Enter your Sign on user name and password.

Forgot password?
Sign In | Subscribe
Start learning today, and be successful in your academic & professional career. Start Today!

Use Chrome browser to play professor video
Dr. Carleen Eaton

Dr. Carleen Eaton

Animal Behavior

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Chemistry of Life
Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Bonds

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Elements
0:09
Elements
0:48
Matter
0:55
Naturally Occurring Elements
1:12
Atomic Number and Atomic Mass
2:39
Compounds
3:06
Molecule
3:07
Compounds
3:14
Examples
3:20
Atoms
4:53
Atoms
4:56
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
5:29
Isotopes
10:42
Energy Levels of Electrons
13:01
Electron Shells
13:13
Valence Shell
13:22
Example: Electron Shells and Potential Energy
13:28
Covalent Bonds
19:52
Covalent Bonds
19:54
Examples
20:03
Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
23:54
Polar Bond
24:07
Nonpolar Bonds
24:17
Examples
24:25
Ionic Bonds
29:04
Ionic Bond, Cations, Anions
29:19
Example: NaCl
29:30
Hydrogen Bond
33:18
Hydrogen Bond
33:20
Chemical Reactions
35:36
Example: Reactants, Products and Chemical Reactions
35:45
Molecular Mass and Molar Concentration
38:45
Avogadro's Number and Mol
39:12
Examples: Molecular Mass and Molarity
42:10
Example 1: Proton, Neutrons and Electrons
47:05
Example 2: Reactants and Products
49:35
Example 3: Bonding
52:39
Example 4: Mass
53:59
Properties of Water

50m 23s

Intro
0:00
Molecular Structure of Water
0:21
Molecular Structure of Water
0:27
Properties of Water
4:30
Cohesive
4:55
Transpiration
5:29
Adhesion
6:20
Surface Tension
7:17
Properties of Water, cont.
9:14
Specific Heat
9:25
High Heat Capacity
13:24
High Heat of Evaporation
16:42
Water as a Solvent
21:13
Solution
21:28
Solvent
21:48
Example: Water as a Solvent
22:22
Acids and Bases
25:40
Example
25:41
pH
36:30
pH Scale: Acidic, Neutral, and Basic
36:35
Example 1: Molecular Structure and Properties of Water
41:18
Example 2: Special Properties of Water
42:53
Example 3: pH Scale
44:46
Example 4: Acids and Bases
46:19
Organic Compounds

53m 54s

Intro
0:00
Organic Compounds
0:09
Organic Compounds
0:11
Inorganic Compounds
0:15
Examples: Organic Compounds
1:15
Isomers
5:52
Isomers
5:55
Structural Isomers
6:23
Geometric Isomers
8:14
Enantiomers
9:55
Functional Groups
12:46
Examples: Functional Groups
12:59
Amino Group
13:51
Carboxyl Group
14:38
Hydroxyl Group
15:22
Methyl Group
16:14
Carbonyl Group
16:30
Phosphate Group
17:51
Carbohydrates
18:26
Carbohydrates
19:07
Example: Monosaccharides
21:12
Carbohydrates, cont.
24:11
Disaccharides, Polysaccharides and Examples
24:21
Lipids
35:52
Examples of Lipids
36:04
Saturated and Unsaturated
38:57
Phospholipids
43:26
Phospholipids
43:29
Example
43:34
Steroids
46:24
Cholesterol
46:28
Example 1: Isomers
48:11
Example 2: Functional Groups
50:45
Example 3: Galactose, Ketose, and Aldehyde Sugar
52:24
Example 4: Class of Molecules
53:06
Nucleic Acids and Proteins

37m 23s

Intro
0:00
Nucleic Acids
0:09
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
0:29
Nucleic Acids, cont.
2:56
Purines
3:10
Pyrimidines
3:32
Double Helix
4:59
Double Helix and Example
5:01
Proteins
12:33
Amino Acids and Polypeptides
12:39
Examples: Amino Acid
13:25
Polypeptide Formation
18:09
Peptide Bonds
18:14
Primary Structure
18:35
Protein Structure
23:19
Secondary Structure
23:22
Alpha Helices and Beta Pleated Sheets
23:34
Protein Structure
25:43
Tertiary Structure
25:44
5 Types of Interaction
26:56
Example 1: Complementary DNA Strand
31:45
Example 2: Differences Between DNA and RNA
33:19
Example 3: Amino Acids
34:32
Example 4: Tertiary Structure of Protein
35:46
II. Cell Structure and Function
Cell Types (Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic)

45m 50s

Intro
0:00
Cell Theory and Cell Types
0:12
Cell Theory
0:13
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
0:36
Endosymbiotic Theory
1:13
Study of Cells
4:07
Tools and Techniques
4:08
Light Microscopes
5:08
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Magnification
5:18
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Resolution
6:26
Light vs. Electron Microscopes: Specimens
7:53
Electron Microscopes: Transmission and Scanning
8:28
Cell Fractionation
10:01
Cell Fractionation Step 1: Homogenization
10:33
Cell Fractionation Step 2: Spin
11:24
Cell Fractionation Step 3: Differential Centrifugation
11:53
Comparison of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells
14:12
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Domains
14:43
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Plasma Membrane
15:40
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Cell Walls
16:15
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Genetic Materials
16:38
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Structures
17:28
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Unicellular and Multicellular
18:19
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells: Size
18:31
Plasmids
18:52
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
19:22
Nucleus
19:24
Organelles
19:48
Cytoskeleton
20:02
Cell Wall
20:35
Ribosomes
20:57
Size
21:37
Comparison of Plant and Animal Cells
22:15
Plasma Membrane
22:55
Plant Cells Only: Cell Walls
23:12
Plant Cells Only: Central Vacuole
25:08
Animal Cells Only: Centrioles
26:40
Animal Cells Only: Lysosomes
27:43
Plant vs. Animal Cells
29:16
Overview of Plant and Animal Cells
29:17
Evidence for the Endosymbiotic Theory
30:52
Characteristics of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
30:54
Example 1: Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells
35:44
Example 2: Endosymbiotic Theory and Evidence
38:38
Example 3: Plant and Animal Cells
41:49
Example 4: Cell Fractionation
43:44
Subcellular Structure

59m 38s

Intro
0:00
Prokaryotic Cells
0:09
Shapes of Prokaryotic Cells
0:22
Cell Wall
1:19
Capsule
3:23
Pili/Fimbria
3:54
Flagella
4:35
Nucleoid
6:16
Plasmid
6:37
Ribosomes
7:09
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure)
8:01
Plasma Membrane
8:13
Microvilli
8:48
Nucleus
9:47
Nucleolus
11:06
Ribosomes: Free and Bound
12:26
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
13:43
Eukaryotic Cells (Animal Cell Structure), cont.
14:51
Endoplasmic Reticulum: Smooth and Rough
15:08
Golgi Apparatus
17:55
Vacuole
20:43
Lysosome
22:01
Mitochondria
25:40
Peroxisomes
28:18
Cytoskeleton
30:41
Cytoplasm and Cytosol
30:53
Microtubules: Centrioles, Spindel Fibers, Clagell, Cillia
32:06
Microfilaments
36:39
Intermediate Filaments and Kerotin
38:52
Eukaryotic Cells (Plant Cell Structure)
40:08
Plasma Membrane, Primary Cell Wall, and Secondary Cell Wall
40:30
Middle Lamella
43:21
Central Cauole
44:12
Plastids: Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chrloroplasts
45:35
Chloroplasts
47:06
Example 1: Structures and Functions
48:46
Example 2: Cell Walls
51:19
Example 3: Cytoskeleton
52:53
Example 4: Antibiotics and the Endosymbiosis Theory
56:55
Cell Membranes and Transport

53m 10s

Intro
0:00
Cell Membrane Structure
0:09
Phospholipids Bilayer
0:11
Chemical Structure: Amphipathic and Fatty Acids
0:25
Cell Membrane Proteins
2:44
Fluid Mosaic Model
2:45
Peripheral Proteins and Integral Proteins
3:19
Transmembrane Proteins
4:34
Cholesterol
4:48
Functions of Membrane Proteins
6:39
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:52
Transport Across Cell Membranes
9:53
Methods of Passive Transport
12:07
Passive and Active Transport
12:08
Simple Diffusion
12:45
Facilitated Diffusion
15:20
Osmosis
17:17
Definition and Example of Osmosis
17:18
Hypertonic, Hypotonic, and Isotonic
21:47
Active Transport
27:57
Active Transport
28:17
Sodium and Potassium Pump
29:45
Cotransport
34:38
2 Types of Active Transport
37:09
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:38
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
37:51
Types of Endocytosis: Pinocytosis
40:39
Types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis
41:02
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:27
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
41:28
Example 1: Cell Membrane and Permeable Substances
43:59
Example 2: Osmosis
45:20
Example 3: Active Transport, Cotransport, Simple and Facilitated Diffusion
47:36
Example 4: Match Terms with Definition
50:55
Cellular Communication

57m 9s

Intro
0:00
Extracellular Matrix
0:28
The Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
0:29
ECM in Animal Cells
0:55
Fibronectin and Integrins
1:34
Intercellular Communication in Plants
2:48
Intercellular Communication in Plants: Plasmodesmata
2:50
Cell to Cell Communication in Animal Cells
3:39
Cell Junctions
3:42
Desmosomes
3:54
Tight Junctions
5:07
Gap Junctions
7:00
Cell Signaling
8:17
Cell Signaling: Ligand and Signal Transduction Pathway
8:18
Direct Contact
8:48
Over Distances Contact and Hormones
10:09
Stages of Cell Signaling
11:53
Reception Phase
11:54
Transduction Phase
13:49
Response Phase
14:45
Cell Membrane Receptors
15:37
G-Protein Coupled Receptor
15:38
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
21:37
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs)
21:38
Autophosphorylation, Monomer, and Dimer
22:57
Cell Membrane Receptor, Cont.
27:01
Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
27:02
Intracellular Receptors
29:43
Intracellular Receptor and Receptor -Ligand Complex
29:44
Signal Transduction
32:57
Signal Transduction Pathways
32:58
Adenylyl Cyclase and cAMP
35:53
Second Messengers
39:18
cGMP, Inositol Trisphosphate, and Diacylglycerol
39:20
Cell Response
45:15
Cell Response
45:16
Apoptosis
46:57
Example 1: Tight Junction and Gap Junction
48:29
Example 2: Three Phases of Cell Signaling
51:48
Example 3: Ligands and Binding of Hormone
54:03
Example 4: Signal Transduction
56:06
III. Cell Division
The Cell Cycle

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Functions of Cell Division
0:09
Overview of Cell Division: Reproduction, Growth, and Repair
0:11
Important Term: Daughter Cells
2:25
Chromosome Structure
3:36
Chromosome Structure: Sister Chromatids and Centromere
3:37
Chromosome Structure: Chromatin
4:31
Chromosome with One Chromatid or Two Chromatids
5:25
Chromosome Structure: Long and Short Arm
6:49
Mitosis and Meiosis
7:00
Mitosis
7:41
Meiosis
8:40
The Cell Cycle
10:43
Mitotic Phase and Interphase
10:44
Cytokinesis
15:51
Cytokinesis in Animal Cell: Cleavage Furrow
15:52
Cytokinesis in Plant Cell: Cell Plate
17:28
Control of the Cell Cycle
18:28
Cell Cycle Control System and Checkpoints
18:29
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases
21:18
Cyclins and Cyclin Dependent Kinases (CDKSs)
21:20
MPF
23:17
Internal Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:00
External Factor Regulating Cell Cycle
24:53
Contact Inhibition and Anchorage Dependent
25:53
Cancer and the Cell Cycle
27:42
Cancer Cells
27:46
Example1: Parts of the Chromosome
30:15
Example 2: Cell Cycle
31:50
Example 3: Control of the Cell Cycle
33:32
Example 4: Cancer and the Cell
35:01
Mitosis

35m 1s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Cell Cycle
0:09
Interphase: G1 Phase
0:34
Interphase: S Phase
0:56
Interphase: G2 Phase
1:31
M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis
1:47
Overview of Mitosis
3:08
What is Mitosis?
3:10
Overview of Mitosis
3:17
Diploid and Haploid
5:37
Homologous Chromosomes
6:04
The Spindle Apparatus
11:57
The Spindle Apparatus
12:00
Centrosomes and Centrioles
12:40
Microtubule Organizing Center
13:03
Spindle Fiber of Spindle Microtubules
13:23
Kinetochores
14:06
Asters
15:45
Prophase
16:47
First Phase of Mitosis: Prophase
16:54
Metaphase
20:05
Second Phase of Mitosis: Metaphase
20:10
Anaphase
22:52
Third Phase of Mitosis: Anaphase
22:53
Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:34
Last Phase of Mitosis: Telophase and Cytokinesis
24:35
Summary of Mitosis
27:46
Summary of Mitosis
27:47
Example 1: Spindle Apparatus
28:50
Example 2: Last Phase of Mitosis
30:39
Example 3: Prophase
32:41
Example 4: Identify the Phase
33:52
Meiosis

