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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Protists

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
1:00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
1:01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
1:06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
1:09:10
Example 3: Transcription
1:12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
1:14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
1:00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:02:55
Incomplete Dominance
1:02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:26
Epistasis
1:12:51
Example of Epistasis
1:12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
1:17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
1:21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
1:25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
1:28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
1:00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
1:01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
1:00:13
Forams
1:02:25
Radiolarians
1:03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
1:04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
1:04:26
Slime Molds
1:05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
1:09:21
Oomycetes
1:11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
1:13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
1:14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
1:16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
1:17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
1:01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
1:02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
1:00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
1:12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
1:15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
1:16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
1:18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
1:04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
1:06:36
Example 3: Nephron
1:09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
1:10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
1:00:29
Sensory Stimuli
1:00:30
Reflex Arc
1:01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
1:04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
1:06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
1:08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
1:09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
1:00:01
Complement System
1:01:57
Classes of Antibodies
1:02:45
IgM
1:03:01
IgA
1:03:17
IgG
1:03:53
IgE
1:04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
1:05:00
Passive Immunity
1:05:01
Active Immunity
1:07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
1:10:50
Immunodeficiency
1:13:27
Immunodeficiency
1:13:28
Chemotherapy
1:13:56
AID
1:14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
1:15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
1:17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
1:21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
1:23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
1:00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
1:00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
1:02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
1:04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
1:01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
1:01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
1:56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
1:59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
2:00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
2:01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
1:01:36
Multiple Choice 30
1:02:31
Multiple Choice 31
1:03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (2)

0 answers

Post by Joyce Choi on March 31, 2013

Can you please explain alternation of generations as pertaining to plants?

0 answers

Post by Anurag Agrawal on March 12, 2013

For the ap exam do have to know all the exxamples of plant, animal, fungi protists?

Protists

  • Protists are no longer considered part of a single kingdom. Molecular evidence revealed that some members of this kingdom were more closely related to members of other kingdoms and the reclassification of the protists is ongoing.
  • Some protists are heterotrophs, others are autotrophs and those that function as both are known as mixotrophs.
  • Plant-like protists are photosynthetic and most are unicellular, although some members of this group are multicellular. Plant-like protists include the euglenids, dinoflagellates, diatoms and the brown, red and green algae.
  • Animal-like protists are unicellular heterotrophs. They may be non-motile or motile by means of flagella, cilia or pseudopods. Examples include sporozoans, diplomonads, rhizopods, forams and radiolarians.
  • The fungus-like protists are heterotrophs. They decompose organic material, reproduce via spores and have cell walls. They include the plasmodial slime molds, cellular slime molds and oomycetes.

Protists

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Classification of Protists 0:08
    • Classification of Protists
    • 'Plant-like' Protists
    • 'Animal-like' Protists
    • 'Fungus-like' Protists
  • Serial Endosymbiosis Theory 5:15
    • Endosymbiosis Theory
    • Photosynthetic Protists
  • Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult 13:35
    • Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
  • Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult 15:31
    • Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
  • Alternation of Generations 17:22
    • Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
  • Plant-Like Protists 19:58
    • Euglenids
    • Dino Flagellates
    • Diatoms
  • Plant-Like Protists 28:44
    • Golden Algae
    • Brown Algeas
  • Plant-Like Protists 33:38
    • Red Algae
    • Green Algae
    • Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
  • Animal-Like Protists 40:04
    • Animal-Like Protists Overview
    • Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
    • Alveolates
    • Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
  • Animal-Like Protists 48:44
    • Kinetoplastids
    • Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
    • Ciliate
  • Conjugation 53:16
    • Conjugation
  • Animal-Like Protists 57:08
    • Parabasilids
    • Diplomonads
    • Rhizopods
    • Forams
    • Radiolarians
  • Fungus-Like Protists 1:04:25
    • Fungus-Like Protists Overview
    • Slime Molds
    • Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
    • Oomycetes
  • Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles 1:13:05
  • Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions 1:14:12
  • Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility 1:16:22
  • Example 4: Paramecium 1:17:04

Transcription: Protists

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

In this section on diversity of life, we will be focusing on a group of organisms known as protist.0002

The term protist is an informal term that encompasses a wide array of eukaryotic organisms.0009

Most of these organisms are unicellular. Some form colonies, and others are actually multicellular.0018

These can be autotrophic, heterotrophic or a new term, mixotrophic, that we are coming across now.0026

And these are organisms that can function both as autotrophs and as heterotrophs.0032

As far as the classification of protist, in recent decades, it has been undergoing a lot of change. Originally, protist was a separate kingdom.0038

However, the more these organisms were studied especially with the adamant of molecular biology techniques,0049

scientists realized that some of these organisms were more closely related to organisms in other kingdoms such as plants than they were to each other.0056

What we ended up with is a kingdom that contains organisms that really should not have been together.0066

Right now, just for convenience, we use sometimes the term protist referring to these as a group, but it is not a formal classification.0074

Right now, what is happening is there have been some proposals to divide protist up according to their relationships.0082

And more closely related ones would be together in certain kingdoms.0090

There might end up being three or four kingdoms, but the protists are split up in two.0094

But for right now, as far as kingdoms in this course, I am just going to refer to the kingdoms Plant, Animal and Fungi,0098

as well as the three domains we discussed and protist as just a loose group.0106

Protists are all members of the domain Eukarya. They are eukaryotic cells, eukaryotic organisms.0111

And these were grouped the way they were because pretty much anything that was not an animal, a plant or a fungus was put in here.0127

It was eukaryotic cells or sometimes multicellular organisms that were not truly animals. They were not truly plants.0139

They were not truly fungi, and therefore, very diverse array.0146

As I mentioned, some of these organisms are autotrophs. Some are photoautotrophs.0152

They are actually able to use light as a source of energy and convert inorganic compounds to organic compounds.0156

And these protist are often described as plant-like.0165

To help you remember different features and qualities of these organisms,0171

I am going to talk about plant-like protist, animal-like protist and fungus-like protist, although again, these are not formal categories.0175

Plant-like protist that I am going to go over, you will sometimes hear called algae.0183

