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Matthew M.

Matthew M.

Variables & Numeric Data Types

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

Course Introduction

12m 13s

Intro
0:00
What Is PHP?
0:12
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
0:13
Why Learn PHP?
1:09
Why Learn PHP?
1:10
Web Application: Educator Store
2:25
Web Application: Educator Store
2:26
Example of Web Application
3:18
PHP in the Educator Store
7:12
Dynamic Content Generation
7:22
Ease of Website Maintenance
7:55
Form Input Processing and Access to Advanced Functionality
9:00
What You Will Learn
9:36
What You Will Learn
9:37
Who Is This Course For?
10:56
Who Is This Course For?
10:57
How PHP & The Web Work

15m 32s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Client-Server Model
0:53
Client-Server Model
0:54
HTTP Protocol
2:15
Definition of Protocol
2:16
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
2:37
Uniform Resource Locators
3:46
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
3:47
Form of URLs
4:13
Accessing Webpages with URLs
5:13
Serving Webpages
6:14
Serving Webpages, Client Machine, and Server Machine
6:15
Static vs. Dynamic Webpages
8:30
Static Webpage
8:31
Dynamic Webpage
8:55
Server-Side Scripting
9:54
Server-Side Scripting
9:55
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:17
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:18
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:07
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:08
Setting Up Your Development Environment

33m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
Development Environments
1:04
Development Environments
1:05
Our Default Development Environment: Window 7
1:54
Remote Development
4:04
Development Machine & Remote Server
4:05
Local Development
6:54
Development Machine
6:55
Software Used In This Course
9:41
Firefox Web Browser & Firebug Add-On
9:42
XAMPP
12:15
PSPAD Text Editor
13:16
XAMPP Installation
13:49
XAMPP Installation
13:50
Verify XAMPP Install
16:26
Verify XAMPP Install
16:27
localhost
19:08
localhost and 127.0.0.1 'loopback' IP Address
19:09
Document Root
21:16
Document Root and Directory Name
21:17
Document Root for Apache in XAMPP: htdocs & Example
22:13
Text Editor Spectrum
26:12
Text Editor Spectrum: Barebones to IDE
26:13
PSPad & Example
27:02
Finding Help
30:26
Web Resources
30:27
Homework Challenge
31:36
Homework Challenge
31:37
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:39
Your First PHP Script

12m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
.php To HTML
1:00
.php To HTML
1:01
PHP Delimiters
2:20
PHP Delimiters: Opening & Closing PHP Tags
2:21
'Hello, World!' Example
4:34
Echo Statement & PHP Tags
4:35
Adding Second Heading
7:34
Homework Challenge
9:56
Homework Challenge
9:57
Basic PHP Syntax

40m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
PHP Delimiters
0:38
Long and Script Form
0:39
Short and ASP Style
1:33
Example
2:01
php.ini: PHP's Configuration
3:40
php.ini
3:41
Configuration Directives
3:48
Short and ASP Style: Enabled/Disabled
4:13
phpinfo()
7:58
Statements
14:28
PHP Statements
14:29
Example: PHP Statements
14:55
Comments
16:53
PHP Comments
16:55
Single-line Comments
17:37
Multi-line Comments
18:13
Example: PHP Comments
18:47
Coding Conventions
24:26
Coding Conventions
24:27
Example: PHP Coding Conventions
26:19
Homework Challenge #1
33:51
Homework Challenge #1
33:52
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:41
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:42
Homework Challenge #2
36:09
Homework Challenge #2
36:10
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:07
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:08
Variables & Numeric Data Types

16m 38s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:12
Working With Data
0:48
8 Types of Data for PHP
0:49
Identifiers
1:40
Identifiers: Definition and Example
1:41
Variables
2:47
Variables Definition
2:48
Variables Syntax
3:06
Integer Data Type
4:44
Integer Data Type
4:45
Integer Literals
5:08
Examples
5:30
Float Data Type
6:26
Float Data Type
6:27
Float Literals
7:00
Example
7:21
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:06
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:07
var_dump() Function
9:59
var_dump()
10:00
Example: Code and Output
10:30
Example: var_dump() Function
11:19
Coding Conventions: Variables
12:32
Lower Camel Case Notation
12:33
Variable Name Lengths
13:54
Homework Challenge
14:54
Homework Challenge
14:55
String Data Type

18m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
String Data Type
0:29
String Data Type
0:30
Specifying String Literals
1:03
Single-Quoted Strings
1:53
Single-Quoted Strings
1:54
Escape Sequences
2:31
Escape Sequences
2:32
Example
2:46
Escape Sequences for Commonly Used Special Characters
4:32
Double-Quoted Strings
6:04
Double-Quoted Strings
6:05
Variable Interpolation
6:44
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:54
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:55
Homework Challenge
8:54
Homework Challenge
8:55
Include Files & Web Application Introduction

