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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Invertebrates

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
1:00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
1:01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
1:06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
1:09:10
Example 3: Transcription
1:12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
1:14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
1:00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:02:55
Incomplete Dominance
1:02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:26
Epistasis
1:12:51
Example of Epistasis
1:12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
1:17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
1:21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
1:25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
1:28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
1:00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
1:01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
1:00:13
Forams
1:02:25
Radiolarians
1:03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
1:04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
1:04:26
Slime Molds
1:05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
1:09:21
Oomycetes
1:11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
1:13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
1:14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
1:16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
1:17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
1:01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
1:02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
1:00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
1:12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
1:15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
1:16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
1:18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
1:04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
1:06:36
Example 3: Nephron
1:09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
1:10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
1:00:29
Sensory Stimuli
1:00:30
Reflex Arc
1:01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
1:04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
1:06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
1:08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
1:09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
1:00:01
Complement System
1:01:57
Classes of Antibodies
1:02:45
IgM
1:03:01
IgA
1:03:17
IgG
1:03:53
IgE
1:04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
1:05:00
Passive Immunity
1:05:01
Active Immunity
1:07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
1:10:50
Immunodeficiency
1:13:27
Immunodeficiency
1:13:28
Chemotherapy
1:13:56
AID
1:14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
1:15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
1:17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
1:21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
1:23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
1:00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
1:00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
1:02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
1:04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
1:01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
1:01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
1:56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
1:59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
2:00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
2:01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
1:01:36
Multiple Choice 30
1:02:31
Multiple Choice 31
1:03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (10)

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Sun Mar 3, 2013 5:04 PM

Post by Lyn Lee on February 25, 2013

I thought Porifera is parazoa which is no tissue complexity.
How come porifera is dipoblstic?

1 answer

Last reply by: Carina Tull
Fri Nov 9, 2012 1:53 PM

Post by Carina Tull on November 9, 2012

I thougt it was indeterminant cleavage, am i wrong?

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Sat Feb 4, 2012 4:31 PM

Post by Valtio Cooper on February 1, 2012

your amazing!

2 answers

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Mon Apr 18, 2011 2:09 PM

Post by Amirali Aghili on April 17, 2011

There seems to be couple of mistakes in the summary chart because Platyhelmenthes can't be protostomes because they are not coelomates in the first place(dont have mesoderm).

Rotifera and nematoda can't be protostomes as well.

0 answers

Post by Dr Carleen Eaton on February 23, 2011

Correction at 45:41 in the slide titled "Arthropoda"
In most arthropods, hemolymph, the circulatory fluid, does not carry oxygen. It does, however, deliver nutrients and other materials.
Oxygen is delivered to the cells of the arthropod body via the tracheal system.

Invertebrates

  • Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone and spinal cord.
  • Major phyla of invertebrates are:
  • Porifera – Sponges are sessile filter feeders that do not have a symmetrical body plan and lack specialized tissues and organs.
  • Cnidaria - Includes jellies, hydra, corals and sea anemones. Cnidaria have true tissues and either polyp or medusa body plans. Their nervous system is composed of a nerve net.
  • Platyhelminthes - Flatworms have body plans that exhibit bilateral symmetry and cephalization.
  • Rotifera - Rotifers are microscopic aquatic animals. They are filter feeders with a pseudocoelem and a complete digestive tract.
  • Nematoda - Roundworms are unsegmented worms with a complete GI tract.
  • Annelida - Annelids are segmented worms such as earthworms and leeches. They have a ceolom and a closed circulatory system as well as a complete GI tract.
  • Mollusca - Molluscs include octopuses, chitons, squids, snails, slugs and clams. Molluscs have a head-foot region, a visceral mass and a mantle.
  • Arthropoda - Arthropoda is the largest phylum. Its members have segmented bodies with three regions, a head, thorax and abdomen. They have an exoskeleton and jointed appendages.
  • Echinodermata -Sea stars, sea urchins and sand dollars are echinoderms. Members of this phylum are deuterostomes.

Invertebrates

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Porifera (Sponges) 0:33
    • Chordata
    • Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
    • Amoebocytes Cell
    • Choanocytes Cell
    • Sexual Reproduction
  • Cnidaria 8:05
    • Cnidaria Overview
    • Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
    • Cnidocytes
    • Anthozoa
    • Cubozoa
    • Hydrozoa
    • Scyphoza
  • Platyhelminthes (Flatworms) 13:58
    • Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
    • GI System
    • Excretory System
    • Nervous System
    • Turbellarians
    • Trematodes
    • Monageneans
    • Cestoda
  • Rotifera (Rotifers) 23:45
    • Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
    • Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
  • Nematoda (Roundworms) 26:44
    • Nematoda (Roundworms)
    • Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
  • Annelida 28:36
    • Annelida Overview
    • Open Circulatory
    • Closed Circulatory
    • Nervous System
    • Excretory System
    • Oligochaete
    • Leeches
    • Polychaetes
  • Mollusca 35:26
    • Mollusca Features
    • Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
    • Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
    • Major Part 3: Mantle
    • Radula
    • Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
  • Major Classes of Molluscs 39:12
    • Gastropoda
    • Polyplacophora
    • Bivales
    • Cephalopods
  • Arthropoda 43:35
    • Arthropoda Overview
    • Segmented Bodies
    • Exoskeleton
    • Jointed Appendages
    • Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
    • Myriapoda & Centipedes
    • Cheliceriforms
    • Crustcea
    • Herapoda
  • Echinodermata 52:59
    • Echinodermata
    • Watrer Vascular System
  • Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates 57:11
    • Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
  • Example 1: Phylum Description 58:43
  • Example 2: Complex Animals 59:50
  • Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum 1:01:03
  • Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda 1:02:01

