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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Organic Compounds

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
1:00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
1:01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
1:06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
1:09:10
Example 3: Transcription
1:12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
1:14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
1:00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:02:55
Incomplete Dominance
1:02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:26
Epistasis
1:12:51
Example of Epistasis
1:12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
1:17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
1:21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
1:25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
1:28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
1:00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
1:01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
1:00:13
Forams
1:02:25
Radiolarians
1:03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
1:04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
1:04:26
Slime Molds
1:05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
1:09:21
Oomycetes
1:11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
1:13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
1:14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
1:16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
1:17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
1:01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
1:02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
1:00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
1:12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
1:15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
1:16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
1:18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
1:04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
1:06:36
Example 3: Nephron
1:09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
1:10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
1:00:29
Sensory Stimuli
1:00:30
Reflex Arc
1:01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
1:04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
1:06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
1:08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
1:09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
1:00:01
Complement System
1:01:57
Classes of Antibodies
1:02:45
IgM
1:03:01
IgA
1:03:17
IgG
1:03:53
IgE
1:04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
1:05:00
Passive Immunity
1:05:01
Active Immunity
1:07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
1:10:50
Immunodeficiency
1:13:27
Immunodeficiency
1:13:28
Chemotherapy
1:13:56
AID
1:14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
1:15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
1:17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
1:21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
1:23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
1:00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
1:00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
1:02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
1:04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
1:01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
1:01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
1:56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
1:59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
2:00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
2:01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
1:01:36
Multiple Choice 30
1:02:31
Multiple Choice 31
1:03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (15)

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Tue Mar 13, 2018 7:21 PM

Post by Ashwin Balaji on March 9 at 06:10:20 PM

Hi,
I have not take regular biology but I have taken Chemistry. Will I really struggle in AP Biology if I don't take Biology or is it ok and I can still get an A?

Thanks

0 answers

Post by steven schultz on September 12, 2014

Time Marker 17:24 you got some TEXAS CARBON on that Aldehyde.

0 answers

Post by Nada Al Bedwawi on January 11, 2014

In 34:40, what do you mean by cellulose stimulates mucus secretions from the cells in the intestine?

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Wed Jan 8, 2014 7:19 PM

Post by Lai Man In on November 28, 2013

it seems so hard for me as a student who haven't studied chemistry before.. the reason why i need to watch this series is that i have to deal with the topic related to cell biology, and the most important parts for me in university will be the physiology and anatomy. Anyway, it requires me to study the entire biology series ;p just keep hard-working on it and this is the only solution for me =D

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Fri Jan 18, 2013 6:06 PM

Post by Linh La on January 9, 2013

Dr. Eaton,
I have 2 questions.
1. You mentioned that hydrophobic substances will pass through the membrane easier because of the nonpolar central region in the phospolids. Could you explain why polar substances will pass through easier? Is it because it doesn't get dissolved in water?

2. I am a little confused on the terms dehydration and condensation. Glycosidic linkages are formed by the dehydration of 2 hydroxyl groups but you also used the word condensation which means water is being produced. Does it mean that on the reactant side is the dehydration part because it loses water and on the product sides is the condensation because water is being produced?

2 answers

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Thu Mar 1, 2012 2:24 PM

Post by JUAN PABLO SALINAS OLVERA on June 23, 2011

Dr. Eaton,

During the carbonyl explanation, the carbonyl carbon has 5 bonds. Just though I would pint it out.

Thanks.

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Thu Jun 23, 2011 1:10 AM

Post by Jay Patel on June 19, 2011

Dr. Eaton,
At 24:00 on the fructose molecule, you circled the carbonyl group as a ketone. I didn't see the hydrogen single bonded to the harbon.

Does the H have to be there for it to be a carbonyl group?

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Fri Apr 8, 2011 1:27 AM

Post by Billy Jay on April 7, 2011

Hi Dr. Eaton,

Just thought I'd clarify something in the video. At 11:30 - "D" and "L" (both capital letters) are relative configurations used to describe sugars and amino acids. All mammals (humans included) have D-Sugars, and L-aminoacids. This is different though from the typical convention given for a pair of enantiomers. For a pair of enantiomers, one molecule rotates light clockwise ("d" for dextrorotatory) and the other clock-wise ("l" for levorotatory). Both however, are lower-case letters.

Related Articles:

Organic Compounds

  • Organic compounds are compounds containing carbon. Organic chemistry is the study of carbon containing compounds.
  • Hydrocarbons consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms bonded together and are hydrophobic.
  • Isomers have the same molecular formulas but differ in their structures. Three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers and enantiomers.
  • Groups of atoms that are particularly important in determining a molecule’s behavior and form are called functional groups.
  • Carbohydrates are sugars and can be categorized as monosaccharides, disaccharides or polysaccharides. Carbohydrates are a vital source of energy for cells.
  • Lipids are a diverse group of hydrophobic molecules. Lipids include fats, oils, phospholipids and steroids as well as waxes.
  • Fats can be divided into the categories saturated and unsaturated are based on the composition of the hydrocarbon portion of the fatty acids. Saturated fats contain only single bonds between the carbon molecules.
  • Cell membranes are made up of phospholipids. Phospholipids are composed of two fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule that has phosphate group attached.
  • Steroids are lipids containing a carbon skeleton of four fused rings. This fused ring structure is called cholesterol and is the building block for other steroids. Many hormones are steroids.