Many of them are algae, but again, this is just a loose informal term; but you may hear them just referred to generally as algae.0189

Another group of protist that I will be discussing are those with some qualities that are similar to animals,0199

so the animal-like protist that are sometimes called protozoans.0206

While the plant-like protist are photosynthetic organisms, the animal-like protozoans, or excuse me, the animal-like protists are heterotrophs.0215

These are heterotrophs, and they are usually motile.0227

There are other protists that have qualities most similar to fungus or fungi, and these are the fungus-like protist.0238

These are also heterotrophs for the most part, although, there are some autotrophs as well as some mixotrophs in here.0251

Some of the plant-like protists are mixotrophs, as well, meaning they can be either photosynthetic or heterotrophic.0266

And the reason the ones in this group are qualified as or called fungus-like is because they do often decompose organic material, so they are decomposers.0277

They reproduce via spores, and they have cell walls that are similar to those found in fungi.0289

They also have some structures that we are going to talk about, that contain the spores that are similar to the structures found in fungi.0307

Before we go on to delve into these different groups, I am going to introduce you to the concept of the serial endosymbiosis theory.0316

You will recall from our lecture on the origin of eukaryotic cells the endosymbiosis theory in general, and let's first review that.0324

When we talked about just endosymbiosis theory, we talked about it as organelles originating from a symbiotic relationship between prokaryotes.0334

In the endosymbiosis theory, a larger anaerobic bacteria engulfed smaller aerobic bacteria, so these were both prokaryotes.0346

So, way back, an ancestral larger anaerobic bacteria engulfed the smaller aerobic bacteria.0370

And it was a symbiotic relationship because the larger bacterium provided protection for the smaller bacterium.0376

The smaller bacterium utilized oxygen and formed energy from it.0385

And this was thought to have occurred around the time when oxygen levels greatly increased in the atmosphere,0389

and that oxygen actually was toxic to some anaerobic organisms.0394

Eventually, over time, through evolution, instead of this being a smaller independent organism, it evolved to become mitochondria or chloroplast.0399

Eventually, organelles evolved from this symbiosis between two independent organisms.0412

This endosymbiosis theory describes the formation, the eventual evolution - I am going to put evolution actually - of eukaryotic cells.0420

This event, this first endosymbiosis will be called primary endosymbiosis.0436

However, it is believed that some organisms, particularly some protist are the result of multiple episodes of endosymbiosis, so serial endosymbiosis.0441

Let's talk a little bit more about some photosynthetic plastids, protist, photosynthetic protist.0453

Plastids are organelles including chloroplast. Those are one type of plastids.0463

They are not exactly the same. This is one type, so one example is chloroplast.0472

What may have happened is that after plastids such as chloroplast originate, we get the primary endosymbiosis.0481

And eventually, we ended up with some types of algae, ancestral algae called red algae and green algae, and these are photosynthetic organisms.0494

The endosymbiosis that resulted in this some think that it may have been a heterotrophic that it was later on.0509

And there was some heterotrophic eukaryotic cells engulfed cyanobacteria, which are photosynthetic bacteria,0516

so engulfed photosynthetic bacteria- cyanobacteria.0529

Eventually, this smaller bacteria, this bacteria that was engulfed by the larger eukaryotic cell,0542

became part of that cell eventually evolved to become a chloroplast.0550

And what we ended up with were different types of algae - red algae and green algae - that are photosynthetic.0558

Now, where this serial endosymbiosis comes into play is that a second or secondary endosymbiosis may have occurred later on.0566

And what happened there is there was another heterotrophic eukaryote engulfed red algae.0579

And somewhere else in evolution, a heterotrophic eukaryote engulfed green algae.0597

This symbiotic relationship allowed this heterotrophic eukaryote to perform photosynthesis because it is containing the red algae,0613

which is photosynthetic or the green algae, which is photosynthetic.0622

But these were photosynthetic in the first place because of this original endosymbiosis, so it is serial.0625

Eventually, this red algae seized through evolution over time.0632

Red algae was no longer separate free living organism, but it actually became a part of this eukaryote formed plastid.0639

So, It just became a part of this cell, and various photosynthetic protist descended from that - protist that still exist - and other lines from the green algae.0652

Now, evidence for this: when we look at primary endosymbiosis, when we look at plants, when we look at a chloroplast or when we look at mitochondria,0663

what we see is that mitochondria and chloroplast have two cell membranes. They have genetic material.0674

There is evidence for the fact that these were once free living organisms.0686

When we look here at plastids of these protists that we thought are the result of serial endosymbiosis, we notice something interesting.0690

We notice that they are plastids- have four cell membranes.0696

Because what happened is we had this first set of endosymbiosis resulted in plastids contained by red and green algae.0708

And since that organelle was an engulfed organism, that free living organism had a cell membrane.0717

It got engulfed by a heterotroph that was in a cell membrane.0725

Now, it is in here with its original cell membrane from this cyanobacteria plus the cell membrane from the ancestral organism. That is two cell membranes.0728

Now, when the red algae gets engulfed by this heterotrophic eukaryote,0737

that heterotrophic eukaryote has a cell membrane that is as it was engulfed wrapped around this red algae.0744

Now, that puts an extra layer as in here 1, 2, 3, 4 cell membranes.0752

Two cell membranes per incident of endosymbiosis, which is what we would expect, so that is the evidence for this.0759

There are groups of protist that are believed to have descended from secondary endosymbiosis.0767

One set of endosymbiosis after another serially may have been separated by a long period of time but one and then,0774

some long time later or another resulting in these protist that have plastids with four membranes.0783

In addition, these plastids with four membranes carry vestiges of a nucleus.0791

They do not have a true nucleus, but they have vestiges of their original nucleus; and these are called nucleomorphs.0797

So, this is further evidence supporting the serial endosymbiosis theory.0803

Just to give you some background on some of the plant-like or photosynthetic protist that were going to encounter,0808

protists have many different types of life cycle because they are a diverse group of species.0816

And this is the first time in the course we are encountering different life cycles because so far we have covered bacteria, which reproduce asexually.0822

Now, we are going to be talking about asexual reproduction as well as sexual reproduction and different life cycles.0831