38m 43s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
include Statement
0:47
include Statement: Definition
0:48
Include Statement: Syntax
2:05
include Statement: Example
2:25
include Path
6:32
Absolute and Relative Path
6:34
Specified Path
7:15
Not Specified Path
7:55
Code Reuse
9:35
Code Reuse
9:36
Example
11:11
require Statement
12:56
require Statement: Definition
12:57
require Statement: Syntax
13:32
Include versus Require
13:52
Coding Conventions
16:33
Coding Conventions
16:34
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:32
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:33
Updating Web Application
21:14
Web Application Example
22:59
Homework Challenge
35:33
Homework Challenge
35:34
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:39
Arrays

34m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is an Array?
0:42
What is an Array?
0:43
Arrays in PHP
1:44
Keys and Values
2:15
Types of Arrays
3:37
Indexed Arrays & Associative Arrays
3:38
array() Construct
6:47
Declaring Arrays
6:48
Defining Indexed Array
7:00
Defining Associative Arrays
7:43
Square Bracket Syntax
8:50
Square Bracket Syntax
8:51
Accessing Indexed Arrays
9:02
Accessing Associative Arrays
9:56
Arrays Example
10:41
Indexed Arrays Example
10:45
Associative Arrays Example
13:55
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:28
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:29
Multi-Dimensional Arrays Example
18:51
Multi-Dimensional Arrays in PHP File
20:34
Coding Conventions: Arrays
27:59
Coding Conventions: Arrays
28:00
Homework Challenge #1
29:20
Homework Challenge #1
29:21
Homework Challenge #2
30:38
Homework Challenge #2
30:39
Web Application Development

27m 38s

Intro
0:00
Versions
0:14
Version 3.0
1:23
Version 3.1
8:08
Version 3.2
11:42
Version 3.3
20:27
Homework Challenge
26:31
Homework Challenge
26:32
Script Input & The GET Method

30m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Providing Input to PHP
0:39
GET Method, POST Method, and Cookies
0:40
Name/Value Pairs
1:22
GET Method
1:57
HTTP GET Method
1:58
Query String
2:52
GET Method Example
3:38
GET Method Example
3:39
Review of HTML Forms
8:16
HTML Forms
8:17
Input Control and Submitted Form
9:13
<form> Tag
10:07
<form> Tag
10:08
Method
10:34
Action
11:13
Input Control Examples
11:50
Input Control Examples
11:51
Common Input Controls
17:31
Common Input Controls
17:32
Query Strings
18:52
Query Strings
18:53
Query Strings Syntax
19:12
URL Encoding
20:01
URL Syntax
20:02
Examples
21:17
Simple Form Example
22:28
urlencode() Function
24:08
urlencode() Function
24:09
Example
25:03
urlEncoding Text Example
25:54
Simple Form Example
25:55
Homework Challenge
28:46
Homework Challenge
28:47
Accessing Form Data in PHP

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
$_GET Array
0:48
$_GET Array
0:49
Accessing the Value of a Name/Value Pair Submitted Via GET
1:04
Name Form Example
2:54
Name Form and the $_GET Array
2:55
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:34
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:35
Common Example
6:47
Indexed Array Form Example
8:16
Indexed Array Form Example
8:17
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:14
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:15
Associative Arrays Example
11:41
Associative Arrays Example
11:42
Echo Form Example
15:18
Echo Form Example
15:19
Outputting Arrays In String
23:42
Variable Interpolation
23:43
Outputting a Value in an Indexed Array Within a String
24:12
Simple' Syntax, 'Complex' Syntax, and 'Curly Brace' Syntax
25:00
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:25
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:26
Homework Challenge
29:39
Homework Challenge
29:40
Web Application Development

20m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
Version 3.3
0:38
Version 3.3
0:42
Version 4.0 Changelog
2:43
GET Query
2:45
Adding, Editing, and Removing
3:24
Version 4.0 Coding Example
3:55
item.php, itemID, and itemListing
4:00
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:36
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:37
Version 4.1 Coding Example
11:45
Adding Checkout and Thank You & Editing Footer and Store
11:46
Homework Challenge
18:45
Homework Challenge
18:46
Expression & Operators

31m 56s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Expressions
0:41
Expressions Definition
0:42
Example: Literals
0:55
Example: Variables
1:05
Operators
1:44
Operators Definition
1:45
Unary, Binary, and Ternary Operators
2:07
Assignment Operators
2:52
Assignment Operators
2:53
Array Assignment Operator
3:47
Arithmetic Operators
6:15
Operators for Common Arithmetic Operations
6:16
Modulus Operator
7:41
Arithmetic Operators Example
8:25
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:48
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:49
Pre- and Post- Increment/Decrement
12:43
Coding Example
15:14
Combined Assignment Operators
16:44
Combined Assignment Operators
16:45
Combined Assignment Operators Examples
18:23
Coding Example
19:39
String Operators
20:28
Concatenation Operator, String Variables, and String Literals
20:29
String Operators Example
22:41
Precedence & Associativity
23:40
Precedence & Associativity
23:41
Expression Containing Multiple Operations
23:58
Expression Containing Two Operations of Equal Precedence
25:55
Using Parentheses to Force Precedence
26:52
Precedence & Associativity Review
28:57
Homework Challenge
31:08
Homework Challenge
31:09
Web Application Development