Organic Compounds

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Organic Compounds 0:09
    • Organic Compounds
    • Inorganic Compounds
    • Examples: Organic Compounds
  • Isomers 5:52
    • Isomers
    • Structural Isomers
    • Geometric Isomers
    • Enantiomers
  • Functional Groups 12:46
    • Examples: Functional Groups
    • Amino Group
    • Carboxyl Group
    • Hydroxyl Group
    • Methyl Group
    • Carbonyl Group
    • Phosphate Group
  • Carbohydrates 18:26
    • Carbohydrates
    • Example: Monosaccharides
  • Carbohydrates, cont. 24:11
    • Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
  • Lipids 35:52
    • Examples of Lipids
    • Saturated and Unsaturated
  • Phospholipids 43:26
    • Phospholipids
    • Example
  • Steroids 46:24
    • Cholesterol
  • Example 1: Isomers 48:11
  • Example 2: Functional Groups 50:45
  • Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar 52:24
  • Example 4: Class of Molecules 53:06

Transcription: Organic Compounds

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to be discussing organic compounds, and living organisms are made up of organic compounds.0002

Organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon.0011

Compounds that do not contain carbon are known as inorganic compounds, and the field of study of organic compounds is called organic chemistry.0015

An example of an organic compound would be something such as methane/CH4, whereas water/H2O is considered inorganic.0026

Now, even though water is inorganic, it is obviously very important to biology and to life.0038

That is not to say that living organisms do not contain or need inorganic compounds, but they are mostly composed of organic compounds.0044

And that is going to be our focus of today's lecture.0051

A couple of exceptions though, although carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide contain carbon, these two are generally classed as inorganic.0056

There is a couple other exceptions as well, but these are the important ones that contain carbon but generally, scientists refer to as inorganic.0066

Alright, starting out with the basics, organic compounds have a carbon skeleton.0076

A carbon skeleton is a backbone of carbon, and then, the carbon atoms are bonded to other atoms.0085

This carbon skeleton could be various lengths.0093

It could be just a couple carbons long. It could be many carbons long.0099

It could be branched, so it could have carbons attached to this first linear section of carbons.0102

The atoms that are attached to carbon could be various atoms, but there are certain ones that are particularly important in biology0113

and that we are going to keep returning to, and those are hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.0120

These are the ones we are going to focus on, although, of course, living organisms do contain other elements,0141

and use other elements such as calcium or magnesium, trace elements such as iron, that we discussed in the previous lecture.0147

But, for organic compounds, carbon plus these other five elements are the ones that you are going to see occur the most.0156

Now, carbon is a very versatile element, and that makes it an excellent basis for biological molecules.0164

Let's think back to the structure of carbon, and that will explain its versatility.0174

Recall that carbon has six electrons. That means that it has two in the first electron shell, and that shell is filled.0179

That shell only holds two.0191

It has four electrons in the second shell, so its valence shell contains four electrons.0192

And that leaves four empty spots, four more electrons to get to a total of eight for a full valence shell.0198

Therefore, it needs four electrons to fill its valence shell, and it can fill that shell in various ways.0204

It could form four single bonds with other elements such as, say, hydrogens here and then, the other carbon next to it.0217

So, that is one way it could fill. It is sharing four electron pairs with other atoms.0229

Another possibility is that it could form double bonds, so remember with CO2, carbon forms two double bonds,0236

one with one oxygen, one double bond with one oxygen molecule and oxygen atom, and then, another double bond with the second oxygen.0245

That, again, gives a total of four total shared electron pairs, and they will fill the valence shell of carbon.0254

This ability to share so many electron pairs gives carbon a lot of versatility,0260

and alas, just from a few different elements, a huge range of molecules that can be produced, and these molecules are the basis of life.0267

Hydrocarbons are molecules that consist only of carbon and hydrogen, so this would be an example of a hydrocarbon.0278

And the entire molecule is not necessarily a hydrocarbon. It could be a situation such as a protein.0299

There are actually other large biological molecule where there is a chain or just a section of hydrocarbons.0307

So, there can be a large biological molecule that has various different atoms on it, but one section of it is hydrocarbon.0313

And that hydrocarbon section is going to be non-polar.0321

Hydrocarbons are non-polar, and they form regions of molecules that are non-polar as well.0324

You could just have a hydrocarbon. You could have a larger molecule with just a hydrocarbon section on it.0331

We are going to focus on four classes of organic compounds today, actually two today and then, two in the next lecture.0340

but overall, four important classes, but before we do, we need to go on and discuss the concept of isomers.0348

Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula, but they differ in their structure; and there are three types of isomers.0355

This first type here is called structural isomers. The second type right down here shows geometric isomers.0364

And the third type is enantiomers, or these are sometimes called optical isomers.0376

