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Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
1:00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
1:01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
1:06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
1:09:10
Example 3: Transcription
1:12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
1:14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
1:00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:02:55
Incomplete Dominance
1:02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:26
Epistasis
1:12:51
Example of Epistasis
1:12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
1:17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
1:21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
1:25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
1:28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
1:00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
1:01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
1:00:13
Forams
1:02:25
Radiolarians
1:03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
1:04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
1:04:26
Slime Molds
1:05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
1:09:21
Oomycetes
1:11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
1:13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
1:14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
1:16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
1:17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
1:01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
1:02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
1:00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
1:12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
1:15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
1:16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
1:18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
1:04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
1:06:36
Example 3: Nephron
1:09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
1:10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
1:00:29
Sensory Stimuli
1:00:30
Reflex Arc
1:01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
1:04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
1:06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
1:08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
1:09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
1:00:01
Complement System
1:01:57
Classes of Antibodies
1:02:45
IgM
1:03:01
IgA
1:03:17
IgG
1:03:53
IgE
1:04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
1:05:00
Passive Immunity
1:05:01
Active Immunity
1:07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
1:10:50
Immunodeficiency
1:13:27
Immunodeficiency
1:13:28
Chemotherapy
1:13:56
AID
1:14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
1:15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
1:17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
1:21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
1:23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
1:00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
1:00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
1:02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
1:04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
1:01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
1:01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
1:56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
1:59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
2:00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
2:01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
1:01:36
Multiple Choice 30
1:02:31
Multiple Choice 31
1:03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
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Lecture Comments (39)

0 answers

Post by Swati Sharma on May 9 at 08:28:11 PM

Dear Dr Eaton, I just graduated from College and I am started to prepare fro the MCAT. Could I use these videos fro MCAT as well?

0 answers

Post by Hyunjun Kim on February 20, 2017

Dr. Eaton I am so blessed to study with your lectures !!!
For real, you are the best science/biology teacher overall my high school experience!!!
Thank you so much.

0 answers

Post by Firebird wang on November 2, 2016

Professor, I know that AP Statistics is not your subject, but I just wonder if you are able to watch the two videos which called "Practice Test 2013 AP Statistics" and "Practice Test 2014 AP Statistics" in the AP Statistics content? Both videos showing network error, I dont know why. I already tried in different computers already.

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Thu Sep 29, 2016 6:06 PM

Post by Stephen Hunsberger on September 27, 2016

Hello,
I am a teacher trying to use your series as a supplement to my honors biology class. Are there any worksheets or practice problems associated with your presentations?  All I'm seeing are lectures.  Please help!

0 answers

Post by Apolonia Gardner on November 24, 2015

Hello,

I am a high school senior about to send off my applications for college. I am stuck on one thing – my intended major. Biology and chemistry have been my favorite courses throughout high school, and I would like to get a college degree that will enable me to perform research with viruses. My lifetime goal is to find a cure for a disease. From your experience, what undergraduate major should I shoot for? Biochemistry? Microbiology? Molecular Biology? Immunology? Chemical Biology? Organic Chemistry? Pharmaceutical Science? Any guidance is appreciated.

0 answers

Post by Mohamed Al Mohannadi on October 22, 2015

Carbon.. The atom of life.. Has 6 protons, 6 electrons and 6 neutrons? WOW this should evolve a religious debate (666)

0 answers

Post by James Weaver on July 23, 2015

Would this course be good for general biology?

1 answer

Last reply by: Tom Glow
Sat Dec 27, 2014 3:03 PM

Post by David Gonzalez on July 16, 2014

Where and how are isotopes discovered? And why don't isotopes have their own place on the periodic table? Thanks.

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Wed Jan 8, 2014 7:26 PM

Post by robina saeed on January 2, 2014

Hi Dr. Eaton,
Is this a complete course or just a review? thanks

0 answers

Post by jaime samano on August 16, 2013

I have trouble on a homework question. It asks what element is the electron configuration of 2,8,8,18,17. How do I sole this?

0 answers

Post by soe bryan on February 17, 2013

what is an example of Van Der Waals forces?

3 answers

Last reply by: Kenosha Fox
Mon Dec 15, 2014 3:11 PM

Post by Ikze Cho on January 14, 2013

is drinking pure H2O dangerous?

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Thu Dec 6, 2012 6:02 PM

Post by Jonathan Aguero on December 4, 2012

how is ionic bonding used in DNA

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Mon Nov 12, 2012 6:26 PM

Post by Lisa Lim on October 28, 2012

I don't understand the part where Dr. Eaton says, "the electron pretty much stays within these shells and they (electrons) only pass through them (?) on the way to a different shell." Who is "them"? I'm confused.

3 answers

Last reply by: stephen legge
Tue Mar 12, 2013 12:16 PM

Post by Aniket Dhawan on October 16, 2012

Professor is it possible that I could get a worksheet to do based on this lecture.

Otherwise you were very good.