Transcription: Invertebrates

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

We are going to begin our discussion of animals with the invertebrates.0002

During this section and the next one, we are going to be focusing on the major0005

phyla of animals that you should be familiar with for the Advanced Placement Exam.0009

But before you go on, you should watch the lesson on classification if you have not done so already because this lesson0014

assumes that you are familiar with the discussion of symmetry, germ layers, protostomes, deuterostomes, and other topics.0022

So, make sure that you watch that if you have not done so already, and now, we will get started talking about invertebrates.0030

Animals are eukaryotes and, therefore, are part of the domain Eukarya.0038

They are multicellular heterotrophs, and most animals on earth are invertebrates.0044

Invertebrates lack both a backbone and a spinal cord.0052

Now, I am going to cover multiple phyla today, and these contain all invertebrates.0057

There is one phylum, Chordata, that does contain a few groups of invertebrates, but most chordates are vertebrates.0063

Therefore, I am going to cover Chordata under the vertebrate section including those few groups of chordates that are invertebrates.0075

We are going to start out with some of the most primitive animals, which are members of the phylum Porifera.0085

These are the sponges, and some systems divide the sponges into two different phyla.0092

I am just going to keep them together as a single phylum today.0098

They are very primitive animals, and they are found in water. They live in aqueous environments.0103

Sponges are non-motile. Another word for non-motile that you should be familiar with is sessile, so this means non-motile.0109

Sponges lack body symmetry. As we discussed earlier on, some animals have radial symmetry.0118

Some have bilateral symmetry. Sponges do not have either.0125

They are not symmetrical. They have two layers of cells.0130

Therefore, they are diploblastic, so the two layers are an ectoderm and an endoderm.0136

Between the two layers is a layer called the mesohyl. This is a gel-type substance that lies between these two layers of cells.0149

These are acoelomates. Recall that this means that they are animals that lack a body cavity, so they are acoelomates.0164

They also do not have specialized tissues or organs.0175

Sponges have certain cells that are specialized to various functions, so they have specialized cell types.0179

And we are going to talk about some of those, but they do not actually have tissues and organs.0185

Sponges are filter feeders. You may also hear the term suspension feeders.0191

That is the same thing- filter feeders or suspension feeders.0196

And the name tells you what it is that they feed by filtering water and straining it through a structure and then, capturing the bits of food.0200

In a sponge what happens is - here is the sketch of a sponge - water will enter the sponge through pores.0217

And then, it will exit through an opening called, this is the osculum.0227

Water is going to enter, make its way through. Nutrients will be trapped within the sponge and then, exit out the osculum.0234

There is a central cavity within the sponge.0247

If you thought of this as a cross-section, and I just sliced it down as a cross-section,0249

and I could see inside, what I would see is a central cavity called the spongocoel.0254

Water is going to enter that cavity and then, pass through the spongocoel and exit via the osculum.0262

What this shows here is just a blown up view of cell types and structures that are located along the mesohyl.0272

One type of cells is actually not shown here but that you should be familiar with are called amoebocytes, and they are motile using pseudopods.0289

And you will recall earlier when we talked about protists, we talked about amoebas, and amoebas had pseudopods; and so, the name here is similar.0304

Amoebocytes are motile cells. They use pseudopods for motility, so they are motile; and they have multiple functions.0313

They are located in the mesohyl, and they are important in digestion.0325

They will digest the food. They, then, carry these nutrients to other cells in the sponge.0330

They produce fibers that are found between the two cell layers, and in fact, this shows you some of these fibers .0334

Some of these fibers are, sort of, pointy and sharp, and they are called spicules.0342

The spicules are produced by the amoebocytes and help to provide some support for the organism, for the sponge.0346

That is one type of cell within a sponge.0353

Another type are choanocytes or collar cells, and that is what is shown here- choanocytes or collar cells.0357

And as you can see, they have flagella, and their function is to help move water through the sponge.0370

They line the spongocoel and have flagella, so then, when the water enters, these cells help move the water through the sponge to exit out the osculum.0376

So, that is the structure of the sponge. As far as reproduction, sponges can reproduce asexually or sexually.0389

Asexual reproduction occurs through what is called fragmentation, so it is via fragmentation.0396

And this means the entire organism can be regenerated from just a fragment or a piece.0410

A certain fragment or a piece of the sponge can regrow into an entire sponge.0418

As far as sexual reproduction, sponges are hermaphrodites. That means that a sponge could produce both sperm and egg.0425

They can function as either a male or a female.0438

So, at one point in the life cycle, a sponge may produce sperm. At another, it may produce eggs.0441

Sperm are deposited into the water and then, carried by the water over to another sponge where it could, then, fertilize the eggs.0447

This type of fertilization is called external fertilization.0455

Internal fertilization means that the sperm are directly deposited into the reproductive tract of the female.0458

After fertilization takes place in the eggs, which are present in the mesohyl, zygote develops, and these are flagellated.0465

They eventually developed into larvae, and these larvae can attach to a rock or some other substrate where they will develop into an adult.0474