1h 58s

Intro
0:00
Haploid and Diploid Cells
0:09
Diploid and Somatic Cells
0:29
Haploid and Gametes
1:20
Example: Human Cells and Chromosomes
1:41
Sex Chromosomes
6:00
Comparison of Mitosis and Meiosis
10:42
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Cell Division
10:59
Mitosis Vs. Meiosis: Daughter Cells
12:31
Meiosis: Pairing of Homologous Chromosomes
13:40
Mitosis and Meiosis
14:21
Process of Mitosis
14:27
Process of Meiosis
16:12
Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:14
Prophase I: Synapsis and Crossing Over
19:15
Chiasmata
22:33
Meiosis I
25:49
Prophase I: Crossing Over
25:50
Metaphase I: Homologs Line Up
26:00
Anaphase I: Homologs Separate
28:16
Telophase I and Cytokinesis
29:15
Independent Assortment
30:58
Meiosis II
32:17
Propphase II
33:50
Metaphase II
34:06
Anaphase II
34:50
Telophase II
36:09
Cytokinesis
37:00
Summary of Meiosis
38:15
Summary of Meiosis
38:16
Cell Division Mechanism in Plants
41:57
Example 1: Cell Division and Meiosis
46:15
Example 2: Phases of Meiosis
50:22
Example 3: Label the Figure
54:29
Example 4: Four Differences Between Mitosis and Meiosis
56:37
IV. Cellular Energetics
Enzymes

51m 3s

Intro
0:00
Law of Thermodynamics
0:08
Thermodynamics
0:09
The First Law of Thermodynamics
0:37
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
1:24
Entropy
1:35
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:07
The Gibbs Free Energy Equation
3:08
ATP
8:23
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
8:24
Cellular Respiration
11:32
Catabolic Pathways
12:28
Anabolic Pathways
12:54
Enzymes
14:31
Enzymes
14:32
Enzymes and Exergonic Reaction
14:40
Enzymes and Endergonic Reaction
16:36
Enzyme Specificity
21:29
Substrate
21:41
Induced Fit
23:04
Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity
25:55
Substrate Concentration
26:07
pH
27:10
Temperature
29:14
Presence of Cofactors
29:57
Regulation of Enzyme Activity
31:12
Competitive Inhibitors
32:13
Noncompetitive Inhibitors
33:52
Feedback Inhibition
35:22
Allosteric Interactions
36:56
Allosteric Regulators
37:00
Example 1: Is the Inhibitor Competitive or Noncompetitive?
40:49
Example 2: Thermophiles
44:18
Example 3: Exergonic or Endergonic
46:09
Example 4: Energy Vs. Reaction Progress Graph
48:47
Glycolysis and Anaerobic Respiration

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Respiration Overview
0:13
Cellular Respiration
0:14
Anaerobic Respiration vs. Aerobic Respiration
3:50
Glycolysis Overview
4:48
Overview of Glycolysis
4:50
Glycolysis Involves a Redox Reaction
7:02
Redox Reaction
7:04
Glycolysis
15:04
Important Facts About Glycolysis
15:07
Energy Invested Phase
16:12
Splitting of Fructose 1,6-Phosphate and Energy Payoff Phase
17:50
Substrate Level Phophorylation
22:12
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:57
Aerobic Versus Anaerobic Respiration
23:58
Cellular Respiration Overview
27:15
When Cellular Respiration is Anaerobic
27:17
Glycolysis
28:26
Alcohol Fermentation
28:45
Lactic Acid Fermentation
29:58
Example 1: Glycolysis
31:04
Example 2: Glycolysis, Fermentation and Anaerobic Respiration
33:44
Example 3: Aerobic Respiration Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
35:25
Example 4: Exergonic Reaction and Endergonic Reaction
36:42
Aerobic Respiration

51m 6s

Intro
0:00
Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Respiration
0:06
Aerobic and Anaerobic Comparison
0:07
Review of Glycolysis
1:48
Overview of Glycolysis
2:06
Glycolysis: Energy Investment Phase
2:25
Glycolysis: Energy Payoff Phase
2:58
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:55
Conversion of Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA
4:56
Energy Formation
8:06
Mitochondrial Structure
8:58
Endosymbiosis Theory
9:23
Matrix
10:00
Outer Membrane, Inner Membrane, and Intermembrane Space
10:43
Cristae
11:47
The Citric Acid Cycle
12:11
The Citric Acid Cycle (Also Called Krebs Cycle)
12:12
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
18:47
Summary of ATP, NADH, and FADH2 Production
23:13
Process: Glycolysis
23:28
Process: Acetyl CoA Production
23:36
Process: Citric Acid Cycle
23:52
The Electron Transport Chain
24:24
Oxidative Phosphorylation
24:28
The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthase
25:20
Carrier Molecules: Cytochromes
27:18
Carrier Molecules: Flavin Mononucleotide (FMN)
28:05
Chemiosmosis
32:46
The Process of Chemiosmosis
32:47
Summary of ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:24
ATP Produced by Aerobic Respiration
38:27
Example 1: Aerobic Respiration
43:38
Example 2: Label the Location for Each Process and Structure
45:08
Example 3: The Electron Transport Chain
47:06
Example 4: Mitochondrial Inner Membrane
48:38
Photosynthesis

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Photosynthesis
0:09
Introduction to Photosynthesis
0:10
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
0:25
Overview of Photosynthesis Reaction
1:05
Leaf Anatomy and Chloroplast Structure
2:54
Chloroplast
2:55
Cuticle
3:16
Upper Epidermis
3:27
Mesophyll
3:40
Stomates
4:00
Guard Cells
4:45
Transpiration
5:01
Vascular Bundle
5:20
Stroma and Double Membrane
6:20
Grana
7:17
Thylakoids
7:30
Dark Reaction and Light Reaction
7:46
Light Reactions
8:43
Light Reactions
8:47
Pigments: Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Carotenoids
9:19
Wave and Particle
12:10
Photon
12:34
Photosystems
13:24
Photosystems
13:28
Reaction-Center Complex and Light Harvesting Complexes
14:01
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
17:46
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Overview
17:47
What is Photophosphorylation?
18:25
Noncyclic Photophosphorylation Process
19:07
Photolysis and The Rest of Noncyclic Photophosphorylation
21:33
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:45
Cyclic Photophosphorylation
31:46
Light Independent Reactions
34:34
The Calvin Cycle
34:35
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:31
C3 Plants and Photorespiration
40:32
C4 Plants
45:32
C4 Plants: Structures and Functions
45:33
CAM Plants
50:25
CAM Plants: Structures and Functions
50:35
Example 1: Calvin Cycle
54:34
Example 2: C4 Plant
55:48
Example 3: Photosynthesis and Photorespiration
58:35
Example 4: CAM Plants
1:00:41
V. Molecular Genetics
DNA Synthesis

38m 45s

Intro
0:00
Review of DNA Structure
0:09
DNA Molecules
0:10
Nitrogenous Base: Pyrimidines and Purines
1:25
DNA Double Helix
3:03
Complementary Strands of DNA
3:12
5' to 3' & Antiparallel
4:55
Overview of DNA Replication
7:10
DNA Replication & Semiconservative
7:11
DNA Replication
10:26
Origin of Replication
10:28
Helicase
11:10
Single-Strand Binding Protein
12:05
Topoisomerases
13:14
DNA Polymerase
14:26
Primase
15:55
Leading and Lagging Strands
16:51
Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
16:52
Okazaki Fragments
18:10
DNA Polymerase I
20:11
Ligase
21:12
Proofreading and Mismatch Repair
22:18
Proofreading
22:19
Mismatch
23:33
Telomeres
24:58
Telomeres
24:59
Example 1: Function of Enzymes During DNA Synthesis
28:09
Example 2: Accuracy of the DNA Sequence
31:42
Example 3: Leading Strand and Lagging Strand
32:38
Example 4: Telomeres
35:40
Transcription and Translation

1h 17m 1s

Intro
0:00
Transcription and Translation Overview
0:07
From DNA to RNA to Protein
0:09
Structure and Types of RNA
3:14
Structure and Types of RNA
3:33
mRNA
6:19
rRNA
7:02
tRNA
7:28
Transcription
7:54
Initiation Phase
8:11
Elongation Phase
12:12
Termination Phase
14:51
RNA Processing
16:11
Types of RNA Processing
16:12
Exons and Introns
16:35
Splicing & Spliceosomes
18:27
Addition of a 5' Cap and a Poly A tail
20:41
Alternative Splicing
21:43
Translation
23:41
Nucleotide Triplets or Codons
23:42
Start Codon
25:24
Stop Codons
25:38
Coding of Amino Acids and Wobble Position
25:57
Translation Cont.
28:29
Transfer RNA (tRNA): Structures and Functions
28:30
Ribosomes
35:15
Peptidyl, Aminoacyl, and Exit Site
35:23
Steps of Translation
36:58
Initiation Phase
37:12
Elongation Phase
43:12
Termination Phase
45:28
Mutations
49:43
Types of Mutations
49:44
Substitutions: Silent
51:11
Substitutions: Missense
55:27
Substitutions: Nonsense
59:37
Insertions and Deletions
1:01:10
Example 1: Three Types of Processing that are Performed on pre-mRNA
1:06:53
Example 2: The Process of Translation
1:09:10
Example 3: Transcription
1:12:04
Example 4: Three Types of Substitution Mutations
1:14:09
Viral Structure and Genetics

43m 12s

Intro
0:00
Structure of Viruses
0:09
Structure of Viruses: Capsid and Envelope
0:10
Bacteriophage
1:48
Other Viruses
2:28
Overview of Viral Reproduction
3:15
Host Range
3:48
Step 1: Bind to Host Cell
4:39
Step 2: Viral Nuclei Acids Enter the Cell
5:15
Step 3: Viral Nucleic Acids & Proteins are Synthesized
5:54
Step 4: Virus Assembles
6:34
Step 5: Virus Exits the Cell
6:55
The Lytic Cycle
7:37
Steps in the Lytic Cycle
7:38
The Lysogenic Cycle
11:27
Temperate Phage
11:34
Steps in the Lysogenic Cycle
12:09
RNA Viruses
16:57
Types of RNA Viruses
17:15
Positive Sense
18:16
Negative Sense
18:48
Reproductive Cycle of RNA Viruses
19:32
Retroviruses
25:48
Complementary DNA (cDNA) & Reverse Transcriptase
25:49
Life Cycle of a Retrovirus
28:22
Prions
32:42
Prions: Definition and Examples
32:45
Viroids
34:46
Example 1: The Lytic Cycle
35:37
Example 2: Retrovirus
38:03
Example 3: Positive Sense RNA vs. Negative Sense RNA
39:10
Example 4: The Lysogenic Cycle
40:42
Bacterial Genetics and Gene Regulation

49m 45s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Genomes
0:09
Structure of Bacterial Genomes
0:16
Transformation
1:22
Transformation
1:23
Vector
2:49
Transduction
3:32
Process of Transduction
3:38
Conjugation
8:06
Conjugation & F factor
8:07
Operons
14:02
Definition and Example of Operon
14:52
Structural Genes
16:23
Promoter Region
17:04
Regulatory Protein & Operators
17:53
The lac Operon
20:09
The lac Operon: Inducible System
20:10
The trp Operon
28:02
The trp Operon: Repressible System
28:03
Corepressor
31:37
Anabolic & Catabolic
33:12
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:39
Positive Regulation of the lac Operon
34:40
Example 1: The Process of Transformation
39:07
Example 2: Operon & Terms
43:29
Example 3: Inducible lac Operon and Repressible trp Operon
45:15
Example 4: lac Operon
47:10
Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Mobile Genetic Elements

54m 26s

Intro
0:00
Mechanism of Gene Regulation
0:11
Differential Gene Expression
0:13
Levels of Regulation
2:24
Chromatin Structure and Modification
4:35
Chromatin Structure
4:36
Levels of Packing
5:50
Euchromatin and Heterochromatin
8:58
Modification of Chromatin Structure
9:58
Epigenetic
12:49
Regulation of Transcription
14:20
Promoter Region, Exon, and Intron
14:26
Enhancers: Control Element
15:31
Enhancer & DNA-Bending Protein
17:25
Coordinate Control
21:23
Silencers
23:01
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:05
Post-Transcriptional Regulation
24:07
Alternative Splicing
27:19
Differences in mRNA Stability
28:02
Non-Coding RNA Molecules: micro RNA & siRNA
30:01
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:31
Regulation of Translation and Post-Translational Modifications
32:55
Ubiquitin
35:21
Proteosomes
36:04
Transposons
37:50
Mobile Genetic Elements
37:56
Barbara McClintock
38:37
Transposons & Retrotransposons
40:38
Insertion Sequences
43:14
Complex Transposons
43:58
Example 1: Four Mechanisms that Decrease Production of Protein
45:13
Example 2: Enhancers and Gene Expression
49:09
Example 3: Primary Transcript
50:41
Example 4: Retroviruses and Retrotransposons
52:11
Biotechnology

49m 26s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Biotechnology
0:08
Biotechnology
0:09
Genetic Engineering
1:05
Example: Golden Corn
1:57
Recombinant DNA
2:41
Recombinant DNA
2:42
Transformation
3:24
Transduction
4:24
Restriction Enzymes, Restriction Sites, & DNA Ligase
5:32
Gene Cloning
13:48
Plasmids
14:20
Gene Cloning: Step 1
17:35
Gene Cloning: Step 2
17:57
Gene Cloning: Step 3
18:53
Gene Cloning: Step 4
19:46
Gel Electrophoresis
27:25
What is Gel Electrophoresis?
27:26
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 1
28:13
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 2
28:24
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 3 & 4
28:39
Gel Electrophoresis: Step 5
29:55
Southern Blotting
31:25
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:11
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
32:12
Denaturing Phase
35:40
Annealing Phase
36:07
Elongation/ Extension Phase
37:06
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:19
DNA Sequencing and the Human Genome Project
39:20
Example 1: Gene Cloning
40:40
Example 2: Recombinant DNA
43:04
Example 3: Match Terms With Descriptions
45:43
Example 4: Polymerase Chain Reaction
47:36
VI. Heredity
Mendelian Genetics

