2 would diffuse the other way.2619

So, as the water passes through the gills, the O2 concentration will drop.2622

However, at any given point, the O2 concentration in the water is greater than the O2 concentration in the blood.2628

So, all on this exchange system, gas exchange is occurring.2637

So, that is the role of a countercurrent exchange system in gas exchange in fish.2645

Example three: place the following structures in the order in which air travels after entering the respiratory system via the nasal cavities.2653

So, after entering the nasal cavities where the air is warmed, it is moistened and it is filtered.2662

The next step is going to be the pharynx, so the pharynx is going to be the next structure that the air will pass through.2670

From the pharynx, air will enter the larynx, so we did pharynx. We did larynx.2679

From there air, travels to the trachea, and that is going to branch off into the right and left bronchi; so it is going to enter a bronchus.2687

The bronchi, bronchus, if we are talking about one, is going to branch into smaller bronchioles.2703

And those are going to terminate in an alveolus, which is the site of gas exchange between the respiratory system in the blood.2711

So, this is the order that air travels through the respiratory system.2721

Example four: what role does the diaphragm play in ventilation?2733

Recall that the diaphragm is a sheet of muscle located in the thorax separating the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity.2737

When the diaphragm contracts, it moves downward. Therefore, the size of the thoracic cavity will be increased, so increased thorax size.2747

The result is going to be negative pressure in the thorax, and that pulls air in during inspiration. The opposite will occur when the diaphragm relaxes.2765

It is going to move up, and there is going to be a decrease in the size of the thorax. Air, then, will rush out of the lungs during expiration.2791

What role does pH have in the regulation of breathing by the medulla?2809

Well, the medulla monitors pH in the CSF, and the pH in the CSF mirrors the pH in the blood; so this is a measure of pH in the blood.2813

And in the blood, when CO2 increases, the result is that pH decreases because recall CO2 plus water form carbonic acid,2837

which associates to bicarbonate ion and hydrogen ion, so increased CO2 translates the increase hydrogen ion, which is decreased pH.2858

Decreased pH leads the medulla to increase the rate and depth of breathing.2869

So, when the medulla senses that pH has dropped, there is an increase in the rate and depth of breathing.2881

That concludes this lecture on the respiratory system.2888

Thanks for visiting Educator.com.2892