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Matthew M.

Matthew M.

Conditional Control Structures

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

Course Introduction

12m 13s

Intro
0:00
What Is PHP?
0:12
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
0:13
Why Learn PHP?
1:09
Why Learn PHP?
1:10
Web Application: Educator Store
2:25
Web Application: Educator Store
2:26
Example of Web Application
3:18
PHP in the Educator Store
7:12
Dynamic Content Generation
7:22
Ease of Website Maintenance
7:55
Form Input Processing and Access to Advanced Functionality
9:00
What You Will Learn
9:36
What You Will Learn
9:37
Who Is This Course For?
10:56
Who Is This Course For?
10:57
How PHP & The Web Work

15m 32s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Client-Server Model
0:53
Client-Server Model
0:54
HTTP Protocol
2:15
Definition of Protocol
2:16
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
2:37
Uniform Resource Locators
3:46
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
3:47
Form of URLs
4:13
Accessing Webpages with URLs
5:13
Serving Webpages
6:14
Serving Webpages, Client Machine, and Server Machine
6:15
Static vs. Dynamic Webpages
8:30
Static Webpage
8:31
Dynamic Webpage
8:55
Server-Side Scripting
9:54
Server-Side Scripting
9:55
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:17
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:18
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:07
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:08
Setting Up Your Development Environment

33m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
Development Environments
1:04
Development Environments
1:05
Our Default Development Environment: Window 7
1:54
Remote Development
4:04
Development Machine & Remote Server
4:05
Local Development
6:54
Development Machine
6:55
Software Used In This Course
9:41
Firefox Web Browser & Firebug Add-On
9:42
XAMPP
12:15
PSPAD Text Editor
13:16
XAMPP Installation
13:49
XAMPP Installation
13:50
Verify XAMPP Install
16:26
Verify XAMPP Install
16:27
localhost
19:08
localhost and 127.0.0.1 'loopback' IP Address
19:09
Document Root
21:16
Document Root and Directory Name
21:17
Document Root for Apache in XAMPP: htdocs & Example
22:13
Text Editor Spectrum
26:12
Text Editor Spectrum: Barebones to IDE
26:13
PSPad & Example
27:02
Finding Help
30:26
Web Resources
30:27
Homework Challenge
31:36
Homework Challenge
31:37
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:39
Your First PHP Script

12m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
.php To HTML
1:00
.php To HTML
1:01
PHP Delimiters
2:20
PHP Delimiters: Opening & Closing PHP Tags
2:21
'Hello, World!' Example
4:34
Echo Statement & PHP Tags
4:35
Adding Second Heading
7:34
Homework Challenge
9:56
Homework Challenge
9:57
Basic PHP Syntax

40m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
PHP Delimiters
0:38
Long and Script Form
0:39
Short and ASP Style
1:33
Example
2:01
php.ini: PHP's Configuration
3:40
php.ini
3:41
Configuration Directives
3:48
Short and ASP Style: Enabled/Disabled
4:13
phpinfo()
7:58
Statements
14:28
PHP Statements
14:29
Example: PHP Statements
14:55
Comments
16:53
PHP Comments
16:55
Single-line Comments
17:37
Multi-line Comments
18:13
Example: PHP Comments
18:47
Coding Conventions
24:26
Coding Conventions
24:27
Example: PHP Coding Conventions
26:19
Homework Challenge #1
33:51
Homework Challenge #1
33:52
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:41
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:42
Homework Challenge #2
36:09
Homework Challenge #2
36:10
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:07
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:08
Variables & Numeric Data Types

16m 38s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:12
Working With Data
0:48
8 Types of Data for PHP
0:49
Identifiers
1:40
Identifiers: Definition and Example
1:41
Variables
2:47
Variables Definition
2:48
Variables Syntax
3:06
Integer Data Type
4:44
Integer Data Type
4:45
Integer Literals
5:08
Examples
5:30
Float Data Type
6:26
Float Data Type
6:27
Float Literals
7:00
Example
7:21
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:06
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:07
var_dump() Function
9:59
var_dump()
10:00
Example: Code and Output
10:30
Example: var_dump() Function
11:19
Coding Conventions: Variables
12:32
Lower Camel Case Notation
12:33
Variable Name Lengths
13:54
Homework Challenge
14:54
Homework Challenge
14:55
String Data Type

18m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
String Data Type
0:29
String Data Type
0:30
Specifying String Literals
1:03
Single-Quoted Strings
1:53
Single-Quoted Strings
1:54
Escape Sequences
2:31
Escape Sequences
2:32
Example
2:46
Escape Sequences for Commonly Used Special Characters
4:32
Double-Quoted Strings
6:04
Double-Quoted Strings
6:05
Variable Interpolation
6:44
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:54
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:55
Homework Challenge
8:54
Homework Challenge
8:55
Include Files & Web Application Introduction

38m 43s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
include Statement
0:47
include Statement: Definition
0:48
Include Statement: Syntax
2:05
include Statement: Example
2:25
include Path
6:32
Absolute and Relative Path
6:34
Specified Path
7:15
Not Specified Path
7:55
Code Reuse
9:35
Code Reuse
9:36
Example
11:11
require Statement
12:56
require Statement: Definition
12:57
require Statement: Syntax
13:32
Include versus Require
13:52
Coding Conventions
16:33
Coding Conventions
16:34
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:32
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:33
Updating Web Application
21:14
Web Application Example
22:59
Homework Challenge
35:33
Homework Challenge
35:34
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:39
Arrays

