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Matthew M.

Matthew M.

Web Application Development

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

Course Introduction

12m 13s

Intro
0:00
What Is PHP?
0:12
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
0:13
Why Learn PHP?
1:09
Why Learn PHP?
1:10
Web Application: Educator Store
2:25
Web Application: Educator Store
2:26
Example of Web Application
3:18
PHP in the Educator Store
7:12
Dynamic Content Generation
7:22
Ease of Website Maintenance
7:55
Form Input Processing and Access to Advanced Functionality
9:00
What You Will Learn
9:36
What You Will Learn
9:37
Who Is This Course For?
10:56
Who Is This Course For?
10:57
How PHP & The Web Work

15m 32s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Client-Server Model
0:53
Client-Server Model
0:54
HTTP Protocol
2:15
Definition of Protocol
2:16
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
2:37
Uniform Resource Locators
3:46
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
3:47
Form of URLs
4:13
Accessing Webpages with URLs
5:13
Serving Webpages
6:14
Serving Webpages, Client Machine, and Server Machine
6:15
Static vs. Dynamic Webpages
8:30
Static Webpage
8:31
Dynamic Webpage
8:55
Server-Side Scripting
9:54
Server-Side Scripting
9:55
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:17
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:18
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:07
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:08
Setting Up Your Development Environment

33m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
Development Environments
1:04
Development Environments
1:05
Our Default Development Environment: Window 7
1:54
Remote Development
4:04
Development Machine & Remote Server
4:05
Local Development
6:54
Development Machine
6:55
Software Used In This Course
9:41
Firefox Web Browser & Firebug Add-On
9:42
XAMPP
12:15
PSPAD Text Editor
13:16
XAMPP Installation
13:49
XAMPP Installation
13:50
Verify XAMPP Install
16:26
Verify XAMPP Install
16:27
localhost
19:08
localhost and 127.0.0.1 'loopback' IP Address
19:09
Document Root
21:16
Document Root and Directory Name
21:17
Document Root for Apache in XAMPP: htdocs & Example
22:13
Text Editor Spectrum
26:12
Text Editor Spectrum: Barebones to IDE
26:13
PSPad & Example
27:02
Finding Help
30:26
Web Resources
30:27
Homework Challenge
31:36
Homework Challenge
31:37
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:39
Your First PHP Script

12m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
.php To HTML
1:00
.php To HTML
1:01
PHP Delimiters
2:20
PHP Delimiters: Opening & Closing PHP Tags
2:21
'Hello, World!' Example
4:34
Echo Statement & PHP Tags
4:35
Adding Second Heading
7:34
Homework Challenge
9:56
Homework Challenge
9:57
Basic PHP Syntax

40m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
PHP Delimiters
0:38
Long and Script Form
0:39
Short and ASP Style
1:33
Example
2:01
php.ini: PHP's Configuration
3:40
php.ini
3:41
Configuration Directives
3:48
Short and ASP Style: Enabled/Disabled
4:13
phpinfo()
7:58
Statements
14:28
PHP Statements
14:29
Example: PHP Statements
14:55
Comments
16:53
PHP Comments
16:55
Single-line Comments
17:37
Multi-line Comments
18:13
Example: PHP Comments
18:47
Coding Conventions
24:26
Coding Conventions
24:27
Example: PHP Coding Conventions
26:19
Homework Challenge #1
33:51
Homework Challenge #1
33:52
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:41
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:42
Homework Challenge #2
36:09
Homework Challenge #2
36:10
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:07
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:08
Variables & Numeric Data Types

16m 38s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:12
Working With Data
0:48
8 Types of Data for PHP
0:49
Identifiers
1:40
Identifiers: Definition and Example
1:41
Variables
2:47
Variables Definition
2:48
Variables Syntax
3:06
Integer Data Type
4:44
Integer Data Type
4:45
Integer Literals
5:08
Examples
5:30
Float Data Type
6:26
Float Data Type
6:27
Float Literals
7:00
Example
7:21
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:06
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:07
var_dump() Function
9:59
var_dump()
10:00
Example: Code and Output
10:30
Example: var_dump() Function
11:19
Coding Conventions: Variables
12:32
Lower Camel Case Notation
12:33
Variable Name Lengths
13:54
Homework Challenge
14:54
Homework Challenge
14:55
String Data Type

18m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
String Data Type
0:29
String Data Type
0:30
Specifying String Literals
1:03
Single-Quoted Strings
1:53
Single-Quoted Strings
1:54
Escape Sequences
2:31
Escape Sequences
2:32
Example
2:46
Escape Sequences for Commonly Used Special Characters
4:32
Double-Quoted Strings
6:04
Double-Quoted Strings
6:05
Variable Interpolation
6:44
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:54
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:55
Homework Challenge
8:54
Homework Challenge
8:55
Include Files & Web Application Introduction

38m 43s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
include Statement
0:47
include Statement: Definition
0:48
Include Statement: Syntax
2:05
include Statement: Example
2:25
include Path
6:32
Absolute and Relative Path
6:34
Specified Path
7:15
Not Specified Path
7:55
Code Reuse
9:35
Code Reuse
9:36
Example
11:11
require Statement
12:56
require Statement: Definition
12:57
require Statement: Syntax
13:32
Include versus Require
13:52
Coding Conventions
16:33
Coding Conventions
16:34
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:32
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:33
Updating Web Application
21:14
Web Application Example
22:59
Homework Challenge
35:33
Homework Challenge
35:34
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:39
Arrays