So, I am going to start out with just an overview.0837

One type of sexual life cycle involves a diploid adult.0839

If we start out just looking at fertilization, the egg unites with the sperm in fertilization. Both of these gametes, egg and sperm, are haploid.0846

When they unite, they form a diploid zygote. The zygote becomes an embryo.0857

If we are talking about human beings, it becomes an embryo, undergoes mitosis, a child and then, an adult.0864

Here, we have an adult that is diploid. Within the adult, germ lying cells create gametes.0871

Those cells undergo meiosis.0880

So, germ cells undergo meiosis, halving of the chromosome number to form gametes, egg or sperm, and the cycle begins again.0883

Egg or sperm unites with the opposites. Fertilization occurs resulting in a diploid zygote, mitosis and then, an adult.0894

So, if you look at animals, if you look at humans, this is what we are going to be talking about.0903

There is that only the gametes which are unicellular haploid, so unicellular haploid gametes. The multicellular form of the organism is diploid.0909

A second type of life cycle exists in fungi and some protist, and this is a life cycle involving a haploid adult.0933

Starting here again with fertilization, the egg unites with the sperm, and both of these are haploid. They come together to form a diploid zygote.0943

However, instead of undergoing mitosis and forming an adult organism, the zygote undergoes meiosis.0955

This is a unicellular single-celled zygote, does not divide through mitosis, does not form an adult organism, just undergoes meiosis,0964

immediately having its chromosome number again to form spores, and these spores are haploid; so this bottom half is all haploid spores.0973

Now, these spores undergo mitosis to form an adult that is a multicellular or unicellular organism.0983

Mitosis can occur and form many unicellular organisms or it can occur and form one larger multicellular organism.0998

This adult organism, multicellular or unicellular- haploid.1006

Contrast that within the previous life cycle, the zygote underwent mitosis to form a diploid adult.1015

Now, we have a haploid adult. Then, egg or sperm gametes are formed.1024

Meiosis does not even need to occur because this individual is already haploid. Those unite in fertilization.1036

Some protists exhibit what is called alternation of generations.1043

An alternation of generations is fundamentally different than the two life cycles we just talked about.1048

In the two life cycles we talked about, there is a diploid phase. There is a haploid phase in all of them.1055

But there is not a multicellular diploid phase in the multicellular haploid phase.1060

The adult faces one or the other. Here, you have both.1066

Alternation of generations refers to life cycles in which there is a multicellular haploid phase and a multicellular diploid phase.1069

If you look at humans, yes, we have a haploid phase. Sperm or egg, those are haploid, but the only multicellular phase we have is diploid.1087

The difference here is that these organisms have a multicellular... up here, this sporophyte phase is a multicellular diploid phase.1099

So, humans have a multicellular diploid phase, but this organism also has a multicellular haploid phase.1112

Plants also undergo alternation of generations as we will see in lectures in the section of plants.1122

Looking here at haploid gametes, egg and sperm,1130

egg and sperm unite in the process of fertilization to form a diploid - 2n organism - to form a zygote, a cell that is diploid.1134

The zygote undergoes mitosis to form a sporophyte. The sporophyte is an adult multicellular diploid form of the organism.1144

Within the sporophyte, meiosis occurs to form haploid spores.1153

And again, we have mitosis to form a multicellular organism called a gametophyte, but the gametophyte is haploid.1161

Then, egg or sperm form within these gametophytes.1172

Meiosis does not have to occur because the gametophytes are already haploid.1179

Here, I see a multicellular diploid organism, a sporophyte form and a multicellular haploid organism, the gametophyte form.1184

And we are going to see this with some protist as well as plants.1193

We are going to start out talking about plant-like protist. These are photosynthetic protist.1198

And members of this group are frequently just called algae, but I am going to divide them up into various groups with the correct names.1205

These organisms are extremely important because they form the base of the food chain on aquatic environments.1216

These are mostly unicellular, but some, such as organisms that we commonly just call seaweed are multicellular, so they can be or some are multicellular.1226

Alright, we are going to cover first a group of organisms that is depicted here called the euglenids.1245

Like all the plant-like protist, these are capable of photosynthesis. However, they are actually mixotrophs.1254

With euglenids, if there is enough sunlight, they undergo photosynthesis.1262

However, if sunlight is low, it is night time or it is just really cloudy and there is not a lot of sunlight, these organisms can actually become heterotrophs.1267

They will absorb organic material from the water that they are living in, and they will be heterotrophic.1279

So, they are both photosynthetic and heterotrophic, so both autotrophs and heterotrophs.1287

Euglenids primarily live in fresh water, so these are mainly freshwater organisms.1297

And we are going to look at just some of the major morphological features of this organism.1306

They are motile. Here, you can see a flagella.1312

They often have two flagella, but here we have depicted, and near the flagella, this small pigmented area is what is called an eyespot.1314

And this allows these organisms to move towards light. This is called phototaxis- allows movement towards light1326

And since they are motile, they can swim over toward where the light is, and then, that allows them to get the light they need for photosynthesis.1336

Euglenids also have what is called a pellicle, and what a pellicle is, is these bands of protein- protein bands known as a pellicle.1346

Euglenids do not have a cell wall, and therefore, the pellicle provides some shape and support for these organisms. They reproduce asexually.1362

So, this is one group of protist, the euglenids- a plant-like protist.1378

The second group we are going to discuss are called the dinoflagellates.1382

Again, these are photosynthetic organisms because they fall under this heading of plant-like protist.1389

They live in both marine environments as well as in fresh water environments.1395

And the memorable characteristic about these organisms is that they have plates that contain cellulose.1403

And this provides them with strength and protection.1413

What they usually have is two plates, and there is a groove in between.1417

So, that would be the groove- plates containing cellulose, so hard plates containing cellulose, and within these grooves are flagella.1421

With the structure of this organism and the fact that they have two different flagella, they end up moving in a distinctive spinning motion.1445

They move the organism through the water with the spinning motion.1459

Some of these are phototrophs. Others are heterotrophs, or they may be mixotrophs.1467

These organisms are responsible for what is called red tides. You might have heard of red tides.1480

And dinoflagellates contain carotenoids, which are pigments that we have discussed earlier in the course that produce a reddish color.1488