34m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is an Array?
0:42
What is an Array?
0:43
Arrays in PHP
1:44
Keys and Values
2:15
Types of Arrays
3:37
Indexed Arrays & Associative Arrays
3:38
array() Construct
6:47
Declaring Arrays
6:48
Defining Indexed Array
7:00
Defining Associative Arrays
7:43
Square Bracket Syntax
8:50
Square Bracket Syntax
8:51
Accessing Indexed Arrays
9:02
Accessing Associative Arrays
9:56
Arrays Example
10:41
Indexed Arrays Example
10:45
Associative Arrays Example
13:55
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:28
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:29
Multi-Dimensional Arrays Example
18:51
Multi-Dimensional Arrays in PHP File
20:34
Coding Conventions: Arrays
27:59
Coding Conventions: Arrays
28:00
Homework Challenge #1
29:20
Homework Challenge #1
29:21
Homework Challenge #2
30:38
Homework Challenge #2
30:39
Web Application Development

27m 38s

Intro
0:00
Versions
0:14
Version 3.0
1:23
Version 3.1
8:08
Version 3.2
11:42
Version 3.3
20:27
Homework Challenge
26:31
Homework Challenge
26:32
Script Input & The GET Method

30m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Providing Input to PHP
0:39
GET Method, POST Method, and Cookies
0:40
Name/Value Pairs
1:22
GET Method
1:57
HTTP GET Method
1:58
Query String
2:52
GET Method Example
3:38
GET Method Example
3:39
Review of HTML Forms
8:16
HTML Forms
8:17
Input Control and Submitted Form
9:13
<form> Tag
10:07
<form> Tag
10:08
Method
10:34
Action
11:13
Input Control Examples
11:50
Input Control Examples
11:51
Common Input Controls
17:31
Common Input Controls
17:32
Query Strings
18:52
Query Strings
18:53
Query Strings Syntax
19:12
URL Encoding
20:01
URL Syntax
20:02
Examples
21:17
Simple Form Example
22:28
urlencode() Function
24:08
urlencode() Function
24:09
Example
25:03
urlEncoding Text Example
25:54
Simple Form Example
25:55
Homework Challenge
28:46
Homework Challenge
28:47
Accessing Form Data in PHP

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
$_GET Array
0:48
$_GET Array
0:49
Accessing the Value of a Name/Value Pair Submitted Via GET
1:04
Name Form Example
2:54
Name Form and the $_GET Array
2:55
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:34
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:35
Common Example
6:47
Indexed Array Form Example
8:16
Indexed Array Form Example
8:17
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:14
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:15
Associative Arrays Example
11:41
Associative Arrays Example
11:42
Echo Form Example
15:18
Echo Form Example
15:19
Outputting Arrays In String
23:42
Variable Interpolation
23:43
Outputting a Value in an Indexed Array Within a String
24:12
Simple' Syntax, 'Complex' Syntax, and 'Curly Brace' Syntax
25:00
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:25
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:26
Homework Challenge
29:39
Homework Challenge
29:40
Web Application Development

20m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
Version 3.3
0:38
Version 3.3
0:42
Version 4.0 Changelog
2:43
GET Query
2:45
Adding, Editing, and Removing
3:24
Version 4.0 Coding Example
3:55
item.php, itemID, and itemListing
4:00
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:36
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:37
Version 4.1 Coding Example
11:45
Adding Checkout and Thank You & Editing Footer and Store
11:46
Homework Challenge
18:45
Homework Challenge
18:46
Expression & Operators

31m 56s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Expressions
0:41
Expressions Definition
0:42
Example: Literals
0:55
Example: Variables
1:05
Operators
1:44
Operators Definition
1:45
Unary, Binary, and Ternary Operators
2:07
Assignment Operators
2:52
Assignment Operators
2:53
Array Assignment Operator
3:47
Arithmetic Operators
6:15
Operators for Common Arithmetic Operations
6:16
Modulus Operator
7:41
Arithmetic Operators Example
8:25
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:48
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:49
Pre- and Post- Increment/Decrement
12:43
Coding Example
15:14
Combined Assignment Operators
16:44
Combined Assignment Operators
16:45
Combined Assignment Operators Examples
18:23
Coding Example
19:39
String Operators
20:28
Concatenation Operator, String Variables, and String Literals
20:29
String Operators Example
22:41
Precedence & Associativity
23:40
Precedence & Associativity
23:41
Expression Containing Multiple Operations
23:58
Expression Containing Two Operations of Equal Precedence
25:55
Using Parentheses to Force Precedence
26:52
Precedence & Associativity Review
28:57
Homework Challenge
31:08
Homework Challenge
31:09
Web Application Development

20m 51s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Version 4.1 Review
0:33
Version 4.1 Review
0:34
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:05
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:06
Version 5.0 Example
2:19
Adding View Cart & Editing Checkout, Footer and Store
2:20
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:36
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:37
Version 5.1 Coding Example
17:33
Forwarding Order Total to Thank You Page
17:34
Homework Challenge
20:09
Homework Challenge
20:10
Boolean & Null Data Types