34m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is an Array?
0:42
What is an Array?
0:43
Arrays in PHP
1:44
Keys and Values
2:15
Types of Arrays
3:37
Indexed Arrays & Associative Arrays
3:38
array() Construct
6:47
Declaring Arrays
6:48
Defining Indexed Array
7:00
Defining Associative Arrays
7:43
Square Bracket Syntax
8:50
Square Bracket Syntax
8:51
Accessing Indexed Arrays
9:02
Accessing Associative Arrays
9:56
Arrays Example
10:41
Indexed Arrays Example
10:45
Associative Arrays Example
13:55
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:28
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:29
Multi-Dimensional Arrays Example
18:51
Multi-Dimensional Arrays in PHP File
20:34
Coding Conventions: Arrays
27:59
Coding Conventions: Arrays
28:00
Homework Challenge #1
29:20
Homework Challenge #1
29:21
Homework Challenge #2
30:38
Homework Challenge #2
30:39
Web Application Development

27m 38s

Intro
0:00
Versions
0:14
Version 3.0
1:23
Version 3.1
8:08
Version 3.2
11:42
Version 3.3
20:27
Homework Challenge
26:31
Homework Challenge
26:32
Script Input & The GET Method

30m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Providing Input to PHP
0:39
GET Method, POST Method, and Cookies
0:40
Name/Value Pairs
1:22
GET Method
1:57
HTTP GET Method
1:58
Query String
2:52
GET Method Example
3:38
GET Method Example
3:39
Review of HTML Forms
8:16
HTML Forms
8:17
Input Control and Submitted Form
9:13
<form> Tag
10:07
<form> Tag
10:08
Method
10:34
Action
11:13
Input Control Examples
11:50
Input Control Examples
11:51
Common Input Controls
17:31
Common Input Controls
17:32
Query Strings
18:52
Query Strings
18:53
Query Strings Syntax
19:12
URL Encoding
20:01
URL Syntax
20:02
Examples
21:17
Simple Form Example
22:28
urlencode() Function
24:08
urlencode() Function
24:09
Example
25:03
urlEncoding Text Example
25:54
Simple Form Example
25:55
Homework Challenge
28:46
Homework Challenge
28:47
Accessing Form Data in PHP

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
$_GET Array
0:48
$_GET Array
0:49
Accessing the Value of a Name/Value Pair Submitted Via GET
1:04
Name Form Example
2:54
Name Form and the $_GET Array
2:55
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:34
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:35
Common Example
6:47
Indexed Array Form Example
8:16
Indexed Array Form Example
8:17
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:14
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:15
Associative Arrays Example
11:41
Associative Arrays Example
11:42
Echo Form Example
15:18
Echo Form Example
15:19
Outputting Arrays In String
23:42
Variable Interpolation
23:43
Outputting a Value in an Indexed Array Within a String
24:12
Simple' Syntax, 'Complex' Syntax, and 'Curly Brace' Syntax
25:00
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:25
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:26
Homework Challenge
29:39
Homework Challenge
29:40
Web Application Development

20m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
Version 3.3
0:38
Version 3.3
0:42
Version 4.0 Changelog
2:43
GET Query
2:45
Adding, Editing, and Removing
3:24
Version 4.0 Coding Example
3:55
item.php, itemID, and itemListing
4:00
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:36
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:37
Version 4.1 Coding Example
11:45
Adding Checkout and Thank You & Editing Footer and Store
11:46
Homework Challenge
18:45
Homework Challenge
18:46
Expression & Operators

31m 56s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Expressions
0:41
Expressions Definition
0:42
Example: Literals
0:55
Example: Variables
1:05
Operators
1:44
Operators Definition
1:45
Unary, Binary, and Ternary Operators
2:07
Assignment Operators
2:52
Assignment Operators
2:53
Array Assignment Operator
3:47
Arithmetic Operators
6:15
Operators for Common Arithmetic Operations
6:16
Modulus Operator
7:41
Arithmetic Operators Example
8:25
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:48
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:49
Pre- and Post- Increment/Decrement
12:43
Coding Example
15:14
Combined Assignment Operators
16:44
Combined Assignment Operators
16:45
Combined Assignment Operators Examples
18:23
Coding Example
19:39
String Operators
20:28
Concatenation Operator, String Variables, and String Literals
20:29
String Operators Example
22:41
Precedence & Associativity
23:40
Precedence & Associativity
23:41
Expression Containing Multiple Operations
23:58
Expression Containing Two Operations of Equal Precedence
25:55
Using Parentheses to Force Precedence
26:52
Precedence & Associativity Review
28:57
Homework Challenge
31:08
Homework Challenge
31:09
Web Application Development

20m 51s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Version 4.1 Review
0:33
Version 4.1 Review
0:34
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:05
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:06
Version 5.0 Example
2:19
Adding View Cart & Editing Checkout, Footer and Store
2:20
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:36
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:37
Version 5.1 Coding Example
17:33
Forwarding Order Total to Thank You Page
17:34
Homework Challenge
20:09
Homework Challenge
20:10
Boolean & Null Data Types