Thanks

0 answers

Post by Andrea Gulyas on July 23, 2012

Thank you very much!
EI can hardly wait for the rest of the lectures!
:)

1 answer

Last reply by: Yejia Chen
Fri Apr 5, 2013 3:04 AM

Post by Swetha Atluri on June 3, 2012

In the Ionic Bonds section (32:35), how is the problem of the valence shells solved? It's solved in the Sodium, but it isn't solved in the Chlorine yet. After the electron from Sodium is transferred to Chlorine, there are only 8 electrons in the 3rd shell for Chlorine. Aren't there supposed to be 18 electrons in the third shell for it to have a full valence shell?

1 answer

Last reply by: Dalar Karimian
Wed Aug 7, 2013 7:13 PM

Post by nhuy nguyen on March 25, 2012

are we able to download the lecture? because I don't see where to download.

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Thu Feb 23, 2012 11:36 AM

Post by Louise Finlayson on February 14, 2012

What a great lecture series - Thank you so much made things so much more understandable :)

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Sat Feb 4, 2012 4:30 PM

Post by Jialan Wang on January 27, 2012

what is atr-x syndrome?
thanks!

0 answers

Post by Raj Patel on November 21, 2011

buy, lots of stuff being covered in the first unit. still pretty understandable.

0 answers

Post by Daniel Delaney on August 17, 2011

This takes a loooong time to download & google chrome doesn't help. Too bad because I like Dr. Eaton.

1 answer

Last reply by: Dr Carleen Eaton
Mon Feb 7, 2011 5:45 PM

Post by Jay Patel on February 1, 2011

Slight slip of the tongue at 3:50. She meant to say, this is two atoms of *hydrogen* bonded to one atom of water

Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

  • Elements are composed of atoms. Atoms are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
  • Electrons can be found at different energy levels. The particular energy levels that electrons spend most their time at are described as electron shells. The valence shell is the outermost electron shell in an atom.
  • Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electron pairs.
  • Polar bonds are the result of an electron pair being more strongly attracted to one atom in the bond than another. Nonpolar bonds occur when an electron pair is equally attracted to both atoms forming the bond.
  • An ionic bond is the attraction between positively charged ions, called cations, and negatively charged ions, called anions.
  • A hydrogen bond is formed when a hydrogen atom covalently bound to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom.
  • Molecules undergo reactions by forming or breaking bonds. The initial substances involved in the reaction are called reactants; the set of substances resulting from the reaction are the products.
  • A mole (mol) = 6.02 x 1023. The molecular mass is the mass that contains one mol of the substance. The molarity of a solution is its concentration in moles of solute per liter of solution.

Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Elements 0:09
    • Elements
    • Matter
    • Naturally Occurring Elements
    • Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
  • Compounds 3:06
    • Molecule
    • Compounds
    • Examples
  • Atoms 4:53
    • Atoms
    • Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
    • Isotopes
  • Energy Levels of Electrons 13:01
    • Electron Shells
    • Valence Shell
    • Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
  • Covalent Bonds 19:52
    • Covalent Bonds
    • Examples
  • Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds 23:54
    • Polar Bond
    • Nonpolar Bonds
    • Examples
  • Ionic Bonds 29:04
    • Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
    • Example: NaCl
  • Hydrogen Bond 33:18
    • Hydrogen Bond
  • Chemical Reactions 35:36
    • Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
  • Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration 38:45
    • Avogadro's Number and Mol
    • Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
  • Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons 47:05
  • Example 2: Reactants and Products 49:35
  • Example 3: Bonding 52:39
  • Example 4: Mass 53:59

Transcription: Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

Welcome to Educator's AP Biology course.0000

I am Dr. Carleen Eaton, and we will be starting out the course with the discussion of elements, compounds and chemical bonds.0004

Although this is a biology course, we are starting out with some chemistry basics because life involves many chemical reactions.0011

Chemical reactions occur constantly within the cells and are essential to life.0020

For example, the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to glucose using sunlight as an energy source by0024

plants is a chemical reaction, and this is known as photosynthesis.0031

Animals use chemical reactions to break down food sources such as carbohydrates, fats and proteins to release their energy to fuel cellular processes.0035

Starting from the beginning with the discussion of elements.0046

Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances through chemical reactions.0049

Matter is anything that takes up space. Elements are a form of matter.0056

There are 12 elements on the periodic table.0065

Here, as shown one square, an example of an element from the periodic table, and this is oxygen.0070

So, there are 12 elements. Of these, 92 are naturally occurring.0075

The remaining elements can be made or created in a particle accelerator. However, only 92 are naturally occurring.0090

Although there are 9 naturally occurring elements, in biology, we are going to be focusing on mainly 4 elements.0098

Living organisms are composed mainly of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen.0105

There are small amounts of other elements found in living organisms, for example calcium, which is found in our bones.0119

Phosphorus and magnesium are also found in small amounts.0127

There are other elements called trace elements, and these are also essential to life; but they are found in very small or what is called "trace amounts".0131

An example of this would be iron. Iron is found in red blood cells, and it is essential in allowing us to carry oxygen using our red blood cells.0140

Iodine is another example. The thyroid gland needs iodine to function correctly, and without enough iodine, people develop a condition called goitre.0150

Here, looking at this example of oxygen on a periodic table, you will notice a couple of numbers.0159

The first is the atomic number, and we will get into exactly what this means.0166

But for right now, I just want to give you an idea of how to read the periodic table of elements.0171