20m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Boolean Data Type
0:38
Boolean Data Type
0:39
Two Boolean Literals
1:24
Boolean Example
1:50
Boolean Example
1:51
Comparison Operators
4:00
Comparison Operators Definition
4:01
Common Comparison Operators
4:40
Comparison Operators Example
6:49
Comparison Operators (Cont.)
10:10
Identical and Not Identical
10:11
Example: Identical and Not Identical
11:24
Null Data Type
13:36
Null Data Type Definition
13:37
Null Literal
14:08
Variable and Null Data Type
14:30
'==' Operator
15:24
Null Data Type Example
15:59
Coding Convention
18:41
Coding Convention
18:42
Homework Challenge
19:17
Homework Challenge
19:18
Type Casting

22m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Type Juggling
0:54
Type Juggling
0:55
Automatic Conversion
2:23
Type Casting
3:53
Type Casting
3:54
Implicit and Explicit Type Casting
4:00
Explicitly 'cast' a Variable Example
4:16
Type Casting (cont.)
6:48
PHP Allows the Following Explicit Type Casts
6:49
The settype () Function
8:18
Type Casting Coding Example
9:00
Explicit Type Casts
9:01
String Conversions
14:52
String Conversions
15:05
Common Conversions to String
15:55
Numeric Conversions
18:18
Numeric Conversions
18:19
Boolean Conversions
20:29
Boolean Conversions
20:30
Homework Challenge
21:38
Homework Challenge
21:39
Introduction to Functions

52m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
What are Functions?
0:51
Definition of Faction
0:52
PHP and Function Call
1:53
Function Calls
2:42
Function Calls
2:43
Function Arguments
3:17
Return Values
4:56
Return Values
4:57
Function Chaining
6:29
Function Chaining
6:30
PHP.net Function Reference
8:23
PHP.net & Function Prototypes
8:24
PHP.net Function Reference Example
9:29
Optional Function Arguments
12:28
Optional Function Arguments
12:29
String Functions
14:57
strtoupper() and strtolower()
14:58
implode (), str_replace(), explode(), strpos(), substr(), and strlen()
18:31
Array Functions
25:48
count()
25:49
in_array() and array_key_exists()
26:06
sort() and ksort()
26:37
Example: count() and in_array()
27:50
Example: array_key_exists()
29:53
Example: sort() and ksort()
31:20
Date & Time Functions
33:38
date() and time()
33:39
getdate()
34:49
mktime()
35:01
Date & Time Functions
35:12
Example: date() and time()
35:58
Example: getdate()
42:15
Example: mktime()
43:15
Homework Challenge #1
44:31
Homework Challenge #1
44:32
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:28
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:29
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:06
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:07
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:17
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:18
Homework Challenge #3
50:08
Homework Challenge #3
50:09
Constants

19m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Constants vs. Variables
0:55
Constants vs. Variables
0:56
Constant Identifiers
2:28
Constant Identifiers Definition and Examples
2:29
Declaring Constants
3:47
Two Ways of Declaring Constants
3:48
Syntaxes
4:10
Major Difference in the Two Forms
4:48
Using Constants Example
6:25
Using Constants Example
6:26
Coding Conventions
11:08
Constant Names
11:09
define () Function
11:42
Meaningful Names
12:00
$_SERVER Superglobal
12:23
$_SERVER
12:24
$_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT']
13:15
$_SERVER Superglobal Example
13:52
Homework Challenge
17:40
Homework Challenge
17:41
Web Application Development

26m 29s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 6.0
1:13
Version 6.0 & Version 5.1 Review
1:14
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:24
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:25
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:00
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:01
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:42
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:43
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:18
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:20
Homework Challenge
25:24
Homework Challenge
25:25
Conditional Control Structures

18m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:26
Lesson Overview
0:27
Statement Groups
0:57
Statement Groups
0:58
Example
1:10
Conditional Control Structures
1:38
Conditional Control Structures
1:39
PHP Control Structures
1:56
if Statement
2:32
if Statement
2:33
if Statement (cont.)
3:49
if Statement Coding Example
3:50
else Statement
7:26
else Statement
7:27
if/else Statement Coding Example
8:50
isset() Construct
9:59
isset() Construct
10:00
isset() Construct Coding Example
12:00
Coding Conventions
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:14
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:39
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:40
Homework Challenge
17:25
Homework Challenge
17:26
Error Handling

19m 8s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Error Handling in PHP
0:41
Error Handling in PHP
0:42
Coding Example
1:45
error_reporting() Function
7:02
error_reporting() Function
7:03
Coding Example
8:04
Additional Error Directives
9:02
display_errors
9:13
log_errors
9:37
error_log
9:50
track_errors
10:12
Coding Examples
10:29
Error Control Operator
13:38
Error Control Operator & Coding Example
13:39
Homework Challenge
16:19
Homework Challenge
16:20
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:58
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:59
Logical & Ternary Operators