20m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Boolean Data Type
0:38
Boolean Data Type
0:39
Two Boolean Literals
1:24
Boolean Example
1:50
Boolean Example
1:51
Comparison Operators
4:00
Comparison Operators Definition
4:01
Common Comparison Operators
4:40
Comparison Operators Example
6:49
Comparison Operators (Cont.)
10:10
Identical and Not Identical
10:11
Example: Identical and Not Identical
11:24
Null Data Type
13:36
Null Data Type Definition
13:37
Null Literal
14:08
Variable and Null Data Type
14:30
'==' Operator
15:24
Null Data Type Example
15:59
Coding Convention
18:41
Coding Convention
18:42
Homework Challenge
19:17
Homework Challenge
19:18
Type Casting

22m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Type Juggling
0:54
Type Juggling
0:55
Automatic Conversion
2:23
Type Casting
3:53
Type Casting
3:54
Implicit and Explicit Type Casting
4:00
Explicitly 'cast' a Variable Example
4:16
Type Casting (cont.)
6:48
PHP Allows the Following Explicit Type Casts
6:49
The settype () Function
8:18
Type Casting Coding Example
9:00
Explicit Type Casts
9:01
String Conversions
14:52
String Conversions
15:05
Common Conversions to String
15:55
Numeric Conversions
18:18
Numeric Conversions
18:19
Boolean Conversions
20:29
Boolean Conversions
20:30
Homework Challenge
21:38
Homework Challenge
21:39
Introduction to Functions

52m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
What are Functions?
0:51
Definition of Faction
0:52
PHP and Function Call
1:53
Function Calls
2:42
Function Calls
2:43
Function Arguments
3:17
Return Values
4:56
Return Values
4:57
Function Chaining
6:29
Function Chaining
6:30
PHP.net Function Reference
8:23
PHP.net & Function Prototypes
8:24
PHP.net Function Reference Example
9:29
Optional Function Arguments
12:28
Optional Function Arguments
12:29
String Functions
14:57
strtoupper() and strtolower()
14:58
implode (), str_replace(), explode(), strpos(), substr(), and strlen()
18:31
Array Functions
25:48
count()
25:49
in_array() and array_key_exists()
26:06
sort() and ksort()
26:37
Example: count() and in_array()
27:50
Example: array_key_exists()
29:53
Example: sort() and ksort()
31:20
Date & Time Functions
33:38
date() and time()
33:39
getdate()
34:49
mktime()
35:01
Date & Time Functions
35:12
Example: date() and time()
35:58
Example: getdate()
42:15
Example: mktime()
43:15
Homework Challenge #1
44:31
Homework Challenge #1
44:32
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:28
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:29
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:06
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:07
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:17
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:18
Homework Challenge #3
50:08
Homework Challenge #3
50:09
Constants

19m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Constants vs. Variables
0:55
Constants vs. Variables
0:56
Constant Identifiers
2:28
Constant Identifiers Definition and Examples
2:29
Declaring Constants
3:47
Two Ways of Declaring Constants
3:48
Syntaxes
4:10
Major Difference in the Two Forms
4:48
Using Constants Example
6:25
Using Constants Example
6:26
Coding Conventions
11:08
Constant Names
11:09
define () Function
11:42
Meaningful Names
12:00
$_SERVER Superglobal
12:23
$_SERVER
12:24
$_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT']
13:15
$_SERVER Superglobal Example
13:52
Homework Challenge
17:40
Homework Challenge
17:41
Web Application Development

26m 29s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 6.0
1:13
Version 6.0 & Version 5.1 Review
1:14
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:24
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:25
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:00
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:01
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:42
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:43
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:18
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:20
Homework Challenge
25:24
Homework Challenge
25:25
Conditional Control Structures

18m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:26
Lesson Overview
0:27
Statement Groups
0:57
Statement Groups
0:58
Example
1:10
Conditional Control Structures
1:38
Conditional Control Structures
1:39
PHP Control Structures
1:56
if Statement
2:32
if Statement
2:33
if Statement (cont.)
3:49
if Statement Coding Example
3:50
else Statement
7:26
else Statement
7:27
if/else Statement Coding Example
8:50
isset() Construct
9:59
isset() Construct
10:00
isset() Construct Coding Example
12:00
Coding Conventions
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:14
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:39
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:40
Homework Challenge
17:25
Homework Challenge
17:26
Error Handling

19m 8s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Error Handling in PHP
0:41
Error Handling in PHP
0:42
Coding Example
1:45
error_reporting() Function
7:02
error_reporting() Function
7:03
Coding Example
8:04
Additional Error Directives
9:02
display_errors
9:13
log_errors
9:37
error_log
9:50
track_errors
10:12
Coding Examples
10:29
Error Control Operator
13:38
Error Control Operator & Coding Example
13:39
Homework Challenge
16:19
Homework Challenge
16:20
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:58
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:59
Logical & Ternary Operators

23m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
Logical Operators
0:49
Logical Operators Definition
0:50
NOT (!)
1:08
OR ( ||, or)
1:35
AND (&&, and)
2:08
XOR (xor)
2:30
Logical Operators (cont.)
2:54
The OR and AND Logical Operators
2:55
Precedence of Logical Operators
3:35
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:58
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:59
Short-Circuit Operators
9:54
Short-Circuit Operators
9:55
Coding Example
10:49
Ternary Operator
14:07
Ternary Operator
14:08
Syntax and Example
14:24
Coding Conventions
17:36
Coding Conventions
17:37
Homework Challenge
19:08
Homework Challenge
19:09
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:26
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:27
Web Application Development