1h 32m 8s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:40
Gregory Mendel & Mendel's Law
0:41
Blending Hypothesis
1:04
Particulate Inheritance
2:08
Terminology
2:55
Gene
3:05
Locus
3:57
Allele
4:37
Dominant Allele
5:48
Recessive Allele
7:38
Genotype
9:22
Phenotype
10:01
Homozygous
10:44
Heterozygous
11:39
Penetrance
11:57
Expressivity
14:15
Mendel's Experiments
15:31
Mendel's Experiments: Pea Plants
15:32
The Law of Segregation
21:16
Mendel's Conclusions
21:17
The Law of Segregation
22:57
Punnett Squares
28:27
Using Punnet Squares
28:30
The Law of Independent Assortment
32:35
Monohybrid
32:38
Dihybrid
33:29
The Law of Independent Assortment
34:00
The Law of Independent Assortment, cont.
38:13
The Law of Independent Assortment: Punnet Squares
38:29
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:38
Meiosis and Mendel's Laws
43:39
Test Crosses
49:07
Test Crosses Example
49:08
Probability: Multiplication Rule and the Addition Rule
53:39
Probability Overview
53:40
Independent Events & Multiplication Rule
55:40
Mutually Exclusive Events & Addition Rule
1:00:25
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:02:55
Incomplete Dominance
1:02:56
Incomplete Dominance, Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:06
Codominance and Multiple Alleles
1:07:08
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:19
Polygenic Inheritance and Pleoitropy
1:10:26
Epistasis
1:12:51
Example of Epistasis
1:12:52
Example 1: Genetic of Eye Color and Height
1:17:39
Example 2: Blood Type
1:21:57
Example 3: Pea Plants
1:25:09
Example 4: Coat Color
1:28:34
Linked Genes and Non-Mendelian Modes of Inheritance

39m 38s

Intro
0:00
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:14
Review of the Law of Independent Assortment
0:24
Linked Genes
6:06
Linked Genes
6:07
Bateson & Pannett: Pea Plants
8:00
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:17
Crossing Over and Recombination
15:18
Extranuclear Genes
20:50
Extranuclear Genes
20:51
Cytoplasmic Genes
21:31
Genomic Imprinting
23:45
Genomic Imprinting
23:58
Methylation
24:43
Example 1: Recombination Frequencies & Linkage Map
27:07
Example 2: Linked Genes
28:39
Example 3: Match Terms to Correct Descriptions
36:46
Example 4: Leber's Optic Neuropathy
38:40
Sex-Linked Traits and Pedigree Analysis

43m 39s

Intro
0:00
Sex-Linked Traits
0:09
Human Chromosomes, XY, and XX
0:10
Thomas Morgan's Drosophila
1:44
X-Inactivation and Barr Bodies
14:48
X-Inactivation Overview
14:49
Calico Cats Example
17:04
Pedigrees
19:24
Definition and Example of Pedigree
19:25
Autosomal Dominant Inheritance
20:51
Example: Huntington's Disease
20:52
Autosomal Recessive Inheritance
23:04
Example: Cystic Fibrosis, Tay-Sachs Disease, and Phenylketonuria
23:05
X-Linked Recessive Inheritance
27:06
Example: Hemophilia, Duchene Muscular Dystrohpy, and Color Blindess
27:07
Example 1: Colorblind
29:48
Example 2: Pedigree
37:07
Example 3: Inheritance Pattern
39:54
Example 4: X-inactivation
41:17
VII. Evolution
Natural Selection

1h 3m 28s

Intro
0:00
Background
0:09
Work of Other Scientists
0:15
Aristotle
0:43
Carl Linnaeus
1:32
George Cuvier
2:47
James Hutton
4:10
Thomas Malthus
5:05
Jean-Baptiste Lamark
5:45
Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
7:50
Evolution
8:00
Natural Selection
8:43
Charles Darwin & The Galapagos Islands
10:20
Genetic Variation
20:37
Mutations
20:38
Independent Assortment
21:04
Crossing Over
24:40
Random Fertilization
25:26
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:37
Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth
26:38
Types of Natural Selection
29:52
Directional Selection
29:55
Stabilizing Selection
32:43
Disruptive Selection
34:21
Sexual Selection
36:18
Sexual Dimorphism
37:30
Intersexual Selection
37:57
Intrasexual Selection
39:20
Evidence for Evolution
40:55
Paleontology: Fossil Record
41:30
Biogeography
45:35
Continental Drift
46:06
Pangaea
46:28
Marsupials
47:11
Homologous and Analogous Structure
50:10
Homologous Structure
50:12
Analogous Structure
53:21
Example 1: Genetic Variation & Natural Selection
56:15
Example 2: Types of Natural Selection
58:07
Example 3: Mechanisms By Which Genetic Variation is Maintained Within a Population
1:00:12
Example 4: Difference Between Homologous and Analogous Structures
1:01:28
Population Genetic and Evolution

53m 22s

Intro
0:00
Review of Natural Selection
0:12
Review of Natural Selection
0:13
Genetic Drift and Gene Flow
4:40
Definition of Genetic Drift
4:41
Example of Genetic Drift: Cholera Epidemic
5:15
Genetic Drift: Founder Effect
7:28
Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect
10:27
Gene Flow
13:00
Quantifying Genetic Variation
14:32
Average Heterozygosity
15:08
Nucleotide Variation
17:05
Maintaining Genetic Variation
18:12
Heterozygote Advantage
19:45
Example of Heterozygote Advantage: Sickle Cell Anemia
20:21
Diploidy
23:44
Geographic Variation
26:54
Frequency Dependent Selection and Outbreeding
28:15
Neutral Traits
30:55
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:11
The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
31:49
The Hardy-Weinberg Conditions
32:42
The Hardy-Weinberg Equation
34:05
The Hardy-Weinberg Example
36:33
Example 1: Match Terms to Descriptions
42:28
Example 2: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
44:31
Example 3: The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
49:10
Example 4: Maintaining Genetic Variation
51:30
Speciation and Patterns of Evolution

51m 2s

Intro
0:00
Early Life on Earth
0:08
Early Earth
0:09
1920's Oparin & Haldane
0:58
Abiogenesis
2:15
1950's Miller & Urey
2:45
Ribozymes
5:34
3.5 Billion Years Ago
6:39
2.5 Billion Years Ago
7:14
1.5 Billion Years Ago
7:41
Endosymbiosis
8:00
540 Million Years Ago: Cambrian Explosion
9:57
Gradualism and Punctuated Equilibrium
11:46
Gradualism
11:47
Punctuated Equilibrium
12:45
Adaptive Radiation
15:08
Adaptive Radiation
15:09
Example of Adaptive Radiation: Galapogos Islands
17:11
Convergent Evolution, Divergent Evolution, and Coevolution
18:30
Convergent Evolution
18:39
Divergent Evolution
21:30
Coevolution
23:49
Speciation
26:27
Definition and Example of Species
26:29
Reproductive Isolation: Prezygotive
27:49
Reproductive Isolation: Post zygotic
29:28
Allopatric Speciation
30:21
Allopatric Speciation & Geographic Isolation
30:28
Genetic Drift
31:31
Sympatric Speciation
34:10
Sympatric Speciation
34:11
Polyploidy & Autopolyploidy
35:12
Habitat Isolation
39:17
Temporal Isolation
41:27
Selection Selection
41:40
Example 1: Pattern of Evolution
42:53
Example 2: Sympatric Speciation
45:16
Example 3: Patterns of Evolution
48:08
Example 4: Patterns of Evolution
49:27
VIII. Diversity of Life
Classification

1h 51s

Intro
0:00
Systems of Classification
0:07
Taxonomy
0:08
Phylogeny
1:04
Phylogenetics Tree
1:44
Cladistics
3:37
Classification of Organisms
5:31
Example of Carl Linnaeus System
5:32
Domains
9:26
Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Plantae, Fungi, Animalia
9:27
Monera
10:06
Phylogentics Tree: Eurkarya, Bacteria, Archaea
11:58
Domain Eukarya
12:50
Domain Bacteria
15:43
Domain Bacteria
15:46
Pathogens
16:41
Decomposers
18:00
Domain Archaea
19:43
Extremophiles Archaea: Thermophiles and Halophiles
19:44
Methanogens
20:58
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Chemotrophs and Heterotrophs
24:40
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
25:02
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
26:54
Photoautotrophs
28:50
Photoheterotrophs
29:28
Chemoautotrophs
30:06
Chemoheterotrophs
31:37
Domain Eukarya
32:40
Domain Eukarya
32:43
Plant Kingdom
34:28
Protists
35:48
Fungi Kingdom
37:06
Animal Kingdom
38:35
Body Symmetry
39:25
Lack Symetry
39:40
Radial Symmetry: Sea Aneome
40:15
Bilateral Symmetry
41:55
Cephalization
43:29
Germ Layers
44:54
Diploblastic Animals
45:18
Triploblastic Animals
45:25
Ectoderm
45:36
Endoderm
46:07
Mesoderm
46:41
Coelomates
47:14
Coelom
47:15
Acoelomate
48:22
Pseudocoelomate
48:59
Coelomate
49:31
Protosomes
50:46
Deuterosomes
51:20
Example 1: Domains
53:01
Example 2: Match Terms with Descriptions
56:00
Example 3: Kingdom Monera and Domain Archaea
57:50
Example 4: System of Classification
59:37
Bacteria

36m 46s

Intro
0:00
Comparison of Domain Archaea and Domain Bacteria
0:08
Overview of Archaea and Bacteria
0:09
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Nucleus, Organelles, and Organization of Genetic Material
1:45
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Cell Walls
2:20
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Number of Types of RNA Pol
2:29
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Membrane Lipids
2:53
Archaea vs. Bacteria: Introns
3:33
Bacteria: Pathogen
4:03
Bacteria: Decomposers and Fix Nitrogen
5:18
Bacteria: Aerobic, Anaerobic, Strict Anaerobes & Facultative Anaerobes
6:02
Phototrophs, Autotrophs, Heterotrophs and Chemotrophs
7:14
Phototrophs and Chemotrophs
7:50
Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
8:53
Photoautotrophs and Photoheterotrophs
10:15
Chemoautotroph and Chemoheterotrophs
11:07
Structure of Bacteria
12:21
Shapes: Cocci, Bacilli, Vibrio, and Spirochetes
12:26
Structures: Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall
14:23
Structures: Nucleoid Region, Plasmid, and Capsule Basal Apparatus, and Filament
15:30
Structures: Flagella, Basal Apparatus, Hook, and Filament
16:36
Structures: Pili, Fimbrae and Ribosome
18:00
Peptidoglycan: Gram + and Gram -
18:50
Bacterial Genomes and Reproduction
21:14
Bacterial Genomes
21:21
Reproduction of Bacteria
22:13
Transformation
23:26
Vector
24:34
Competent
25:15
Conjugation
25:53
Conjugation: F+ and R Plasmids
25:55
Example 1: Species
29:41
Example 2: Bacteria and Exchange of Genetic Material
32:31
Example 3: Ways in Which Bacteria are Beneficial to Other Organisms
33:48
Example 4: Domain Bacteria vs. Domain Archaea
34:53
Protists

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Protists
0:08
Classification of Protists
0:09
'Plant-like' Protists
2:06
'Animal-like' Protists
3:19
'Fungus-like' Protists
3:57
Serial Endosymbiosis Theory
5:15
Endosymbiosis Theory
5:33
Photosynthetic Protists
7:33
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:35
Life Cycles with a Diploid Adult
13:56
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:31
Life Cycles with a Haploid Adult
15:32
Alternation of Generations
17:22
Alternation of Generations: Multicellular Haploid & Diploid Phase
17:23
Plant-Like Protists
19:58
Euglenids
20:43
Dino Flagellates
22:57
Diatoms
26:07
Plant-Like Protists
28:44
Golden Algae
28:45
Brown Algeas
30:05
Plant-Like Protists
33:38
Red Algae
33:39
Green Algae
35:36
Green Algae: Chlamydomonus
37:44
Animal-Like Protists
40:04
Animal-Like Protists Overview
40:05
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans)
40:32
Alveolates
41:41
Sporozoans (Apicomplexans): Plasmodium & Malaria
42:59
Animal-Like Protists
48:44
Kinetoplastids
48:50
Example of Kinetoplastids: Trypanosomes & African Sleeping Sickness
49:30
Ciliate
50:42
Conjugation
53:16
Conjugation
53:26
Animal-Like Protists
57:08
Parabasilids
57:31
Diplomonads
59:06
Rhizopods
1:00:13
Forams
1:02:25
Radiolarians
1:03:28
Fungus-Like Protists
1:04:25
Fungus-Like Protists Overview
1:04:26
Slime Molds
1:05:15
Cellular Slime Molds: Feeding Stage
1:09:21
Oomycetes
1:11:15
Example 1: Alternation of Generations and Sexual Life Cycles
1:13:05
Example 2: Match Protists to Their Descriptions
1:14:12
Example 3: Three Structures that Protists Use for Motility
1:16:22
Example 4: Paramecium
1:17:04
Fungi