20m 51s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Version 4.1 Review
0:33
Version 4.1 Review
0:34
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:05
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:06
Version 5.0 Example
2:19
Adding View Cart & Editing Checkout, Footer and Store
2:20
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:36
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:37
Version 5.1 Coding Example
17:33
Forwarding Order Total to Thank You Page
17:34
Homework Challenge
20:09
Homework Challenge
20:10
Boolean & Null Data Types

20m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Boolean Data Type
0:38
Boolean Data Type
0:39
Two Boolean Literals
1:24
Boolean Example
1:50
Boolean Example
1:51
Comparison Operators
4:00
Comparison Operators Definition
4:01
Common Comparison Operators
4:40
Comparison Operators Example
6:49
Comparison Operators (Cont.)
10:10
Identical and Not Identical
10:11
Example: Identical and Not Identical
11:24
Null Data Type
13:36
Null Data Type Definition
13:37
Null Literal
14:08
Variable and Null Data Type
14:30
'==' Operator
15:24
Null Data Type Example
15:59
Coding Convention
18:41
Coding Convention
18:42
Homework Challenge
19:17
Homework Challenge
19:18
Type Casting

22m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Type Juggling
0:54
Type Juggling
0:55
Automatic Conversion
2:23
Type Casting
3:53
Type Casting
3:54
Implicit and Explicit Type Casting
4:00
Explicitly 'cast' a Variable Example
4:16
Type Casting (cont.)
6:48
PHP Allows the Following Explicit Type Casts
6:49
The settype () Function
8:18
Type Casting Coding Example
9:00
Explicit Type Casts
9:01
String Conversions
14:52
String Conversions
15:05
Common Conversions to String
15:55
Numeric Conversions
18:18
Numeric Conversions
18:19
Boolean Conversions
20:29
Boolean Conversions
20:30
Homework Challenge
21:38
Homework Challenge
21:39
Introduction to Functions

52m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
What are Functions?
0:51
Definition of Faction
0:52
PHP and Function Call
1:53
Function Calls
2:42
Function Calls
2:43
Function Arguments
3:17
Return Values
4:56
Return Values
4:57
Function Chaining
6:29
Function Chaining
6:30
PHP.net Function Reference
8:23
PHP.net & Function Prototypes
8:24
PHP.net Function Reference Example
9:29
Optional Function Arguments
12:28
Optional Function Arguments
12:29
String Functions
14:57
strtoupper() and strtolower()
14:58
implode (), str_replace(), explode(), strpos(), substr(), and strlen()
18:31
Array Functions
25:48
count()
25:49
in_array() and array_key_exists()
26:06
sort() and ksort()
26:37
Example: count() and in_array()
27:50
Example: array_key_exists()
29:53
Example: sort() and ksort()
31:20
Date & Time Functions
33:38
date() and time()
33:39
getdate()
34:49
mktime()
35:01
Date & Time Functions
35:12
Example: date() and time()
35:58
Example: getdate()
42:15
Example: mktime()
43:15
Homework Challenge #1
44:31
Homework Challenge #1
44:32
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:28
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:29
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:06
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:07
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:17
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:18
Homework Challenge #3
50:08
Homework Challenge #3
50:09
Constants

19m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Constants vs. Variables
0:55
Constants vs. Variables
0:56
Constant Identifiers
2:28
Constant Identifiers Definition and Examples
2:29
Declaring Constants
3:47
Two Ways of Declaring Constants
3:48
Syntaxes
4:10
Major Difference in the Two Forms
4:48
Using Constants Example
6:25
Using Constants Example
6:26
Coding Conventions
11:08
Constant Names
11:09
define () Function
11:42
Meaningful Names
12:00
$_SERVER Superglobal
12:23
$_SERVER
12:24
$_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT']
13:15
$_SERVER Superglobal Example
13:52
Homework Challenge
17:40
Homework Challenge
17:41
Web Application Development

26m 29s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 6.0
1:13
Version 6.0 & Version 5.1 Review
1:14
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:24
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:25
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:00
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:01
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:42
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:43
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:18
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:20
Homework Challenge
25:24
Homework Challenge
25:25
Conditional Control Structures

18m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:26
Lesson Overview
0:27
Statement Groups
0:57
Statement Groups
0:58
Example
1:10
Conditional Control Structures
1:38
Conditional Control Structures
1:39
PHP Control Structures
1:56
if Statement
2:32
if Statement
2:33
if Statement (cont.)
3:49
if Statement Coding Example
3:50
else Statement
7:26
else Statement
7:27
if/else Statement Coding Example
8:50
isset() Construct
9:59
isset() Construct
10:00
isset() Construct Coding Example
12:00
Coding Conventions
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:14
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:39
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:40
Homework Challenge
17:25
Homework Challenge
17:26
Error Handling

19m 8s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Error Handling in PHP
0:41
Error Handling in PHP
0:42
Coding Example
1:45
error_reporting() Function
7:02
error_reporting() Function
7:03
Coding Example
8:04
Additional Error Directives
9:02
display_errors
9:13
log_errors
9:37
error_log
9:50
track_errors
10:12
Coding Examples
10:29
Error Control Operator
13:38
Error Control Operator & Coding Example
13:39
Homework Challenge
16:19
Homework Challenge
16:20
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:58
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:59
Logical & Ternary Operators