Let's start with the structural isomers.0384

Well, first, to be isomers, they need to have the same molecular formula.0386

So, let's ensure that that is correct, 1, 2, 3, 4 carbons, so C4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 hydrogens,0390

C4H10, 1, 2 , 3, 4, same here, it has 4 carbons, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 hydrogens.0400

These have the same molecular formula. They have the same atoms, same number, same ratio, but they are obviously different.0409

What makes them different is that they have different bonding partners.0416

These are arranged differently. They are covalently bonded to different atoms.0421

The difference between a pair of structural isomers is that one isomer has different bonding partners than the other,0427

OK, different bonding partners, same atoms arranged differently in terms of covalent bonding.0436

Looking at this molecule on the left, this is butane. This, right here, is butane, whereas this molecule is called isobutane.0448

And you will notice that butane just has this linear arrangement with the carbon skeleton, 1, 2, 3, 4 in a row.0463

whereas looking at isobutane, there are three carbons, and the middle carbon is covalently bonded to the fourth carbon.0474

And this difference in structure gives the molecules different properties.0481

The properties of a molecule are determined not just by the atoms that make it up but by the arrangement of those atoms.0485

That is an example of a structural isomer.0491

Now, let's look at geometric isomers.0495

I take a look at these and I see that "OK, I have 1, 2, 3, 4 carbon atoms, 3, 6, 7, 8 hydrogen- C4H8",0498

over here, 1, 2, 3, 4 carbon, 3 hydrogen, 6, 7, 8- same formula.0509

And then, I look, and each carbon is bonded to a carbon, and then, that carbon in turn the 3 hydrogens,0517

and then a hydrogen down here, and then, a CH3 group and a hydrogen and double bond at the carbon.0524

And if I look over here, it is the same thing.0529

Each carbon is double bonded to the other carbon and to the CH3 group and to a hydrogen.0531

They have the same bonding partners. They have the same atoms, but you can see that they are different.0540

And what makes them different is the spatial arrangement of the atoms around a double bond.0545

Double bonds are inflexible. The atoms cannot just rotate around that bond.0552

Now, if this were a single bond, this could actually rotate, and then, the hydrogen could flip up here.0557

The CH3 group can then go down here, and then, these would not actually be isomers.0562

But because this double bond is inflexible, these are, sort of, held in this position.0567

And you can see in this example, this molecule right here, these two CH3 groups are on the same side,0572

whereas here, the CH3 groups are on a different side, and what we call this is the cis isomer.0578

If the two groups are on the same side in the geometric isomer, that is the cis isomer,0584

the isomer where the two groups are in opposite sides is called the trans isomer.0590

Alright, so we have structural isomers. That was the first type of isomer.0596

Geometric, and then, the third is enantiomer or the other name for it is optical isomers.0600

And the name optical isomer helps to remember what it is because what it is is a mirror image.0607

Let's say that up here the blue is hydrogen, and then, maybe this brown is a carboxyl group, COOH.0617

In the center, we had a carbon bonded to a hydrogen, a carbon bonded to a carbon in turn bonded to these.0626

Maybe down here, I have what is called an amino group. This could be NH2 bonded and then, another atom, another group, say, CH3.0632

OK, now, the purple in the other molecule is, again, CH3, this brown, COH, and the green, NH2.0646

And if you look at these, they are mirror images, and they are not superimposable.0658

Because this is in 3-dimension, so maybe these two are coming out towards you, and it is similar to your left and right hands.0662

Your left and right hands are mirror images of each other, and they are not superimposable; and it is the same idea here.0671

And in fact, we call these left and right-handed molecules, and they are known often as L and D-enantiomers.0676

L stands for the Latin levo, which is left and then, D from the Latin dextro or right.0687

Optical isomers are left and right-handed forms of a molecule, and this difference is extremely important in science and biology.0702

For example, in pharmacology, it matters a lot sometimes which enantiomer you are working with.0711

There are some medications where one of the enantiomers is very effective, and the other is useless.0718

Or both may have a use, but they are different, or one may even be harmful.0724

Certain medications are a mix of the L and D-enantiomers, and one enantiomer is useful.0730

And the harmless one is in there as well, does not cause any problems but does not help either.0737

For Parkinson's disease, one treatment is a medication called L-Dopa.0742

L-Dopa is the L-enantiomer, and it is effective in treating Parkinson’s, whereas the D form of this molecule is not.0749

The next concept we are going to cover, before we get on to some0760

of the large molecules that you will be working with in biology, is that of functional groups.0763

You have already seen a couple of functional groups.0769

When I just wrote out the COOH, that is a carboxyl group. NH2 is an amino group.0771

Now, we are going to go ahead and treat this formally.0778

Groups of atoms that are especially important in determining a molecule's behavior are called functional groups.0780

And by determining its behavior, these are parts of the molecule that takes part in chemical reactions.0786

They determine what types of chemical reactions a molecule would participate in, and they also help to determine the shape or structure of the molecule.0795

And there are certain ones that you will see over and over, so you should become familiar with these and recognize them when you see them.0807

So, recall that hydrocarbons contain only carbon and hydrogen.0813

However, in many molecules, one or more of these hydrogens is replaced by a functional group.0821