35m 24s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:09
Introduction to Fungi
0:10
Mycologist
0:34
Examples of Fungi
0:45
Hyphae, Mycelia, Chitin, and Coencytic Fungi
2:26
Ancestral Protists
5:00
Role of Fungi in the Environment
5:35
Fungi as Decomposers
5:36
Mycorrrhiza
6:19
Lichen
8:52
Life Cycle of Fungi
11:32
Asexual Reproduction
11:33
Sexual Reproduction & Dikaryotic Cell
13:16
Chytridiomycota
18:12
Phylum Chytridiomycota
18:17
Zoospores
18:50
Zygomycota
19:07
Coenocytic & Zygomycota Life Cycle
19:08
Basidiomycota
24:27
Basidiomycota Overview
24:28
Basidiomycota Life Cycle
26:11
Ascomycota
28:00
Ascomycota Overview
28:01
Ascomycota Reproduction
28:50
Example 1: Fungi Fill in the Blank
31:02
Example 2: Name Two Roles Played by Fungi in the Environment
32:09
Example 3: Difference Between Diploid Cell and Dikaryon Cell
33:42
Example 4: Phylum of Fungi, Flagellated Spore, Coencytic
34:36
Invertebrates

1h 3m 3s

Intro
0:00
Porifera (Sponges)
0:33
Chordata
0:56
Porifera (Sponges): Sessile, Layers, Aceolomates, and Filter Feeders
1:24
Amoebocytes Cell
4:47
Choanocytes Cell
5:56
Sexual Reproduction
6:28
Cnidaria
8:05
Cnidaria Overview
8:06
Polyp & Medusa: Gastrovasular Cavity
8:29
Cnidocytes
9:42
Anthozoa
10:40
Cubozoa
11:23
Hydrozoa
11:53
Scyphoza
13:25
Platyhelminthes (Flatworms)
13:58
Flatworms: Tribloblastic, Bilateral Symmetry, and Cephalization
13:59
GI System
15:33
Excretory System
16:07
Nervous System
17:00
Turbellarians
17:36
Trematodes
18:42
Monageneans
21:32
Cestoda
21:55
Rotifera (Rotifers)
23:45
Rotifers: Digestive Tract, Pseudocoelem, and Stuctures
23:46
Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
25:33
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:44
Nematoda (Roundworms)
26:45
Parasites: Pinworms & Hookworms
27:26
Annelida
28:36
Annelida Overview
28:37
Open Circulatory
29:21
Closed Circulatory
30:18
Nervous System
31:19
Excretory System
31:43
Oligochaete
32:07
Leeches
33:22
Polychaetes
34:42
Mollusca
35:26
Mollusca Features
35:27
Major Part 1: Visceral Mass
36:21
Major Part 2: Head-foot Region
36:49
Major Part 3: Mantle
37:13
Radula
37:49
Circulatory, Reproductive, Excretory, and Nervous System
38:14
Major Classes of Molluscs
39:12
Gastropoda
39:17
Polyplacophora
40:15
Bivales
40:41
Cephalopods
41:42
Arthropoda
43:35
Arthropoda Overview
43:36
Segmented Bodies
44:14
Exoskeleton
44:52
Jointed Appendages
45:28
Hemolyph, Excretory & Respiratory System
45:41
Myriapoda & Centipedes
47:15
Cheliceriforms
48:20
Crustcea
49:31
Herapoda
50:03
Echinodermata
52:59
Echinodermata
53:00
Watrer Vascular System
54:20
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:11
Selected Characteristics of Invertebrates
57:12
Example 1: Phylum Description
58:43
Example 2: Complex Animals
59:50
Example 3: Match Organisms to the Correct Phylum
1:01:03
Example 4: Phylum Arthropoda
1:02:01
Vertebrates

1h 7s

Intro
0:00
Phylum Chordata
0:06
Chordates Overview
0:07
Notochord and Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord
1:24
Pharyngeal Clefts, Arches, and Post-anal Tail
3:41
Invertebrate Chordates
6:48
Lancelets
7:13
Tunicates
8:02
Hagfishes: Craniates
8:55
Vertebrate Chordates
10:41
Veterbrates Overview
10:42
Lampreys
11:00
Gnathostomes
12:20
Six Major Classes of Vertebrates
12:53
chondrichthyes
14:23
Chondrichthyes Overview
14:24
Ectothermic and Endothermic
14:42
Sharks: Lateral Line System, Neuromastsn, and Gills
15:27
Oviparous and Viviparous
17:23
Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
18:12
Osteichythes (Bony Fishes) Overview
18:13
Operculum
19:05
Swim Bladder
19:53
Ray-Finned Fishes
20:34
Lobe-Finned Fishes
20:58
Tetrapods
22:36
Tetrapods: Definition and Examples
22:37
Amphibians
23:53
Amphibians Overview
23:54
Order Urodela
25:51
Order Apoda
27:03
Order Anura
27:55
Reptiles
30:19
Reptiles Overview
30:20
Amniotes
30:37
Examples of Reptiles
32:46
Reptiles: Ectotherms, Gas Exchange, and Heart
33:40
Orders of Reptiles
34:17
Sphenodontia, Squamata, Testudines, and Crocodilia
34:21
Birds
36:09
Birds and Dinosaurs
36:18
Theropods
38:00
Birds: High Metabolism, Respiratory System, Lungs, and Heart
39:04
Birds: Endothermic, Bones, and Feathers
40:15
Mammals
42:33
Mammals Overview
42:35
Diaphragm and Heart
42:57
Diphydont
43:44
Synapsids
44:41
Monotremes
46:36
Monotremes
46:37
Marsupials
47:12
Marsupials: Definition and Examples
47:16
Convergent Evolution
48:09
Eutherians (Placental Mammals)
49:42
Placenta
49:43
Order Carnivora
50:48
Order Raodentia
51:00
Order Cetaceans
51:14
Primates
51:41
Primates Overview
51:42
Nails and Hands
51:58
Vision
52:51
Social Care for Young
53:28
Brain
53:43
Example 1: Distinguishing Characteristics of Chordates
54:33
Example 2: Match Description to Correct Term
55:56
Example 3: Bird's Anatomy
57:38
Example 4: Vertebrate Animal, Marine Environment, and Ectothermic
59:14
IX. Plants
Seedless Plants

34m 31s

Intro
0:00
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:06
Origin and Classification of Plants
0:07
Non-Vascular vs. Vascular Plants
1:29
Seedless Vascular & Seed Plants
2:28
Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
2:50
Alternation of Generations
3:54
Alternation of Generations
3:55
Bryophytes
7:58
Overview of Bryrophytes
7:59
Example: Moss Gametophyte
9:29
Example: Moss Sporophyte
9:50
Moss Life Cycle
10:12
Moss Life Cycle
10:13
Seedless Vascular Plants
13:23
Vascular Structures: Cell Walls, and Lignin
13:24
Homosporous
17:11
Heterosporous
17:48
Adaptations to Life on land
21:10
Adaptation 1: Cell Walls
21:38
Adaptation 2: Vascular Plants
21:59
Adaptation 3 : Xylem & Phloem
22:31
Adaptation 4: Seeds
23:07
Adaptation 5: Pollen
23:35
Adaptation 6: Stomata
24:45
Adaptation 7: Reduced Gametophyte Generation
25:32
Example 1: Bryophytes
26:39
Example 2: Sporangium, Lignin, Gametophyte, and Antheridium
28:34
Example 3: Adaptations to Life on Land
29:47
Example 4: Life Cycle of Plant
32:06
Plant Structure

1h 1m 21s

Intro
0:00
Plant Tissue
0:05
Dermal Tissue
0:15
Vascular Tissue
0:39
Ground Tissue
1:31
Cell Types in Plants
2:14
Parenchyma Cells
2:24
Collenchyma Cells
3:21
Sclerenchyma Cells
3:59
Xylem
5:04
Xylem: Tracheids and Vessel Elements
6:12
Gymnosperms vs. Angiosperms
7:53
Phloem
8:37
Phloem: Structures and Function
8:38
Sieve-Tube Elements
8:45
Companion Cells & Sieve Plates
9:11
Roots
10:08
Taproots & Fibrous
10:09
Aerial Roots & Prop Roots
11:41
Structures and Functions of Root: Dicot & Monocot
13:00
Pericyle
16:57
The Nitrogen Cylce
18:05
The Nitrogen Cycle
18:06
Mycorrhizae
24:20
Mycorrhizae
24:23
Ectomycorrhiza
26:03
Endomycorrhiza
26:25
Stems
26:53
Stems
26:54
Vascular Bundles of Monocots and Dicots
28:18
Leaves
29:48
Blade & Petiole
30:13
Upper Epidermis, Lower Epidermis & Cuticle
30:39
Ground Tissue, Palisade Mesophyll, Spongy Mesophyll
31:35
Stomata Pores
33:23
Guard Cells
34:15
Vascular Tissues: Vascular Bundles and Bundle Sheath
34:46
Stomata
36:12
Stomata & Gas Exchange
36:16
Guard Cells, Flaccid, and Turgid
36:43
Water Potential
38:03
Factors for Opening Stoma
40:35
Factors Causing Stoma to Close
42:44
Overview of Plant Growth
44:23
Overview of Plant Growth
44:24
Primary Plant Growth
46:19
Apical Meristems
46:25
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Division
46:44
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Elongation
47:35
Root Growth: Zone of Cell Differentiation
47:55
Stem Growth: Leaf Primodia
48:16
Secondary Plant Growth
48:48
Secondary Plant Growth Overview
48:59
Vascular Cambium: Secondary Xylem and Phloem
49:38
Cork Cambium: Periderm and Lenticels
51:10
Example 1: Leaf Structures
53:30
Example 2: List Three Types of Plant Tissue and their Major Functions
55:13
Example 3: What are Two Factors that Stimulate the Opening or Closing of Stomata?
56:58
Example 4: Plant Growth
59:18
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

1h 1m 51s

Intro
0:00
Seed Plants
0:22
Sporopollenin
0:58
Heterosporous: Megasporangia
2:49
Heterosporous: Microsporangia
3:19
Gymnosperms
5:20
Gymnosperms
5:21
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:30
Gymnosperm Life Cycle
7:31
Flower Structure
15:15
Petal & Pollination
15:48
Sepal
16:52
Stamen: Anther, Filament
17:05
Pistill: Stigma, Style, Ovule, Ovary
17:55
Complete Flowers
20:14
Angiosperm Gametophyte Formation
20:47
Male Gametophyte: Microsporocytes, Microsporangia & Meiosis
20:57
Female Gametophyte: Megasporocytes & Meiosis
24:22
Double Fertilization
25:43
Double Fertilization: Pollen Tube and Endosperm
25:44
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:43
Angiosperm Life Cycle
29:48
Seed Structure and Development
33:37
Seed Structure and Development
33:38
Pollen Dispersal
37:53
Abiotic
38:28
Biotic
39:30
Prevention of Self-Pollination
40:48
Mechanism 1
41:08
Mechanism 2: Dioecious
41:37
Mechanism 3
42:32
Self-Incompatibility
43:08
Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility
44:38
Sporophytic Self-Incompatibility
46:50
Asexual Reproduction
48:33
Asexual Reproduction & Vegetative Propagation
48:34
Graftiry
50:19
Monocots and Dicots
51:34
Monocots vs.Dicots
51:35
Example 1: Double Fertilization
54:43
Example 2: Mechanisms of Self-Fertilization
56:02
Example 3: Monocots vs. Dicots
58:11
Example 4: Flower Structures
1:00:11
Transport of Nutrients and Water in Plants

40m 30s

Intro
0:00
Review of Plant Cell Structure
0:14
Cell Wall, Plasma Membrane, Middle lamella, and Cytoplasm
0:15
Plasmodesmata, Chloroplasts, and Central Vacuole
3:24
Water Absorption by Plants
4:28
Root Hairs and Mycorrhizae
4:30
Osmosis and Water Potential
5:41
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:01
Apoplast and Symplast Pathways
10:02
Xylem Structure
21:02
Tracheids and Vessel Elements
21:03
Bulk Flow
23:00
Transpiration
23:26
Cohesion
25:10
Adhesion
26:10
Phloem Structure
27:25
Pholem
27:26
Sieve-Tube Elements
27:48
Companion Cells
28:17
Translocation
28:42
Sugar Source and Sugar Sink Overview
28:43
Example of Sugar Sink
30:01
Example of Sugar Source
30:48
Example 1: Match the Following Terms to their Description
33:17
Example 2: Water Potential
34:58
Example 3: Bulk Flow
36:56
Example 4: Sugar Sink and Sugar Source
38:33
Plant Hormones and Tropisms

48m 10s

Intro
0:00
Plant Cell Signaling
0:17
Plant Cell Signaling Overview
0:18
Step 1: Reception
1:03
Step 2: Transduction
2:32
Step 3: Response
2:58
Second Messengers
3:52
Protein Kinases
4:42
Auxins
6:14
Auxins
6:18
Indoleacetic Acid (IAA)
7:23
Cytokinins and Gibberellins
11:10
Cytokinins: Apical Dominance & Delay of Aging
11:16
Gibberellins: 'Bolting'
13:51
Ethylene
15:33
Ethylene
15:34
Positive Feedback
15:46
Leaf Abscission
18:05
Mechanical Stress: Triple Response
19:36
Abscisic Acid
21:10
Abscisic Acid
21:15
Tropisms
23:11
Positive Tropism
23:50
Negative Tropism
24:07
Statoliths
26:21
Phytochromes and Photoperiodism
27:48
Phytochromes: PR and PFR
27:56
Circadian Rhythms
32:06
Photoperiod
33:13
Photoperiodism
33:38
Gerner & Allard
34:35
Short-Day Plant
35:22
Long-Day Plant
37:00
Example 1: Plant Hormones
41:28
Example 2: Cytokinins & Gibberellins
43:00
Example 3: Match the Following Terms to their Description
44:46
Example 4: Hormones & Cell Response
46:14
X. Animal Structure and Physiology
The Respiratory System