23m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
Logical Operators
0:49
Logical Operators Definition
0:50
NOT (!)
1:08
OR ( ||, or)
1:35
AND (&&, and)
2:08
XOR (xor)
2:30
Logical Operators (cont.)
2:54
The OR and AND Logical Operators
2:55
Precedence of Logical Operators
3:35
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:58
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:59
Short-Circuit Operators
9:54
Short-Circuit Operators
9:55
Coding Example
10:49
Ternary Operator
14:07
Ternary Operator
14:08
Syntax and Example
14:24
Coding Conventions
17:36
Coding Conventions
17:37
Homework Challenge
19:08
Homework Challenge
19:09
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:26
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:27
Web Application Development

19m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 6.2 Review
0:26
Version 6.2 Review
0:27
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:39
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:40
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:35
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:36
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:43
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:44
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:52
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:53
Homework Challenge
17:42
Homework Challenge
17:43
More Conditional Control Structure

20m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
elseif Statement
0:45
elseif Statement
0:46
elseif Statement Coding Example
1:22
Multiple elseif Statements
2:16
Multiple elseif Statements
2:17
Multiple elseif Statements Coding Example
3:07
Adding an else Statement
5:44
Adding an else Statement Overview
5:45
Adding an else Statement Coding Example
6:50
switch() Statement
8:07
switch() Statement
8:08
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:14
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:15
switch() Statement Coding Example
11:09
default Case
14:20
default Case
14:21
default Case Coding Example
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:57
Coding Conventions
15:58
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:10
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:11
Homework Challenge
18:06
Homework Challenge
18:07
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:18
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:19
Nested Conditional Control Structures

24m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Nested Control Structures
0:36
Nested Control Structures
0:37
Nested Control Structures Coding Example
2:08
Coding Conventions
6:34
Nested vs. Not Nested Control Structures
6:35
Debugging Control Structures
7:51
Debugging Control Structures
7:52
Incorrectly Specified Test Conditions and Forgetting a Break Statement
8:32
Incorrectly Placing an Opening or Closing Curly Brace
12:14
Debugging Tips
16:24
Tracing the Execution of Your Code
16:25
Adding Echo Statement
17:15
Homework Challenge
21:41
Homework Challenge
21:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:08
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:09
Web Application Development

28m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 7.1 Review
0:46
Version 7.1 Review
0:47
empty () Construct
1:38
empty () Construct
1:39
empty () Construct Coding Example
2:37
Version 8.0
5:32
Version 8.0 Overview
5:33
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:08
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:09
Version 8.1
16:13
Version 8.1 Overview
16:14
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:48
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:49
Homework Challenge
26:19
Homework Challenge
26:20
Sending Email Using PHP

43m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:14
Lesson Overview
0:15
Built-in Mail Extension
1:28
Built-in Mail Extension
1:29
SMTP Overview
2:04
SMTP Overview
2:05
SMTP - Windows
3:08
SMTP - Windows
3:09
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:58
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:59
Mail Configuration Directives
6:35
Mail Configuration Directives
6:36
Coding Example
7:48
Mail Server Authentication
10:20
Mail Server Authentication
10:21
fake sendmail Program
12:27
fake sendmail for Windows
12:28
Main 'add-on' feature
13:03
Username & Password
13:25
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:07
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:08
Sendmail Example
16:19
Sendmail Example
16:20
mail() Function
18:39
mail() Function
18:40
additional_headers
19:45
'From' Header
20:12
mail() Function Coding Example
21:09
mail() Function Coding Example
21:40
Web Application Development
31:43
Version 9.0 Changelog
31:44
ContactUs.php
32:52
ContactUs.php
32:53
contactInfo
33:45
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:31
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:32
Homework Challenge
41:32
Homework Challenge
41:33
User-Defined Functions

56m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
Defining Functions
1:29
Four Parts of Defining a Function
1:30
Functions Example 1
2:29
Function Parameters
5:29
Function Parameters
5:30
Functions Example 2
8:20
Return Statements
12:53
Return Statements
12:54
Functions Example 3
14:20
Where to Define Functions
20:34
Where to Define Functions
20:35
include_once Construct
22:10
include_once Construct
22:11
include_once Coding Example
23:55
Reasons to Use Functions
27:44
Take Advantage of Code Reuse
27:45
Improve Code Readability
29:56
Use Instead of 'content' Include Files
32:12
Web Application Development
34:42
Version 10.0 Changelog
34:43
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:55
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:56
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:04
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:05
Example
49:02
Coding Conventions
53:16
Coding Conventions
53:17
Homework Challenge
54:33
Homework Challenge
54:34
Variable Scope