They are responsible for the reddish color of these organisms, and when there is a bloom of these - most people call them algae blooms -1500

you can look out in the ocean actually see waves that really look reddish in color.1508

So, this is red tides. They produce red tides when there is a bloom of these organisms.1514

There are neurotoxins, so certain species of dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins.1521

And fish, shellfish, marine mammals that eat these organisms can, then, become ill and even die.1532

And humans who eat clams or other shellfish that have been exposed to high levels of these neurotoxins,1540

the humans that eat the shellfish can get sick, as well.1547

Dinoflagellates produce a neurotoxin, and an animal in the water eats this.1551

And then, a human eats that animal, and the human being can end up being sick.1557

And they reproduce either sexually or asexually, so these are dinoflagellates.1561

The next organism we are going to talk about under plant-like protist are a group called diatoms, so that is the third group we are going to talk about.1568

All three of these, so far, are unicellular photosynthetic organisms.1579

They are very, very abundant. There is over a hundred thousand species it is thought of these diatoms, and they are a very important part of plankton.1583

And as I mentioned, the photosynthetic plankton - excuse me - photosynthetic protist -1594

are extremely important because they form the base of the food chain in aquatic environments.1598

In the ocean, plankton, it is the base of the food chain.1604

Organisms eat the plankton. Other organisms eat those and so on up, so part of the base of the food chain.1607

I am just going to write "base of the food chain". They are not alone, but they are part of this.1614

What is interesting about diatoms is that they have silica in their cell wall.1621

The cell wall, it contains two parts. It is comprised of two parts, and these contain silica.1627

It is sometimes described as being glass-like,.1635

And diatoms might be familiar to you because you might have heard the term diatomaceous earth or sometimes just DE, and this is the powdery substance.1638

What happens is when diatoms die, their shells become fossilized, sink down.1655

And eventually, through compression of water, they get compressed up into a substance that we can retrieve1663

from the bottom of a body of water and form into this powdery substance called diatomaceous earth.1670

And diatomaceous earth is very useful for things like filtration, so it can be used in pools as a filtering device, a filtering substance.1678

It is also used as an abrasive and also as a non-chemical insecticide because it does not kill insects through chemical means.1688

It actually kills them through physical means because diatoms often have these little tiny sharp-like spikes on them that can puncture the insects.1697

It has many uses, and that is where the term DE or diatomaceous earth comes from.1707

Alright, we have talked about some unicellular plant-like protist.1715

We are going to talk about one more unicellular one as well as some multicellular organisms.1720

Going on to talk about golden algae, like the protist that we just talked about, this one is also unicellular- golden algae.1728

And these are freshwater organisms.1741

Although, they can form colonies - some species form colonies - these also, like the dinoflagellates, contain carotenoids.1746

In this case though, the carotenoids give them, sort of, a yellow-brown color - a yellowish color - and hence, the name golden algae.1760

These are also a component of plankton, and they are like the other plant-like protist- photosynthetic.1771

But, they are capable of being heterotrophic, as well. They can feed on bacteria or other eukaryotes like diatoms.1781

And again, they are part of the base of the food chain because all these organisms we are talking about are producers in aquatic food chains.1787

These are actually mixotrophs because I mentioned, they can be phototrophic or heterotrophic, so that is golden algae.1798

The next...so, this is the fourth one we have talked about.1806

The fifth one plant-like protist that we are going to discuss is multicellular, and this is the brown algaes, so brown algaes.1809

And this term like golden algaes, it can encompass more than one species.1818

Brown algaes are multicellular, so this is the first one we are coming across as multicellular, again, photosynthetic.1822

These are commonly known as seaweed, so if you see seaweed, actually what it is, is a protist.1834

It is a type of what is commonly known as seaweed. A type of brown algae is kelp, so another example is kelp, which can be extremely large.1842

They can be 50 or more meters long.1855

Like the golden algae we have just talked about, they contain carotenoids.1860

So, you are getting the theme by now with these different colors red, brown, yellowish. The carotenoids are responsible for them- brown color.1864

These are not characterized as plants.1877

Here, is a sketch of a brown algae, and you might look at this and say "oh, these sound like plants, they are multicellular, they are photosynthetic".1880

Superficially, they may look like plants, but there are some important differences. For one thing, they do not have true roots, stems, or leaves.1888

What this structure down here is called is a holdfast, and this allows the brown algae to attach to a substrate, to a surface, but they are not true roots.1896

Then, we see a stem-like structure, but it has its own name. It is called a stipe, and then, photosynthesis occurs in what are called the blades.1907

If this organism is held to a substrate, but it needs to get near the sunlight to form photosynthesis,1921

there has to be a way to, sort of, make sure that it gets exposed to sunlight; and that is through what is called air bladder.1928

So, brown algaes contain air bladders, and these are structures that are actually air-filled sacs.1935

And they make these algae buoyant so that the blades are exposed to the sunlight.1946

Brown algae are used as a food source, so certain types of seaweed can be eaten.1966

They are also a source of iodine for some populations, and they are used as a thickener in food such as salad dressings.1971

The reproductive cycle of brown algae involves alternation of generations, which we just discussed earlier.1979

The gametes are mobile. They are motile.1993

They have flagella.1997

There is a stage in their life cycle that includes a multicellular diploid organism and a2002

stage that involves a multicellular haploid organism during this alternation of generations.2008

The next type of plant-type protist that I am going to just...2014

The red algae are also multicellular marine organisms commonly known as seaweed.2019

But there are some differences between these organisms and the brown algae.2024

Red algae, again, they are multicellular, often called seaweed.2034

They tend to be more delicate in appearance not quite as large as the brown algae,2044

so generally, smaller than brown algae with the more delicate appearance to their blades.2050

They contain a chlorophyll as a photosynthetic pigment. However, their reddish color is due to another photosynthetic pigment called phycoerythrin.2056

This is responsible for the red color, and these organisms are also capable of living in fairly deep water.2075

This is another organism that is used as a food source for human, another type of seaweed.2085

You may have had it. It is sometimes wrapped around sushi.2088

Also, there is a material within their cell walls that is used to make agar, and agar is the material that bacteria are cultured on, they are plated on.2092