48m 14s

Intro
0:00
Gas Exchange in Animals
0:17
Respiration
0:19
Ventilation
1:09
Characteristics of Respiratory Surfaces
1:53
Gas Exchange in Aquatic Animals
3:05
Simple Aquatic Animals
3:06
Gills & Gas Exchange in Complex Aquatic Animals
3:49
Countercurrent Exchange
6:12
Gas Exchange in Terrestrial Animals
13:46
Earthworms
14:07
Internal Respiratory
15:35
Insects
16:55
Circulatory Fluid
19:06
The Human Respiratory System
21:21
Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, and Epiglottis
21:50
Bronchus, Bronchiole, Trachea, and Alveoli
23:38
Pulmonary Surfactants
28:05
Circulatory System: Hemoglobin
29:13
Ventilation
30:28
Inspiration/Expiration: Diaphragm, Thorax, and Abdomen
30:33
Breathing Control Center: Regulation of pH
34:34
Example 1: Tracheal System in Insects
39:08
Example 2: Countercurrent Exchange
42:09
Example 3: Respiratory System
44:10
Example 4: Diaphragm, Ventilation, pH, and Regulation of Breathing
45:31
The Circulatory System

1h 20m 21s

Intro
0:00
Types of Circulatory Systems
0:07
Circulatory System Overview
0:08
Open Circulatory System
3:19
Closed Circulatory System
5:58
Blood Vessels
7:51
Arteries
8:16
Veins
10:01
Capillaries
12:35
Vasoconstriction and Vasodilation
13:10
Vasoconstriction
13:11
Vasodilation
13:47
Thermoregulation
14:32
Blood
15:53
Plasma
15:54
Cellular Component: Red Blood Cells
17:41
Cellular Component: White Blood Cells
20:18
Platelets
21:14
Blood Types
21:35
Clotting
27:04
Blood, Fibrin, and Clotting
27:05
Hemophilia
30:26
The Heart
31:09
Structures and Functions of the Heart
31:19
Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation
40:20
Double Circuit: Pulmonary Circuit and Systemic Circuit
40:21
The Cardiac Cycle
42:35
The Cardiac Cycle
42:36
Autonomic Nervous System
50:00
Hemoglobin
51:25
Hemoglobin & Hemocyanin
51:26
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:30
Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
55:44
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:31
Transport of Carbon Dioxide
1:06:37
Example 1: Pathway of Blood
1:12:48
Example 2: Oxygenated Blood, Pacemaker, and Clotting
1:15:24
Example 3: Vasodilation and Vasoconstriction
1:16:19
Example 4: Oxygen-Hemoglobin Dissociation Curve
1:18:13
The Digestive System

56m 11s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Digestion
0:07
Digestive Process
0:08
Intracellular Digestion
0:45
Extracellular Digestion
1:44
Types of Digestive Tracts
2:08
Gastrovascular Cavity
2:09
Complete Gastrointestinal Tract (Alimentary Canal)
3:54
'Crop'
4:43
The Human Digestive System
5:41
Structures of the Human Digestive System
5:47
The Oral Cavity and Esophagus
7:47
Mechanical & Chemical Digestion
7:48
Salivary Glands
8:55
Pharynx and Epigloltis
9:43
Peristalsis
11:35
The Stomach
12:57
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
13:00
Gastric Gland, Parietal Cells, and Pepsin
14:32
Mucus Cell
15:48
Chyme & Pyloric Sphincter
17:32
The Pancreas
18:31
Endocrine and Exocrine
19:03
Amylase
20:05
Proteases
20:51
Lipases
22:20
The Liver
23:08
The Liver & Production of Bile
23:09
The Small Intestine
24:37
The Small Intestine
24:38
Duodenum
27:44
Intestinal Enzymes
28:41
Digestive Enzyme
33:30
Site of Production: Mouth
33:43
Site of Production: Stomach
34:03
Site of Production: Pancreas
34:16
Site of Production: Small Intestine
36:18
Absorption of Nutrients
37:51
Absorption of Nutrients: Jejunum and Ileum
37:52
The Large Intestine
44:52
The Large Intestine: Colon, Cecum, and Rectum
44:53
Regulation of Digestion by Hormones
46:55
Gastrin
47:21
Secretin
47:50
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
48:00
Example 1: Intestinal Cell, Bile, and Digestion of Fats
48:29
Example 2: Matching
51:06
Example 3: Digestion and Absorption of Starch
52:18
Example 4: Large Intestine and Gastric Fluids
54:52
The Excretory System

1h 12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Nitrogenous Wastes
0:08
Nitrogenous Wastes Overview
0:09
NH3
0:39
Urea
2:43
Uric Acid
3:31
Osmoregulation
4:56
Osmoregulation
5:05
Saltwater Fish vs. Freshwater Fish
8:58
Types of Excretory Systems
13:42
Protonephridia
13:50
Metanephridia
16:15
Malpighian Tubule
19:05
The Human Excretory System
20:45
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, Urethra, Medula, and Cortex
20:53
Filtration, Reabsorption and Secretion
22:53
Filtration
22:54
Reabsorption
24:16
Secretion
25:20
The Nephron
26:23
The Nephron
26:24
The Nephron, cont.
41:45
Descending Loop of Henle
41:46
Ascending Loop of Henle
45:45
Antidiuretic Hormone
54:30
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
54:31
Aldosterone
58:58
Aldosterone
58:59
Example 1: Nephron of an Aquatic Mammal
1:04:21
Example 2: Uric Acid & Saltwater Fish
1:06:36
Example 3: Nephron
1:09:14
Example 4: Gastrointestinal Infection
1:10:41
The Endocrine System

51m 12s

Intro
0:00
The Endocrine System Overview
0:07
Thyroid
0:08
Exocrine
1:56
Pancreas
2:44
Paracrine Signaling
4:06
Pheromones
5:15
Mechanisms of Hormone Action
6:06
Reception, Transduction, and Response
7:06
Classes of Hormone
10:05
Negative Feedback: Testosterone Example
12:16
The Pancreas
15:11
The Pancreas & islets of Langerhan
15:12
Insulin
16:02
Glucagon
17:28
The Anterior Pituitary
19:25
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
20:24
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
21:16
Follide Stimulating Hormone
22:04
Luteinizing Hormone
22:45
Growth Hormone
23:45
Prolactin
24:24
Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone
24:55
The Hypothalamus and Posterior Pituitary
25:45
Hypothalamus, Oxytocin, Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), and Posterior Pituitary
25:46
The Adrenal Glands
31:20
Adrenal Cortex
31:56
Adrenal Medulla
34:29
The Thyroid
35:54
Thyroxine
36:09
Calcitonin
40:27
The Parathyroids
41:44
Parathyroids Hormone (PTH)
41:45
The Ovaries and Testes
43:32
Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone
43:33
Example 1: Match the Following Hormones with their Descriptions
45:38
Example 2: Pancreas, Endocrine Organ & Exocrine Organ
47:06
Example 3: Insulin and Glucagon
48:28
Example 4: Increased Level of Cortisol in Blood
50:25
The Nervous System

1h 10m 38s

Intro
0:00
Types of Nervous Systems
0:28
Nerve Net
0:37
Flatworm
1:07
Cephalization
1:52
Arthropods
2:44
Echinoderms
3:11
Nervous System Organization
3:40
Nervous System Organization Overview
3:41
Automatic Nervous System: Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
4:42
Neuron Structure
6:57
Cell Body & Dendrites
7:16
Axon & Axon Hillock
8:20
Synaptic Terminals, Mylenin, and Nodes of Ranvier
9:01
Pre-synaptic and Post-synaptic Cells
10:16
Pre-synaptic Cells
10:17
Post-synaptic Cells
11:05
Types of Neurons
11:50
Sensory Neurons
11:54
Motor Neurons
13:12
Interneurons
14:24
Resting Potential
15:14
Membrane Potential
15:25
Resting Potential: Chemical Gradient
16:06
Resting Potential: Electrical Gradient
19:18
Gated Ion Channels
24:40
Voltage-Gated & Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
24:48
Action Potential
30:09
Action Potential Overview
30:10
Step 1
32:07
Step 2
32:17
Step 3
33:12
Step 4
35:14
Step 5
36:39
Action Potential Transmission
39:04
Action Potential Transmission
39:05
Speed of Conduction
41:19
Saltatory Conduction
42:58
The Synapse
44:17
The Synapse: Presynaptic & Postsynaptic Cell
44:31
Examples of Neurotransmitters
50:05
Brain Structure
51:57
Meniges
52:19
Cerebrum
52:56
Corpus Callosum
53:13
Gray & White Matter
53:38
Cerebral Lobes
55:35
Cerebellum
56:00
Brainstem
56:30
Medulla
56:51
Pons
57:22
Midbrain
57:55
Thalamus
58:25
Hypothalamus
58:58
Ventricles
59:51
The Spinal Cord
1:00:29
Sensory Stimuli
1:00:30
Reflex Arc
1:01:41
Example 1: Automatic Nervous System
1:04:38
Example 2: Synaptic Terminal and the Release of Neurotransmitters
1:06:22
Example 3: Volted-Gated Ion Channels
1:08:00
Example 4: Neuron Structure
1:09:26
Musculoskeletal System

39m 29s

Intro
0:00
Skeletal System Types and Function
0:30
Skeletal System
0:31
Exoskeleton
1:34
Endoskeleton
2:32
Skeletal System Components
2:55
Bone
3:06
Cartilage
5:04
Tendons
6:18
Ligaments
6:34
Skeletal Muscle
6:52
Skeletal Muscle
7:24
Sarcomere
9:50
The Sliding Filament Theory
13:12
The Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle Contraction
13:13
The Neuromuscular Junction
17:24
The Neuromuscular Junction: Motor Neuron & Muscle Fiber
17:26
Sarcolemma, Sarcoplasmic
21:54
Tropomyosin & Troponin
23:35
Summation and Tetanus
25:26
Single Twitch, Summation of Two Twitches, and Tetanus
25:27
Smooth Muscle
28:50
Smooth Muscle
28:58
Cardiac Muscle
30:40
Cardiac Muscle
30:42
Summary of Muscle Types
32:07
Summary of Muscle Types
32:08
Example 1: Contraction and Skeletal Muscle
33:15
Example 2: Skeletal Muscle and Smooth Muscle
36:23
Example 3: Muscle Contraction, Bone, and Nonvascularized Connective Tissue
37:31
Example 4: Sarcomere
38:17
The Immune System

1h 24m 28s

Intro
0:00
The Lymphatic System
0:16
The Lymphatic System Overview
0:17
Function 1
1:23
Function 2
2:27
Barrier Defenses
3:41
Nonspecific vs. Specific Immune Defenses
3:42
Barrier Defenses
5:12
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses
7:50
Nonspecific Cellular Defenses Overview
7:53
Phagocytes
9:29
Neutrophils
11:43
Macrophages
12:15
Natural Killer Cells
12:55
Inflammatory Response
14:19
Complement
18:16
Interferons
18:40
Specific Defenses - Acquired Immunity
20:12
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
20:13
B Cells
23:35
B Cells & Humoral Immunity
23:41
Clonal Selection
29:50
Clonal Selection
29:51
Primary Immune Response
34:28
Secondary Immune Response
35:31
Cytotoxic T Cells
38:41
Helper T Cells
39:20
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:44
Major Histocompatibility Complex Molecules
40:55
Helper T Cells
52:36
Helper T Cells
52:37
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:00
Mechanisms of Antibody Action
59:01
Opsonization
1:00:01
Complement System
1:01:57
Classes of Antibodies
1:02:45
IgM
1:03:01
IgA
1:03:17
IgG
1:03:53
IgE
1:04:10
Passive and Active Immunity
1:05:00
Passive Immunity
1:05:01
Active Immunity
1:07:49
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:32
Recognition of Self and Non-Self
1:09:33
Self-Tolerance & Autoimmune Diseases
1:10:50
Immunodeficiency
1:13:27
Immunodeficiency
1:13:28
Chemotherapy
1:13:56
AID
1:14:27
Example 1: Match the Following Terms with their Descriptions
1:15:26
Example 2: Three Components of Non-specific Immunity
1:17:59
Example 3: Immunodeficient
1:21:19
Example 4: Self-tolerance and Autoimmune Diseases
1:23:07
XI. Animal Reproduction and Development
Reproduction

1h 1m 41s

Intro
0:00
Asexual Reproduction
0:17
Fragmentation
0:53
Fission
1:54
Parthenogenesis
2:38
Sexual Reproduction
4:00
Sexual Reproduction
4:01
Hermaphrodite
8:08
The Male Reproduction System
8:54
Seminiferous Tubules & Leydig Cells
8:55
Epididymis
9:48
Seminal Vesicle
11:19
Bulbourethral
12:37
The Female Reproductive System
13:25
Ovaries
13:28
Fallopian
14:50
Endometrium, Uterus, Cilia, and Cervix
15:03
Mammary Glands
16:44
Spermatogenesis
17:08
Spermatogenesis
17:09
Oogenesis
21:01
Oogenesis
21:02
The Menstrual Cycle
27:56
The Menstrual Cycle: Ovarian and Uterine Cycle
27:57
Summary of the Ovarian and Uterine Cycles
42:54
Ovarian
42:55
Uterine
44:51
Oxytocin and Prolactin
46:33
Oxytocin
46:34
Prolactin
47:00
Regulation of the Male Reproductive System
47:28
Hormones: GnRH, LH, FSH, and Testosterone
47:29
Fertilization
50:11
Fertilization
50:12
Structures of Egg
50:28
Acrosomal Reaction
51:36
Cortical Reaction
53:09
Example 1: List Three Differences between Spermatogenesis and oogenesis
55:36
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
57:34
Example 3: Pregnancy and the Ovarian Cycle
58:44
Example 4: Hormone
1:00:43
Development