31m 37s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is Variable Scope?
0:57
Variable Scope
0:58
Global Scope
1:15
Local Function Scope
1:50
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:26
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:27
global Keyword
8:52
global Keyword Overview
8:53
global Keyword Example
9:25
Superglobals
12:34
Superglobals
12:35
Superglobals Example
14:53
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:34
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:35
When to Define Variables
22:09
When to Define Variables
22:10
Putting It All Together
22:56
Putting It All Together Example
22:57
Function Scope
28:56
Function Scope
28:57
Homework Challenge
29:41
Homework Challenge
29:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
30:59
Homework Challenge (cont.)
31:00
Web Application Development

28m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:56
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:57
processGetVar()
1:42
processGetVar() Overview
1:43
processGetVar() Example
2:25
emailComments()
6:35
emailComments() Overview
6:36
emailComments() Example
7:14
outputItemLink()
11:19
outputItemLink() Overview
11:20
outputItemLink() Example
11:45
calcCartTotal()
19:25
calcCartTotal() Overview
19:26
calcCartTotal() Example
21:14
Homework Challenge
25:56
Homework Challenge
25:57
Optional Parameters

19m 35s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Optional Parameters
0:26
Optional Parameters Definition
0:27
Default Values
0:53
Optional Parameters Coding Example
3:26
More on Optional Parameters
6:55
Multiple Optional Parameters
6:56
Coding Example
8:05
Homework Challenge
16:18
Homework Challenge
16:19
Web Application Development

23m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:55
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:56
Update to outputLink()
1:44
Update to outputLink()
1:45
outputLink() Coding Example
2:40
outputImg()
13:57
outputImg() Overview
13:58
outputImg() Coding Example
15:35
Homework Challenge
22:05
Homework Challenge
22:06
Introduction to Conditional Loops

57m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
while Loop
0:48
Definition
0:49
Syntax and Usage
1:12
Coding Example
3:33
Looping Over Arrays
13:16
Looping Over Arrays
13:17
Coding Example
13:53
Looping Over Arrays (cont.)
16:43
Internal Array Pointer
16:44
Array Traversal Functions
17:29
current ()
17:30
next () and prev ()
18:16
reset () and end ()
19:25
key ()
19:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:41
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:06
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:07
Array Traversal Functions (cont.)
29:41
list () Construct and Example
30:07
each () Construct and Example
34:40
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:13
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:14
Control Structure Scope
50:37
Definition and Example
50:38
Control Structure Scope Coding Example
51:59
Coding Conventions
54:20
Coding Conventions
54:21
Homework Challenge
54:58
Homework Challenge
54:49
More on Conditional Loops

35m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
do-while Loop
0:42
do-while Loop
0:43
Simple do-while Loop Example
1:51
Another do-while Loop Example
4:09
continue Statement
10:46
continue Statement
10:47
For Example
11:07
continue Statement Coding Example
12:44
break Statement Re-Visited
18:10
break Statement Re-Visited
18:11
break Statement In while Loops Example
19:38
Infinite Loops
23:26
Infinite Loops
23:27
Coding Example
24:57
Common Loop Pitfalls
25:59
Counter Initialization Occurs in Loop
26:30
Counter Not Incremented in Loop
29:30
Unreachable Break Statement
30:50
Coding Conventions
33:48
Do-while Statements Coding Conventions
33:49
Homework Challenge
34:28
Homework Challenge
34:29
Web Application Development

22m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 13.0 Changelog
0:48
Updating 'viewCart.php' and calcCartTotal()
0:49
Creating isValidCart()
9:22
Adding Three New Item to the Store & Links
15:56
Version 13.1 Changelog
17:20
Updating outputItemLink() to Remove Its Global Dependency on $itemCatalog
17:21
Homework Challenge
20:34
Homework Challenge
20:35
For & Foreach Loops

29m 28s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
for Loops
0:45
for Loops
0:46
Expression 1
1:22
Expression 2
1:47
Expression 3
2:01
Simple Example
2:27
Simple Example
2:28
Notes on for Loops
8:56
Notes on for Loops
8:57
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:06
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:07
foreach Loops
12:03
foreach Loops
12:04
Indexed Array Syntax
14:10
Syntax
14:11
Example
15:23
Associative Array Syntax
18:31
Syntax
18:32
Example
19:47
Coding Conventions
25:05
for Loops
25:06
foreach Loops
25:58
Homework Challenge
26:52
Homework Challenge
26:53
Web Application Development

25m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:19
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:20
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:57
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:59
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:39
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:40
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:06
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:07
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:37
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:38
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:25
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:26
Homework Challenge
23:35
Homework Challenge
23:36
Conditional Loop Wrap-Up

23m 12s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Nested Conditional Loops
0:39
Nested Conditional Loops
0:40
Coding Example
1:10
continue & break Re-Visited
5:17
Continue Statements and Coding Example
5:30
Break Statements and Coding Example
11:34
Loop Debugging Tips
15:16
Add Short Debug Statement At the Very Beginning
15:17
Output a Counter Variable
18:10
Add Debug Statement At the Very End
19:20
Homework Challenge
20:20
Homework Challenge
20:21
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:00
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:01
Variable-Length Parameter Lists