Let's go over some of the common functional groups.0829

The first one is called an amino group, and as its name suggests, you will see these in amino acids.0832

This is NH2, and this line here indicates a bond, so this would be bonded to the carbon skeleton.0840

This is the functional group, and it is bonded to the carbon skeleton.0853

Sometimes, one of the carbons in the carbon skeleton is part of the functional group, and we will see that in a second.0855

But for now, the amino group, again, is found on amino acids, and it can actually act as a base.0861

It can pick up a hydrogen ion and become NH3+ in a solution.0868

OK, that is amino group.0877

The second group, which I already mentioned in the last slide, is a carboxyl group.0879

This carboxyl group is COOH, and this carbon could be part of a longer carbon skeleton.0884

Carboxyl groups are found in organic acids such as acetic acid. It has a carboxyl group.0894

Acetic acid is what is found in vinegar. It is what makes vinegar acidic.0902

In solution, the hydrogen ion could be lost, and then, this could become COO- and then a lost hydrogen.0907

These are also found on amino acids.0920

The next group, OH, is called a hydroxyl group. Hydroxyl groups are found on alcohols such as ethanol.0923

That ol-ending tells you it is an alcohol, and these are polar.0937

These are polar because of the preference of the electron pair to its oxygen, the more electronegative oxygen compared to the hydrogen.0946

The bond between the oxygen and the hydrogen, the electron pair favors more electronegative oxygen.0962

Right here, we have CH3 group. This is called a methyl group.0975

CH3 or a methyl group is found in what is called methylated compounds, and it could be attached to a carbon; or it could be attached to another atom, actually.0981

Here, we have what is called a carbonyl group.0992

And there is two subsets of how we name molecules containing these groups depending on where this group is within the larger molecule.0994

If, let's say, we had a carbonyl group right here embedded within the carbon skeleton, this would be called a ketone.1006

If the carbonyl group is in the middle within the carbon skeleton, it is called a ketone.1028

The other possibility is that this group is on the end. Here, the end carbon contains the carbonyl group, and this is what we call an aldehyde.1036

Again, there is two breakdowns for carbonyl groups: ketones, the carbonyl group is within the carbon skeleton. If it is on the end, it is an aldehyde.1054

An example here would be acetone. Aldehyde would build something like a formaldehyde.1064

Finally, we get to phosphate group, and you are going to see C phosphate groups throughout biology.1072

For example, cell membranes contain a phosphate group.1078

This is a phosphorus bonded to four oxygen atoms, and one of these oxygen atoms is bonded to the carbon skeleton.1083

You will notice that this is a charged molecule that to this oxygens have a negative charge, and therefore, it is hydrophilic.1093

Alright, now that we have talked about the basics of organic chemistry,1107

we are going to go on and talk about the four major classes of organic compounds that we are going to be discussing and focusing on in biology.1111

These four groups include carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.1121

In this lecture, in addition to covering the basics of organic compounds, we are going to be going over carbohydrates and lipids.1135

Nucleic acids and proteins are covered separately in the following lecture.1142

Carbohydrates are macromolecules. Macromolecules, just like their name, tells you macro and molecule are large molecules.1148

These are a vital source of energy for cells, and they have the molecular formula C, some X, H2O to Y,1158

and some multiple of H2O, various multiples of that.1171

What this is saying is that hydrogen and oxygen are found in the 2:1 ratio. That is what this is actually saying.1177

Hydrogen to oxygen, the ratio is 2:1.1185

As I mentioned, carbohydrates are an important energy source. They are found in many foods such as breads, rice, potatoes.1191

These are all rich in carbohydrates, and you will often hear people talk about simple carbs versus complex carbohydrates.1199

And we are going to talk about that as well, and that has to do with the structure of the carbohydrates.1205

Carbohydrates are sugars, and they can actually be categorized as monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.1210

Starting out with just a simple situation, monosaccharides, mono meaning one, sacchar meaning sugar.1218

Monosaccharides have the formula CH2On, so some multiple of CH2O, some multiple of that, where n is usually either 3, 5 or 6.1228

If n is 3, you will end up with C3H6O3, and if you have a 3-carbon sugar like this, it is known as a trios. 3-carbon sugar is a trios.1249

A 5-carbon sugar is called a pentose, and a 6-carbon sugar is called a hexose sugar.1263

Let's go ahead and look at a couple different types of monosaccharides: glucose and fructose.1272

Glucose is the main form in which you will find sugar stored in animals. Fructose is the type of sugar that you will find in fruits.1278

Glucose is produced by plants via photosynthesis, and then, this can be broken down by cells to release the energy to fuel various cellular processes.1289

Glucose and fructose have the molecular formula C6H12O6, and you should recognize this.1298

This formula will come up, and you should recognize it as a formula for this particular type of monosaccharide, which is a hexose sugar.1304

Let's go ahead and look at the two forms.1314

You will see that there is a linear form and a circular form, and the reason for this is that in aqueous solution, sugars often exist in their ring form.1317

So, this is the same sugar. These two are the same, and these two are the same, but this is just the linear form.1328