23m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
Logical Operators
0:49
Logical Operators Definition
0:50
NOT (!)
1:08
OR ( ||, or)
1:35
AND (&&, and)
2:08
XOR (xor)
2:30
Logical Operators (cont.)
2:54
The OR and AND Logical Operators
2:55
Precedence of Logical Operators
3:35
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:58
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:59
Short-Circuit Operators
9:54
Short-Circuit Operators
9:55
Coding Example
10:49
Ternary Operator
14:07
Ternary Operator
14:08
Syntax and Example
14:24
Coding Conventions
17:36
Coding Conventions
17:37
Homework Challenge
19:08
Homework Challenge
19:09
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:26
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:27
Web Application Development

19m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 6.2 Review
0:26
Version 6.2 Review
0:27
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:39
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:40
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:35
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:36
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:43
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:44
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:52
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:53
Homework Challenge
17:42
Homework Challenge
17:43
More Conditional Control Structure

20m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
elseif Statement
0:45
elseif Statement
0:46
elseif Statement Coding Example
1:22
Multiple elseif Statements
2:16
Multiple elseif Statements
2:17
Multiple elseif Statements Coding Example
3:07
Adding an else Statement
5:44
Adding an else Statement Overview
5:45
Adding an else Statement Coding Example
6:50
switch() Statement
8:07
switch() Statement
8:08
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:14
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:15
switch() Statement Coding Example
11:09
default Case
14:20
default Case
14:21
default Case Coding Example
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:57
Coding Conventions
15:58
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:10
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:11
Homework Challenge
18:06
Homework Challenge
18:07
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:18
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:19
Nested Conditional Control Structures

24m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Nested Control Structures
0:36
Nested Control Structures
0:37
Nested Control Structures Coding Example
2:08
Coding Conventions
6:34
Nested vs. Not Nested Control Structures
6:35
Debugging Control Structures
7:51
Debugging Control Structures
7:52
Incorrectly Specified Test Conditions and Forgetting a Break Statement
8:32
Incorrectly Placing an Opening or Closing Curly Brace
12:14
Debugging Tips
16:24
Tracing the Execution of Your Code
16:25
Adding Echo Statement
17:15
Homework Challenge
21:41
Homework Challenge
21:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:08
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:09
Web Application Development

28m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 7.1 Review
0:46
Version 7.1 Review
0:47
empty () Construct
1:38
empty () Construct
1:39
empty () Construct Coding Example
2:37
Version 8.0
5:32
Version 8.0 Overview
5:33
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:08
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:09
Version 8.1
16:13
Version 8.1 Overview
16:14
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:48
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:49
Homework Challenge
26:19
Homework Challenge
26:20
Sending Email Using PHP

43m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:14
Lesson Overview
0:15
Built-in Mail Extension
1:28
Built-in Mail Extension
1:29
SMTP Overview
2:04
SMTP Overview
2:05
SMTP - Windows
3:08
SMTP - Windows
3:09
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:58
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:59
Mail Configuration Directives
6:35
Mail Configuration Directives
6:36
Coding Example
7:48
Mail Server Authentication
10:20
Mail Server Authentication
10:21
fake sendmail Program
12:27
fake sendmail for Windows
12:28
Main 'add-on' feature
13:03
Username & Password
13:25
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:07
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:08
Sendmail Example
16:19
Sendmail Example
16:20
mail() Function
18:39
mail() Function
18:40
additional_headers
19:45
'From' Header
20:12
mail() Function Coding Example
21:09
mail() Function Coding Example
21:40
Web Application Development
31:43
Version 9.0 Changelog
31:44
ContactUs.php
32:52
ContactUs.php
32:53
contactInfo
33:45
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:31
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:32
Homework Challenge
41:32
Homework Challenge
41:33
User-Defined Functions

56m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
Defining Functions
1:29
Four Parts of Defining a Function
1:30
Functions Example 1
2:29
Function Parameters
5:29
Function Parameters
5:30
Functions Example 2
8:20
Return Statements
12:53
Return Statements
12:54
Functions Example 3
14:20
Where to Define Functions
20:34
Where to Define Functions
20:35
include_once Construct
22:10
include_once Construct
22:11
include_once Coding Example
23:55
Reasons to Use Functions
27:44
Take Advantage of Code Reuse
27:45
Improve Code Readability
29:56
Use Instead of 'content' Include Files
32:12
Web Application Development
34:42
Version 10.0 Changelog
34:43
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:55
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:56
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:04
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:05
Example
49:02
Coding Conventions
53:16
Coding Conventions
53:17
Homework Challenge
54:33
Homework Challenge
54:34
Variable Scope

31m 37s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is Variable Scope?
0:57
Variable Scope
0:58
Global Scope
1:15
Local Function Scope
1:50
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:26
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:27
global Keyword
8:52
global Keyword Overview
8:53
global Keyword Example
9:25
Superglobals
12:34
Superglobals
12:35
Superglobals Example
14:53
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:34
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:35
When to Define Variables
22:09
When to Define Variables
22:10
Putting It All Together
22:56
Putting It All Together Example
22:57
Function Scope
28:56
Function Scope
28:57
Homework Challenge
29:41
Homework Challenge
29:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
30:59
Homework Challenge (cont.)
31:00
Web Application Development