22m 16s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:34
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:35
Coding Example
1:51
Variable-Length Parameter Lists (cont.)
5:21
When a Parameter List is Defined For the Functions
5:22
Coding Example
6:32
Variable Type Functions
9:54
is_int (), is_float (), is_string (), and is_bool()
9:55
is_ array ()
10:50
is_null ()
11:01
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 1
11:27
is_numeric() and Example
15:57
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 2
17:12
Homework Challenge
19:35
Homework Challenge
19:36
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:52
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:53
Web Application Development

38m 36s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 15.0 Changelog
0:33
outputLink (), outputImg (), is_array () and is_string ()
0:34
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:31
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:32
Version 15.1 Changelog
7:55
Removing Redundant Code and Adding New Function Called outputHtmlTag ()
7:56
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:37
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:38
Version 16.0 Changelog
14:55
Creating emailOrder() Using New Constants ORDER_EMAIL_FROM and ORDER_EMAIL_SUBJECT
14:56
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:30
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:31
Version 16.1 Changelog
32:21
Creating formatAsDollars ()
32:22
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:57
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:58
Homework Challenge
36:27
Homework Challenge
36:28
Miscellaneous Topics

31m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
register_globals Directive
0:58
register_globals
0:59
Coding Example
2:04
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:07
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:08
register_long_arrays Directive Coding Example
5:44
Magic Constants
7:30
Magic Constants
7:31
__LINE__, __FILE__, __FIR__, and __FUNCTION__
8:16
Coding Example
9:06
exist() & die()
13:19
exist() & die()
13:20
Coding Example
14:08
Execution Operator
16:23
Execution Operator
16:24
Coding Example
17:27
Array Operators
18:23
Equality (==) and Inequality (!=, <>)
18:43
Identity (===) and Non-Identity (!==)
19:13
Union (+) Operator
19:41
Array Operators Coding Example
20:07
Variable Variables
24:13
Variable Variables
24:14
Coding Example
26:07
Variable Functions
28:02
Variable Functions
28:03
Coding Example
29:13
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Lecture Comments (5)

1 answer

Last reply by: Kitt Parker
Mon Dec 29, 2014 8:15 PM

Post by Chad Buie on December 25, 2012

I am still wondering why would you need to use this function in a program or script?

Maybe I am ahead here, but I am trying a little of a "Howard Hughes" type..can you give a dynamic example to illustrate when and how to know when to use this debugging function?

0 answers

Post by Vamsy Reddy on April 28, 2012

Hi Matthew Machaj

All these videos are helping me a lot.
Thank You
Your teaching is simply super.

1 answer

Last reply by: Matthew M.
Tue Feb 7, 2012 2:23 AM

Post by Jacob/Benja Share on November 27, 2011

For the var_dump could you output multiple variables with one function?

Variables & Numeric Data Types

  • PHP has eight pre-defined data types: four 'scalar' types (integer, float, string, boolean), two 'composite' types (array, object), and two 'special' types (resource, null).
  • An identifier is a name created in PHP code to refer to a particular piece of data.
  • The ‘assignment’ of data to an identifier is the process by which the reference, or association, between an identifier and its data value is made.
  • A variable is an identifier for which the data value assigned to it can change, or ‘vary’.
  • Variable identifiers begin with a $ followed by the variable’s name.
  • Variable names are case-sensitive and must start with a letter or underscore followed by any number and combination of letters, underscores, and numbers.
  • Static, or 'hard-coded', values assigned to variables are known as literals .
  • The integer data type is for representing integral, or whole, numbers.
  • Integer literals can be specified in decimal, hexadecimal, or octal notation.
  • The float data type is for representing floating-point numbers, or numbers with fractional parts.
  • Float literals can be specified as decimal numbers in regular or exponential notation.
  • var_dump() is a built-in PHP function that ouptuts the type and value of a variable.
  • Additional resources:

Variables & Numeric Data Types

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:10
    • Lesson Overview
  • Working With Data 0:48
    • 8 Types of Data for PHP
  • Identifiers 1:40
    • Identifiers: Definition and Example
  • Variables 2:47
    • Variables Definition
    • Variables Syntax
  • Integer Data Type 4:44
    • Integer Data Type
    • Integer Literals
    • Examples
  • Float Data Type 6:26
    • Float Data Type
    • Float Literals
    • Example
  • Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables 8:06
    • Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
  • var_dump() Function 9:59
    • var_dump()
    • Example: Code and Output
    • Example: var_dump() Function
  • Coding Conventions: Variables 12:32
    • Lower Camel Case Notation
    • Variable Name Lengths
  • Homework Challenge 14:54
    • Homework Challenge

Transcription: Variables & Numeric Data Types

Hello, and welcome back to Educator.com's Introduction to PHP course.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to be introducing you to the concept of variables, as well as numeric data types in PHP.0004

What, specifically, are we going to cover in this lesson?0014

Well, we are going to talk about working with data in PHP.0016

We are going to talk about what are known as identifiers and variables; we are going to talk about two kinds of data0020

that you can use within your PHP code--the integer data type and the float data type.0027

We are going to learn about another function that is built into PHP, called var_dump,0034

that is used to output information about variables, which you are going to learn about.0040

And then, we are also going to talk about coding conventions as they relate to variables.0043