And then, in aqueous solution, it would form this ring, so you will often see these molecules written in their ring form.1333

And to keep track of things, we number the carbons, and we start at the top: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.1341

And then, we can refer to groups on the different carbons based on their number.1348

2 is here, 3. This is 4, 5 and 6, so these are 6-carbon sugars. These are hexoses.1355

Now, when this turns into a ring, we need to keep track and see where all these carbons go, and again, we number them 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6.1364

And we can do the same over here with fructose.1378

All it is, is that this forms a ring, and you could see the 6 sticking up right here, same thing with fructose.1382

Now, another thing that I mentioned before is the location of the carbonyl group, this C double bonded to O.1396

Looking first at glucose, you will see that this C double bond OH right here, this carbonyl group is on the end.1406

And recall that, when it is on the end, we call that an aldehyde, so this is actually what we call an aldehyde sugar or an aldose sugar. Glucose is an aldose sugar.1413

Fructose, a carbonyl group is here. It is embedded within the carbon skeleton, so this is what we call a ketose or ketone sugar so ketose sugar.1427

And again, that is based on the location of this C double bond O: on the end in glucose, embedded within the carbon skeleton on fructose.1440

Those were monosaccharides. Monosaccharide means that there is just one sugar.1453

There is just one subunit.1460

Monosaccharides can join together to form a disaccharide. Disaccharide, just like the name suggests, two sugar subunits.1462

These are both known as simple sugars.1474

If you have more than two subunits, it is called a polysaccharides, and those are complex carbohydrates.1480

So, simple carbs or simple carbohydrates, simple sugars and then, polysaccharides are known as complex carbohydrates.1487

The formation of disaccharides or polysaccharides occurs when two monosaccharides join through what is called a dehydration reaction.1499

Dehydration means you lose water, and that is exactly what happens here.1512

If you looked at just two glucose molecules, this was a single glucose molecule and then, a second glucose molecule,1518

they bond together through this dehydration or condensation reaction.1527

Before they were bonded together, what you would have had is on this molecule and a hydrogen up here, the hydroxyl group right here.1531

And each of these corners/points, that is a carbon.1545

This is a carbon. This is a carbon.1549

This is a carbon. This is a carbon.1551

For simplicity, we often do not write this out.1553

In the ring form, it is just convention that each of these is a carbon.1555

You have a carbon here, and it is bonded to a carbon, the oxygen next to it, the next carbon, the hydrogen and this hydroxyl group.1560

The same thing for the other glucose, so there was an adjacent glucose, free, not bonded to the next glucose - this is before the reaction - that looks like this.1574

Then, what happened is one of these glucose molecules - this was glucose, free glucose, monosaccharide, this is glucose - one of these loses an OH.1586

The other loses a hydrogen, so it loses HOH or H2O, in other words, water. That is why it is called a dehydration reaction.1599

With this gone, this OH, and this hydrogen gone, you are left with these two bonded together via this remaining oxygen, and that is what you see here.1612

One of these has lost an OH, a hydroxyl group. The other has lost a hydrogen, and that remaining oxygen, then, links to adjacent sugar molecules together.1623

This bond is called a glycosidic bond. Adjacent sugars are held together by a glycosidic bond formed through a condensation reaction.1634

And that forms, which has two subunits. They are both glucose, and this is a disaccharide.1646

It is also known as a simple carbohydrate or simple sugar.1653

Lactose would be another example. This is a sugar that is found in milk.1659

And this is formed between glycosidic linkages between one molecule of glucose and a second molecule of another sugar called galactose.1663

Sometimes, you will hear people talk about lactose intolerant. They are not able to have dairy products like milk or cheese.1674

And the reason is, they lack an enzyme called lactase.1683

When we talk about enzymes, you will see that ase-ending tells you it is an enzyme, and here ose tells me this is a sugar.1689

So, lactase is the enzyme that breaks down lactose, and if somebody is lacking this, they do not have very much of this,1696

they are not able to break down this sugar, and that causes them to have gastrointestinal symptoms when they have dairy products.1701

OK, what we started out with down here with the maltose was glucose, C6H12O6, but we actually had two of those.1712

Actually let's move over here where there is a bit more room, so C6H12O6.1732

But, we actually had two of these, and these came together to form C12H22O11 plus one molecule of water.1739

So, 2 x 6, that gives you 12 carbons. 2 x 12 is 24, and we have 22 here in this disaccharide,1753

then, the other two in the water molecule that was lost in the dehydration reaction, and then, 2 x 6 is 12.1760

We have 11 oxygens here within the disaccharide, and then, 1 oxygen, again, lost as part of that water molecule.1768

Now, sugars in plants and animals and organisms are usually stored in more complex forms than just monosaccharides and disaccharides.1776

And then, they are broken down as needed to provide energy.1785

The formation of the glycosidic bond is through what is called this dehydration or condensation reaction.1790

The opposite is hydrolysis. Hydrolysis comes from hydro meaning water, and then, lysis meaning to break.1799

To break the glycosidic bond, hydrolysis reaction occurs, and what happens is it adds water.1812

Water is added to the bond, and it releases this bond; so that you, then, have two glucose molecules back.1820