That is the first phylum that we are going to...0483

OK, the phylum Cnidaria includes the jellies, which are commonly known as jellyfish, Hydra, corals and sea anemones.0486

They are found mostly in marine environments, and they have true tissues.0495

We are seeing an advancement from the sponges, which lack tissues and organs to cnidarians that have tissues.0501

There are two possible body plants: polyp and medusa.0511

We will talk more about these in a second, and the nervous system of the cnidarians consists of what is called a nerve net.0516

Now, the polyp body plan is non-motile, whereas, medusa is motile.0525

Both body plans involve a central cavity called the gastrovascular cavity, and both include tentacles.0535

There is only one opening leading to the body cavity, so there is not a separate mouth and anus.0549

Food enters the same cavity as waste products leave through.0556

When there is water in the gastrovascular cavity, it can act as a hydrostatic skeleton that contractile tissues can push against, they can work against.0561

So that is called a hydrostatic skeleton - so hydro meaning water - when it is filled with water. It functions that way.0573

Cnidocytes are cells that contain stingers, which are called nematocysts. Their cells contain nematocysts, and these are stingers.0583

The stingers are used to attack prey, and they sometimes contain toxins.0603

The name Cnidarian comes from the Greek word cnidos, which means stinging nettle, and these are thread-like stingers.0608

You might have heard of people getting stung by a jellyfish.0618

And the stingers can cause anything from just a little bit of pain, a slight rash to - depending on the species - even being deadly.0621

So, there is a big range in how toxic the poisons within the stinger are.0629

There is no central nervous system, as I mentioned. There is a nerve net but no CNS.0636

There are four major classes of cnidarians.0641

The first class is the Anthozoa. These include corals and sea anemones.0646

These are non-motile, and they have, then, the polyp body plan which is non-motile.0661

Corals have calcified external skeletons that are left behind as fossils. These are only marine organisms, so there is no medusa stage.0667

They are non-motile, and they have the polyp body plan, so non-motile, and then, I will just put polyp; so that is one class.0677

The second class are the cubozoans, so class Cubozoa.0685

These include the box jellies, and they have the medusa body plan.0693

And box jellies have stingers with strong toxins in them, and these are marine organisms with complex eyes; so that is the second group.0701

The third group are the Hydrozoans. An example would be Hyrdas.0713

Their life cycle includes both a polyp stage and a medusa stage, so I will just put polyp and medusa stages here because they have both.0721

In the polyp stage, Hydras live in colonies, and they reproduce asexually by budding.0738

Within these colonies, different polyps have different functions. Some are specialized for feeding.0745

Others are defenders, and others are reproductive.0750

So, when the polyps reproduce, they can actually produce a medusa, so reproduce via budding to produce a medusa.0755

The medusa stage of a Hydra is free swimming, and they produce sperm and eggs and can reproduce sexually.0774

So, in the polyp stage, it is asexual reproduction through budding to produce a medusa. The medusas are free swimming and reproduce sexually.0782

Hydrozoans are found in both fresh water and marine habitats, and these are usually bottom dwellers.0792

Finally, we have the scyphozoans, so class Scyphozoa, and these include the true jellies.0805

They live in marine environments and spend most of their lives in the medusa stage.0818

Some species do have a polyp phase in their life cycle. Others do not, so I am just going to put "mostly medusa"; so that is the Cnidarians.0825

The next phylum we are talking about is the Platyhelminthes.0837

These are flatworms, and this is the first group that we are covering that is triploblastic meaning that it has three layers of cells.0842

We have already talked about animals with an ectoderm and an endoderm.0851

Flatworms have a third layer called the mesoderm, so this is a recurring theme of going from simple to more complex.0859

A second way in which flatworms are more complex in the groups that we have talked about previously are that they are bilaterally symmetrical.0868

They have bilateral symmetry, and bilateral symmetry is much more effective for motility than radial symmetry or being asymmetrical- lack of symmetry.0878

So, bilateral symmetry, and another advancement is cephalization meaning that there is an anterior head end where the sensory organs are concentrated.0897

So, flatworms exhibit cephalization. These are acoelomates, so they do not have a body cavity; and as their names suggests, they are very flat.0909

This means that their cells are in contact with the environment.0920

And that allows for flatworms to take in nutrients via diffusion and for gas exchange to occur through diffusion.0924

The GI system, they have only one opening that is used to take in food and to remove waste, so no separate openings for the mouth and anus.0936

The digestive cavity contains a bunch of branches that deliver food to various parts of the flatworm, but there is no true digestive or circulatory system.0946

So, one opening and various branches to deliver nutrients, and nutrients are taken in via diffusion.0959

The excretory system is a network of small tubes, so excretory system.0968

It is a network of small tubes that lead to docks that connect to the outside of the body, so tubes going to docks,0977

going to the outside of the body to get rid of waste and to excrete waste and fluid that needs to be removed from the body.0988

And these are called protonephredia.0999

Flame cells are ciliated cells that move fluid and solutes through these tubules to get rid of the excess fluid, to get it out of the body.1008

The nervous system is a bit more complex than just the nerve net of the cnidarians that we discussed.1021

It consists of longitudinal nerve chords and a pair of ganglia- plus ganglia. Ganglia are clusters of nerves at the anterior end of the organism.1031

Some flatworms also have eyespots that they can use to sense light, and that input can process by the ganglia,1045

so again, cephalization with sensory organs concentrated at the head end of the organism.1051