So, the round clear plates contain agar, and a component of red algae, a substance that red algae makes, is used to actually manufacture agar.2107

They do reproduce sexually, so undergoes sexual reproduction.2117

However, unlike the brown algae, the gametes are not flagellated, and some undergo alteration of generations.2123

The next group that we are going to discuss, a plant-like protist, are the green algae.2137

And when we say green algae, this is a true green similar to the color of grass. I am going to say grass-colored.2143

These are mostly unicellular, so we are going back now to unicellular organisms, although, there are some that are multicellular.2153

And an ancestral form of green algae is very likely the ancestor to plants, so I am just going to put "ancestor to plants".2164

So, an ancestral form of the green algae is plants evolved from that as we are going to discuss in the section of plants.2176

And these are mostly freshwater organisms.2184

And as we talk about some of the features, they are more closely related to plants than the other members of protist.2188

They store excess sugar as starch. Their cell walls contain cellulose and pectin.2195

They have these photosynthetic pigments, chlorophyll A and B, and their gametes have flagella.2214

They can reproduce both asexually and sexually.2236

So, as I mentioned, these are mostly unicellular.2246

But an example of a multicellular organism is what is called sea lettuce, some multicellular form of green algae.2248

And the most important point here is that they are closely related to plants, and you can see some of the similarities now.2254

And when I do discuss plants, you will see how the two are related.2261

One type of green algae that I can use as an example as far as the reproduction is called Chlamydomonas.2266

This is a type of green algae, and like I mentioned, green algae can reproduce asexually or sexually.2280

And this protist, along with some other protists, actually go into the sexual reproduction mode when their survival is threatened,2285

sexual reproduction when their survival is threatened.2294

Why would that occur? How would sexual reproduction help these organisms to survive?2302

Well, here is what happens. There is actually two different mating types.2307

The gametes from these mating types can unite to form a diploid zygote, but the zygote is encased in what is called a zygospore.2313

The zygote is encased inside this form that is called a zygospore with a protective wall.2324

This allows the organism to survive during times when conditions are poor and survival is not likely.2331

Later on, when conditions get better, and there is a change in survival, meiosis will occur and form haploid offspring, so later on, meiosis.2339

They will end up with four haploid offspring, and these mature into haploid adults.2353

The haploid adults can also reproduce asexually. The haploid adults reproduce asexually, form other haploid adults.2366

Those reproduce asexually, but then, if conditions get bad, there is not enough nutrients or something,2374

then, the sexual reproduction cycle will get triggered so that the organism can end up surviving inside the zygospore when times are bad.2379

So, this concludes the section on plant-like protist.2392

What we are going to go on and talk about now, after talking about all these different2395

photosynthetic protist, are protist that can be loosely categorized as animal-like.2398

The animal-like protists are all unicellular, so they are unicellular heterotrophs; and they are usually motile.2405

Sometimes they are classified according to the method of motility.2413

For example, they may use flagella. They may use cilia or structures called pseudopods that we will talk about when we talk about the amoebas.2418

The first animal-like protist that I am going to discuss is a group of protist called sporozoans.2433

These are also known as the apicomplexans, and a representative example of this is Plasmodium.2442

Some species in the genus Plasmodium cause malaria, example species in the genus Plasmodium.2453

Now, why are these called apicomplexans?2463

The reason is that there is a complex or a group of organelles, complex of organelles at the apex of these cells that allows the cells to penetrate the host,2466

at the apex that allows organisms to penetrate the host cell membrane, the host cell.2488

Just for a second to get back to the idea of classification, as I mentioned, these are grouped - animal-like, plant-like, fungus-like -2502

according to certain characteristics that they have in common, but it does not mean that these are necessarily closely related.2510

In fact, the sporozoans are part of what is sometimes called a supergroup Alveolates.2515

Alveolates are a group of protist that have sac-like structures, so they have sac-like structures just beneath their cell membranes.2522

And there are other alveolates that are not animal-like.2537

For example, the dinoflagellates, which I had classed as plant-like because they are photosynthetic, actually are alveolates along with the apicomplexans.2544

This is just to show you that these groupings are based on characteristics.2555

But, there are many other ways to group them according to other characteristics, genetics and evolutionary relationships.2559

So, just keep that in mind as you are reviewing to just take each group for what it is,2566

learn about it, but not look at these as phylogenetic classifications or anything.2572

Getting back to the apicomplexans, these are primarily parasites.2580

And I mentioned that they use this complex of organelles to penetrate the host cell membrane.2584

These are mainly parasites, and in fact, certain species of Plasmodium does cause a very important disease worldwide known as malaria.2588

I will say "some Plasmodium cause malaria.2608

And we are going to talk a little bit about the life cycle of these Plasmodium species and how it ties into symptoms of the disease.2613

It is a complicated life cycle.2621

And it involves time period spent in the mosquito, time period spent in the human host and asexual as well as sexual reproduction.2623

What happens is first, an infected mosquito bites a human or an animal, and we are going to say “bites human".2632

And during that process, it injects the form of Plasmodium that we are going to call sporozoites.2644

These sporozoites travel to the liver, OK, sporozoites travel to the liver.2660

They spend two weeks or even more - it can be a month - in the liver, spend about two weeks in the liver.2674

And there, they undergo asexual reproduction, spend two week in the liver undergoing asexual reproduction, and then, they are released.2686

They are released as merozoites. These merozoites travel and enter the red blood cells.2700

So, the next stage here, merozoites, travel to the red blood cells.2707

They stay in the red blood cells for about 48 hours and, again, undergo asexual reproduction.2717

So, reproduce in the red blood cell, and this takes about 48 hours.2725

Some merozoites are released. Some of these actually form gametophytes.2736

Merozoites are released from RBCs, and some are actually gametophytes capable of producing gametes.2744

Now, if a mosquito bites the host, they can take up the gametophytes.2762

If the gametophytes are not taken up by the mosquito, they die.2782

If they are taken up by the mosquito, then, gametogenesis occurs in the mosquito.2786

So, now, we have haploid gametes, and fertilization will also occur in the mosquito; so I am going to put "gametes form in the mosquito".2791