28m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:56
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:57
processGetVar()
1:42
processGetVar() Overview
1:43
processGetVar() Example
2:25
emailComments()
6:35
emailComments() Overview
6:36
emailComments() Example
7:14
outputItemLink()
11:19
outputItemLink() Overview
11:20
outputItemLink() Example
11:45
calcCartTotal()
19:25
calcCartTotal() Overview
19:26
calcCartTotal() Example
21:14
Homework Challenge
25:56
Homework Challenge
25:57
Optional Parameters

19m 35s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Optional Parameters
0:26
Optional Parameters Definition
0:27
Default Values
0:53
Optional Parameters Coding Example
3:26
More on Optional Parameters
6:55
Multiple Optional Parameters
6:56
Coding Example
8:05
Homework Challenge
16:18
Homework Challenge
16:19
Web Application Development

23m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:55
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:56
Update to outputLink()
1:44
Update to outputLink()
1:45
outputLink() Coding Example
2:40
outputImg()
13:57
outputImg() Overview
13:58
outputImg() Coding Example
15:35
Homework Challenge
22:05
Homework Challenge
22:06
Introduction to Conditional Loops

57m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
while Loop
0:48
Definition
0:49
Syntax and Usage
1:12
Coding Example
3:33
Looping Over Arrays
13:16
Looping Over Arrays
13:17
Coding Example
13:53
Looping Over Arrays (cont.)
16:43
Internal Array Pointer
16:44
Array Traversal Functions
17:29
current ()
17:30
next () and prev ()
18:16
reset () and end ()
19:25
key ()
19:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:41
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:06
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:07
Array Traversal Functions (cont.)
29:41
list () Construct and Example
30:07
each () Construct and Example
34:40
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:13
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:14
Control Structure Scope
50:37
Definition and Example
50:38
Control Structure Scope Coding Example
51:59
Coding Conventions
54:20
Coding Conventions
54:21
Homework Challenge
54:58
Homework Challenge
54:49
More on Conditional Loops

35m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
do-while Loop
0:42
do-while Loop
0:43
Simple do-while Loop Example
1:51
Another do-while Loop Example
4:09
continue Statement
10:46
continue Statement
10:47
For Example
11:07
continue Statement Coding Example
12:44
break Statement Re-Visited
18:10
break Statement Re-Visited
18:11
break Statement In while Loops Example
19:38
Infinite Loops
23:26
Infinite Loops
23:27
Coding Example
24:57
Common Loop Pitfalls
25:59
Counter Initialization Occurs in Loop
26:30
Counter Not Incremented in Loop
29:30
Unreachable Break Statement
30:50
Coding Conventions
33:48
Do-while Statements Coding Conventions
33:49
Homework Challenge
34:28
Homework Challenge
34:29
Web Application Development

22m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 13.0 Changelog
0:48
Updating 'viewCart.php' and calcCartTotal()
0:49
Creating isValidCart()
9:22
Adding Three New Item to the Store & Links
15:56
Version 13.1 Changelog
17:20
Updating outputItemLink() to Remove Its Global Dependency on $itemCatalog
17:21
Homework Challenge
20:34
Homework Challenge
20:35
For & Foreach Loops

29m 28s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
for Loops
0:45
for Loops
0:46
Expression 1
1:22
Expression 2
1:47
Expression 3
2:01
Simple Example
2:27
Simple Example
2:28
Notes on for Loops
8:56
Notes on for Loops
8:57
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:06
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:07
foreach Loops
12:03
foreach Loops
12:04
Indexed Array Syntax
14:10
Syntax
14:11
Example
15:23
Associative Array Syntax
18:31
Syntax
18:32
Example
19:47
Coding Conventions
25:05
for Loops
25:06
foreach Loops
25:58
Homework Challenge
26:52
Homework Challenge
26:53
Web Application Development

25m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:19
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:20
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:57
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:59
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:39
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:40
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:06
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:07
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:37
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:38
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:25
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:26
Homework Challenge
23:35
Homework Challenge
23:36
Conditional Loop Wrap-Up

23m 12s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Nested Conditional Loops
0:39
Nested Conditional Loops
0:40
Coding Example
1:10
continue & break Re-Visited
5:17
Continue Statements and Coding Example
5:30
Break Statements and Coding Example
11:34
Loop Debugging Tips
15:16
Add Short Debug Statement At the Very Beginning
15:17
Output a Counter Variable
18:10
Add Debug Statement At the Very End
19:20
Homework Challenge
20:20
Homework Challenge
20:21
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:00
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:01
Variable-Length Parameter Lists

22m 16s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:34
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:35
Coding Example
1:51
Variable-Length Parameter Lists (cont.)
5:21
When a Parameter List is Defined For the Functions
5:22
Coding Example
6:32
Variable Type Functions
9:54
is_int (), is_float (), is_string (), and is_bool()
9:55
is_ array ()
10:50
is_null ()
11:01
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 1
11:27
is_numeric() and Example
15:57
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 2
17:12
Homework Challenge
19:35
Homework Challenge
19:36
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:52
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:53
Web Application Development