Flatworms are mostly predators. They eat smaller insects or other small organisms.1057

Some of them feed off other organisms as parasites, and they can range from being very, very small to tens of feet long.1062

And we are going to cover three major classes.1071

The first class that we are going to talk about are the turbellarians, and these are a group of free-living flatworms.1074

They are found in both fresh water in marine environments, and they move using cilia.1089

They reproduce asexually through fission, so they split into two halves and then, regenerate the missing half, so asexual reproduction through fission.1094

They can also reproduce sexually and are hermaphrodites. An example of this group would be the planarians.1112

The second group or class are the trematodes, and these are parasites, so they have a host.1122

And one example are members of the genus Schistosoma.1137

And these cause a disease in humans called schistosomiasis that causes GI tract symptoms like pain, diarrhea as well as fever and chills.1141

Trematodes are flukes, and again, an example would be organisms causing schistosomiasis, and these are members of the genus Schistosoma.1151

Many of the flukes have a primary host as well as an intermediate host.1165

To give you an example of a typical life cycle, what would happen is a larva would enter their human host through the skin.1170

So, let's say that somebody is swimming in a pond that is contaminated with parasitic trematodes, and the larva penetrates the human skin.1180

So, somebody is swimming in this pond. The larva gets in through their skin.1194

Once in the body of the person, of the host, these larvae will make their way up to the blood vessels in the GI tract of the human.1198

In the GI tract, they will mature and reproduce sexually.1206

Then, what happens is, after sexual reproduction, there are fertilized eggs.1212

And when the person whose infected eliminates their waste, their excrement will contain these fertilized eggs.1216

The cycle continues on if that human waste ends up in a body of water because the1224

flukes need their intermediate host, which in some species, the intermediate host is a snail.1231

So if human sewage, human waste ends up in a body of water, and these snails are living around there,1237

then, the fertilized eggs develop into a larva, infect the snails, continue their development within the snail to a more advanced larval stage,1244

and then, the larvae are released from the snail, somebody else goes swimming, the larva can penetrate their skin, and the cycle goes again.1259

So, the primary host is a human host. The intermediate host is the snail.1268

And the snail is required for them to complete the larval stage of development and then, be released before they infect another human host.1272

As you can see, sanitation is extremely important in preventing this disease, and in fact, schistosomiasis is a major cause of dysentery worldwide.1281

OK, that was the second group.1293

The third group are the monogeneans, and the monogeneans are also parasites; but they are mostly parasites of fish, so I will just say fish parasites.1295

Actually, we are going to cover one more group. These two are often grouped together.1315

So, we will just divide it into four, though, and that is Cestoda, the tapeworms.1320

These are also parasites with human host, and like the trematodes, they have an intermediate host.1329

Tapeworms attach to host such as humans via suckers or hooks and absorb nutrients. They do not have a mouth.1336

They absorb the nutrients. They do not take them in through a mouth.1344

And again, like with the trematodes, when the fertilized eggs end up in the human GI tract and are eliminated in the waste,1350

then, they can be passed to an intermediate host where they complete their larval development, and the cycle continues.1362

For example, If a pig eats food that has been contaminated with human waste, it could ingest the eggs from that infected human.1369

Those fertilized eggs - they are actually embryos - will grow into larvae in the pig, and they will form cyst inside the pig muscle.1379

If that pig is used as food, and the pork is not well cooked,1389

a person eating it could ingest these cysts that are, actually, tapeworm larva that have not been killed by heat.1393

So, they will ingest the pork containing a cyst, and within the human, they will grow into an adult tapeworm in the GI tract.1401

And again, then, reproduction could occur. These eggs are passed out of the human, and it continues.1410

Tapeworms can actually grow several feet long inside their human host.1418

The next group are the rotifers or phylum Rotifera, and these are microscopic aquatic animals.1426

They are very small, but they are animals, and they are multicellular.1435

It might just be a couple of millimeters long or even smaller, and they live in both fresh water and marine environments.1440

They are also found in moist soil. They have a complete digestive tract, so that means there are two openings.1446

There is a mouth for the entry of food and an anus for the elimination of waste, so complete GI tract.1454

They have a pseudocoelom, so this means that it is a body cavity; but it is not completely lined by mesoderm the way a true coelom is, and let's see.1464

They are covered by a cuticle. These are also filter feeders or suspension feeders.1484

So, you can see the structure here of this rotifer, and that they use cilia to actually pull water into their mouth.1490

And the name rotifer means wheel-bearer, and they give this name because when the cilia are moving very quickly, it looks like a wheel turning.1500

Again, these are filter feeders. Water is, sort of, brought into their mouth via the cilia.1514

It is ground up by trophi within their jaws, so trophi for grinding food.1521

Some of these organisms reproduce asexually via parthenogenesis, so this is a new term.1534

Parthenogenesis means that the female produces eggs. The eggs are not fertilized.1540

They just grow into female offspring, so unfertilized eggs, and this is asexual reproduction. However, sexual reproduction can occur.1546

The males are very rudimentary. They can even feed themselves.1569

However, they do produce sperm, and those sperm can fertilize eggs; and the fertilized egg forms a zygote that is resistant to desiccation.1573

We talked previously about protists and fungi that switch to sexual reproduction for survival. It is the same situation here.1582

If there are conditions where it is very dry, there is low water, then, the rotifer will switch to sexual reproduction to form a resistant zygote.1590