After those gametes form, then, they unite and become diploid organism again.2806

An oocyst is actually formed in the GI tract of the mosquitoes, so it is on the wall of the mosquitoes' GI tract.2815

After fertilization, the zygote forms what is called an oocyst on the wall.2824

Eventually, hundreds of sporozoites will be released, and they will travel up to the salivary glands of the mosquito to start the cycle all over again, OK?2833

So, just looking back at the beginning, when the mosquito bites the human, they inject the sporozoites.2845

Where the sporozoites came from is this mosquito bit into a human, injects it some gametophytes,2850

The gametophytes underwent gametogenesis, form gametes. The gametes united via fertilization to form a zygote.2855

The zygote formed an oocyte, and within that oocyte, hundreds of these sporozoites were formed, released.2865

They are motile. They go up to the salivary glands of the mosquito, and the whole cycle starts again.2872

Now, where did the symptoms of malaria come from, and what are the symptoms?2877

Well, symptoms of malaria include episodes of fever, chills and headaches.2880

So, an individual with malaria might feel OK, and then, a few days later, they get shaking chills, bad headache, fever.2885

And what has happened then, is the symptoms occur when the red blood cells open and lyse open.2892

And all of these hundreds or more of merozoites are released.2902

This disease, if untreated, can be fatal, and it is found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions of the world.2908

OK, so that was our first animal-like protist, the apicomplexans or sporozoans, and the example is Plasmodium.2916

An additional group of animal-like protist that we are going to discuss is the kinetoplastids.2931

The kinetoplastids contain what is called a kinetoplast, so what is a kinetoplast?2941

This is a region of the mitochondria that contains dark-staining DNA. So it is a region of mitochondria containing dark-staining DNA.2951

To give you an example, the organism that causes African sleeping sickness is a kinetoplastid. You might have heard the name.2971

Certain types of trypanosomes cause African sleeping sickness, and these organisms belong to the group kinetoplastids.2979

What happens is this is transmitted by the tsetse fly. The tsetse fly bites a human and a chancre forms.2997

The chancre forms at the site of the bite.3013

However, the trypanosomes spread through the blood stream, so spread of the infection through the bloodstream and through lymphatics.3015

And untreated infection can actually progress to the central nervous system, and it may be fatal; so that is a kinetoplastid.3032

The next group we are going to talk about are the ciliates, and right here is an example of a ciliate.3043

You can see that is covered in cilia, and I mentioned that there are multiple modes that protist use to move.3047

We have seen flagella already previously. Now, we are talking about cilia, and then, we are going to talk about pseudopods in a few minutes.3054

Ciliates are covered by cilia. That is where they get their name, but there are some other characteristics that you should be familiar with.3065

One of them is that they contain micronuclei and macronuclei, so here, you can see the macronuclei - macronucleus - and micronucleus.3073

They also have what is called an oral groove, and what they do is they use cilia to sweep water along in this oral groove and then, into their mouths.3093

Water that they are in contains food particles like bacteria.3109

And then, this food particle ends up entering a food vacuole where it can be broken down.3115

So, the particles are broken down, and then, waste is released through what is called an anal pore in the cell membrane.3127

Water enters these cells through osmosis, and these individuals usually live in hypotonic environment.3139

So, more water is going to want to enter the cell because it is a hypotonic environment.3146

And water is going to want to go to the more hypertonic environment inside the cell, so there are contractile vacuoles that pump out the excess water.3152

This is a lot of different organization within the cell involving nutrients, ingesting water and maintaining osmolarity, mobility, clearing out the waste.3166

So, this is an example of a ciliate.3180

Now, reproduction of these organisms can be asexual via binary fission, or they can undergo sexual reproduction in the form of conjugation.3185

We are going to go ahead and talk about conjugation and how it involves some micronucleus and the macronucleus.3196

So, we start out with two cells of compatible mating types, so two cells fused.3208

And they have to have compatible mating types, and here, we have a micronucleus and the other micronucleus.3215

They are partially fused, and then, meiosis occurs but no cytokinesis.3226

Meiosis results in four micronuclei per cell, but the cell membranes have not separated these into two separate cells. They are still together.3236

Then, what happens is three micronuclei per cell break down. They disintegrate, so that is what is happening here.3246

We still have the macronuclei, and three of the micronuclei have broken down. Then, what happens is the cells end up exchanging micronuclei.3258

We were left with one micronuclei per cell, and in order for them to exchange, they need to duplicate.3260

So, these undergo mitosis, mitosis of the remaining micronuclei.3287

So, then, we end up with this duplicate. That is what has happened at this next step- mitosis of the remaining micronuclei and then, the exchange.3298

This cell is going to keep one of its original.3311

And it is going send the other micronucleus into the other cell that it is mating with, and this cell is going to do the same.3314

This one is going to go this way. That one is going to go the other way.3323

Now, we are going to end up with two cells, each with a micronucleus that it originally had and another micronucleus that came from the other cell.3331

Here, cytokinesis will finally occur, and then, we get cytokinesis; so the two cells separate, and I am just showing this one going out here.3343

It is going to go through the rest of the steps that this one is going through, but for clarity I am just going to leave one up here.3356

These two micronuclei fuse, and that is why these are shown, kind of, one on top of the other.3363

They are going to fuse, and then, mitosis occurs three times.3368

After they fused, there is just going to be a single micronuclei. Mitosis times 3 is going to give us 2, 4, 6, 8 micronuclei.3373

Four of these remain micronuclei. The others end up fusing into a macronucleus, and the cell's original macronucleus disintegrates.3383

Cytokinesis will, then, occur twice, so this one is going to disintegrate.3401

And were going to end up with 1, 2, 3, 4 offspring each with a micronucleus and a macronucleus3407

and some new genetic material that they did not start out with due to conjugation.3416

So, this is a type of sexual reproduction that can occur in these protist.3420

Continuing on with some other animal-like protist,3428

the ones that I am going to discuss now or some of the ones that I am going to discuss now have modified mitochondria.3432