38m 36s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 15.0 Changelog
0:33
outputLink (), outputImg (), is_array () and is_string ()
0:34
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:31
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:32
Version 15.1 Changelog
7:55
Removing Redundant Code and Adding New Function Called outputHtmlTag ()
7:56
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:37
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:38
Version 16.0 Changelog
14:55
Creating emailOrder() Using New Constants ORDER_EMAIL_FROM and ORDER_EMAIL_SUBJECT
14:56
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:30
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:31
Version 16.1 Changelog
32:21
Creating formatAsDollars ()
32:22
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:57
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:58
Homework Challenge
36:27
Homework Challenge
36:28
Miscellaneous Topics

31m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
register_globals Directive
0:58
register_globals
0:59
Coding Example
2:04
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:07
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:08
register_long_arrays Directive Coding Example
5:44
Magic Constants
7:30
Magic Constants
7:31
__LINE__, __FILE__, __FIR__, and __FUNCTION__
8:16
Coding Example
9:06
exist() & die()
13:19
exist() & die()
13:20
Coding Example
14:08
Execution Operator
16:23
Execution Operator
16:24
Coding Example
17:27
Array Operators
18:23
Equality (==) and Inequality (!=, <>)
18:43
Identity (===) and Non-Identity (!==)
19:13
Union (+) Operator
19:41
Array Operators Coding Example
20:07
Variable Variables
24:13
Variable Variables
24:14
Coding Example
26:07
Variable Functions
28:02
Variable Functions
28:03
Coding Example
29:13
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Conditional Control Structures

  • Statements can be grouped together in statement groups so that the entire group of statements can be executed as if it were one statement.
  • Conditional control structures are used to conditionally execute statement groups when a required ‘test condition’ is met.
  • An if statement evaluates whether a test condition is TRUE , and if so, it executes a corresponding statement group.
  • An else statement is a conditional control structure associated with an if statement. When an if statement's test condition is FALSE, an associated else statement's statement group will get executed instead.
  • The isset() construct tests if a variable has been previously declared, and if so, that its value is not NULL . It accepts a variable as its argument and returns a boolean value.
  • Additional Resources:

Conditional Control Structures

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:26
    • Lesson Overview
  • Statement Groups 0:57
    • Statement Groups
    • Example
  • Conditional Control Structures 1:38
    • Conditional Control Structures
    • PHP Control Structures
  • if Statement 2:32
    • if Statement
  • if Statement (cont.) 3:49
    • if Statement Coding Example
  • else Statement 7:26
    • else Statement
    • if/else Statement Coding Example
  • isset() Construct 9:59
    • isset() Construct
    • isset() Construct Coding Example
  • Coding Conventions 15:13
    • Coding Conventions
  • Coding Conventions (Cont.) 16:39
    • Coding Conventions (Cont.)
  • Homework Challenge 17:25
    • Homework Challenge

Transcription: Conditional Control Structures

Hello again, and welcome back to Educator.com's Introduction to PHP course.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to be talking about what are known as conditional control structures--in particular, the if and else statements.0004

And it is a very exciting lecture, because for the first time, we are going to be able to make some decisions within our code,0011

based on user inputs and user actions.0016

So, we are going to be able to evaluate certain sections of code, based on things that happen from the user.0020

In particular, we are going to first talk about what is known as statement groups.0027

This is, as the name implies, grouping a bunch of statements together, and they get treated or evaluated as one.0031

We are going to talk about, obviously, the topic of the lesson, conditional control structures,0038

and in particular the two control structures known as the if statement and the else statement.0043

We are also going to cover a language construct called isset, and then we are going to go over coding conventions as they apply to if and else statements.0048

What is a statement group? Well, essentially, as the name implies, a statement group is a bunch of statements0059

that are grouped together and sort of treated as one.0063

When you evaluate a statement group, you evaluate all of the statements within that group.0066

So, for example, in PHP, the way you denote a statement group is: let's say these two statements...you want them0071

to be executed as a group; you surround them by opening and closing curly braces.0077

What that does is: if this statement group right here is to get executed, that means that both of these echo statements will be executed.0085

So, both hello and world will be echoed out to your output.0092

Now, conditional control structures--what they provide is the ability to execute statement groups on a conditional basis.0099

And what they do is: they test a condition, and if the condition is met, then a particular statement group is executed.0105

For example, PHP provides a number of different control structures.0117

There is the if, the if/else statement (both of those we are going to be talking about today).0121

There is also the if/else/if control structure and the switch control structure, which we are going to be talking about in a couple upcoming lessons.0128

And then, these control structures down here are conditional control structures that allow you to loop over a statement group0138

and repeat it multiple times, based on certain test conditions.0145

And we will be getting those, as well, later on in the course.0149

The if control structure, commonly known as an if statement, is the most widely-used initial control structure.0153

And it is called an if statement (although technically, it is not a statement, as far as PHP goes, but that is the common vernacular0162

for referring to it)...basically, what the if statement does is: it tests the condition, which is a boolean expression.0168

And if the expression evaluates to true, then it executes a statement group associated with the if statement.0175

For example, this is the syntax that the if statement has; and what it has is the if keyword,0181

and then a test condition immediately following that in parentheses.0187

And if the test condition equals true, then this statement group,0192

which is all the statements enclosed in these opening and closing curly braces, will get executed.0199