Once there is more water available, the zygote will develop further.1599

Nematodes are the next phylum that we are going to cover, and these are the roundworms.1608

Nematodes are unsegmented worms, and they are found in both aqueous and moist soil habitats.1613

Some species are free living. Others are parasites, and these are an extremely abundant group of animals.1620

They have a complete GI tract and a pseudocoelom.1627

They have no circulatory system, so lack a circulatory system and have muscles that are all longitudinal.1632

Again, complete GI tract means a separate opening for food and for elimination of waste- two separate openings.1639

Both free living in parasites, but you might have heard more about the roundworm parasites such as pinworms and hookworms.1648

An infection can occur when an individual eats meat that has been undercooked, and that is infected with pinworms or hookworms.1663

An example is Trichinella. This is an example of a roundworm.1672

These cause the disease trichinellosis. These roundworms are parasites that live within the human GI tract and muscles.1678

And they travel through the body through the lymph system causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever and muscle pain.1688

You may also hear during your science studies about C. elegans, and C. elegans is a roundworm that has been very well studied.1697

It is frequently used in research, so you should just be familiar with that name.1707

Nematodes reproduce sexually, so these are unsegmented worms.1711

The next phylum contains the segmented worms such as earthworms and leeches as well as another group of worms called the polychaetes.1716

The polychaetes live primarily in marine environments.1727

Members of Annelida can range from just a few millimeters long to the giant earthworms that can be over three feet long.1732

And this is the first group that we are covering that has a true coelom.1740

We have talked about acoelomates and organisms with a pseudocoelom.1745

The annelids have a true coelom, and they also have a closed circulatory system.1750

Let's talk about what a closed circulatory system is versus an open circulatory system.1756

In an open circulatory system, blood is pumped through the body, and it can be in blood vessels.1761

But, at some point, it leaves the blood vessels and enters body cavities that are called sinuses.1768

So, the organs end up bathed in the fluid that contains nutrients or oxygen and takes away waste.1774

But, the blood does not stay contained within a blood vessel the entire way to when it is delivered to an organ.1782

So, in an open circulatory system, blood or hemolymph, which is a slightly different fluid...1792

So, in an open circulatory system, there are sinuses and fluid bathes the organs.1804

Whereas, in a closed circulatory system, the fluid that is carrying oxygen or nutrients such as blood is contained in vessels all the way to the organ.1819

It never leaves the vessels and just goes out into an open space, so annelids have a closed circulatory system.1844

I mentioned that these are segmented worms, and so, there is a structure that is repeating.1853

And there are internal septa that divide these segments up, although, there is communication in delivery of things between the different segments.1860

Muscles are both longitudinal and circular, and annelids are covered by a cuticle for protection outside the epidermis.1871

The nervous system of annelids includes a pair of ganglia, so cerebral ganglia at the head end, and these communicate with ventral nerve chords.1880

The excretory system consists of metanephridia, and these are tubes through which waste can be removed from the blood stream.1903

So, excretory system consists of metanephridia, which are tubes that waste from the blood stream enter and then, are removed from the body.1911

There are three major classes that I am going to cover of annelids. The first are the oligochaetes.1927

Oligochaete means few bristles, and these are covered by sparse bristles and include earthworms, so few bristles. An example would be earthworms.1934

Earthworms live in moist soil, as I am sure you are probably aware, and here is a picture of an earthworm.1955

And they have a very important function as far as human surviving because as they go through the soil, they eat their way through the soil.1964

They take nutrients from the soil and eliminate the waste out the other end through the anus.1973

The result of this is that it actually improves the quality of the soil so that is more productive agriculturally.1980

That is a very important function of earthworms is it increases food production.1988

Earthworms reproduce sexually, and they are hermaphrodites.1994

So, that is the first class, the oligochaetes including earthworms. The second class are the leeches.1999

These are usually found in fresh water environments. They can be up to a foot long.2006

Some leeches are parasites, and they suck the blood from their host.2011

And their saliva contains an anticoagulant so that while they are sucking blood from their host, the blood will not just clot off.2015

It will stay finned out and it will keep on flowing.2023

Some of the leeches use a structure called a proboscis to puncture the host skin, so it punctures the host skin, allows them to feed off the host.2027

And these were used in medieval times by physicians to remove blood from the patients.2044

And in fact, in modern times, we have started using them again in modern medicine. One use is after a limb reattachment.2050

If a limb such as an arm or something, a hand, needs to be reattached to a patient, at first, their veins have not recovered and are not functioning.2058

And without functioning veins, fluid is going to build up. There is going to be an excess of blood and engorgement of that area.2069

So, leeches can be used to remove this excess fluid.2078

Finally, there are the polychaetes that I mentioned before, and these are segmented worms that live in marine environments.2084

So, they live in marine environments.2094

Polychaetes have structures called parapodia that they use for movement, and they are similar to fins, so I will just put "approximately like fins".2098

They are not fins, but they are similar.2111

Some of these are free living. Others are sedentary, and some of these are what is called tube dwellers.2113

They actually construct a tube and then, live inside that.2120

These are the major classes of annelids, and the next group we are going to talk about is a very diverse phylum, and it is the molluscs.2121

Molluscs include octopuses, chitons, snails, slugs, clams, squids.2132

We are going to start out by talking about some of the features that they have in common.2140