19m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 6.2 Review
0:26
Version 6.2 Review
0:27
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:39
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:40
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:35
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:36
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:43
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:44
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:52
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:53
Homework Challenge
17:42
Homework Challenge
17:43
More Conditional Control Structure

20m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
elseif Statement
0:45
elseif Statement
0:46
elseif Statement Coding Example
1:22
Multiple elseif Statements
2:16
Multiple elseif Statements
2:17
Multiple elseif Statements Coding Example
3:07
Adding an else Statement
5:44
Adding an else Statement Overview
5:45
Adding an else Statement Coding Example
6:50
switch() Statement
8:07
switch() Statement
8:08
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:14
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:15
switch() Statement Coding Example
11:09
default Case
14:20
default Case
14:21
default Case Coding Example
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:57
Coding Conventions
15:58
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:10
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:11
Homework Challenge
18:06
Homework Challenge
18:07
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:18
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:19
Nested Conditional Control Structures

24m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Nested Control Structures
0:36
Nested Control Structures
0:37
Nested Control Structures Coding Example
2:08
Coding Conventions
6:34
Nested vs. Not Nested Control Structures
6:35
Debugging Control Structures
7:51
Debugging Control Structures
7:52
Incorrectly Specified Test Conditions and Forgetting a Break Statement
8:32
Incorrectly Placing an Opening or Closing Curly Brace
12:14
Debugging Tips
16:24
Tracing the Execution of Your Code
16:25
Adding Echo Statement
17:15
Homework Challenge
21:41
Homework Challenge
21:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:08
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:09
Web Application Development

28m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 7.1 Review
0:46
Version 7.1 Review
0:47
empty () Construct
1:38
empty () Construct
1:39
empty () Construct Coding Example
2:37
Version 8.0
5:32
Version 8.0 Overview
5:33
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:08
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:09
Version 8.1
16:13
Version 8.1 Overview
16:14
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:48
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:49
Homework Challenge
26:19
Homework Challenge
26:20
Sending Email Using PHP

43m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:14
Lesson Overview
0:15
Built-in Mail Extension
1:28
Built-in Mail Extension
1:29
SMTP Overview
2:04
SMTP Overview
2:05
SMTP - Windows
3:08
SMTP - Windows
3:09
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:58
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:59
Mail Configuration Directives
6:35
Mail Configuration Directives
6:36
Coding Example
7:48
Mail Server Authentication
10:20
Mail Server Authentication
10:21
fake sendmail Program
12:27
fake sendmail for Windows
12:28
Main 'add-on' feature
13:03
Username & Password
13:25
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:07
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:08
Sendmail Example
16:19
Sendmail Example
16:20
mail() Function
18:39
mail() Function
18:40
additional_headers
19:45
'From' Header
20:12
mail() Function Coding Example
21:09
mail() Function Coding Example
21:40
Web Application Development
31:43
Version 9.0 Changelog
31:44
ContactUs.php
32:52
ContactUs.php
32:53
contactInfo
33:45
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:31
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:32
Homework Challenge
41:32
Homework Challenge
41:33
User-Defined Functions

56m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
Defining Functions
1:29
Four Parts of Defining a Function
1:30
Functions Example 1
2:29
Function Parameters
5:29
Function Parameters
5:30
Functions Example 2
8:20
Return Statements
12:53
Return Statements
12:54
Functions Example 3
14:20
Where to Define Functions
20:34
Where to Define Functions
20:35
include_once Construct
22:10
include_once Construct
22:11
include_once Coding Example
23:55
Reasons to Use Functions
27:44
Take Advantage of Code Reuse
27:45
Improve Code Readability
29:56
Use Instead of 'content' Include Files
32:12
Web Application Development
34:42
Version 10.0 Changelog
34:43
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:55
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:56
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:04
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:05
Example
49:02
Coding Conventions
53:16
Coding Conventions
53:17
Homework Challenge
54:33
Homework Challenge
54:34
Variable Scope

31m 37s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is Variable Scope?
0:57
Variable Scope
0:58
Global Scope
1:15
Local Function Scope
1:50
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:26
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:27
global Keyword
8:52
global Keyword Overview
8:53
global Keyword Example
9:25
Superglobals
12:34
Superglobals
12:35
Superglobals Example
14:53
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:34
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:35
When to Define Variables
22:09
When to Define Variables
22:10
Putting It All Together
22:56
Putting It All Together Example
22:57
Function Scope
28:56
Function Scope
28:57
Homework Challenge
29:41
Homework Challenge
29:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
30:59
Homework Challenge (cont.)
31:00
Web Application Development

28m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:56
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:57
processGetVar()
1:42
processGetVar() Overview
1:43
processGetVar() Example
2:25
emailComments()
6:35
emailComments() Overview
6:36
emailComments() Example
7:14
outputItemLink()
11:19
outputItemLink() Overview
11:20
outputItemLink() Example
11:45
calcCartTotal()
19:25
calcCartTotal() Overview
19:26
calcCartTotal() Example
21:14
Homework Challenge
25:56
Homework Challenge
25:57
Optional Parameters

19m 35s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Optional Parameters
0:26
Optional Parameters Definition
0:27
Default Values
0:53
Optional Parameters Coding Example
3:26
More on Optional Parameters
6:55
Multiple Optional Parameters
6:56
Coding Example
8:05
Homework Challenge
16:18
Homework Challenge
16:19
Web Application Development