O is a symbol for oxygen. Here is the full name, and then, down here, is the atomic mass.0176

A molecule is composed of two or more atoms bonded together in a specific arrangement.0189

Compounds are composed of different elements that are combined in a fixed ratio.0196

Let's look at an example of a molecule. O2 is two oxygen atoms bonded together.0203

These are molecules. However, since these are the same type of atom, this is not a compound.0210

An example of a compound would be H2O or water.0219

This is two atoms of water bonded to 1 atom of oxygen, and this is a molecule of water; and it is also a compound.0224

What you will notice here is that compounds are composed of different elements, and they are combined in a fixed ratio.0244

This is very important because if I look at water/H2O, and then, I look at H2O2/hydrogen peroxide, I will notice0249

that these are both composed of hydrogen and oxygen, however, they have very different properties.0264

Water is the solvent of life. You drink it.0268

Your body is made largely of water, whereas hydrogen peroxide has entirely different properties0273

altogether, and it is good for treating wounds for example but very different substance than water.0279

So, it is not just the atoms that are in a compound that matter. It is the ratio and the order that they are combined in.0287

Elements are composed of atoms, and these are the smallest unit that an element can be broken down to that0298

still retains the characteristic structure and property of the element.0304

Now, remember, elements are the substances that cannot be broken down into smaller particles through chemical reactions.0309

But it is possible to break down an element further, just not through chemical means.0316

And if you did break down an element further, what you could find are the different subatomic particles that comprise an atom.0319

So, let's look at what an atom is composed of. It is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.0331

The central part of the atom is called the nucleus, and the nucleus contains protons and neutrons packed together tightly.0344

Protons are positively charged. Neutrons, as the name suggests, are neutral.0356

And orbiting around the nucleus, you will find the electrons, and these are negatively charged.0367

These electrons are held in their orbitals by their tractions to the positively charged nucleus.0381

The protons are positively charged. Electrons are negatively charged, and this attraction keeps the electrons orbiting around the nucleus.0388

Each element has a characteristic number of protons, and the atomic number I mentioned at the top of the periodic table is the number of protons.0395

So, the atomic number equals the number of protons.0403

When we talk about an atom, we are usually talking about it in its neutral form, and that neutral form would have the same number of protons and electrons.0411

If there is 4 protons that are positively charged and 4 electrons that are negatively charged, they will cancel each other out.0422

An example would be carbon. Let's go get carbon.0430

Carbon has an atomic number of 6.0435

A second number associated with an element is its mass number. OK, atomic number is number of protons.0442

The mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. The mass number of carbon is 12.0449

Now, if carbon is neutral, that means that I can determine that I have 6 protons from the atomic number, and since it is neutral, I also have 6 electrons.0464

And then, all I have to do to figure out the number of neutrons is to take this mass number,0476

subtract the atomic number, and that will give me the number of neutrons.0484

Here, the mass number is 12-6. Therefore, there are 6 neutrons.0490

Sometimes, you will see an element written as such.0502

You will see the symbol like C for carbon and then, a number at the top and a number at the bottom.0506

This is the mass number. This is the atomic number.0512

The unit of mass that we use to express atomic or molecular weights is called the unified atomic mass unit0525

or just atomic mass unit, and this is abbreviated with a U.0533

It is also the same as a Dalton- 1 Dalton. A Dalton is abbreviated Da.0546

Now, a proton or neutron has a mass of 1.7 x 10-24 grams, so that equals the mass of proton or 1 neutron.0556

If you add up the mass of the protons and neutrons, you have what is very close to the mass of the atom.0576

And the reason for this is that electrons are much, much, much smaller than protons or neutrons.0585

And their mass is, therefore, negligible. Frequently, we, therefore, talk about the atomic mass as being approximately equal to the mass number.0590

So, again, remember that the mass number is number of protons plus neutrons.0602

Since that mass of electrons is negligible, the atomic mass or the mass of the atom is approximately equal to the mass number.0609

When you look on the periodic table of elements, you will see a slightly different number, which is at the bottom, and that is more of an exact atomic mass.0628

It is a weighted average of masses of the various isotopes of the atoms, of the element, and if you just round that off, you will get the mass number.0636

OK, concept of isotopes, let's look at carbon as an example and look at the various isotopes of carbon.0646

Isotopes are forms of an element that have different numbers of neutrons.0655

Remember that for an element to be the same element, it has to have this characteristic number of protons. For carbon, there are 6 protons.0663

When we talk about this form of carbon right here that I have been discussing, carbon 12, it has 6 protons and 6 neutrons.0673

However, you can talk about isotopes of carbon. One is carbon 13.0680

I have a 1 up here for my mass number, and that means, if I took that 13, subtracted the number of protons, I would end up with 7 neutrons.0685

So, carbon 13 is a form of carbon and is much more rare than carbon 12, and it actually has 7 neutrons.0695

There is another isotope called carbon 14, and this is a radioisotope. It is a radioisotope.0703

So, if I took the mass number here - I said 1 - and I subtracted atomic number 6,0713

I would come up with 8 neutrons, and carbon 1 is actually a radioactive form of carbon.0720

This is a radioisotope. The difference between radioisotopes and other types of isotopes is that radioisotopes are unstable.0725