Many of these organisms have a soft body with a hard shell. There are exceptions.2145

Some have an external shell. Others such as slugs have no shell.2150

The shells though, for example snails have shells, and it is a calcified shell meaning it contains calcium.2154

It is mineralized, so it is a very hard protective shell.2163

Molluscs are bilaterally symmetrical and have three germ layers.2166

Now, this shows just a generalized mollusc.2171

It, sort of, looks like a snail, but it is just supposed to be a general mollusc so that I could point out the three major parts of the body.2174

The first major part is what is called the head foot region, and if this was a snail, this is the part that you would see sticking out of the shell.2182

It is used for locomotion, and the head region contains sensory organs; so locomotion and sensory organs are contained here.2192

The second region here in light tan is the visceral mass, and a visceral mass contains the internal organs.2209

Here you can see the GI tract.2226

For example, reproductive organs will be located in the visceral mass, and then, above the visceral mass lies the third region, which is the mantle.2228

In many species, this mantle secretes the shell. The space between the mantle and the visceral mass is called the mantle cavity.2243

And in aquatic species, there could be gills. In other species, the space can function more as a lung, for terrestrial species.2258

Many species of molluscs have what is called a radula, and it is often described as a saw-like structure.2270

And it contains teeth that curve backward into the organism's mouth.2281

And these can be used to scrape food such as algae off a hard surface.2285

Or the radula can be specialized depending on the food source that a particular mollusc eats.2289

Most molluscs have an open circulatory system, but cephalopods such as squids and octopuses have closed circulatory systems.2296

Remember in a closed circulatory system, the fluid is enclosed in a tube, in a blood vessel, all the way up until it is delivered to the organs.2305

Reproduction is sexual.2317

Some molluscs are hermaphrodites and have both male and female reproductive structures. Others are not.2319

The excretory system consists of paired nephridia, and the nervous system consists of paired ganglia with nerve chords.2325

Some species have chemosensory organisms including image-forming eyes like with the cephalopods.2345

So, let's talk in more detail about some specific major classes of molluscs.2352

The first class we are going to talk, about an example is right here, Gastropoda. These are the snails, limpets and slugs.2357

Many are marine, but there is also freshwater gastropods and land-dwelling gastropods.2365

These are mostly herbivores, so they feed on plants. Some are predators.2373

And the radula would be different depending on if it was an herbivore or a predator.2379

What is unique about the gastropods is that they undergo torsion. Torsion is the rotation of the internal organs by 180°.2384

The result is that the GI tract ends up twisted into a U-shape, and that the gills and the anus end up near the anterior end.2403

Many gastropods also have a spiral shell.2411

The next group that we are going to talk about are the Polyplacophora.2416

These are more commonly known as the chitons, and they have a shell consisting of eight plates, so a shell consisting of eight plates.2421

They live in marine habitats and spend their time attached to rocks. They use their foot to attach to the substrate.2431

The next class is the bivalves. Bivalves include clams, oysters, mussels and scallops.2442

These are mostly marine, but there are some freshwater species; and these are a food source for humans.2450

The name bivalve refers to the two parted shell, the two halves that are attached by a dorsal hinge.2455

These do not have a radula, so the bivalves lack a radula.2464

Instead, they are filter feeders, so they do not need a radula, and what they do is they have gills that are coated with mucus.2472

There are cells that secrete mucus that coats the gills, and that allows them to catch food as it filters through.2480

And then, they move the food particles into their mouths using cilia.2486

Bivalves do not have a head, but some of them do have eyes; and others have sensory tentacles.2491

Bivalves are mostly sedentary, but the can move around a little bit using their foot.2497

The next class are the cephalopods. These include squids and octopuses.2503

Cephalopods have a foot that has been modified to form tentacles and a siphon.2509

The siphon is used to squirt water and to move the animal via jet propulsion, so it allows for jet propulsion.2517

What the squid will do is it will pull water into the mantle cavity and then, squirt it out of the siphon, and it can help for movement.2529

The tentacles of cephalopods often have suckers on them.2538

They are different from other molluscs in a few ways. They actually have closed circulatory systems.2542

I said this before where most molluscs have open circulatory systems, so closed circulatory systems.2550

And they have increased cephalization compared to other molluscs.2558

They are predators, and this increased intelligence allows for the behaviors needed to catch prey.2565

They have complex size and a large brain that allows them to hunt and be good predators.2572

Some cephalopods have no shells. These shells were lost during evolution.2583

Some cephalopods have internal shells, and the eyes that cephalopods have are an excellent example of convergent evolution.2588

So, vertebrates have eyes. Cephalopods have eyes, but they evolved to have these eyes separately.2597

And there are many similarities between vertebrate eyes and cephalopod eyes, so we could say these are analogous structures.2604

They evolved separately. There are some differences, as well, though.2611

Arthropod means joint foot, and it includes insects such as bees, crustaceans like crabs and lobsters and other organisms like arachnids and centipedes.2617

Like I said, this is the largest phylum. There are over one million known species of arthropods.2627

And they arose about 500 million years ago during the Cambrian period.2634

They are extremely diverse and are found in virtually every type of climate and habitat.2639

Some live in the ocean. Others are freshwater, and still others are terrestrial.2646

Some arthropods can fly. Others can swim.2650

Some get around by walking.2653

Before we go into the subphyla, we are going to talk about general features of arthropods.2656