Originally, there were certain protists that were believed to lack mitochondria completely, but further studies showed that they did have mitochondria,3437

that they had been modified and were quite different from what we expect when we looked at mitochondria.3446

The first group are the parabasalids. These organisms have modified mitochondria and produce energy anaerobically.3452

These are also called hydrogenosomes, and some of these species are free living. They live in an aquatic environment.3480

There are other parabasalids that are parasites. They are flagellated.3492

As far as the parasitic ones, these are more well-known, and termites are a huge problem because they eat wood.3499

So, the question is how do they digest wood? Well, actually it is due to protist from this group that live symbiotically within the termite guts.3510

Those protist secrete enzymes that allow the termites to digest cellulose.3519

Another well-known example of parabasalids that are parasitic is Trichomonas vaginalis.3525

It causes the infection Trichomonas, which is a sexually transmitted disease, and these, again, organisms have modified mitochondria.3536

A second group of organisms with modified mitochondria are the diplomonads or sometimes just called monads.3548

They have modified mitochondria, multiple flagella. They also have two nuclei.3559

A well-known example is Giardia. The disease Giardia - giardiasis - is caused by Giardia.3576

Giardiasis is the disease, and this is an intestinal parasite found in humans.3586

It is caused by drinking water that has been contaminated with either sewage, so human waste or where animals such as sheep and cattle eliminate.3592

It causes GI symptoms like abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, so both of these can be parasites and can cause infection in humans.3601

The next group of organisms we are talking about on this slide are the rhizopods, so we will talk about them up here.3613

This is a very diverse group of organisms. Some of these are free-living.3624

Some live in aquatic environments. Others live in moist soil.3628

Others are parasites.3632

Now, we are getting to the method of motility known as pseudopods, and here, you might recognize this classic protist is a type of amoeba.3634

And I am going to focus on one type of amoeba called Entamoeba because it causes the human disease amoebic dysentery.3644

So, Entamoeba is just going to be my example because it is very important because it does cause disease.3654

And we also already looked at flagellated protist. We looked at ciliated protist, and now, we are going to look at a protist with pseudopods.3671

This extension, the cytoplasmic extension, is known as a pseudopod.3680

And it allows for motility because within there, what is going on inside the cytoplasm is assembly and disassembly of microfilaments,3687

OK, so move via assembly and disassembly of microfilaments within the cytoplasm, and these can also be used to help the organism ingest food.3697

We used to just group all the amoebas together and just say "OK, these are amoebas".3713

But, it turns out that some of the amoebas are more closely related than others.3719

Others belong really to a different class. They are parasitic amoebas as well as rhizopods and just many different types.3723

So, just remember the important characteristic I would say to focus on is pseudopods.3739

OK, the next group that we are going to talk about are the forams.3746

These are found in both salt water and fresh water environments.3750

They are unicellular organisms, and they have a hard that is called...they are not actually called shells.3754

They are called tests. That is the actual name, but they are like shells in that they are hard and protective; and they contain calcium carbonate.3761

They also use pseudopods, but since they have a shell around them, these tests or shells contain pores.3773

And what happens is they can reach out their pseudopods, stick them out through these pores so that they can move and so that they can feed.3781

What is interesting about these organisms is that they have formed some very large sediments that have ended up forming into rock formations.3791

So, that is one thing that is notable about them. They reproduce asexually.3802

The final group we are going to talk about of animal-like protist on this page is going to be the radiolarians.3808

These are found in marine environments, and they have internal skeletons made of silica, so silica, I will say skeletons.3823

This is a very old group of organisms, and they go back to the Cambrian period.3833

And what is important about them because they have a very long history and are very abundant is that when their remains are found in rocks,3838

they can be used to help date the deposits there and give us information about the age of other3847

organisms that we are looking at in the areas that are being studied where these fossilized remains are.3858

OK, that covered the animal-like protist. The final group of protist that we are going to study are the fungus-like protist.3865

These are also heterotrophs. They do have cell walls, and they are often decomposers.3871

Like fungi, they reproduce via spores. You can see the similarities.3880

They are heterotrophs, decomposers. They have cell walls, and they reproduce through spores.3884

And in fact, at one time, some of the protist that I am going to talk about were classified as fungi.3890

However, they were removed from that class and classed as a separate group of organisms.3896

Protists include the slime modes and the water molds as well as couple other groups that we are going to talk about.3902

But, we are going to start out with the slime molds.3916

There are two types of slime molds, and the first is plasmodial slime molds; and the second is cellular slime molds.3919

The plasmodial slime molds are organisms that live in decaying logs or in plant or in moist soil, and they are very colorful.3935

So, you may have seen these. They can be just bright colors such as orange or yellow.3944

They are very colorful, found in decaying logs, plants, wet soil.3952

Their name plasmodial slime molds comes from the fact that they form a structure called a plasmodium.3962

Plasmodiums represent the feeding stage for these organisms, and they are actually multinucleated.3969

They are just a single structure with a lot of cytoplasm and then, many nuclei.3984

Cytoplasmic streaming occurs within this gigantic cell to allow nutrients to get dispersed through all that cytoplasm.3993

They do have pseudopods, which they use to grab food particles, and then, they ingest those through phagocytosis. As I said, this is the feeding stage.4006

Their life cycle involves the formation of stocks, and these stocks contain sporangia.4019

So, they form stocks with sporangia, and within the sporangia, haploid spores are formed.4027

When conditions are good in the environment, good for survival, these spores will germinate and release gametes.4047

There are actually two types of gametes. Some have flagella.4061

Others are what is known as amoeboid, so they have pseudopods; and the two types join together via fertilization.4066

A zygote forms and then, undergoes mitosis without cytokinesis, so we get fertilization; and then, the zygote forms.4077

And when mitosis occurs, but no cytokinesis, what you end up with is the plasmodium again.4091

Because now, since cytokinesis has not occurred, the cell membrane has not been divided up.4104

The cytoplasm has not been divided up, but the nucleus has been multiplied during mitosis.4108

So, you just get this big structure that consists of a lot of cytoplasm plus nuclei.4113

Again, that would be the feeding stage, and it would start all over where this organism is going to - with pseudopods - feed and then,4119

eventually, form stocks with sporangia on it, release spores that are haploid, form spores that are haploid, release gametes.4128