They actually decay spontaneously, and they give off energy in the process.0735

The nucleus decays, and the number of protons or neutrons can change.0739

The result is that it can actually decay and turn into a different element as it is decaying.0742

These are very important in medicine. For example iodine 13 or I-131 is a radioisotope.0748

I mentioned that iodine is important to the thyroid.0760

Well, if somebody has thyroid disease or thyroid cancer, we can actually infuse a radioisotope into their body.0762

It will localize to their thyroid, and it will help decrease the activity of that tissue or destroy malignant thyroid tissues.0770

So, radioisotopes do have important uses in biology and medicine.0779

To understand chemical bonding and chemical reactions, you need to understand more about electrons and particularly about the energy levels of electrons.0788

Electrons are found at different energy levels, and the levels that they spend their time in are called electron shells.0798

The outermost shell is extremely important in chemical bonds, and it is called the valence shell.0806

Let's talk about the concept of energy, a little more in potential energy.0813

Recall that the nucleus is positively charged, whereas electrons are negatively charged, so electrons are attracted to that positively charged nucleus.0818

The farther the electrons are from the nucleus, the greater, what we call, potential energy they have.0829

Potential energy, think of it as stored energy, or it is energy that is there and that could be released/has the potential to be released.0832

Think about if you were using a bow and arrow and you pulled back the bow.0842

You are using energy from your muscles. You are transferring it into the bow, and you are pulling it back.0847

Now, that bow has potential energy. It has stored energy.0851

When you let go of the bow, the arrow shoots out. The energy is transferred to shoot that arrow.0855

Now, the greater the distance you pull back the bow, the harder you pull on it,0859

the greater the potential energy stored in the bow, and it is the same idea with electrons.0866

The farther away they are from the nucleus, the farther the electron shell is that they are in, the greater the potential energy.0873

To move to a shell that is more distant from the nucleus, an electron would have to use energy.0877

To get closer, it would release energy.0890

Electrons pretty much stay within these shells, and they only pass through them on their way to a different shell.0898

Electrons fill up these lower energy shells first, and then, they go to the higher ones.0901

The first shell can hold two electrons, whereas the second shell can hold 8 electrons, and each shell has a characteristic number of electrons that it can hold.0910

Again, the outermost shell is called the valence shell, and a lot of the chemical behavior of an atom is driven by a need to fill this valence shell.0915

If the outermost shell is full, if the valence shell is full, then you have what is called an inert element.0936

Inert elements do not readily interact with other atoms. They do not have a need to.0948

Their Valence shells are already full.0957

OK, inert elements have a full valence shell, for example, neon. Neon has 1 electrons.0962

It has 2 in the first shell, and it has 8 in the second.0967

This is its valence shell. If there was more than 10, it would have to go to the third shell, but since this shell is full,0980

it is what we call an inert element, and it is not highly motivated to interact with other atoms.0988

Within valence shells, the electrons are usually found in what is called orbitals.0995

The shell gives the average distance from the nucleus where electron is found, but that is just an average.1004

Most of the time, electrons spend in particular regions called orbitals.1013

Orbitals can have various different shapes, and orbitals are listed by a number and a letter.1018

For example, this sphere is a 1s orbital. This tells me that it is in the first shell, and this tells me the shape, and so s, I just think of spherical.1025

It is a globe or round shape. Each orbital holds two electrons.1032

The first shell has only the 1s orbital that holds two electrons. That is full.1045

You need to go to the next shell. The next shell has a 2s orbital.1059

So, it is in the second shell, and it has a spherical shape. In addition, the second shell also has 3p orbitals.1065

p orbitals have this dumbbell shape, and I have only shown two here for simplicity; but in the second shell, there is one 2s orbital, and there are three 2p orbitals.1070

Each of these holds two electrons, so 2 here and 2 in each of the three orbitals. This holds the total of 8 electrons.1079

The behavior of an atom is often driven by a need, again, to fill the valence shell.1096

Let's look at an example of fluorine. Fluorine has 9 electrons.1107

That means that this 1s orbital is going to be full.1115

Here, we see these altogether. Remember, there is actually this third orbital, here, this third p orbital.1127

Draw that in, just not shown in order for simplicity, but looking at these electron orbitals with fluorine.1132

This first shell would have two electrons in it that is full, then, fluorine needs to go up to the second shell.1141

The 2s orbital here has two electrons in it, so, I used up two in the first that left me with the seven.1149

I have used up two more. I have five.1161

One of the P orbitals can hold two. Another p orbital can hold two, and this last p orbital only has one.1169

So, there is a single electron missing to complete the valence shell, and bonding has to do with completing that valence shell.1171

One thing you will also notice about molecules is they can differentiate, and the shape of a molecule1180

has to deal with the position of the orbitals; and the position and shape of the orbitals can change when bonding occurs.1187

Let's go ahead and talk about bonding. Covalent bonds are formed when atoms share electron pairs.1191

Remember that the atom wants to fill its valence shell.1198

Let's look at hydrogen. Hydrogen has one electron.1204

It has just got a single electron in the 1s orbital. That is its valence shell.1209

The first shell is the valence shell in this case, and it holds one electron. It needs one electron to fill the valence shell.1214