They are bilaterally symmetrical, and they have segmented bodies, so their bodies have three regions.2661

They have a head region, a thorax and an abdomen.2667

In some arthropods, the head and the thorax are fused together into what is called a cephalothorax.2675

A second feature in arthropods is the presence of an exoskeleton.2693

An exoskeleton provides protection. It can prevent drying out, provide support and allows a place for attachment of muscles to help them move.2699

The exoskeleton contains chitin, which is the same substance that is found in the cell walls of fungi.2710

Exoskeletons cannot grow. Therefore, if the animal needs to grow, and it has an exoskeleton, it needs to molt or shed it to allow for growth.2720

A third feature, I mentioned the name means joint foot, and arthropods have paired jointed appendages.2729

They have an open circulatory system containing a fluid called hemolymph that contains nutrients, delivers oxygen and hormones.2742

The hemolymph will go through arteries. It will go through blood vessels and then, just enter cavities around the organs.2752

The excretory system consists of malpighian tubules that remove waste products.2762

The respiratory system depends on the environment that the arthropod lives in.2775

Some arthropods have gills. Those that live on land have trachea, so it could be gills, trachea, which are tubes or air ducts to bring air in.2782

Other groups such as arachnids have what is called book lungs.2796

And book lungs, they look like a bunch of paper folded up or stacked up like a book.2800

And that allows for a larger surface area across, which gas exchange can occur.2806

The nervous system of arthropods is fairly well-developed.2811

They have sensory organs such as eyes, olfactory organs for smell, antennas for touch, and some species even have ears.2815

Some species have ganglia. Others have brains, and those are the generalities.2823

And now, we are going to talk about some of the subphylums of these group because it is such a large group.2829

The first ones we are going to talk about are the Myriapoda. Myriapoda include millipedes and centipedes, and these both live on land.2836

They also have jaws. They have mandibles.2854

Centipedes have one pair of legs per segment, whereas, millipedes have two pairs of legs per segment.2856

Another difference between the two is that centipedes have longer antennas than millipedes.2869

And centipedes are predators, whereas, millipedes are primarily scavengers.2875

So centipedes are predators. Millipedes are scavengers.2882

Since centipedes are predators, the front set of their legs are modified and contain toxins that will kill their prey.2891

The next subphylum are the chelicera forms, and the chelicera forms mostly consist of arachnids, so that is what I am going to focus on,2900

so mostly arachnids in this group such as spiders, ticks, scorpions.2915

And looking at spiders, they have a cephalothorax and an abdomen. They have four pairs of legs, and they also have a pair of chelicerae.2931

Chelicerae are pinchers or fangs that are located near the mouth that aid in feeding, so four pairs of legs plus one pair of chelicerae.2941

Arachnids lack antenna and mandibles.2960

Some like spiders are predators. Others like ticks are parasites.2963

So, this is Myriapoda's one subphylum, two, and the third subphylum that we are going to talk about are the crustaceans, so, subphylum Crustacea.2968

These include crabs, lobsters, shrimp, and many of these are found in marine habitats.2982

There are also freshwater habitats, and some members of this group are terrestrial.2990

They have two pairs of antennas and two sections to their body, the cephalothorax and the abdomen, and gas exchange occurs through gills.2994

The next subphylum is Hexapoda.3004

Hexa means six, and this group includes insects such as butterflies, bees, crickets and hundreds of thousands of other species, so six legs.3011

So, the thorax is divided into three segments each with a pair of legs.3025

Some hexapods also have wings attached to the thorax, and these wings evolved independently of bird wings and of bat wings.3029

Bird wings and bat wings are both modified for limbs. They are modified appendages.3039

Whereas, the wings that are attached to the thorax are separate, evolved independently, have a completely different structure.3044

They have a cerebral ganglion at the head end and compound eyes, so Hexapoda have compound eyes.3053

What that means is that their eyes are made up of many visual receptors each with their own lens.3064

Another interesting thing about this group is that they exhibit metamorphosis, and there are two types of metamorphosis.3071

There is gradual or incomplete and there is also complete, so metamorphosis can be gradual or complete.3080

In gradual metamorphosis, it is less dramatic. For example, grasshoppers go through gradual metamorphosis.3093

So, that involves going from an egg to a nymph to an adult.3102

And the nymph is not so dramatically different form the adult, although, the nymphs do not have wings.3110

Complete metamorphosis, which is what we often think of because that is what butterflies go through, is more dramatic.3118

In this type of metamorphosis, the insect goes from egg to the larva stage to pupa and then, finally, to the adult stage.3130

The caterpillar is the larva stage in a butterfly, and as you know, it looks very different from the adult butterfly.3144

The larva in a butterfly is a caterpillar. The pupa, the resting stage, is the chrysalis, and then, they turn into the adult butterfly.3153

Reproduction in hexapods is sexual, and that is the last subphylum except there is one additional one, but all the members of that are extinct.3162

And we are going to stick to talking about subphylum that have organisms still in existence.3173

The last phylum we are going to talk about is the echinoderms, phylum Echinodermata, and echinoderm means spiny skin.3180

Members of this group include sea urchins, sea stars and sand dollars.3194

Sometimes these are called starfish, but they are not fish either; so the correct name is sea stars.3200

These are the first deuterostomes that we are talking about.3205

And you remember from a previous lecture, we talked about that in embryological development, a deuterostome has radial determinate cleavage.3211