A maltose is formed through the dehydration reaction forming glycosidic bond.1829

And then, hydrolysis can add water and turn these into two separate glucose molecules.1835

Sugar are actually stored in more complex forms, and those forms would be starch usually in plants.1842

And then, in animals, what you will see is glycogen. Sugar is stored in the form of glycogen.1852

Looking at this starch molecule, you will see that it is much more complex than the disaccharide, and it is, in fact, a complex carbohydrate.1862

This is formed through glycosidic bonds that are joining more of these monosaccharide subunits and joining them here in a branched form.1874

Looking at starch, there is a couple different kinds of starch.1885

One type is amylose. Another type, which is shown here, is amylopectin.1889

This is amylopectin, and you will see that it is branched.1898

Another thing to note is that the 3-dimensional structure of starch is helical.1901

We call starch and glycogen, we call these polymers, so when there is a chain formed from similar identical subunits, these are known as polymers.1907

A bunch of subunits of glucose join together. They can be a linear form and then, form a helix, that is amylose.1919

It can branch off and form amylopectin.1927

Glycogen is even more highly branched than amylopectin. Again, it is a form of polysaccharide.1930

It is a way of storing sugar in animals, and glycogen and starch can both be broken down through hydrolysis to release the energy as needed.1938

Glycogen is found primarily in the liver and in muscle cells.1948

Sugars are used for quick energy, so they are rapidly available; but they are also rapidly depleted.1954

And that is why we have other forms of energy store such as fats, which we will talk about shortly, and proteins.1961

In addition to being forms of energy, carbohydrates also have a structural function.1970

I was focusing here on starch and glycogen and the glucose subunits as forms of energy, and they are obviously important for that.1978

Carbohydrates are also used to form structures in plants and animals.1990

If starch is an energy form, glycogen is an energy form, what are the structural forms?1997

Well, plants contain cellulose, and we will go into detail about cellulose in the plant lecture.2001

But for now, you should just know that this is a form of carbohydrate that is found in the cell walls of plants.2010

Plants do not have skeletons obviously, so for support and for protection, instead, they have cell walls.2015

And cellulose is a polymer made of glucose subunits that is the primary component of the cell wall of plants. It is different, though, than starch.2023

It is not the same as starch. It is not the same as glycogen.2031

It has a different 3-dimensional structure.2035

Cellulose actually are glucose monomers that hydrogen bond, and they form what is called microfibrals.2038

It is a fibrous type, more of a fiber-like or cable-like structure, a microfibral.2045

Humans cannot digest cellulose, so what we call roughage is a part of the plant that passes through the human GI tract undigested.2054

And that is the cellulose, so especially with raw fruits or raw vegetables, apples, figs, carrots or anything, these contain roughage.2064

And although, they are not digested, they are important for the GI tract because when we call them roughage, it is actually a pretty accurate name.2073

It actually scrapes against the walls of the intestine, and that stimulates mucus secretions from the cells in the intestine.2080

So, even though cellulose is not digestible, it is an important part of the human diet.2088

OK, structural forms of carbohydrates: one is cellulose, another is chitin.2094

Chitin is found in the cell walls of fungi such as mushrooms, and it also makes up the exoskeleton of arthropods such as crustaceans, also insects.2100

This is found in exoskeletons, and it is also found in the cell wall of fungi.2112

Again, we will revisit this all in detail in later lectures, but just give me some examples now to make this more concrete.2117

Two functions of carbohydrates: one is as an energy store in form such as glucose, maltose, lactose, starches, glycogen.2125

The second: structural functions, and this could be cellulose found in the cell walls of plants,2136

chitin, which is found in the cell walls of fungi as well as the exoskeletons.2141

Alright, carbohydrates were the first class of large biological molecule.2147

The second group of large biological molecules that we will be discussing is lipids, and these are actually a diverse group of molecules.2153

But they are classed together because they are all non-polar or hydrophobic.2160

Example of lipids are fats, oils, phospholipids and steroids as well as waxes.2165

We are going to be focusing on fats, phospholipids and steroids because these are the most important in terms of biology.2170

If you glance down here at a typical fat, this is a triglyceride or fat, you will see that it has this large regions of hydrocarbons.2179

These long hydrocarbon chains are regions that are non-polar.2189

I mentioned that earlier in this lecture that hydrocarbons are non-polar, and non-polar molecules contain regions of hydrocarbons.2194

Let's go ahead and see how a triglyceride molecule is built.2204

It is built from one glycerol and three fatty acid molecules, so one glycerol plus three fatty acid molecules equals one triglyceride.2208

Glycerol is an alcohol, and each glycerol, then, bonds with the three fatty acids.2219

And you can see where these are linked, if you look first at the glycerol molecule and then, this OH group.2230

And then, you will see CH2, O, and then, it is bonded to the first fatty acid, the second fatty acid and the third fatty acid.2242

And this is, again, a dehydration reaction.2252

If you look here, you will see OH and then, C double bond O, OH.2255

I look over here, there is two oxygens and this carbon and a carbon here.2264

What has happened is through the dehydration reaction, two hydrogens and one oxygen had been lost.2271