23m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:55
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:56
Update to outputLink()
1:44
Update to outputLink()
1:45
outputLink() Coding Example
2:40
outputImg()
13:57
outputImg() Overview
13:58
outputImg() Coding Example
15:35
Homework Challenge
22:05
Homework Challenge
22:06
Introduction to Conditional Loops

57m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
while Loop
0:48
Definition
0:49
Syntax and Usage
1:12
Coding Example
3:33
Looping Over Arrays
13:16
Looping Over Arrays
13:17
Coding Example
13:53
Looping Over Arrays (cont.)
16:43
Internal Array Pointer
16:44
Array Traversal Functions
17:29
current ()
17:30
next () and prev ()
18:16
reset () and end ()
19:25
key ()
19:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:41
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:06
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:07
Array Traversal Functions (cont.)
29:41
list () Construct and Example
30:07
each () Construct and Example
34:40
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:13
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:14
Control Structure Scope
50:37
Definition and Example
50:38
Control Structure Scope Coding Example
51:59
Coding Conventions
54:20
Coding Conventions
54:21
Homework Challenge
54:58
Homework Challenge
54:49
More on Conditional Loops

35m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
do-while Loop
0:42
do-while Loop
0:43
Simple do-while Loop Example
1:51
Another do-while Loop Example
4:09
continue Statement
10:46
continue Statement
10:47
For Example
11:07
continue Statement Coding Example
12:44
break Statement Re-Visited
18:10
break Statement Re-Visited
18:11
break Statement In while Loops Example
19:38
Infinite Loops
23:26
Infinite Loops
23:27
Coding Example
24:57
Common Loop Pitfalls
25:59
Counter Initialization Occurs in Loop
26:30
Counter Not Incremented in Loop
29:30
Unreachable Break Statement
30:50
Coding Conventions
33:48
Do-while Statements Coding Conventions
33:49
Homework Challenge
34:28
Homework Challenge
34:29
Web Application Development

22m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 13.0 Changelog
0:48
Updating 'viewCart.php' and calcCartTotal()
0:49
Creating isValidCart()
9:22
Adding Three New Item to the Store & Links
15:56
Version 13.1 Changelog
17:20
Updating outputItemLink() to Remove Its Global Dependency on $itemCatalog
17:21
Homework Challenge
20:34
Homework Challenge
20:35
For & Foreach Loops

29m 28s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
for Loops
0:45
for Loops
0:46
Expression 1
1:22
Expression 2
1:47
Expression 3
2:01
Simple Example
2:27
Simple Example
2:28
Notes on for Loops
8:56
Notes on for Loops
8:57
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:06
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:07
foreach Loops
12:03
foreach Loops
12:04
Indexed Array Syntax
14:10
Syntax
14:11
Example
15:23
Associative Array Syntax
18:31
Syntax
18:32
Example
19:47
Coding Conventions
25:05
for Loops
25:06
foreach Loops
25:58
Homework Challenge
26:52
Homework Challenge
26:53
Web Application Development

25m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:19
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:20
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:57
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:59
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:39
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:40
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:06
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:07
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:37
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:38
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:25
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:26
Homework Challenge
23:35
Homework Challenge
23:36
Conditional Loop Wrap-Up

23m 12s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Nested Conditional Loops
0:39
Nested Conditional Loops
0:40
Coding Example
1:10
continue & break Re-Visited
5:17
Continue Statements and Coding Example
5:30
Break Statements and Coding Example
11:34
Loop Debugging Tips
15:16
Add Short Debug Statement At the Very Beginning
15:17
Output a Counter Variable
18:10
Add Debug Statement At the Very End
19:20
Homework Challenge
20:20
Homework Challenge
20:21
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:00
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:01
Variable-Length Parameter Lists

22m 16s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:34
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:35
Coding Example
1:51
Variable-Length Parameter Lists (cont.)
5:21
When a Parameter List is Defined For the Functions
5:22
Coding Example
6:32
Variable Type Functions
9:54
is_int (), is_float (), is_string (), and is_bool()
9:55
is_ array ()
10:50
is_null ()
11:01
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 1
11:27
is_numeric() and Example
15:57
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 2
17:12
Homework Challenge
19:35
Homework Challenge
19:36
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:52
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:53
Web Application Development

38m 36s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 15.0 Changelog
0:33
outputLink (), outputImg (), is_array () and is_string ()
0:34
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:31
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:32
Version 15.1 Changelog
7:55
Removing Redundant Code and Adding New Function Called outputHtmlTag ()
7:56
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:37
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:38
Version 16.0 Changelog
14:55
Creating emailOrder() Using New Constants ORDER_EMAIL_FROM and ORDER_EMAIL_SUBJECT
14:56
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:30
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:31
Version 16.1 Changelog
32:21
Creating formatAsDollars ()
32:22
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:57
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:58
Homework Challenge
36:27
Homework Challenge
36:28
Miscellaneous Topics

31m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
register_globals Directive
0:58
register_globals
0:59
Coding Example
2:04
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:07
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:08
register_long_arrays Directive Coding Example
5:44
Magic Constants
7:30
Magic Constants
7:31
__LINE__, __FILE__, __FIR__, and __FUNCTION__
8:16
Coding Example
9:06
exist() & die()
13:19
exist() & die()
13:20
Coding Example
14:08
Execution Operator
16:23
Execution Operator
16:24
Coding Example
17:27
Array Operators
18:23
Equality (==) and Inequality (!=, <>)
18:43
Identity (===) and Non-Identity (!==)
19:13
Union (+) Operator
19:41
Array Operators Coding Example
20:07
Variable Variables
24:13
Variable Variables
24:14
Coding Example
26:07
Variable Functions
28:02
Variable Functions
28:03
Coding Example
29:13
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Lecture Comments (2)

0 answers

Post by sorin dragon on March 14, 2016

Keith in config you forgot to add your settings. I mean the folder where you put all the exercises.