50m 5s

Intro
0:00
Cleavage
0:31
Cleavage
0:32
Meroblastic
2:06
Holoblastic Cleavage
3:23
Protostomes
4:34
Deuterostomes
5:13
Totipotent
5:52
Blastula Formation
6:42
Blastula
6:46
Gastrula Formation
8:12
Deuterostomes
11:02
Protostome
11:44
Ectoderm
12:17
Mesoderm
12:55
Endoderm
13:40
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:19
Cytoplasmic Determinants
15:23
The Bird Embryo
22:52
Cleavage
23:35
Blastoderm
23:55
Primitive Streak
25:38
Migration and Differentiation
27:09
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:33
Extraembryonic Membranes
28:34
Chorion
30:02
Yolk Sac
30:36
Allantois
31:04
The Mammalian Embryo
32:18
Cleavage
32:28
Blastocyst
32:44
Trophoblast
34:37
Following Implantation
35:48
Organogenesis
37:04
Organogenesis, Notochord and Neural Tube
37:05
Induction
40:15
Induction
40:39
Fate Mapping
41:40
Example 1: Processes and Stages of Embryological Development
42:49
Example 2: Transplanted Cells
44:33
Example 3: Germ Layer
46:41
Example 4: Extraembryonic Membranes
47:28
XII. Animal Behavior
Animal Behavior

47m 48s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:05
Introduction to Animal Behavior
0:06
Ethology
1:04
Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
1:46
Fixed Action Pattern
3:07
Sign Stimulus
3:40
Releases and Example
3:55
Exploitation and Example
7:23
Learning
8:56
Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
8:57
Habituation
10:03
Habituation: Definition and Example
10:04
Associative Learning
11:47
Classical
12:19
Operant Conditioning
13:40
Positive & Negative Reinforcement
14:59
Positive & Negative Punishment
16:13
Extinction
17:28
Imprinting
17:47
Imprinting: Definition and Example
17:48
Social Behavior
20:12
Cooperation
20:38
Agonistic
21:37
Dorminance Heirarchies
23:23
Territoriality
24:08
Altruism
24:55
Communication
26:56
Communication
26:57
Mating
32:38
Mating Overview
32:40
Promiscuous
33:13
Monogamous
33:32
Polygamous
33:48
Intrasexual
34:22
Intersexual Selection
35:08
Foraging
36:08
Optimal Foraging Model
36:39
Foraging
37:47
Movement
39:12
Kinesis
39:20
Taxis
40:17
Migration
40:54
Lunar Cycles
42:02
Lunar Cycles
42:08
Example 1: Types of Conditioning
43:19
Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions
44:12
Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior
45:47
Example 4: Learning
46:54
XIII. Ecology
Biomes

58m 49s

Intro
0:00
Ecology
0:08
Ecology
0:14
Environment
0:22
Integrates
1:41
Environment Impacts
2:20
Population and Distribution
3:20
Population
3:21
Range
4:50
Potential Range
5:10
Abiotic
5:46
Biotic
6:22
Climate
7:55
Temperature
8:40
Precipitation
10:00
Wind
10:37
Sunlight
10:54
Macroclimates & Microclimates
11:31
Other Abiotic Factors
12:20
Geography
12:28
Water
13:17
Soil and Rocks
13:48
Sunlight
14:42
Sunlight
14:43
Seasons
15:43
June Solstice, December Solstice, March Equinox, and September Equinox
15:44
Tropics
19:00
Seasonability
19:39
Wind and Weather Patterns
20:44
Vertical Circulation
20:51
Surface Wind Patterns
25:18
Local Climate Effects
26:51
Local Climate Effects
26:52
Terrestrial Biomes
30:04
Biome
30:05
Forest
31:02
Tropical Forest
32:00
Tropical Forest
32:01
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:55
Temperate Broadleaf Forest
32:56
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:10
Coniferous/Taiga Forest
34:11
Desert
36:05
Desert
36:06
Grassland
37:45
Grassland
37:46
Tundra
40:09
Tundra
40:10
Freshwater Biomes
42:25
Freshwater Biomes: Zones
42:27
Eutrophic Lakes
44:24
Oligotrophic Lakes
45:01
Lakes Turnover
46:03
Rivers
46:51
Wetlands
47:40
Estuary
48:11
Marine Biomes
48:45
Marine Biomes: Zones
48:46
Example 1: Diversity of Life
52:18
Example 2: Marine Biome
53:08
Example 3: Season
54:20
Example 4: Biotic vs. Abiotic
55:54
Population

41m 16s

Intro
0:00
Population
0:07
Size 'N'
0:16
Density
0:41
Dispersion
1:01
Measure Population: Count Individuals, Sampling, and Proxymeasure
2:26
Mortality
7:29
Mortality and Survivorship
7:30
Age Structure Diagrams
11:52
Expanding with Rapid Growth, Expanding, and Stable
11:58
Population Growth
15:39
Biotic Potential & Exponential Growth
15:43
Logistic Population Growth
19:07
Carrying Capacity (K)
19:18
Limiting Factors
20:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:55
Logistic Model and Oscillation
22:56
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:36
Changes to the Carrying Capacity
24:37
Growth Strategies
26:07
'r-selected' or 'r-strategist'
26:23
'K-selected' or 'K-strategist'
27:47
Human Population
30:15
Human Population and Exponential Growth
30:21
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:54
Case Study - Lynx and Hare
31:55
Example 1: Estimating Population Size
34:35
Example 2: Population Growth
36:45
Example 3: Carrying Capacity
38:17
Example 4: Types of Dispersion
40:15
Communities

1h 6m 26s

Intro
0:00
Community
0:07
Ecosystem
0:40
Interspecific Interactions
1:14
Competition
2:45
Competition Overview
2:46
Competitive Exclusion
3:57
Resource Partitioning
4:45
Character Displacement
6:22
Predation
7:46
Predation
7:47
True Predation
8:05
Grazing/ Herbivory
8:39
Predator Adaptation
10:13
Predator Strategies
10:22
Physical Features
11:02
Prey Adaptation
12:14
Prey Adaptation
12:23
Aposematic Coloration
13:35
Batesian Mimicry
14:32
Size
15:42
Parasitism
16:48
Symbiotic Relationship
16:54
Ectoparasites
18:31
Endoparasites
18:53
Hyperparisitism
19:21
Vector
20:08
Parasitoids
20:54
Mutualism
21:23
Resource - Resource mutualism
21:34
Service - Resource Mutualism
23:31
Service - Service Mutualism: Obligate & Facultative
24:23
Commensalism
26:01
Commensalism
26:03
Symbiosis
27:31
Trophic Structure
28:35
Producers & Consumers: Autotrophs & Heterotrophs
28:36
Food Chain
33:26
Producer & Consumers
33:38
Food Web
39:01
Food Web
39:06
Significant Species within Communities
41:42
Dominant Species
41:50
Keystone Species
42:44
Foundation Species
43:41
Community Dynamics and Disturbances
44:31
Disturbances
44:33
Duration
47:01
Areal Coverage
47:22
Frequency
47:48
Intensity
48:04
Intermediate Level of Disturbance
48:20
Ecological Succession
50:29
Primary and Secondary Ecological Succession
50:30
Example 1: Competition Situation & Outcome
57:18
Example 2: Food Chains
1:00:08
Example 3: Ecological Units
1:02:44
Example 4: Disturbances & Returning to the Original Climax Community
1:04:30
Energy and Ecosystems

57m 42s

Intro
0:00
Ecosystem: Biotic & Abiotic Components
0:15
First Law of Thermodynamics & Energy Flow
0:40
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
3:52
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
4:50
Biogeochemical Cycles
7:16
Law of Conservation of Mass & Biogeochemical Cycles
7:17
Water Cycle
10:55
Water Cycle
10:57
Carbon Cycle
17:52
Carbon Cycle
17:53
Nitrogen Cycle
22:40
Nitrogen Cycle
22:41
Phosphorous Cycle
29:34
Phosphorous Cycle
29:35
Climate Change
33:20
Climate Change
33:21
Eutrophication
39:38
Nitrogen
40:34
Phosphorous
41:29
Eutrophication
42:55
Example 1: Energy and Ecosystems
45:28
Example 2: Atmospheric CO2
48:44
Example 3: Nitrogen Cycle
51:22
Example 4: Conversion of a Forest near a Lake to Farmland
53:20
XIV. Laboratory Review
Laboratory Review

2h 4m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:09
Lab 1: Diffusion and Osmosis
0:10
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:55
Lab 1: Water Potential
11:56
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:30
Lab 2: Enzyme Catalysis
18:31
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:40
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
27:41
Lab 3: Mitosis and Meiosis
31:50
Ascomycota Life Cycle
31:51
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:36
Lab 4: Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
40:37
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:56
Lab 5: Cell Respiration
49:57
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
55:06
Lab 6: Molecular Biology & Transformation 1st Part
55:07
Lab 6: Molecular Biology
1:01:16
Lab 6: Molecular Biology 2nd Part
1:01:17
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:32
Lab 7: Genetics of Organisms
1:07:33
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:00
Lab 7: Chi-square Analysis
1:13:03
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:41
Lab 8: Population Genetics and Evolution
1:20:42
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:02
Lab 9: Transpiration
1:24:03
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:05
Lab 10: Physiology of the Circulatory System
1:31:06
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:25
Lab 10: Temperature and Metabolism in Ectotherms
1:38:30
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:52
Lab 11: Animal Behavior
1:40:53
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:36
Lab 12: Dissolved Oxygen & Aquatic Primary Productivity
1:45:37
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:06
Lab 12: Primary Productivity
1:49:07
Example 1: Chi-square Analysis
1:56:31
Example 2: Mitosis
1:59:28
Example 3: Transpiration of Plants
2:00:27
Example 4: Population Genetic
2:01:16
XV. The AP Biology Test
Understanding the Basics

13m 2s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Structure
0:18
Section I
0:31
Section II
1:16
Scoring
2:04
The Four 'Big Ideas'
3:51
Process of Evolution
4:37
Biological Systems Utilize
4:44
Living Systems
4:55
Biological Systems Interact
5:03
Items to Bring to the Test
7:56
Test Taking Tips
9:53
XVI. Practice Test (Barron's 4th Edition)
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 1-31

1h 4m 29s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 1
0:40
Multiple Choice 2
2:27
Multiple Choice 3
4:30
Multiple Choice 4
6:43
Multiple Choice 5
9:27
Multiple Choice 6
11:32
Multiple Choice 7
12:54
Multiple Choice 8
14:42
Multiple Choice 9
17:06
Multiple Choice 10
18:42
Multiple Choice 11
20:49
Multiple Choice 12
23:23
Multiple Choice 13
26:20
Multiple Choice 14
27:52
Multiple Choice 15
28:44
Multiple Choice 16
33:07
Multiple Choice 17
35:31
Multiple Choice 18
39:43
Multiple Choice 19
40:37
Multiple Choice 20
42:47
Multiple Choice 21
45:58
Multiple Choice 22
49:49
Multiple Choice 23
53:44
Multiple Choice 24
55:12
Multiple Choice 25
55:59
Multiple Choice 26
56:50
Multiple Choice 27
58:08
Multiple Choice 28
59:54
Multiple Choice 29
1:01:36
Multiple Choice 30
1:02:31
Multiple Choice 31
1:03:50
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part A, Multiple Choice Questions 32-63

50m 44s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:14
Multiple Choice 32
0:27
Multiple Choice 33
4:14
Multiple Choice 34
5:12
Multiple Choice 35
6:51
Multiple Choice 36
10:46
Multiple Choice 37
11:27
Multiple Choice 38
12:17
Multiple Choice 39
13:49
Multiple Choice 40
17:02
Multiple Choice 41
18:27
Multiple Choice 42
19:35
Multiple Choice 43
21:10
Multiple Choice 44
23:35
Multiple Choice 45
25:00
Multiple Choice 46
26:20
Multiple Choice 47
28:40
Multiple Choice 48
30:14
Multiple Choice 49
31:24
Multiple Choice 50
32:45
Multiple Choice 51
33:41
Multiple Choice 52
34:40
Multiple Choice 53
36:12
Multiple Choice 54
38:06
Multiple Choice 55
38:37
Multiple Choice 56
40:00
Multiple Choice 57
41:18
Multiple Choice 58
43:12
Multiple Choice 59
44:25
Multiple Choice 60
45:02
Multiple Choice 61
46:10
Multiple Choice 62
47:54
Multiple Choice 63
49:01
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section I, Part B, Grid In

21m 52s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:17
Grid In Question 1
0:29
Grid In Question 2
3:49
Grid In Question 3
11:04
Grid In Question 4
13:18
Grid In Question 5
17:01
Grid In Question 6
19:30
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Long Free Response Questions

31m 22s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:18
Free Response 1
0:29
Free Response 2
20:47
AP Biology Practice Exam: Section II, Short Free Response Questions

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
AP Biology Practice Exam
0:15
Free Response 3
0:26
Free Response 4
5:21
Free Response 5
8:25
Free Response 6
11:38
Free Response 7
14:48
Free Response 8
22:14
Loading...
This is a quick preview of the lesson. For full access, please Log In or Sign up.
For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Biology
  • Discussion

  • Study Guides

  • Download Lecture Slides

  • Table of Contents

  • Transcription

  • Related Books & Services

Start Learning Now

Our free lessons will get you started (Adobe Flash® required).
Get immediate access to our entire library.