The dehydration reaction, loss of H2O and then, the glycerol molecule ends up bonded to the fatty acid via this oxygen.2281

This type of linkage is called an ester linkage. As ester linkage is a bond between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group.2294

A bond between these two type of functional groups that is formed is called an ester linkage.2311

Here, we have three ester linkages between one glycerol and three fatty acid molecules.2315

As you can see the formation of that between these two molecules to here, adding two more groups gives you the triglyceride2322

and the tri meaning three, so three fatty acid chains on the one glycerol molecule.2331

Fats can be divided up into two different categories.2338

And you have probably heard these categories or read them on nutrition labels: saturated and unsaturated.2340

When we say that a fat is saturated, we mean that the carbons are saturated with hydrogens. Think of it that way.2355

Another way of looking at it is there are no double bonds between the carbons.2364

This is a saturated fat shown here because all the carbons are held together by single bonds, and each carbon is saturated with hydrogens.2372

It is holding as many hydrogens as it can. It is bonded to as many hydrogens as it can be.2382

Unsaturated, there is one or more double bonds between the carbons.2387

For example, if I inserted a double bond here, I would have to, then, get rid of this hydrogen.2395

This carbon is no longer fully saturated with hydrogen. It has a double bond to the adjacent carbon.2402

You will often hear people say "oh, saturated fats are the bad ones, and unsaturated are the good ones".2414

Let's talk about some differences between these two types of fats.2419

Saturated fats have no double bonds, and they often come from animals. They are animal fats.2424

They are solid at room temperature, and the molecules that comprise them pack together tightly.2434

And that has to do with the fact that they are just single bonds. An example would be butter.2445

Unsaturated fats usually come from plants. They are liquid at room temperature, and they do not pack together as tightly.2454

The reason for that is this double bond creates a kink.2467

You will often see the fatty acid tails, so if this is the glycerol, you will sometimes see these fatty acid tails shown as zigzags just like this.2471

That is their structure and so on.2492

Now, when there is a double bond, it introduces an even larger kink, so it would go out to the side like that.2501

For example, this might be a saturated fat, and then, if there is a double bond, it actually kinks the molecule so that it is not just a straight tail like this.2508

And you can see that if this is kinked, these could not pack together as tightly. They could not pack together with adjacent fat molecules.2518

This double bond causes the kink in the fatty acid tails that does not allow them to pack together as tightly.2526

And that is also why they stay liquid at room temperature. They do not solidify because they are not packed together as well.2532

A diet that is high in saturated fat increases a person's risk of atherosclerosis.2540

An atherosclerosis is the formation of plaques in the blood vessels, and these plaques decrease the flow of blood to the vessels, and it can result in heart disease.2544

Often, unsaturated fats are thought of as the healthier fats. An example would be canola oil.2554

Canola oil is mostly unsaturated fat, whereas butter is mostly saturated fat.2561

Now, fats are a way for organisms to store energy. I mentioned that animals can store glucose as glycogen, and then, they can break it down.2568

But that gets rapidly depleted. For longer term storage, a very efficient way to store energy is as fat.2578

Adipose tissue serves as a way to store energy, and it also serves as insulation and protection.2585

These are just some functions of lipids. Another function of lipids in addition to fats would be to form phospholipid.2594

We talked about one type of lipid, which is fat. The second type we are going to talk about is phospholipids.2604

Cell membranes are made up of phospholipids, and let's go ahead and look at the structure.2610

Here, we have the glycerol molecule again, and we have fatty acid tails; but this time, we only have two.2615

Instead, this third carbon, instead of being bonded to a third fatty acid, it is bonded to a phosphate group.2629

This phosphate can, in turn, be bonded to another functional group, and that will determine which type of phospholipid that you have.2640

But the basics for phospholipids are glycerol, two fatty acid tails and a phosphate group.2650

The phosphate plus the glycerol, this region is hydrophilic, so we say that phospholipids have a hydrophilic head.2658

And then, we look at the fatty acid tails, and we say that they have hydrophobic tails.2669

Because there is one section that is hydrophilic and another that is hydrophobic, we say that this molecule is amphipathic.2681

An amphipathic molecule has a hydrophobic region and a hydrophilic region.2687

Because of this amphipathic nature, phospholipids self-aggregate in the bilayers, and they do this in order to shield these hydrophobic portions from water.2708

What you will end up with is phospholipid bilayers where the hydrophilic heads face outward, and the hydrophobic tails are sequestered inside.2720

This is the hydrophobic portion, and it is sequestered inside from the water.2731

The interesting thing about this is, well, the structure is that it can serve as a barrier.2736

And it does serve as a barrier so that the cell membrane only allows certain substances to pass through.2744

And, in particular, hydrophobic substances will pass much more easily through the cell membrane because of this phospholipid bilayer's non-polar central region.2749

Hydrophobic molecules tend to pass through the cell membrane more easily than the hydrophilic molecules.2760

This is an introduction of phospholipids, and we are going to do a lecture later on in the course on cell membranes2765

and talk more about the structure, as well as about substances that pass through the cell membrane easily and those that do not.2771