We will talk more about this in the lecture on reproduction and embryology.3222

Some members of this group are sessile. Others are motile but slow moving.3233

As embryos, they are bilaterally symmetrical, but as adults, they are mostly radially symmetrical.3237

And I say mostly because they sometimes have features that are not perfectly radially symmetrical.3244

They have a calcium-containing endoskeleton, and the spikes on this give them their bumpy appearance and provide protection for them.3251

They also have a water vascular system, and that is a part of what is shown below in the sea star.3260

This is a system of canals - in the green - that radiates out from a central ring, so there is a central ring canal.3270

And what happens is water enters and leaves the system through an opening called a madreporite, so water enters the system3281

and then, goes to the ring canal, down through radial canals, so the ring canal and then, to the radial canals, then, into lateral canals.3291

And these lateral canals end in ampullas.3308

The ampullas lead to tube feet, so the starfish has tube feet, and actually, the ampulla pushes water into the podium portion of the tube feet.3314

So, when water enters, it pushes water into the tube feet.3328

That causes the tube feet to expand, and then, they will touch the substrate and attach via suckers.3339

When water is pushed back up into the ampulla, the feet will contract and the suckers will release from the substrate.3346

So, water enters, the starfish can attach to a substrate. Water leaves the ampulla, it will release the substrate.3355

Tube feet are also used by a sea star to grab prey.3365

The mouth is often located on the downward facing side of a sea star, and it leads to a stomach, so the stomach is here in purple, then, to an intestine.3369

And waste is eliminated through an anus, which is often on the opposite side of the sea star from the mouth.3383

The nervous system in this phylum is not well-developed. There is a nerve ring and chords that radiate out into the arm.3389

Gas exchange is through gills on the surface.3397

If you were to go deeper into classification, sea stars and what is called brittle stars have some similarities, but they are actually in different classes.3403

If you look at them, brittle stars are, sort of, more delicate looking. They have longer, thinner arms.3413

Sea urchins, sea cucumbers and sand dollars do not have arms at all.3419

OK, the trend overall, as we discussed the various phyla, was going from more simple to more complex.3424

And just to sum up some characteristics of invertebrates, on the left is listed the different phylum,3432

and here, whether it is a diploblastic or a triploblastic group, so does it have two cell layers or three.3439

Symmetry: Porifera had no symmetry. The cnidarians are radially symmetrical, and then, we moved on to the flatworms.3446

These are bilaterally symmetrical as were all the other groups we covered except the echinoderms,3455

which we just covered that are bilaterally symmetric during development but then, later on are somewhat radially symmetrical.3465

I included Chordata here because there are some groups of Chordata that are invertebrates.3473

Then, most of them, the primitive groups...so, I did not even divide these two into protostomes,3480

deuterostomes because you can only make that division if there are three layers of tissue.3486

So, we had protostomes, protostome and so on until we got to the echinoderms, so those were our first deuterostomes.3492

Porifera and Cnidaria as well as the flatworms lack a coelom, then, we got to the rotifers and the nematodes that have a pseudocoelom,3500

and then, finally, annelids, which have a true coelom.3509

We also talked a lot about organ systems and how have those evolved to become more complex.3513

And we will talk more about physiology in a separate lecture.3519

Example one: state the name of the phylum that fits each of the descriptions below.3524

Have a polyp or medusa body plan- so, we talked about a phylum that contains a polyp or medusa body plan.3530

And an example would be the jellies, which are mostly found in a medusa form, and these are members of the phylum Cnidaria.3538

Bodies have a head foot region, a visceral mass and a mantle that may secrete a shell- so, this is a large diverse phylum including snails, slugs and squids.3552

This is phylum Mollusca.3563

Members are free living or parasitic unsegmented worms with a complete GI tract and a pseudocoelom-3566

so, these are unsegmented worms, yet, they do have a complete GI tract, and they have a pseudocoelom. These are actually the nematodes- Nematoda.3574

OK, so that was example one.3588

Example two: discuss two ways in which animals have evolved to become more complex.3590

There is many more than two.3596

But, one that you could list could be symmetry, that groups of animals range from no body symmetry to radial symmetry to bilateral symmetry3598

going from two germ layers, ectoderm and endoderm to three germ layers, ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm.3616

The simplest animals, the sponges, do not have tissues and organs, so no tissues or organs to developing tissues or organs systems.3632

They are very complex.3643

Cephalization: very simple animals do not have a head end. More complex animals have a head end where sensory organs are concentrated.3652

Example three: match the following organisms to the correct phylum.3664

Sea stars: sea stars were one of the ones we just finished discussing, and remember that those are members of the phylum Echinodermata.3669

Crickets: well, crickets are insects, and they are members of Arthropoda.3682

Leeches: leeches are segmented worms, and they belong to phylum Annelida.3691

Four, sponges: sponges are among the simplest animals, and they belong to phylum Porifera.3701

And then, finally, tapeworms belong to the group Platyhelminthes.3710

Describe the general characteristics of the phylum Arthropoda, so there are multiple subphyla.3722

We are just going to talk about some general features that you might find in arthropods and that is that they are bilaterally symmetrical.3728

They have three regions, so they are segmented.3743

They have three regions. They have a head region, a thorax and an abdomen.3748

They may have an exoskeleton that provides support and protection. They have paired jointed appendages.3757

OK, so that completes this section on the invertebrates.3777

Thank you for visiting Educator.com.3781