This is my modification:
// Define root URI for this version of the webapp
define('ROOT_URI', '/educator-php-intro/web_app/version-' . VERSION . '/');

// UPDATED v6.1
// Image directory URI constant
define('IMAGE_DIR', '/educator-php-intro/web_app/images/');


comparing with what was before:

// Define root URI for this version of the webapp
define('ROOT_URI', '/intro2php/web_app/version-' . VERSION . '/');

// Updated v6.1
// Image directory URI constant
define('IMAGE_DIR', '/intro2php/web_app/images/');

So for the prof this was the forlder intro2php and for me I put educator-php-intro.

I use wamp, so this forlder educator-php-intro is in C:\wamp\www\educator-php-intro\

0 answers

Post by Keith Sheridan on October 13, 2014

Hi, The store.php page is not recognize the config.php file for me. Any suggestions why this is happening thanks.

Web Application Development

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:12
    • Lesson Overview
  • Version 6.2 Review 0:26
    • Version 6.2 Review
  • Version 7.0 Changelog 2:39
    • Version 7.0 Changelog
  • Version 7.0 Coding Example 4:35
    • Version 7.0 Coding Example
  • Version 7.1 Changelog 12:43
    • Version 7.1 Changelog
  • Version 7.1 Coding Example 13:52
    • Version 7.1 Coding Example
  • Homework Challenge 17:42
    • Homework Challenge

Transcription: Web Application Development

Hello again, and welcome back to Educator.com's Introduction to PHP course.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to be continuing development of our web application,0004

incorporating some of the concepts we have learned in our last few lessons.0008

First, we are going to start off by reviewing what our last version of the web app looked like, which was version 6.2.0014

And then, we are going to go through 2 revisions in this lesson: we are going to upgrade to a version 7.0 and a version 7.1.0020

Now, in version 7.2, one of the things I want to note is that we don't actually do any GET data validation.0028

So, for example, on checkout.php, item.php, and thankYou.php, all of those scripts accept GET parameters.0037

And what they do is: they access the data in those GET parameters, without really checking to see if they are available.0048

As a result, if you go directly to any of those pages, you get a warning from PHP saying you're trying to access a GET variable that doesn't exist.0054

And in addition, the page doesn't work as it is supposed to.0062

For example, if we go and look at version 6.2--and here is what it looks like if we go to store.php (let's decrease it a little bit)--0065

but if we were to go, for example, directly to checkout.php, you get an error at the beginning saying "undefined index items."0082

That is because we are trying to access, in our code, the items array.0089

And, for example, if we go directly to items.php, we are going to get an error, as well.0094

And if you will notice, none of the item information actually shows up down here on the screen,0101

saying that you are trying to access an item ID that wasn't provided.0106

And if we go and look at the code, for example, for this page (this is the 6.2 version of item.php),0110

we can see the second statement in our code--we create a variable called currentItemID, and we set it equal to _GET['itemID'].0118

Now, instantly, because if we go to item.php without providing an itemID GET variable, this is going to generate an error,0130

because this variable doesn't exist, because it wasn't passed in.0137

And, in addition, because we use this currentItemID variable in different parts of our page to look up item information from the catalog,0141

none of that is going to work, as well.0148

So, it has the implications of generating an error, as well as not allowing the script to function as it should.0150

What we are going to do is: in version 7.0, we are going to make use of if/else statements that we learned about.0160

We are going to use the isset construct that we have learned about.0165

What we are going to do is some basic validation on our GET variables.0170

What we are going to do is: we are going to test that any GET variables that are required by a particular script0173

(in this case, checkout.php, item.php, and thankYou.php)--we are going to verify that those variables actually exist and were passed in.0178

We are going to do that using the isset function.0189

And if they are not set, we are going to set them to null, by default.0192

Then, what we are going to do is: when we do this process of checking to see if they are available,0196

we are going to create short forms of these GET variables, which is something that you commonly do in PHP,0202

because it's a lot easier to write, for example, dollar sign, item ID, than dollar sign, underscore, GET, square brackets, item ID.0207

So, it is a way to make it easier to use the variables within your code, without clouding it up with unnecessary syntax.0216

We are going to create these short variables when we validate them, and then we are going to0224

use them to conditionally output the HTML content of the page.0227

And what that means is: if the appropriate GET variables were provided, we are going to output the content of the page, as we are supposed to.0233

If not, we are going to output an error message.0241

And one thing in particular we are going to do is: we are going to make use of our logical AND operator,0244

which we learned about, in the validation of our GET data for thankYou.php.0249

We are also going to divide each of these three pages into different sections, and we are going to use comments to do that.0256

What that is going to do is separate out functionality of the page, and it makes the pages easier to understand.0262

When you go back and look at the pages, you will know, "OK, the top of the page is where the GET variables are always processed."0267

"At the bottom of the page is where the HTML output always occurs."0272

Let's go take a look, first, at item.php; and this was the old item.php; and let's see what it looks like in an updated version.0276