Alright, so far, we have discussed fats and phospholipids, which are both types of lipids.2780

The third type of lipid we are going to discuss is steroids. Steroids are lipids that contain a carbon skeleton of four fused rings.2785

This basic ring structure is called cholesterol, and it is the building block for other steroids.2794

Hormones are substances that allow cells to communicate with and affect cells a distance away.2806

For example, a hormone would be estrogen or testosterone. These are both hormones.2813

Many hormones are steroids. These two are steroids, so estrogen and testosterone are examples of steroid hormones.2824

That means that they have this basic four fused ring structure, but there are different functional groups attached.2834

The bonding is a little bit different, so alterations are made to these that give each one a unique structure and very different function and properties.2841

And if you think about it, you can see that this is going to be pretty non-polar. It is going to be hydrophobic.2851

And that is actually very helpful for a hormone because it allows them to pass into the cell.2856

Again, we are going to revisit this topic later on when we talk about cell membranes and cell communication.2862

But for right now, you just need to know that hormones are often steroids, and that steroids are based on a cholesterol ring; and they are non-polar.2867

Alright, today, we have discussed two of the four classes of large biomolecules.2876

We have discussed carbohydrates and lipids, and we are going to continue on in the next lecture to talk about nucleic acids and proteins.2882

But before we do, let's do a few examples to reinforce your knowledge.2889

Example one: what type of isomer is each of the pairs of molecules shown below?2894

Remember that isomers have the same molecular formula, so let's just double check and see that that is true.2899

I have two carbons here, two bromines and two hydrogens.2906

On the other molecule, I also have two carbons, two bromines, two hydrogens- same molecular formula.2911

The first type of isomer is a structural isomer, so let's see if they have the same bonding partners.2918

Each carbon is double bonded to another carbon on both of these, and then, each carbon is bonded to bromine and hydrogen- bromine, hydrogen.2925

Same here, but they are not the same geometrically. They differ in their spatial arrangement.2933

These are not structural isomers since they have the same bonding partners. In fact, they are geometric isomers, and one clue to this is the double bond.2939

This inflexible double bond holds these molecules in a certain conformation where the two bromine molecules are on one side in this isomer.2949

This would be the cis isomer, and they are in the opposite sides in the other isomer, and this is known as the trans isomer.2958

That is my first set of molecules. The second set, I am going to double check and make sure that the molecular formulas are the same:2965

1, 2, 3 carbons, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 hydrogens, 3 carbons, 8 hydrogens, 1 oxygen.2971

Over here, 1, 2, 3 carbons, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 hydrogens, 1 oxygen, so these have the same molecular formula.2981

Next thing to check: are the bonding partners the same?2993

Here, I have a linear arrangement of carbon, carbon, carbon and then, oxygen.2996

Here, I have the three carbons, but instead of the oxygen being bonded to a carbon on the end, the oxygen is bonded to a middle carbon.3002

Therefore, the covalent bonding is different, and these are, in fact, structural isomers.3011

These are both forms of propranolol. This is actually propyl alcohol, while this one is isopropyl alcohol.3020

And again, these different isomers are going to have different properties.3033

The first example was geometric isomer. The second is an example of structural isomers.3040

Second example: identify the functional groups on the molecules below.3046

Let's go ahead and just look at the linear. This shows glucose and both its forms.3052

We can look at it in either, but I am going to look at the linear; and this is actually an amino acid.3055

Let's look at all three of these and just see what we can identify. One thing that we can identify here is a hydroxyl group.3063

Here, on the end, this has a carbonyl group, and remember that when it is on the end like this, we often call it aldehyde.3077

If it was in the middle, we would have called it ketone group.3085

Over here, I have COOH right here, so this group is a carboxyl.3093

The carbonyl is C double bond OH.3104

I have identified hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, and then, I have an NH2 here. NH2 is called an amino group.3108

What do I have here? CH3, I have two of these, and these are methyl groups, OK?3121

Here are some of the various function groups that I have identified: carbonyl, particularly an aldehyde, hydroxyl, amino, carboxyl and methyl.3131

Example three: the structural formula for galactose, a sugar, is shown below.3146

Based on the number of carbons, what type of sugar is galactose. Is it a ketose sugar or an aldehyde sugar?3152

OK, this is galactose, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 carbons. Therefore, this is a hexose sugar.3158

To determine if it is a ketose or aldehyde sugar, I need to look for the carbonyl group, and that is right here.3169

It is on the end carbon. Therefore, this is an aldehyde sugar.3175

So, galactose is a hexose sugar, and it is an aldehyde sugar.3182

Example four: what class of molecules does this molecule belong to? Why?3189

Well, you probably immediately notice this characteristic structure of four fused rings, and this molecule, therefore, is based on cholesterol.3195

Therefore, it is a steroid.3206

Notice, though, that the bonding, the functional groups, are a bit different than on cholesterol.3209

And in fact, this happens to be estradiol, which is a form of estrogen.3215

You can see that change in the structure just a bit gives it very different function and unique properties.3219

That concludes this lecture on organic compounds at Educator.com, and I will see you again next time.3227