One way for the hydrogen to get to fill that shell would be to share an electron pair, and that is what covalent bonding is.1219

In the simplest case, hydrogen could share an electron pair with another hydrogen, so the second hydrogen is also lacking of full valence shell.1239

Therefore, if they each shared an electron pair, if they shared one electron pair, they would have full valence shells.1248

Another way to write this that helps to clarify is called a Lewis dot structure.1264

Both of the methods I have shown here show a covalent bond.1274

This is a single bond, and it means that one electron pair is being shared by the two molecules, by the two atoms.1283

So, this forms a molecule of hydrogen/H2 via sharing of one electron pair in order to complete the valence shell.1289

Atoms can share more than one pair of electron. An example would be oxygen.1301

Looking at oxygen a little bit more closely, it has 8 electrons.1311

The second shell has 6 electrons, but to have a full valence shell, it needs two more electrons.1317

Therefore, sharing just one pair of electrons would not fill the valence shell. It needs to share two pairs.1329

So, oxygen, therefore, can do that a couple of different ways.1339

Let's look at the example of CO2. That would be a carbon double-bonded to one oxygen and then, on the other side, double-bonded to a second oxygen.1347

This means, or if you looked at the Lewis dot structure, what is happening is a double bond is formed.1354

A double bond is formed when two electron pairs are shared.1366

This is sharing two electron pairs because oxygen needs to share two electron pairs in order to complete its valence orbital, and what is going on with carbon?1380

Well, remember that carbon has 6 electrons. That means the first shell contains 2 electrons, and the second shell has 4 electrons.1386

So, it needs electrons to complete its valence shell. Looking at what is going on with carbon, it is sharing 1, 2, 3, 4 electron pairs.1400

The oxygen is a full valence shell sharing 2. This oxygen has a full oxygen sharing 2, and this carbon has a full shell sharing 4 electron pairs.1411

A covalent bond is formed when the atoms share electron pairs. There are different types of covalent bonds.1422

There are polar, and there are non-polar covalent bonds. Some atoms share the electron pairs equally, whereas others do not.1434

In certain situations, an electron pair is more strongly attracted to one atom of the bond than it is to the other.1446

That would form a polar bond. When there is an equal attraction between the electron pair to the two atoms, that is called a non-polar bond.1454

For example, I talked about H2/hydrogen molecule formed by a single bond between two hydrogen atoms.1462

Since these atoms are both the same, the electron pair is going to spend equal time near both of the atoms.1472

This would be a non-polar bond. Let's contrast that with water/H2O.1481

Oxygen is what is called electronegative. It is very electronegative, and what electronegativity refers to is the attraction that a particular atom holds for electrons.1488

Electrons are more attracted to a highly electronegative atom, so the more electronegative an atom is, the more strongly electrons are attracted to it.1495

The oxygen here is more electronegative than the hydrogens, therefore, in oxygen or in water/H2O, here is some electron pairs being shared.1510

There is a pair shared here, and a pair shared here, but these electrons tend to spend more time near the oxygen atom.1535

They do not share equally their time between the two atoms. They spend more time close to the oxygen atom.1548

What that does is results in what is called a partial negative charge for the oxygen.1556

δ-, this delta symbol and then, a minus next to it means partial negative charge.1564

Since the electrons are hanging out with the oxygen more, and electrons are negative, this is going to end up with a partial negative charge.1572

Now, the opposite is going to happen with the hydrogen. It develops a partial positive charge because the electrons are1582

by the oxygen more, slightly more negatively charged oxygen, slightly more positively or δ+ over here by the hydrogen.1589

Because of the shape of water, it has this V shape.1595

This side of the molecule ends up overall slightly negative, and the hydrogen side ends up slightly positive.1609

So, this is what we call a polar molecule. H2/hydrogen molecule is non-polar.1612

Now, let's look at CO2. Again, we have these electronegative oxygens, and the electrons are more drawn to these1618

oxygens than they are to the carbon, but because this is a linear molecule, these two bounce each other out.1626

Oxygen is pulling this way. Oxygen is pulling it that way, but you do not end up with one side of the molecule that is overall1634

electronegative or overall partially negative versus partially positive charge because of this linear shape.1640

So, it is not just the atoms. It is also the configuration of the atoms that determines whether or not a molecule is polar or non-polar.1646

And in the next lecture, we are going to talk about water.1653

Water is extremely important to living beings, and the fact that water is polar gives it many important properties.1662

Another name for polar molecules like water is hydrophilic. Polar molecules are hydrophilic.1665

This means they are water-loving. They are attracted to water.1672

They dissolve in water. You might have heard the expression "like dissolves like".1684

So, polar molecules dissolve in other polar substances. Non-polar are hydrophilic or water-fearing - excuse me - hydrophobic.1689

Non-polar molecules are hydrophobic. Polar molecules are hydrophilic.1693

So, non-polar molecules do not dissolve well in water- like dissolves like. Non-polar molecules like fats dissolved in other non-polar molecules.1708

That is why oil and water do not mix.1713

If you are making a recipe, and you need to put some oil into a mixture that contains water, you will see that the oil separates out.1724

It does not dissolve in water because the oil is hydrophobic, and water is polar or hydrophilic.1726