Sign up for Educator.com

Membership Overview

  • Unlimited access to our entire library of courses.
  • Search and jump to exactly what you want to learn.
  • *Ask questions and get answers from the community and our teachers!
  • Practice questions with step-by-step solutions.
  • Download lesson files for programming and software training practice.
  • Track your course viewing progress.
  • Download lecture slides for taking notes.
  • Learn at your own pace... anytime, anywhere!

Animal Behavior

  • Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior.
  • A fixed action pattern (FAP) is an innate, highly stereotypic behavior pattern. The behavior is performed in response to an external stimulus and continued to completion.
  • Learning is the process by which an animal’s behavior and response to stimuli are modified as a result of experience.
  • Habituation is a reduction in response by an animal to repeated exposure to a stimulus.
  • Associative learning occurs when a certain stimulus becomes associated with another stimulus or outcome through experience. Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are types of associative learning.
  • Imprinting is learning that occurs during a particular age or stage of life that causes a behavior that is independent of the outcome.
  • Social behavior is the interaction among two or more individuals of the same species. Types of social learning include cooperation, agnostic behavior, dominance hierarchies, territoriality and altruism.
  • A stimulus transmitted from one individual to another is a signal. The exchange of signals is communication.
  • Foraging is food-obtaining behavior and includes finding, storing and hunting for food.

Animal Behavior

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Introduction to Animal Behavior 0:05
    • Introduction to Animal Behavior
    • Ethology
    • Proximate Cause & Ultimate Cause
  • Fixed Action Pattern 3:07
    • Sign Stimulus
    • Releases and Example
    • Exploitation and Example
  • Learning 8:56
    • Habituation, Associative Learning, and Imprinting
  • Habituation 10:03
    • Habituation: Definition and Example
  • Associative Learning 11:47
    • Classical
    • Operant Conditioning
    • Positive & Negative Reinforcement
    • Positive & Negative Punishment
    • Extinction
  • Imprinting 17:47
    • Imprinting: Definition and Example
  • Social Behavior 20:12
    • Cooperation
    • Agonistic
    • Dorminance Heirarchies
    • Territoriality
    • Altruism
  • Communication 26:56
    • Communication
  • Mating 32:38
    • Mating Overview
    • Promiscuous
    • Monogamous
    • Polygamous
    • Intrasexual
    • Intersexual Selection
  • Foraging 36:08
    • Optimal Foraging Model
    • Foraging
  • Movement 39:12
    • Kinesis
    • Taxis
    • Migration
  • Lunar Cycles 42:02
    • Lunar Cycles
  • Example 1: Types of Conditioning 43:19
  • Example 2: Match the Following Terms to their Descriptions 44:12
  • Example 3: How is the Optimal Foraging Model Used to Explain Foraging Behavior 45:47
  • Example 4: Learning 46:54

Transcription: Animal Behavior

Welcome to Educator.com.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to be talking about animal behavior starting with an overview of animal behavior and the definition.0002

At its most basic level, animal behavior is a physiological response to a stimulus.0010

For example, if an animal sees a predator, it will cause that animal’s nervous system to0017

activate muscles in such a way that the animal will protect themself or evade the danger.0022

Another example: the presence of an individual from the same species who is the opposite sex can trigger courtship rituals such as a mating dance.0029

Conversely, through evolutionary processes, animal behavior can influence physiology.0041

For example, if through mating behavior, a particular color pattern is favored by potential mates during a display or courtship ritual.0049

That color pattern will tend to be maximized or optimized over time through natural selection.0058

Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior.0067

And in 1973, Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen shared the Nobel prize for strides that they made in our understanding of animal behavior.0072

So, I will give you the three names: von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen.0084

And I will be mentioning some of their studies as we talk about different examples of types of animal behavior in this lecture.0094

There are two ways to think about animal behavior. One is that we can consider the proximate cause.0103

So, the proximate cause of a behavior is the immediate stimulus, so proximate cause is the immediate stimulus for a particular behavior.0111

What causes an animal to execute a behavior? What triggers a herd of zebra to run from a cheetah?0125

What causes an earthworm to burrow into the soil? What is the immediate reason?0134

We can also look at behavior from a longer view, which is the ultimate cause.0140

What is the benefit to the animal in behaving a certain way? What evolutionary processes have led to this behavior?0148

And we are going to be looking at three general areas of behavior, so three broad classes of behavior.0158

One is fixed action pattern. The second is learning, and the third group is social behavior; and we are going to start now with fixed action pattern.0167

A fixed action pattern is an innate highly stereotypic behavior pattern.0191

It is the simplest type of behavior, and it is performed and continued to completion regardless of how useless the behavior may ultimately end up being.0198

So, even if the behavior is not useful, once it is triggered, it is just going to finish out.0208

And this behavior is performed in response to an external stimulus.0214

Fixed action patterns are initiated by a sign stimulus, so a sign stimulus triggers the behavior. It triggers the action.0221

If the sign stimulus is given by another individual of the same species, it is known as a releaser.0236

So, a releaser is a sign stimulus from a member of the same species.0245

Unlike most animal behaviors that we are going to discuss, fixed action pattern behaviors are not modulated by the environment or by other stimuli.0261

In other words, as I said, the behavior will continue even if it is detrimental in a particular situation.0271

It is going to be triggered. It is going to happen.0277

Some examples of fixed action pattern behavior - so examples - mating dances. In this case, the potential mate is the releaser.0281

Another example is in the classic studies of Niko Tinbergen. He studied a type of fish called stickleback fish, and that is what is shown here.0296

Among stickleback fish, the males have red coloration on their undersides, so on their bellies. The females do not, so the males have this red coloration.0311

Tinbergen noticed that when red trucks would pass by, the sticklebacks started displaying aggressive behavior.0325

So, he went on and studied this, and what he determined is that male sticklebacks pretty much become aggressive or attack whatever has a red color.0333

So, he used models to study this behavior, and he found out if you took a male stickleback fish and exposed it to even in an unrealistic model,0344

so something that a wooden model that does not even really look like a fish, but it has this red bit of color on its underside,0357

the male stickleback fish will become aggressive.0365

However, even if you expose a male stickleback fish to a realistic looking fish model, but there is no red color, it will not attack.0369

So, the stimulus in this case is actually the red color.0379

In addition, studies were done on the greylag goose, and this is another example of fixed action pattern.0387

This type of geese actually will roll a displaced egg back to the nest, so if one of their eggs ends up out of the nest, they will roll it back.0399

Well, they will even do the same behavior to an object that is similar to an egg even if it is clearly not an egg.0407

So, if you give one of these geese an extremely oversized round object, they will still go ahead and roll that back to the nest.0417

Again, it is a fixed action pattern.0428

Another example: some species of moths drop to the ground if they perceive0431

a sound similar to a bat's echolocation signal because they think a predator is coming.0436

Now, because fixed action patterns are predictable, they can be exploited so, exploitation by another species of a fixed action pattern.0442

And one form of this is code-breaking, and what code-breaking is in this context is replication of the sign stimuli, for example, brood parasitism.0456

Example of code-breaking and exploitation of fixed action patterns is what is called brood parasitism. This is when a bird lays its egg in another bird's nest.0479

And it does this knowing that the parent from the other nest, the nest where the eggs are laid in, will be essentially forced to feed its chick.0496

It will in response to this stimulus of the eggs and then, the chick being born that the0510

essentially foster parent will just behave in this way of bringing food to the chicks.0520

So, this is brood parasitism, a bird lays its eggs in another bird's nest.0524

The second type of behavior we are going to talk about is more complex, and that is learning.0532

Learning is the process by which an animal’s behavior and the response to stimuli are modified as a result of experience.0538

So, unlike fixed action pattern that there is just a stimulus-response, stimulus-response, here, behavior can be modified.0549

Long lived animals have a greater capacity for learning simply because they have a longer length of time in which to learn.0559

Also, a larger brain increases ones capacity to learn.0569

So, longer lived animals may rely more on learning, whereas, those animals with shorter life spans rely more on fixed action pattern behavior.0573

There are three types of learning that we are going to discuss right now, and those are habituation, associative learning and then, finally, imprinting.0593

Beginning with habituation, habituation is a reduction in response by an animal to repeated exposure to a stimulus.0604

And this is one of the simplest forms of learning. You can think of it as an animal getting used to a situation.0615

A good example is the use of decoy owls for deterring pigeons or other predatory birds can be used.0624

So, if you put a decoy out, the pigeons will eventually realize that the decoy is harmless, and they will not respond to it.0642

So, the pigeons learn decoy is harmless, and will not respond.0654

What we say is that the pigeons have become habituated, the pigeons are now habituated to the stimulus.0665

Now, if the stimulus is removed, so if the decoy is removed and then, brought back later, the pigeons may begin to respond again,0674

or if the decoy is moved to a new place or even replaced with a slightly different decoy.0684

So, if you change the stimulus, remove it and then, later put it back or move the stimulus to a different location,0690

the animals may again begin to respond and no longer be habituated to that stimulus.0697

So, this is a very simple type of learning. A second type of learning is associative learning.0705

Associative learning occurs when a certain stimulus becomes associated with either another stimulus or with an outcome through experience.0712

So, associative learning, there is a stimulus. It becomes associated with a second stimulus or with an outcome.0724

And there are two types of associative learning that we are going to discuss, and these are classical conditioning and operant conditioning.0731

Classical conditioning is also sometimes called Pavlovian conditioning after Ivan Pavlov who performed studies on associative learning in the 1920s.0741

So, classical conditioning is the linking of one stimulus to another stimulus.0757

And you may have heard of Pavlov's dogs, and what Pavlov did is he rang a bell when he would feed the dogs.0768

And dogs salivate when they are presented with food.0778

So, example is Pavlov's dogs, so dogs salivate when they are presented with food.0783

And what Pavlov did is when he would feed the dogs that he was studying, he would ring a bell.0789

So, every time he would feed the dog, he would ring a bell.0795

Then, eventually, the dogs would salivate when the bell was rung even if there was no food present.0798

So, the dogs learned to associate the bell with food. So, they are associating one stimulus, food, with a second stimulus which is a bell.0807

This is one type of associative learning.0821

A second type of associative learning is operant conditioning, and this is sometimes called trial and error learning.0825

In this case, there is a link between an outcome and a certain action, so outcome and an action become linked.0837

Classic example is studies by B.F. Skinner, and Skinner used rats in his study; and what he did is he presented rats with a lever that releases food.0857

Now, at first, the rat might accidentally activate the lever, but after accidentally pressing the lever a few times and food coming out,0872

the rat will begin to associate the action, which is pushing the lever with an outcome which is food and then, eventually, purposefully, to press the lever.0881

There are some variants of operant conditioning.0900

One variant is positive reinforcement. This is what I just gave an example of with the rats and the food.0905

Action results in a beneficial outcome, so it is rewarded. Action results in a beneficial outcome.0913

A second variant is negative reinforcement, and this is when an action results in the removal of a negative stimulus.0931

For example, if there is an annoying buzzer that is just making a buzzing noise,0955

but when you push the button, the buzzer stops, that would be negative reinforcement.0960

So, it is taking away something bad, whereas, positive reinforcement is giving something good.0965

Positive punishment: in this case the behavior triggers a negative stimulus. The result is going to be to reduce the behavior.0975

So, if someone pushes a button and an annoying buzzer goes off, they will not want to push that button anymore.0996

Negative punishment is when the behavior removes a positive stimulus.1006

So, if the rat pushed the button and then, it took the food away, so it is when behavior removes a positive stimulus.1018

This is also going to reduce the behavior, whereas, reinforcement is going to increase the behavior.1036

Punishments are going to decrease the behavior.1046

Extinction refers to the fact in this context that the behavior is lost if not reinforced.1050

A third type of learning is imprinting, and this is learning that occurs at a particular age or stage of life.1069

And it results in a behavior that - as with fixed action pattern - is independent of outcome, so it is triggered.1078

It is going to happen whether or not the outcome is beneficial, and it usually continues on again to completion even if the behavior is useless.1087

The classic example is that of geese or duck hatchlings following the first moving object that they see after hatching.1098

The intended effect is that the hatchlings will see their mother first and follow her around, which is a good idea because she is necessary for their survival.1108

Now, in the absence of the mother, the hatchlings will imprint on or follow a person,1118

a moving box or any other moving object that the hatchling is initially exposed to.1126

And here, in this picture, it shows an example of ducklings following their mother.1132

And they have probably imprinted on her and will just follow her around as a type of behavior.1135

Another example is reverse sexual imprinting.1144

Studies have shown that humans who are raised together will tend not to marry individuals that they were raised with.1148

And this effect is particularly strong when among individuals that someone was close to or raised with at a very young age before the age of six.1156

The evolutionary benefit here would be that genetic diversity is encouraged.1170

Now, I mentioned three types of learning, and I want to briefly also mention insight or cognition.1177

And these are the highest forms of learning, and they involve reasoning.1187

So, although we focused on three other forms of learning, we should also just be aware of this type of learning, as well.1204

The next type of behavior we are going to talk about is a broad class called social behavior.1213

And social behavior is the interaction among two or more animals of the same species.1218

There are five types that we will be covering: cooperation, agonistic behavior, dominance hierarchies, territoriality and altruism.1225