At the top of the page, we have added a new section; and the way I have demarcated a section0286

is just by adding this comment tag that says "process GET variables."0292

And what that is going to do is: this section is going to be used to create the short variables for our GET variables,0296

and also to check to make sure that they are valid.0303

So, for example, we have our if/else statement, which we just learned about a few lessons ago.0306

And we run the isset function on _GET['itemID'].0311

And if _GET['itemID'] exists and it's set, then we set currentItemID to that value; if not, we set it equal to null.0315

Then, what we go ahead and do is: in a previous section, if you look at our old itemID, after we have made0324

a short version of our GET variable, we did a little processing on it.0330

For example, we look up the current item in the item catalog; we set the page title for the page.0333

Well, I've created a section called Perform Any 'Global' Data Processing; in this section...0339

these sort of actions that occur after the short GET variables are created--this section will contain them.0344

And you can see, there is another if/else statement in here, and it is going to make use of the fact0352

that we have created the short variables, and we have validated whether or not they are actually input.0357

For example, to avoid that error that we got on previous pages, what we have done is checked to see0361

if currentID was not equal to the null, because if the ID was set to null, that means that it wasn't passed in.0369

And if it was, then we go ahead and look up the item in a catalog (and actually, this line shouldn't even be here),0376

because we have done that up here--we have created the short variable up here, at the top of the page.0383

And so, what this tests is if the current ID isn't equal to null, that means it was passed in, and it is set to the value itemID that was passed in.0387

And then, we can look up our item in the catalog, and we can set the name.0395

However, if this statement evaluates to false, which means that it was null, which means that an ID was not passed in,0398

then we are going to set the page title to say error.0405

Down here, we have created a section called Output HTML, and this is where all of the HTML is going to be conditionally output from now on.0409

That is going to be based on this data processing that occurred at the top of the page.0418

For example, now, whereas before we just would output the HTML header in our old version,0422

and then go straight ahead and output all of the information about the item,0428

we have a conditional statement, an if statement, that says "if current itemID is not equal to null," which again,0433

references the fact that it was passed in, "then we go ahead and output all of the item's information."0437

But we add an else statement at the end, so if itemID is equal to null, which means it wasn't passed in,0444

then we output an error message that says "you have reached this page in error."0449

If we go and look at...again, this is what item.php looks like on version 6.2, you get these errors, and that is because we haven't provided a query string.0453

For example, if we went ahead and provided...then we get the functionality as expected.0465

Well, let's go back and look at the new version, 7.0.0473

And now, when we go directly to item.php, we actually get an error message.0478

And that is because it is processing the GET variable and saying,0482

"OK, you didn't actually present a GET variable called itemID, so we are going to generate an error."0486

Now, we have also done this for the other pages in the website, for the other pages that take GET variables--for example, checkout.php.0492

If we go to checkout.php without any GET variables, we get the same message, "you have reached this page in error."0500

And if we manually go to thankYou.php, we are going to get a "reached this page in error," as well.0506

If we go back and look at the code--let's look at the code for checkout.php, for example--0515

you can see, we have added this section again, up here at the top, about processing the GET variables.0522

We performed a similar isset test on the GET variable items to make sure it was passed in,0526

and if not, we set our short variable, cartItems, equal to null.0532

Then, if we go down here to do our data processing--in this case, because the checkout script actually calculates the total,0537

if our cartItems is not equal to null (which means that a valid GET variable was passed in), then we go ahead0546

and do the calculations, because if we didn't have a valid GET variable, there is no reason to try and calculate them.0551

And then, we have the else statement that says, "If the cartItems is equal to null," if it wasn't passed in, "then we are going to output an error page."0557

Down here, we have the HTML Output section, and again, we have an if statement that tests0566

whether or not the short GET variable exists, meaning that it was passed in.0571

If it does exist, we go ahead and output the shopping cart total that was calculated in the processing section,0576

and the form that accepts information about the customer's shipping and billing address.0582

Now, if there was an error, meaning that the GET variable was not passed in, then instead, we would output an error message,0589

which you just saw, which is "you have reached this page in error."0596

Now, in thankYou.php, we have the same similar concept, except that in thankYou.php, there are two GET variables that we access.0599

We access the variable customer and _GET ['orderTotal'], and actually, I can see here that it is supposed to have this in here.0612

What this does is: this checks that the customer GET variable was set, and (and this is where0630

we are making use of the AND logical operator) that the orderTotal was set,0640

because we want to make sure, before we access these variables further down in the script, that they are available.0647

And if not, we set them equal to null.0653

Here, we have created the short form of the variables.0655

And then, down here, in the data processing section, we have our logical operator again, AND.0660

It is saying, "If both customer data is not equal to null, AND order total is not equal to null, then0665

we are going to go ahead and set the page title to thankYou, and that is going to mean that we are going to process the page as normal."0672

If either of these were equal to null, we are going to generate an error, and here we set the page title equal to error.0679

Then, we have the Output HTML section; again, we have the conditional test to decide whether to output0685

the regular HTML of the page, the regular HTML content, or an error message.0692

And the test we have, again, is if either of the GET variables...if both of them were not equal to null, meaning they both existed,0697

then we are going to go ahead and output our order information, like we have done before,0705

where we output the date of the order, the sales tax that was used, the order total, and so forth.0708

And then, also, we echo the address.0715

And if not, we have the else statement down here that says "you have reached this page in error."0717