Fertilization will take place. The zygote is produced, mitosis with no cytokinesis to produce the plasmodium again.4139

You can see the similarities of fungi, these fruiting bodies that are the stocks with the sporangium on it, the fact that they release spores.4148

But, in terms of evolutionary history and common ancestry, these belong in a separate group.4157

The cellular slime molds have a feeding stage that does not consist of one gigantic cell like this, so this is an important way in which are they different.4162

The feeding stage consists of individual cells. However, these cells sometimes aggregate.4173

So, what can happen during the feeding stage is the cells release cyclic AMP, and this is a signal that causes these cells to come together to mast together.4191

The feeding stage is haploid. These cells are haploid.4204

The cellular slime molds produce both asexually and sexually.4214

During sexual reproduction, two individual haploid cells unite to form a diploid zygote.4219

The zygote goes through meiosis and then, some rounds of mitosis to form haploid amoebas, so that is sexual reproduction.4226

However, when there is bad conditions, then, these aggregate forms that I just talked about; and a stock forms.4234

On top of that is a body that contains haploid spores, and these spores are more resistant to bad conditions.4242

And when conditions are better, they will germinate.4251

So, we have talked both in this slide and previously about how the reproductive method can differ depending on conditions.4253

When there are bad conditions, the organism will switch to whichever method is going to give it the most protection.4260

We talked about a zygospore that forms. Now, we are talking about another spore that is more protected.4266

And then, these will not germinate until conditions get better.4272

The final type of fungus-like protist that we are going to talk about are the oomycetes. The oomycetes consist of several groups.4276

I already mentioned one of them above when I said the water molds.4286

There is also what is called white rust and downy mildews. These were also once considered fungi and have been reclassified as a separate group.4289

They are decomposers or parasites.4309

Some are decomposers. Some are parasites.4314

For example, you might see a water mold on a dead plant.4318

In terms of history, it was a water mold that was responsible for the Irish potato famine.4322

That potato famine destroyed crops in Ireland, and at that time, the Irish were very dependent on that crop for their nutrition.4328

This resulted in the death of about a million people as well as about another million or more4335

people emigrating and leaving Ireland because of the conditions there at the time.4343

So, you can see the human impact that these organisms can have,4350

causing disease directly in humans that we have talked about before like with malaria or causing disease in food sources.4355

The life cycle of these can include both sexual and asexual reproduction.4364

However, their cell walls actually contain cellulose like plants rather than chitin like fungi, so cell walls contain cellulose in these organisms.4369

OK, we have covered quite a few different organisms today.4378

So, try to focus on the important points about each one, and we are going to go ahead and do some review now.4381

Example one: how does alternation of generations differ from the other two types of sexual life cycles?4387

So, we talked about three types of sexual life cycles.4395

One in which the diploid stage...it is a diploid adult. The diploid stage is dominant.4397

And another when there is a haploid adult, the haploid stage is dominant and then, alternation of generations.4403

Although, every cycle includes a diploid and haploid stage, what is unique about alternation of generations4409

is that these cycles have a multicellular diploid stage and a multicellular haploid stage.4414

That is what makes alternation of generations different than the other two life cycles.4437

The other two life cycles do not have multicellular forms that are haploid and a multicellular form that is diploid, and we see this in some protist.4442

We also see it in plants.4450

Example two: match the following groups of protist to their descriptions: diatoms, green algae, euglenids and cellular slime molds.4453

Let's look for the diatoms first- flagellated photosynthetic mixotrophs with a pigmented eyespot.4464

Unicellular photosynthetic organisms that are commonly part of plankton. They have cell walls containing silica.4472

More closely related to plants than other groups of protist. Their cell walls contain cellulose, and they have chlorophyll A and B.4481

Release cyclic AMP, which acts as a signal for individual cells to aggregate. Asexual reproduction follows the formation of a stock.4488

So, starting with the diatoms, these are photosynthetic organisms, and I see that here and here.4497

And they do not contain an eyespot, so that is not correct.4503

Looking at B, they are unicellular. They are part of plankton, and they have cell walls containing silica in them.4509

B- diatoms match with B.4518

Green algae: well, green algae are photosynthetic, but they do not have a pigmented eyespot; so that is not correct.4522

More closely related to plants than other groups of protist- that is a correct statement.4531

Cell walls contain cellulose - true - and they have chlorophyll A and B.4535

That is accurate. This one is not.4540

They do not form a stock, so let's go with C.4542

Euglenids: one thing that just comes to my mind right away that is unique about them is this eyespot.4547

And they are flagellated photosynthetic mixotrophs with an eyespot, so A.4553

That leaves us with no. 4, which does fit with D- cellular slime molds can release cyclic AMP, which signals these cells to come together in a group.4559

They may eventually form a stock with spores and then, reproduce asexually once conditions are good, so B, C, A and D.4569

Example three: what are three structures that protist use for motility?4583

Well, we have seen examples of cilia.4590

Paramecium use cilia. They are type of ciliate.4596

Flagella: we saw that in the dinoflagellates, in Giardia, which is a diplomonad, in Trichomonas, so those all use flagella for motility.4600

Finally, pseudopods are used by amoebas for example, and these are cytoplasmic extensions.4609

OK, final question is label the following structures on a sketch of a Paramecium.4623

So, Parameciums are a type of ciliate, and we saw this sketch before.4630

And this is a type of ciliate, so oral groove, micronucleus, macronucleus, cilia and contractile vacuole.4637

Well, the micronucleus here is located next to the larger macronucleus, so micronucleus and here, macronucleus.4645

So, we took care of that one and that one.4661

Cilia: you can see cilia all along the outside of the cell and contractile vacuole. Well, either of these structures you could choose.4664

These are all different vacuoles, so contractile vacuole, or these could be food vacuoles.4680

It is a less specific term, but vacuoles within these protists carry a wide array of function: to remove extra water and waste, to digest food.4687

There are various vacuoles with many functions and the oral groove right here. water is swept in along this oral groove into an opening.4704

And then, food particles are digested, enter through phagocytosis and then, digested.4713

That concludes this lecture on the protist.4722

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