Liquid-liquid extraction is a technique used to separate two components of a mixture based on their solubility or polarity by using an aqueous and an organic solvent. Ionic compounds will prefer the polar water solvent while organic species will prefer the organic layer. Acids and bases can be added to make some compounds charged and therefore more ionic based on their acidity, allowing for separation. This lecture covers basic technique and safety protocols, such as venting pressure away from self and others and taking care when using ether as a solvent, as well as glassware and other equipment required (Erlenmeyer flask, separating funnel). The conclusion covers the workup of the product and how to wash with various aqueous solutions and dry to isolate the product. It also includes strategies to avoid common pitfalls, such as discarding the wrong layer, how to separate an emulsion, and how to troubleshoot when a product isnt recovered.
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This is the actual book that Dr. Laurie Starkey teaches out of as a professor, and manages to be both clear and yet precise. The book presents a logical, systematic approach to understanding the principles of organic reactivity and the mechanisms of organic reactions.
This book includes all of the concepts typically covered in an organic chemistry textbook, but special emphasis is placed on skills development to support these concepts. This emphasis upon skills development will provide students with a greater opportunity to develop proficiency in the key skills necessary to succeed in organic chemistry.