Working with data: PHP, like all programming languages, essentially boils down to manipulating and processing pieces of data.0049

As such, each programming language has types of data that it allows you to use within your programs.0058

And PHP is no exception: it actually has 8 data types which it allows.0064

There are four data types known as the scalar data types, which refers to simple data types.0071

There is an integer and a float data type (as I had mentioned); there is also a string data type and a boolean data type.0077

There are also two composite data types, known as Object and Array, and two special data types, called Resource and Null.0085

As we progress through this course, between here and the advanced course, you are going to get exposure to all of these different data types.0093

We know that, in our code, we work with data; how do we work with data in our code?0103

One of the ways is through the use of identifiers.0108

Basically, what an identifier is, is a name you create in your code to refer to a particular piece of data.0111

What you do is: you assign data values to a name.0119

For example, you might have the name var, and you assign it the value, let's say, of the integer 1.0122

As you will see, variables actually begin with a dollar sign.0134

What this is, is actually an identifier; and you could assign it different pieces of data.0137

And that is actually what a variable is: it is an identifier that you can assign different pieces of data at different points throughout your code.0146

We might assign it 1 here, and then later in the code assign it a value of 2.0152

Basically, the assignment, again, refers to associating a particular piece of data with a name in your code that you can use to refer to that piece of data.0158

Variables--variable identifiers: we know that, as mentioned, variables are identifiers that can have different data values throughout your code.0169

They can have a value of 1 in the beginning, 2 in the end; and you can do that as often as needed--that is the purpose of variables.0180

What is the syntax for defining variables in our code?0187

Basically, variable identifiers begin with a dollar sign, followed by a variable name.0190

In PHP, names are case-sensitive, and they can be followed by an underscore and a letter, and then any other combination of letters, underscores, and numbers.0198

This is an example, right here: a dollar sign, followed by the variable name total--that is a variable identifier.0210

Additionally, when we assign static values to variables or hard-coded values such as 0, those are known as literals.0218

You will hear me refer to the term "an integer literal" or "a float literal," and basically, those are (in this case)0228

numbers that are hard-coded into your code.0233

Variables are declared using an assignment statement; and this right here is an assignment statement.0237

What it does is: you have the variable identifier; you have an equals sign, which is known as the assignment operator; and you have a literal value.0245

What this assignment statement does is: it is declaring to PHP that you are creating a variable named total.0264

And through this operator, you are assigning it the value of 0.0270

Now, if you were to use total in other parts of your code, when you reference it, it would also be referencing this value 0.0275

We mentioned that PHP has 8 different data types that are built in; and in today's lesson,0286

we are going to talk about the two numeric data types that it has.0291

The first is an integer data type, and it is a data type that is used for representing integral or whole numbers, both positive and negative.0294

It is often referred to as the int data type; so you might hear somebody refer to a variable as being an int.0302

Now, integer literals can be specified in a number of different formats: they can be specified in decimal, hexadecimal, or octal notation.0309

In this course, we are only going to be using the decimal and hexadecimal notation.0320

The way you specify a decimal notation is simply: you just write the numbers as is.0325

For example, down here, we have a variable holding an integer in decimal notation, and it's simply the number 5.0330

To specify an integer literal in hexadecimal notation, you have to precede it with the character 0x or 0X.0341

For example, here we have declared a variable called hexInt, and we have set it to the hexadecimal value 5,0354

which actually, in decimal and hexadecimal, is the same; these both equal the decimal number 5.0361

Now, I am not mentioning octal notation because it's not very common and it's a little bit complicated,0367

but there will be a link in the Quick Notes which you can refer to to learn more about octal notation,0373

if that is something that you have experience with and want to learn about how it works in PHP.0379

The other numeric data type that we have in PHP is the float data type; and that is used for representing floating-point numbers,0388

which are essentially numbers with fractional parts, like 1.25 (where this is the fraction).0395

You will sometimes hear these data types referred to as a double or a real0403

(real as in real number, and double is sort of a legacy term that was used for floating-point numbers in the past).0409

You may actually come across those in literature and when you are reading about PHP.0416

Now, float literals, like integer literals, have a couple of different ways in which you can express them.0422

They are always expressed as decimal numbers, and you can express them either in simply a regular format or what is known as exponential notation.0430

Down here is what exponential notation looks like--these two variables.0442

We have declared a variable x and a variable y, and assigned it the value 1.5e3.0445

And for those of you that need a quick refresher on that, what this means is: 1.5x103, which equals 1,500.0453

So, this is an exponential way of declaring the number 1,500; and you can use, in PHP, either the lowercase e or the uppercase E.0466

In this course, we are only going to be using the lowercase e; that is just a convention we will use.0476

And whatever convention you use, be sure to stick with it, as it gives consistency to your code.0480

Let's take a look at some actual PHP code declaring some variables.0486

Here we have a PHP file, and it declares two integer variables--one called decInt, which we are going to have hold the value of -100,0492

and we're going to specify the -100 literal in decimal format, which is why we called the variable decInt.0505

We also have a variable called hexInt; and as you can see, it is preceded with a dollar sign, as all variable names are.0513