Hydrophobic fat or lipid or oil and a hydrophilic solution such as water will not mix.1733

Alright, a second type of bond is an ionic bond.1741

Remember that in covalent bonding, the atoms share an electron pair.1753

Another way to fill the valence shell is not by sharing electron pair, but by losing or gaining an electron.1756

An ionic bond refers to the attraction between positively charged ions, which are called cations, and negatively charged ions, which are known as anions.1763

This is best understood through example, so let's look at NaCl or sodium chloride.1769

Sodium has 11 electrons. That means the first shell will contain two electrons.1780

The second shell will contain 8 electrons. This gives 10, and the third shell will have a single electron.1787

Obviously, the valence shell, the third shell, is not full.1798

Chloride has 2 electrons, the first shell, again, electrons, second shell, 8 electrons, third shell, 7 electrons.1806

This shell holds 8 electrons, so to fill its valence shell, chlorine needs one electron.1811

This problem is solved when sodium transfers an electron to chlorine to form a chloride ion.1826

OK, sodium transfers an electron to chlorine. Let's think about what would happen.1837

If sodium transfers an electron, it is going to be down to 1 electrons, but it still has 11 protons.1847

That means it is going to end up positively charged because it has one more proton than an electron.1856

So, we say this as a +1 positive charge, or we just show it as a plus.1864

In ion we could have it 2+ or 3+ positive charge. This has just a single, so it is a plus.1869

It transferred one electron to chlorine. Chlorine, in turn, now has 2 electrons.1874

It has one more electron than proton, which is going to give it a negative charge- chlorine with a negative charge.1881

It received one electron. This is, now, called a sodium ion, and this is called a chloride ion.1894

Sodium is positively charged, so it is a cation. Chloride is negatively charged, so it is an anion.1901

This step is not actually the ionic bond. It is necessary in order to get to the ionic bond.1912

But the ionic bond refers to the attraction between this positively, negatively charged ions.1922

Sodium does not just transfer the electron and then, float away.1928

In fact, these two stay associated with each other as NaCl, which is an ionic compound or salts.1939

Notice that this is not a molecule. Molecules are held together by covalent bonds.1944

It is a compound, though. It is an ionic compound.1952

These are also called salts, or this is table salt. Notice that the problem of the valence shells has been solved.1957

Since sodium lost its electron, once it loses it, there is no electrons in the third shell.1960

The second shell becomes a valence shell, and it is full.1969

Chlorine has gained an electron, and now, has 8 electrons in its valence shell; so that shell is full.1975

These two have achieved completing their valence shells, but it is not by sharing an electron pair.1979

It is by losing or gaining an electron, and then, do the positive and negative charges, they stay associated with each other.1986

Salts often form crystals, and this is because of the interactions via these ionic bonds.1991

The strongest type of bond is a covalent bond, but these other types of bonds are very important as well; and they are often called weak bonds.1999

One type of weak bond is a hydrogen bond. Now, well, a single hydrogen bond might not do a lot.2010

Many of these together can achieve something and actually have strength.2018

So, even though bonds such as hydrogen bonds are weak bonds, they are very important.2024

Let's look at water as an example of hydrogen bonding.2030

A hydrogen bond is formed when a hydrogen atom that is covalently bound to an electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom.2035

Revisiting the idea of water, oxygen, hydrogen, recall that this is a polar bond that the oxygen atom is partially negatively charged,2039

while the hydrogen atoms have a partial positive charge because the electron pair favors the oxygen atom.2049

Because this hydrogen is partially positively charged, and the oxygen is partly negatively charged, there is an attraction between2066

the hydrogen and oxygen, not just the oxygen it is bonded to, but oxygens on other water molecules2075

These dotted lines indicate hydrogen bonds. Here is the covalent bonds between hydrogen and oxygen.2084

And then, this hydrogen is attracted to this nearby water, the oxygen atom.2094

This hydrogen is attracted to this nearby oxygen atom, and so a lot of complex hydrogen bonding goes on with water.2100

As you can see here, hydrogen bonds can hold different molecules together, and they can also hold parts of large molecules together.2106

For example, proteins fold into complex shapes of conformations, and those shapes2118

are often held in place by hydrogen bonding between one region of the protein molecule and another region.2125

This hydrogen bonding is responsible for a lot of the important properties of water that we are going to talk about in the next lecture.2131

Now that we have discussed bonding, we are going to go on to talk about chemical reactions, and molecules undergo reactions by forming or breaking bonds.2138

Let's look at a typical chemical reaction: CH4, which is actually methane, combines with two molecules of water, so 2 O2.2147

And those undergo a chemical reaction to form carbon dioxide/CO2 +2 molecules of water.2156

The initial substances involved on this side are the reactants. Those end up forming products.2169

The substances that you end up with are called the products.2177

Notice with this reaction, what we have is a balanced equation.2190

This equation is balanced meaning that the atoms that I have in the left, if I count those up2193

and I count up the atoms I have on the right, I have the same number and the same type.2198

No atoms were lost or gained.2203

Let's look on the left side and the right side. Let's look at carbon.2209

I have one carbon on the left. On the right, I have one carbon, hydrogen.2212

On the left, I have 4 hydrogens. On the right, I have 2 H2s, so that is 2 x 2.2216

