Plants are eukaryotic, multicellular, photosynthetic autotrophs. Their cell walls contain cellulose and may have evolved from green algae. Vascular plants (tracheophytes) contain structures like the xylem and phloem which transport water, minerals, and nutrients while non-vascular plants do not. Seed plants include gymnosperms (conifers) and angiosperms (flowering plants). Plants can alternate between haploid gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) which is typically dominant with each generation. Bryrophytes are nonvascular early plants and include moss. The gametophyte is the dominant structure. Ferns are an example of seedless vascular plants. They rely on moist environments to carry their spores. To live on land, plants have adapted by evolving strong cell walls, vascular systems to carry water, xylem and phloem, seeds and pollen which are resistant to drying, stomata, and reduced gametophyte generation.
Plants are multicellular
eukaryotes and photosynthetic autotrophs. Plants evolved from
ancestral green algae and exhibit numerous adaptations to life on
Plants are divided into two
groups: nonvascular (bryophytes) and vascular (tracheophytes). In
vascular plants the tube-like xylem and phloem transport water,
minerals and nutrients.
The vascular plants are divided
into the seedless vascular plants and the seed plants. The two
groups of seed plants are the gymnosperms and the angiosperms
Bryophytes are non-vascular
plants such as mosses and liverworts. They lack true roots, leaves
In bryophytes the gametophyte
stage is dominant. The sporophyte generation is dependent on the
Ferns are an example of a
seedless vascular plant. They inhabit moist environments, allowing
the flagellated sperm to swim to the archegonia where fertilization
Most seedless plants are
homosporous; they produce a single type of spore that develops into
a gametophyte capable of producing both male and female gametes.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
The book and CD package include two full length practice exams that are presented with all questions answered and explained. The author also presents detailed reviews of all test topics and includes multiple-choice and free-response questions with answers at the end of each topic's chapter.
This book includes a review of the AP Biology exam format and scoring, proven strategies for answering multiple-choice questions, and hints for tackling the essay questions. The practice tests include answers and explanations and there is also proven test-taking strategies for both the multiple choice and essay parts.