If the condition is false, then they don't get executed at all.0204

One thing to note, also, is that (it's another terminology thing) one refers to executing statements within an if statement...0209

it is called being inside the if statement if this condition is true, and you are executing statements within the if statement's statement group.0219

That is just a terminology thing.0228

One other thing to note about if statements is that, if a statement group associated with an if statement0231

has only one statement in it (in other words, it's a statement group consisting of one statement), you don't0239

actually have to include the curly braces around it, and the single statement can just be output as is.0244

Let's go and take a look at an example of the if statement in action.0251

Here we have a script called if.php, and it is going to run through a couple of examples of using the if statement.0258

Let's make it a little bit bigger.0268

In this first one, we used literal values as the test condition, and we say "if true, then go ahead and execute the statement group."0271

As we just learned, if the if statement's test condition is true, then the statement group gets executed.0281

Because true is always true, this statement right here will always be executed.0288

Now, if we try the same thing, but we put false as the test condition--false is always going to equal false, which is not true,0293

which means that this statement block in here is never going to get executed.0299

As another example of slightly different using of an expression, we could say, "If 0 is less than 1," and that is a boolean expression--0303

it's a comparison operation; 0 is always going to be less than 1, so this test condition will always evaluate to true.0311

And because of that, this echo statement within the if's statement group will always be executed.0318

Now, one other thing to point out is that these examples up here use literal values, or static values, within the test condition.0327

But more often than not, you are going to be using variables and combinations of variables--0335

in particular, variables using comparison operations--as part of the if condition.0340

In this case, we have a variable called boolean expression, just shortened to expr; we set it equal to true.0347

And then, if we run the if statement with the variable boolExpr as the test condition, what is going to happen is:0355

PHP is going to replace boolExpr with its value, which in this case is equal to true.0363

Because it's equal to true, this statement here is going to get executed.0368

As another example of things a little more complex, we could declare a variable called 1 and set it equal to the integer 1.0372

And then, we could put a comparison operation as the test condition (which is a boolean expression).0381

And we say "if 1, or the value of the variable 1, is equal to the value of 3-2--if that is true, then execute this statement here."0385

And because 3-2 is always equal to 1, this statement will get executed.0395

And down here, you can just see the results of these five different if statements that we had.0399

In the top one, because this was true, 'I will get executed' was printed out.0405

However, because this test condition was false, 'I will not get executed' does not get printed out.0409

And if we look down here, we see that is exactly what happened: 'I will get executed' was printed out, but the other one wasn't.0415

Because 0 < 1 is a true test condition, this is going to be echoed; and we can see that 0 is less than 1.0421

And then, for the final two if statements, because boolExpr in the first one equals true, and 1 is equal to 3-2,0429

both of their echo statements that are part of the if statement would get output.0438

One other control structure that we are going to introduce is known as an else statement.0448

And like the if statement, it is not actually technically a statement in PHP, but that is how it is commonly referred to.0451

It is a conditional control structure that gets associated with an if statement.0457

The way it works is that, if you have an if statement, and the if statement's test condition evaluates to false,0461

and there is an else control structure that follows the if control structure,0467

then whatever statements are inside the else statement's group get executed.0472

And so, for example, the if/else combination has this following syntax, where you have your if statement,0479

as we had just described--it tests a condition.0487

If the condition is true, it evaluates this statement group; and then, it would proceed to the next line in the code.0491

However, if condition equals false, because there is an else control structure associated with it, then whatever statements0499

are in the else control structure statement group get executed.0510

So, every time this is false, these statements down here will get executed.0514

And as with the if statement, if an else statement group only contains one particular statement,0519

the curly braces around it can be omitted; they are optional.0525

Let's take a look at an example of the if/else control structure in action.0531

Here we have two simple if/else combinations.0540

In the first one, we have an if statement that says "if this condition is true, then we are going to echo this statement here."0544

"And if it is false, this statement gets echoed."0552

Because true (the literal value true) is always true, this statement will always get executed.0554

The else statement group will not be; and then, any code that would be next down the line would get executed after this statement was echoed.0560

Now, we switch things around, and we put the value false as the test condition, because if the test condition is going to equal false,0567

then the if statement group will not get executed.0575

However, there is an else statement group appended to the end of it, so the else statement group will get executed.0578

So here, it will say, 'Now I will get executed.'0584

And if we look at the output of these two if/else control structures, we can see 'I will get executed' was output from the first one,0586

and 'Now I will get executed' was output from the second one.0595

One other thing I want to talk about is something known as the isset construct.0602

This is something that is useful for particularly processing GET data to see if data was passed to the script that you needed.0608

For example, if you are expecting a name/value pair to a script by a GET, where the name is, for example, action,0616

and action is set equal to something like checkout, the isset construct can be used to see if action was passed into the script,0625

by checking to see if that key exists in the GET array.0638

And the way isset works (I'll get this out of the way here) is: it checks two things.0646

One it checks is if the variable that you pass to it has been previously declared, and also it checks that the value is not null.0655

The way it works is: it accepts a variable as its argument, and it returns a boolean value, true or false.0663

For example, if we declare a variable here, a, and we set it equal to 1, and then we run the isset construct on the variable a,0670

temp is going to be set to true; and the reason for that is because a has been both declared, and its value is not equal to null.0679