That gives me 4 hydrogens. I also have oxygen.2228

On the left, I have x 2 oxygens. I have 4 oxygens.2236

Here, I have O2. That is two oxygens, and then, I have x O, which is two more oxygens, give me a total of four oxygens.2240

So, we say that this equation is balanced. No atoms were lost or gained.2245

They are just combined differently.2254

Reactions can proceed in both directions, so this reaction can go in reverse.2258

You could combine CO2 and two molecules of water to get back two oxygen molecules plus a methane molecule.2261

If the ratio is not changing, we say that the reaction is in equilibrium, if ratio of the molecules is unchanging.2268

Now, that is not to say that I am going to have exactly equal amount of methane and CO2.2277

It means the ratio is not changing. In fact, often, a reaction favors one direction.2299

So, maybe this reaction favors formation of CO2 and water.2304

In that case, I might have 10 molecules of CO2 for every molecule of methane, but if the ratio is not changing, I still maintain that ratio.2309

We say that the reaction is in equilibrium. I am not gaining more and more CO2 relative to methane, then, the reaction is in equilibrium.2315

Now, when we deal with chemistry and chemicals, we are dealing with very, very small amounts.2327

And it would not really be practical to just use grams when we are talking about molecules and chemicals and atoms.2339

Since the mass is so small, chemists have developed a different system with which to measure molecular masses and concentrations of chemicals and solutions.2345

A mole is simply a number. It is 6.02 x 1023.2352

If you say you have a mole of something, you are saying you have 6.02 x 1023.2364

This is no different than saying you have a dozen of something.2370

If you say "I have a dozen apples", you are saying "I have 12 apples", the same way you could say "I have a mole of apples", "I have 6.02 x 1023 apples".2375

You could say you have a mole of glucose, 6.02 x 1023 glucose molecules.2379

This number, 6.0 x 1023, is known as Avogadro's number, and it is named after an Italian physicist.2390

Let's talk about molecular mass and moles. If you take a sample of an element that is equal to its atomic mass, you will have one mole of that element.2397

Take a sample of an element equal to the element's atomic mass. You will have one mole of the element, for example carbon.2415

Carbon has an atomic mass equals 12.2432

Therefore, if I take 1 grams of carbon equals 1 mole of carbon, that means that in 12 grams of carbon, you will have 6.02 x 1023 carbon atoms.2468

Now, let's say you are not just dealing with a molecule - excuse me - an element. Let's say you are dealing with a molecule.2476

I know for an element, that I just have to look at the atomic mass, take that amount in grams, and I have a mole.2498

In order to find a mole of a molecule, I need to find the molecular mass of the molecule.2506

Molecular mass equals the sum of the masses of the atoms in the molecule.2508

Simple example, water/H2O, here, I have two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.2512

Hydrogen has a mass of 1. Oxygen has a mass of 16.2540

I am going to take one hydrogen atom with a mass of 1 plus the second hydrogen ion with a mass of 1 plus an oxygen atom with a mass of 16, and I am going to get 18.2548

This is the molecular mass. If I take a sample of 2 grams of water, this is going to equal mole of water or 6.02 x 1023 molecules of water.2559

Something else to understand is that let's say I had a dozen water molecules. Let's talk about a dozen instead of a mole.2575

I can say "oh, I have a dozen water molecules", and then you ask me how many hydrogens I have.2594

Well, if I broke up the water, the dozen water molecules, it ends up just hydrogens and oxygens.2601

Each water molecule has two hydrogen atoms, so actually, it would have 2 hydrogens and 12 oxygens in that water, in that dozen.2606

So, if I said I have a dozen water molecules, that means I have a dozen water molecules.2612

But if I broke them up, I would actually have two dozen hydrogen atoms and one dozen oxygen atoms.2626

In that same way, if you have a mole of water and you broke it up, you would end up with 2 moles of hydrogen atoms and 1 mole of oxygen atoms.2631

This has to do with mass, and when you are working with dry or just certain chemicals, it is very helpful; but a lot of times, we are working with solutions.2639

And when we work with solutions, we talk about molarity.2660

A 1 molar solution - and we will often write this as 1 mole - equals 1 mole of a substance dissolved in 1 liter of solvent, and it can be written as 1M as shown.2670

For example, let's say I wanted a 1 molar solution of glucose. Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6.2678

I need to figure out the molecular mass. OK, so I have glucose, and I want a 1 molar solution.2709

The molecular mass of glucose is going to be the mass of carbon, which is 12 times I have 6 carbon atoms2727

plus the mass of hydrogen, which is 1 x 12 hydrogens plus the mass of oxygen, which is 16 x 6 oxygen atoms.2754

And if you add these up, you will get 180. Therefore, the molecular mass of glucose is 180.2766

In order to get a molar solution of glucose, dissolve 180 grams of glucose in 1 liter of water.2779

OK, molarity, to make a 1 molar solution, figure out the molecular mass.2788

That will tell you how much of something you need, how many grams you need to get 1 mole.2813

So, I have 6.0 x 1023 glucose molecules and 180 grams of glucose, and I am going to dissolve that in 1 liter of water; and I will have a 1 molar solution.2821