We have set it to the value of, in hexadecimal, -64; and you notice that it's preceded by a 0 and an x.0521

In hexadecimal notation, 64 actually is the same as 100; so this value right here is, in decimal, -100, as well.0530

Down here, we have declared two float variables in two different formats for the number 0.75.0542

Here is a regular floating-point notation, where you just write out the number in decimal format, as is.0549

And here is the same number, 0.75, written in exponential notation.0555

You can see, we have used a negative exponent--which...0561

those of you that have used this before know that that means to move the decimal one place back, so it's going to represent 0.75.0564

This is how you declare a variable; you have the variable name,0573

the assignment operator (as it is called--the = sign), and a literal value which you assign to the variable.0577

This shows how you can do integers in decimal or hexadecimal notation and floats in regular or exponential notation.0584

There is a function built into PHP--it's similar in that it's like the phpinfo function that we talked about in the last lesson, in that0601

it's built in, and it's a function you can use in your code, and it does something for you.0610

In this case, the function we are going to be using is called var_dump, and what it does is:0616

you specify a variable to this function, and then it outputs the type and value of that particular variable.0624

The way that it works is: let's say that you declare a variable here called testInt that you set equal to 100.0630

In order to output what the type and value of that variable is (and this is useful mostly for debugging purposes), you use this function call,0637

which is a statement, so you notice the semicolon here.0649

It's var_dump with parentheses, and within parentheses, you put the identifier for the variable you want to know the type and value of (in this case, testInt).0652

So actually, if you run this code (and let's say this was the only code in your file), it would output this right here.0665

What it says is that testInt is an int variable (or integer variable), and it currently has a value of 100.0670

If we go back to our file where we declared our integer and float variables, we are going to practice using the var_dump function0682

to confirm that, in fact, both the decInt and hexInt variables have the value of -100,0690

and also that the regFloat and expFloat variables have the same value of 0.75.0698

What we have here is a var_dump function call for each of the different variables, just followed by some HTML, so that0706

they end up on different lines, so that they are easier to read.0717

And if we actually go and view this file in our web browser, we can see the output of var_dump, and it confirms what we had hoped and expected.0719

It was that the two integer values, decInt and hexInt, both are integer data type and have the value -100.0731

Additionally, the variables regFloat and expFloat are both float variables (as you can see here) and both have the value 0.75.0739

I'm going to turn, again, to the concept of coding conventions, which we introduced in the last lesson.0754

In this lesson, we are going to talk about coding conventions as they apply to variables.0758

Basically, it applies to variable names: we are going to use a naming convention called lower camel case notation.0764

The variables we defined in our file that we were working with already actually follow lower camel case notation.0775

What that notation states is that the first letter of the variable is always a lowercase letter (hence the "lower" part of lower camel case).0782

And then, each subsequent word in the variable name has its first letter, and only its first letter, capitalized.0790

As you can see here, we have hex with the lowercase letter; the next word in the variable name is Int, so we capitalize the first letter.0799

We could maybe create another variable that has a couple of words to demonstrate this more: let's call it daysOfWeek.0807

So here, we have a three-word variable name, daysOfWeek, and we can see that the O is capitalized, the W is capitalized, and d is lowercase.0814

The reason it gets that name, CamelCase notation, is because the variable sort of has humps in it when you look at the variable name,0825

because of the capitalization of each of the words.0832

Additionally, in addition to using lower camel case notation, because in PHP there is no practical limit to variable name lengths,0837

we want to pick meaningful names for our variables.0846

For example, in our code file, we declared this variable called regFloat;0849

and that tells us that we are declaring a float value that is going to be in regular notation.0855

Up here, this variable I just created a second ago, daysOfWeek--that is a meaningful name.0862

It should let you know, as a programmer, that this variable refers to the number of days in a week.0867

Now, we actually could just call it y and maybe set it equal to 7, and it would represent days of the week.0872

But daysOfWeek is a lot more meaningful and useful to you as a programmer.0878

And because it is a convention, it is something you have to do that is not enforced by the program,0884

but it's going to make your code easier to read and understand.0889

The homework challenge for today: for today's homework challenge, I want to have you create a new PHP script.0896

I want you to declare two integer variables in it: one using decimal notation and one using hexadecimal notation, both equal to the literal value 10.0902

I want to also have you declare two float variables and set them equal to the literal 1234.56, and do it once in regular notation and once in exponential notation.0916

And then, use the var_dump function to output the type and value of all four variables you declared.0929

You should be able, if it was done correctly, to confirm that both of your integer variables have the value of 10 and are of the int data type,0938

and both of your float variables have the value 1234.56 and are also of the float data type.0947

When you do this, be sure to follow the lower camel case notation.0954

And also, begin the practice of using meaningful names.0958

Again, it is going to be a simple program, so you might remember what x or y refers to; but in the name of good practice,0961

maybe give your variable a name--for example, the floating-point name--you could call it subTotal.0969

That would refer to this value right here; and so, subTotal is a little more meaningful than if we just set this value equal to a variable called y.0978

That ends today's lecture; thank you again for watching Educator.com, and we look forward to seeing you next time.0993

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