And so, that was what we saw when we looked at these pages in the browser.0723

For example, again, if we refresh thankYou.php, we get an error, whereas let's say we go through the application as we are supposed to--0727

and go to Complete Order: now, our thankYou page was output as appropriate,0749

because you can see, at the top here, we have the appropriate GET variables that were passed in from the form.0753

And this is the page we had developed in the last lesson.0758

So now, we are going to change things a little bit: we are going to upgrade to version 7.1.0764

And what we are going to do in this lesson is make a couple of simple changes.0769

We are going to replace the if/else statements we used to process the GET variables at the top of the page.0772

And we are going to replace them with simpler and cleaner-looking ternary operations.0778

I'm going to show you that in a second.0782

Additionally, we are going to add the error reporting function to our config.php file,0784

which, as you know, is the configuration file that we include in all of our pages on the website.0789

What that is going to allow us to do is: because we are developing, we can go into that config.php file0794

and override the global error reporting settings that our PHP configuration has set up.0800

That will give us flexibility, while we are developing, to experiment with different error levels.0807

And also, it does it in an easy way, because we don't have to edit php.ini, and we don't have to restart Apache.0811

So, in this one, we are actually going to be editing the config.php to make that change, to add the error reporting.0818

And then, in these three here, we are going to be updating the way that the GET variables are processed to use ternary operators.0823

Version 7.1 is going to look the same as version 7.0, and if we go to the thankYou page or checkout page--0838

go to any of these pages directly, we get the error, as we are supposed to.0848

However (let's see--let's pull up another...), this is an old version--the 7.0 version of thankYou.php, and if we go ahead0851

and open up the 7.1 version, at the beginning of thankYou.php in 7.0, when we process the GET variables,0862

we have this if/else statement up here, and it's saying that if these variables are set,0873

then go ahead and set their value to the value that was passed in; if not, set that to null.0877

We can do that a little bit more simply using ternary operations.0881

Instead of that if/else block, we can set customer data, and we set it equal to the customer value that was passed in,0886

if isset ($_GET ['customer']) is true (that means if it was passed in), we set it to the value; and if not, we set it equal to null.0896

Likewise, for orderTotal, if the order total was set, if it was passed in, we set the value of the short variable orderTotal0902

equal to the value that was passed in; and if not, we set it equal to null.0910

As you can see, this cleans things up a little bit, and makes things a little bit easier to read, and it's a pretty simple operation.0913

That is how we use the ternary operators; we do that on item.php and checkout.php, as well,0921

where we have replaced the if/else statement at the top with a ternary operation in0931

checkout.php--for the cartItems short variable and for currentItemID in item.php.0935

So, as mentioned, the other change that we made is: we added, at the bottom (this is the top)--0943

if we go all the way down to the bottom of config.php, we have added a section for error reporting,0948

and we have added this error reporting function, which, as we know, overrides the default PHP configuration's error reporting level.0952

And in this case, we are going to set it to development value E_ALL OR E_STRICT,0962

which means output all error messages, and then also, in addition, any notices that fall under the E_STRICT category.0967

This is the value that is set by default in the XAMPP php.ini file.0975

What we are going to do, to make this error reporting function do something useful,0981

is go ahead and edit our php.ini file to make it more restrictive, to put it on, for example, a production value.0985

Or, in this case, we are going to set it to the default value, which says "I want to report all errors, except for the notices--except for E_NOTICE."0995

And that is different from E_ALL or E_STRICT, because in the E_ALL or E_STRICT, the notices get output.1005

So, in this case, when we set this global file like this, and we go ahead and restart Apache,1013

it is going to have this new error level that is going to report less errors.1021

And so, now, when we go to our config.php file, because this is included in every page, it gets set back to this development level.1026

Now, in the real world, you may or may not do this; you may actually just go ahead and edit the php.ini configuration file.1037

The point why I'm putting that in here is to get practice with using this error reporting method,1043

and to see how it can be used, because maybe sometimes you won't have access to the php.ini file on whatever server you are working on.1048

And so, this will allow you to be able to do that.1056

And so, that is how we make use of the error reporting function.1059

For today's homework challenge, I just, as usual with our web application lessons, want to make sure that you understand the different things.1063

So, the first thing is to make sure that you understand why we added the simple GET input validation to our scripts.1071

And that was because that way, we don't get any warnings from PHP saying we are trying to access data that doesn't exist.1077

And also, it causes our scripts to not malfunction--like, for example, the item.php page that tried to access data that didn't exist.1083

And you could see, there were blank images; it didn't output the price; and so forth.1093

And we made use of the if/else statement within our item.php page to only output the item's information1097

if we know that an item ID was properly passed in; otherwise, we output an error.1105

Also, I just want you to consider how dividing the page into different sections--and this will probably become a little more evident1109

as we move on to future versions of the web application--based on functionality makes it a little bit easier to understand.1116

When you go to the file now, you always know that, in the current setup, the bottom section is going to always be where the HTML output occurs.1125

So, you know that, if you are going to be looking for any HTML output (maybe you have an HTML output area),1133

you are going to be looking down at the bottom.1137

We know, at the beginning, there is the section where we process and create our short GET variables.1139

And then, there is a section where we do data processing; and what that is doing is preparing the data for output in the HTML.1144

So, if maybe some of our data is bad, then we can know to go look in the Data Processing section.1150

That just makes things a little bit easier to maintain and debug, and aids other people that could end up reading your files, as well.1154

That ends today's lesson; thank you for watching Educator.com--I look forward to seeing you next time.1162

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