Alright, let's try out some examples now.2827

Example 1: the atomic number of fluorine is 9, and its atomic mass is 19. How many protons, neutrons and electrons does it have, is it inert, why or why not?2841

Remember that the atomic number equals the number of protons.2844

The atomic mass, we often use interchangeably with mass number, although they are not exactly equal.2858

Because the mass in electrons is negligible, we often use them interchangeably, so the atomic mass equals 19.2868

In this case, we are using that as a mass number as well, and therefore, if I know that that is equal2876

to the number of neutrons plus the protons, then, I simply take 2 - 9 - so the atomic number is 9 - to give me 10 neutrons.2885

Alright, let's keep track of what we have. We have the atomic number.2897

Protons equal the atomic number equal 9. Neutrons, I am just taking the mass number, which is the number of neutrons and protons.2914

And I am subtracting the number of protons from that, and that leaves me with 10 neutrons.2919

In its neutral form, the number of protons and electrons will be equal, so I am going to have 9, 9 protons, 10 neutrons, 9 electrons. Is this inert?2934

Well, remember that an inert element has a full valence shell, so let's look at the electron situation.2938

I have 9 electrons. In the first shell, I have two electrons.2949

The second shell is going to have seven electrons. This is the valence shell.2957

This shell holds 8 electrons. Therefore, this is short 1 electron.2963

This does not have a full valence shell, so it is not inert because its valence shell is not full.2970

Second example, we have a chemical equation here.2981

Example 2: 6 carbon dioxides plus 6 water molecules gives...it is actually glucose plus oxygen.2991

This equation shows the formation of glucose, what coefficients needed to be placed in front of the products in order to balance the equation.2996

A balanced equation means you are not going to lose anything in terms of atoms or gain any atoms between reactants and products.3005

Reactants for carbon, I have 6 carbon molecules, products, 6 oxygen. 6 x 2 is 12, plus 1 is 13.3012

Here on the right or...excuse me, correction. This is 6 x 2 is 12, and then, 6 x 1 oxygen in each of the 6 water molecules is 6.3026

So, that is going to be actually oxygen is going to be x 2 is 12 + 6 more to give me 18.3044

On the right, I only have 6 + 2, and we have 8; so I have got a problem right here. This part is not balanced.3058

Hydrogen, x 2 is 12. On the right, I have 12, so I need to fix the oxygen, and you can actually use fractions.3070

You could use fractions on the left to fix it, make this number of oxygen smaller, but it would actually be easier to just use a whole number on the right.3078

Since the carbons are correct, and the hydrogens are correct, I do not want to mess with this, with the glucose.3092

I just want to focus on the oxygen where the problem is, so I am going to try some different coefficients.3100

I need quite a few more, so I am going to start out with 4. I am going to try putting a 4 in front of this and see what happens.3106

Now, I have 6 oxygens + 4 x 2, which is 8, 8 + 6 = 14.3112

That is not enough, so let's try a coefficient of 5. I have six oxygens here plus x 2 is 10.3119

That is 16. Remember, I want 18, so that is not big enough.3128

Let's try again. x 2 is 12, plus the 6 I have here, is 18.3141

Therefore, a coefficient of 6 in front of this O2 will balance this equation because now, I would still have my 6 carbons on both sides.3145

I solved my 1 hydrogens, and now, I have 2 oxygen on the left and then, 18 oxygen atoms on the right, so this is now a balanced equation.3153

Example 3: KCl/potassium chloride is a salt that disassociates into potassium and chloride ions. What type of bond holds KCl together?3165

Describe this type of bond and how it is formed. Well, this is a salt and this dissociates to form ions, therefore, it is an ionic bond.3175

This is formed by the attraction between the negatively charged chloride and a positively charged potassium ion.3187

What had to happen for this to occur is that potassium transferred 1 electron to chlorine.3198

The result is that there was one with more proton than electron left on potassium, and you ended up with potassium ion.3215

Chlorine got an extra electron and became the negatively charged chloride ion, and these two are attracted to each other due to their opposite charges.3228

So, this is an ionic bond.3239

Example 4: sucrose or table sugar is given by their formula C12H22O11.3251

What mass of sucrose in grams will need to be added to 1 liter of water to make a 1 molar solution of sucrose?3256

Remember that a 1 molar solution is 1 mole of a substance dissolved in 1 liter.3264

Remember that in order to figure out how much of a substance you would need to get a mole, you need to figure out the molecular mass.3271

So, I need to figure out the molecular mass of sucrose, of C12H22O11.3303

The atomic mass of carbon is approximately equal to 12 just counting electrons, so it is the carbon atomic mass.3311

Hydrogen mass is 1, and the mass of oxygen is 16.3324

Therefore, I am going to have 12 carbons x the mass of 12 + 22 hydrogens x the mass of 1 + 11 oxygens times the mass of 16.3342

And if you figure this out, 12 x 12 as it comes out to 144 + 22. 11 x 16 is actually 176, so that is 342 grams.3350

Therefore, I would need to add 342 grams of sucrose to 1 liter of water to form a 1 molar solution.3364

Thanks for visiting Educator.com, and I will see you next time.3377