Now, if we went down here and we changed the value of a, so that it's equal to null,0687

and we run the isset construct on a again, temp is going to be equal to false.0692

And that is because, even though a was declared, its value was null.0698

And then, finally, if we run isset on a variable b that has not been declared (let's assume this is all one script),0702

because b has not been previously declared in this script, isset is going to return false.0710

Let's take a look at what that looks like, again, in action.0717

We have a script called isset.php, and what it does is: because isset returns a boolean value, we can use it within an if test condition.0722

So, this is saying if the variable name was passed to the script by a GET (which means that the _GET array would contain0732

a key/value pair with the key name), if that is set, then we are going to echo these statements here.0746

It says a name was provided by GET, and it is going to output the name.0753

On the other hand, if it wasn't provided, then it is going to use the else statement to output and say the name was not provided by GET.0757

And if you look up here at the top of our script, we can see, we just have isset.php with no GET query string appended to it.0765

So, because there is no name as part of a GET query, isset on checking this variable name is going to return false;0772

it is going to echo "'name' was NOT provided via GET."0786

Now, if we were to go up here and add name (let's say I put my first name in here, Matthew), into the script,0790

now isset is going to return true, because the GET variable name exists.0798

And so, it is going to evaluate the if statement group; so it's going to say, "'name' WAS provided via GET" "The 'name' provided was 'Matthew.'"0803

And one other thing to do, just as a refresher on going over how URL's are encoded--if we remember, spaces in URL's0812

are encoded with a + sign, so if I want to output my first and last name here, I can do Matthew+Machaj.0820

And if I do that, you can see that Matthew Machaj was output.0828

And that, again, is just sort of a review of URL encoding.0830

And the reason that the isset is useful, like I said, is for checking GET parameters, because if you try to access0835

a GET value that was not provided to the script, you will get a warning.0841

And also, if you try to use GET values that weren't passed in, your script is not going to work as executed.0847

For example, we look at the code of isset, and if I were to go in there, and after the else statement, let's say0854

I go ahead and try to echo (move this over a little bit) a GET value, or a GET variable that doesn't exist.0864

Let's call it lastName, and if I try to echo that, because it is not passed into the script,0882

if we go back and use the same query string as before, we are going to get a warning.0889

And if we look down here and refresh it, it's going to say, notice: undefined index lastName,0894

which says that the key lastName doesn't exist in the GET array, and that is because we didn't provide it.0899

That is one of the main uses of the isset construct--to be able to check if GET data were provided.0905

Now, I want to talk about coding conventions as they apply to if statements and else statements.0914

Basically, the examples we have seen are formatted the way that we are going to be formatting them in class.0921

Namely, first, there will always be a space between the if keyword and the opening parentheses of the test condition.0927

And additionally, after the closing parentheses of the test condition, there will be a space, followed by the opening curly brace.0933

So, the curly brace for an if statement is always going to be on the same line as the if keyword and the if condition, and it is going to be one space after.0940

Similarly, for an else statement, the opening curly brace for an else statement group is going to be on the same line as the else keyword.0948

It is going to be separated by a space.0958

Additionally, any statements within an if/else statement group are going to be indented one level deeper than the if keyword.0962

When we go back, and we look at our example here--in this isset example, we can see that all the statements0970

within the if statement group and the else statement group are one indent deeper than the if or else keywords.0976

The other thing to note, as you can see in the script, is that the closing brace for an if or else statement group0987

will always be on its own line, and it will be indented the same level as the if or else keyword.0993

And as far as the else statement goes, the else keyword will be on a new line, following its corresponding if statement's closing brace.1002

So, for example, if we look back here, we can see the closing brace for this else's corresponding if statement is right here.1012

So, else is on the following line, as opposed to having else up here, which sometimes you see in different people's coding style.1018

But for this course, we are going to be doing it like this.1026

And then, finally, even though statement blocks, if they contain one statement, don't have to have curly braces surrounding them,1029

as we had mentioned, we are always going to surround our statement groups for if and else statements with curly braces,1035

even if there is only one statement.1042

So now, I just want to talk about the homework challenge for this lesson.1047

I want you to create a script that contains a single if/else control structure.1050

And what it is going to do is: it is going to test, using the isset function, if the variable _GET ID is set.1055

It checks if the GET parameter ID was supplied.1066

If it was--if that is true that it was supplied--you should output the ID passed in.1069

And if it is not true, you should output an error message stating that you need to provide an ID to the script.1077

And what that is going to do is: you should be able to make use of an if/else statement in order to do that,1087

similar to what we had done in the isset.php example in here.1091

One thing I want to say is that I strongly encourage you to not cut and paste code from the lesson examples--1095

that you should practice typing these if/else statements on your own.1102

And the reason for that is: there are often a lot of mistakes involved with if/else statements and control structures in general,1105

where you leave out a parentheses or a curly brace, and so the only way to really get practice with that,1111

and to learn where the mistakes are made and how to correct them, is to get in there and type it on your own.1116

And also, I just want to mention that you should follow (when you write your sample script or homework script)1122

the coding conventions we just outlined for the if/else statements.1129

That ends today's lesson; thank you for watching Educator.com--I look forward to seeing you next time.1133

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