First, starting out with cooperation, cooperation is behavior among a group of animals1239

that allows the individuals to achieve more success than they would on their own.1248

An example of cooperation is a pack of wolves hunting, so a pack of wolves can cooperate to hunt a deer.1284

If that hunt was attempted by an individual wolf, there is probably little chance of success.1291

The second type of behavior is agonistic behavior.1299

And this is aggressive behavior that will prevent other individuals from having access to resources like food, territory, shelter or mates.1305

And it is a result of competition, so I am just going to put competition.1316

This behavior can result in actual physical violence, injury and even death of an animal.1329

But often, it is more of a display of aggression, somewhat even ritualistic.1336

For example, here is shown a silver back gorilla, and they have agonistic behavior to warn others by beating on their chest.1346

Monkeys sometimes drag around branches or wave them. Some animals bury their teeth or growl.1356

Horses, stallion might rear up on its hind legs.1365

All of these behaviors are shows of aggression, although, they may not result in actual physical violence.1368

Typically, these behaviors have lasting effects.1376

If an individual defends its territory against another individual, the animal that has been warned off is likely to stay away.1381

It is not just a onetime thing. It has been warned off.1392

The territory has been defended, and then, this gorilla may not be bothered by another gorilla that it has warned off through this behavior.1394

Dominance hierarchies are essentially a pecking order. In this case, individuals in a group of animals behave according to a certain ranking.1405

The higher ranking animals are able to dominate individuals with a lower ranking.1431

The result is that the higher ranking animals have first access to food, territory and get the most fit mate.1438

The next social behavior is territoriality, and this is the defense of a geographic area.1452

And this defense can be by an individual or against other individuals, or a group can defend its territory, as well.1469

So, single individual might have a territory, or a group might have a territory.1480

And the purpose of defending the territory is to have exclusive use of the food in the territory or the land for breeding and rearing one's young.1484

The final type of social behavior that we are going to talk about is altruism.1496

And this is behavior that puts an individual at risk for the benefit of other individuals of that same species.1505

This type of behavior may be favored in terms of evolution because it results in more individuals1530

surviving compared to if the individual did not take an action that might be detrimental to him.1537

Therefore, the gene, then, gets passed on to favor this type of behavior.1547

And it has been realized that this behavior is more beneficial to an individual if those who are being benefited by the action.1553

The other animals being benefited by one animal's sacrifice are more closely related.1565

For example if a predator comes and an animal gives a warning cry, that animal is calling attention to itself.1571

So, the predator might attack it, but he is benefiting the group by warning them off.1577

And altruistic behavior among those who are closely-related is called kin selection.1583

So, it is a type of natural selection called kin selection that would select for altruistic behavior.1595

So, the kin of the individual with this type of behavior are more likely to survive and reproduce.1601

And they are going to perpetuate the genetic tendency, then, for individuals to be altruistic.1607

Alright, we talked about social behavior, and now, we are going to talk about communication, another very important type of behavior in animals.1614

So, communication, just starting out with some definitions, a stimulus that is transmitted from one individual to another individual is a signal.1625

So, a stimulus transmitted from one individual to another is called a signal.1640

The exchange of signals is communication, so communication is the exchange of signals.1666

The signals can be verbal like a primate that screeches to warn others of danger. It can be tactile, so physical contact.1682

So, signals can be verbal. They can be tactile.1692

It can be by smell, so chemical communication, for example, pheromones, which we briefly discussed in the endocrinology section.1701

These are substances that are released by one individual in order to provide a signal to other individuals.1712

And they can mark a territory, or they can help to attract a potential mate.1720

One very interesting example of communication is the waggle dance of honeybees.1727

And Karl von Frisch studied communication in honeybees and figured out how this waggle dance works.1733

So, if a foraging bee, the bee leaves the hive, it goes around, scouts out things, finds food,1742

that foraging bee returns to the hive and does a special dance to tell the other bees in the hive where the food is located.1751

So, the bees do not all just follow this bee over to the food source. They will actually have their own instructions.1758

They can leave on their own and find the food source.1764

So, what happens is the forging bee shows up back to the hive and lands on a vertical surface in the hive, so this is showing a vertical surface.1767

This is up towards the sky, down towards the ground, and the bee lands on here.1777

He does a figure-eight-kind-of-dance. It makes, sort of a figure eight, and it has two phases.1782

During this waggle phase, he, sort of, moves back and forth, waggles.1790

And then, there is a return phase where he will come back and return,1794

waggle along again, return this way, waggle along, return, so waggle phase-return phase.1798

Now, the longer the duration of the waggle phase, the farther the food is from the hive.1805

So, if he spends a longer time doing the waggle part that means farther away food. Shorter time, food is closer.1811

The bee gives directions to the other members of the hive by indicating the location of the food relative to the sun.1821

So, here is a vertical line, an imaginary vertical line on this surface where the bee has landed.1835

The angle that this bee does the dance, the line that he does the dance on, this angle, let's say that it is 40 degrees.1843

Well, that would be this angle from the vertical to the line along where the dance is performed is the same angle as from the sun to the food source.1859

So, this would be 40 degrees.1870

So, the bees leave the hive, and they know, figure out where the sun is, and go 40 degrees to the right of that.1871

If the food source were on the other side of the sun, let's say 20 degrees, let's say the food was over here, and it was 20 degrees,1881

then, the bee would do the dance along a line to the left 20 degrees.1889

If the food source was right in line with the sun, the bee would just do the dance along the vertical.1898

If the food source was in the opposite direction from the sun, the bee would do its dance downward, so he would dance towards this way.1906

If it was over to the side, then, he would do the dance or she would do the dance at an angle1915

that would be in the opposite direction from the sun and then, at the same angle relative to the sun.1928

So, this is pretty sophisticated communication where a bee is able to convey pretty precise1936

information about the location of food to other members of the hive through this dance.1944

So, communication comes in a lot of different forms among animals.1949

The next topic of animal behavior that we are going to discuss is mating, and various behaviors are performed to attract mates.1956

Some mating behaviors include displays like a male peacock's feathers, sounds, the song of a bird and various other courtship rituals.1966

Some terminology about mating: if we say that a species is promiscuous, what we mean is that these animals have various mates.1994

And they do not stay with their mate for a lasting period of time.2008

Animals that are monogamist, the mates stay together for long periods.2014

Polygamist means that there is one male plus multiple females or one female and multiple males.2029

When we talked about natural selection, I brought up some terms intrasexual selection and2051

intersexual selection that I am going to review here because they apply to this lesson, as well.2057

Intrasexual selection is selection within a sex.2063

For example, in a pride of lions, there will be one male and three or four females. A larger pride might have two males and then, more females, as well.2074

Now, a larger male would have an advantage over other males who are smaller and try to challenge him to take over that pride.2086

So, essentially, males are competing against other males and the selection eventually is going to be for larger size.2096

But, it is males competing against other males in this case, so within a sex.2104

Now, intersexual selection is a bit different. In this case, one sex chooses a mate of the other sex based on certain characteristics.2109

For example, a male bird with brighter feathers may be more likely to attract a mate.2135

So, the male bird has the characteristic of bright feathers, and the female bird is doing the selecting.2143

And therefore, those males with brighter feathers are more likely to mate and produce offspring and pass on that gene for brighter feathers.2150

Here, the selection is within a sex, bigger male wins over smaller male. Here, the female is selecting among the males.2158

A very important type of behavior for survival is foraging behavior, and this is food-obtaining behavior.2171

And it includes finding the food, hunting for it, storing it, anything that has to do with obtaining nutrition.2178

Evolution favors efficient foraging because those who find food will survive, those who do not will not.2186

And then, those who survived passed along their genes at a much higher rate.2194

There is something called the optimal foraging model, and this is an analysis of foraging behavior, so it is analysis of foraging behavior.2200

And it is done from the perspective of cost of finding the nutrition, so cost of finding or obtaining nutrition versus the energy or the value of the food.2218

An animal would be most successful if the cost to benefit ratio here is, the balance of the cost and benefit are maximized for the greatest net benefit.2239

The animal wants the greatest net benefit, the most food, the highest energy nutrition at the lowest cost.2255

Now, talking about what costs are, foraging involves risk.2264

And there is some probability, a particular probability of not finding the food during a particular attempt.2274

So, it is not just as simple as an animal going for the food that has highest energy.2289

That food might be way, way high up in a tree and harder to get to.2295

And they have to expend more energy to get there or take trips up man, many trees to find that food.2298

So, there is a probability an animal would climb up a tree and not find food at all.2303

There is also the risk that the attempt to obtain the food could cause injury or even death.2308

The attempt to find the food could endanger the animal, for example, by exposing it to predators.2316

So, if a rabbit enters the open area to find food, the rabbit is also attacking a risk.2322

Or excuse me. The rabbit is also risking being attacked by a predator like a fox.2328

Taking into account all these factors and coming up with the optimal way to find food, the distance to travel, when to do it, all of that,2334

that is all part of this analysis of the optimal foraging model of how an animal goes about and finding food.2345

Movement is also important to survival. It is a very basic animal behavior, and the simplest method for an animal to move is called kinesis.2354

In this case, the animal moves faster when the environment or stimulus is less desirable2360

and then, stops or slows down when in the desired environment.2363

So, if something bad...it starts to rain. Let's say it starts to rain, and that is unfavorable to the animal.2377

The animal might just quickly start moving, and then, hopefully, he will end up under some kind of shelter, under a tree or something.2403

And then, when it gets to a favorable environment, that is dry, he is not being rained on, then, he will stop moving, so that is kinesis.2411

Taxis is more complex. This is directed movement towards a target or a stimulus or away from a stimulus.2418

For example, a predator could be running toward a prey.2438

A bird could be flying to its nest, that could be taxis, or a prey could be running to a cave to hide or running up a tree, so it is running towards something.2445

Migration is another type of movement, and this is a long distance movement; and it is typically associated with the seasons.2456

And the purpose of this is to avoid inhospitable weather and or to seek more desirable locations for food or mating.2482

And there are methods that animals - and often, it is birds, but other animals can migrate, too -2492

use to find their way to an extremely remote location even if they have not been there before.2497

So, they may have never been on a certain route, but they can use sun position, so they navigate via sun position, stars, even the earth's magnetic field.2503

Another influence on behavior in some animals is the lunar cycle.2524

Some species rely on tides, and these follow the lunar cycles for behaviors such as laying eggs.2529

So, here, this shows the intertidal zone, and we are going to talk about this when we talk about biomes, but this is the intertidal zone.2539

And during a full moon or a new moon, tidal movement is at its maximum.2546

Now, an animal may take advantage of having the maximum amount of land exposed at low tide.2564

The amount might be what it is seeking out, or being able to reach a higher part of the beach at high tide,2571

or if there is a larger range of water movement between low tide and high tide that can maximize the dispersion of hatchlings.2581

So, various ways in which the behavior of the tides can influence animal behavior.2588

Now, that we have had a discussion of various types of animal behavior, we are going to do some examples to reinforce the material.2595

Example one: a dog owner uses an electric can opener every evening to open a can of food for his dog's dinner.2601

The dog runs to the owner at the sound of a can opener even if no can is actually being opened.2609

This behavior is an example of what type of conditioning? Well, let's look at what is happening here.2617

One stimulus is being associated with another stimulus.2624

So, what has happened is the dog has learned to associate the stimulus of the sound of the can opener with the stimulus of dog food.2627

So, this idea of associating one stimulus with another stimulus is classical conditioning, so the type of conditioning is classical.2638

Example two: match the following terms to their descriptions.2654

One, altruism: directed movement towards a specific target- not correct.2658

Behavior that puts an individual at risk in exchange for benefiting other members of the species- that is correct.2666

That is the description of altruistic behavior.2674

OK, two, fixed action pattern: well, it is not directed movement towards a specific target, so let’s go on.2679

An innate highly stereotypic behavior pattern,2687

or learning that occurs during a particular age or stage of life that causes a behavior that is independent of the outcome.2692

Well, this is not a type of learning. It is just innate.2698

One term you might hear, then, is instinct, and that is what fixed action pattern is. It is just an innate behavior.2704

There is a stimulus. There will be a specific response elicited.2710

Imprinting: well, imprinting is not directed movement.2718

What imprinting is, is learning that occurs during a particular age or stage that causes behavior that is independent of the outcome.2721

The example I gave was the ducklings imprinting on the first moving object they see and then, following that object around: D.2729

Finally, taxis is directed movement towards a specific target or stimulus.2740

Example three: how is the optimal foraging model used to explain a particular foraging behavior?2748

So, what the optimal foraging model does is it analyzes foraging behavior from2754

the perspective of cost of finding food versus the energy or value of the food.2768

So, the animal will be most successful if the balance of the cost and benefit is maximized to provide the greatest...2785

The animal is going to want the greatest net benefit, the best food, most nutritious, highest energy at the lowest risk.2795

Risk could include energy expenditure. Risk can also include risk of injury or being attacked by a predator.2802

Example four: a farmer places a model, an owl, in his field to stop birds from eating corn.2815

Initially, the birds will not approach the field.2822

Eventually, the birds ignore the owl model and enter the field at the same rate as when there is no model present.2826

What type of learning does this represent?2833

Well, what has happened is the birds have learned through repeated exposure to the model that the model is not a threat.2835

So, they have become habituated to the model, so this is habituation.2845

And what the farmer could do is put a different model, take the model away, and then, put it back later or even move the model2850

would be ways to get around this habituation, but right now, the birds have habituated because they are no longer responding to the model.2856

So, that concludes this lesson on animal behavior at Educator.com2864