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Matthew M.

Matthew M.

Constants

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Table of Contents

Course Introduction

12m 13s

Intro
0:00
What Is PHP?
0:12
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
0:13
Why Learn PHP?
1:09
Why Learn PHP?
1:10
Web Application: Educator Store
2:25
Web Application: Educator Store
2:26
Example of Web Application
3:18
PHP in the Educator Store
7:12
Dynamic Content Generation
7:22
Ease of Website Maintenance
7:55
Form Input Processing and Access to Advanced Functionality
9:00
What You Will Learn
9:36
What You Will Learn
9:37
Who Is This Course For?
10:56
Who Is This Course For?
10:57
How PHP & The Web Work

15m 32s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Client-Server Model
0:53
Client-Server Model
0:54
HTTP Protocol
2:15
Definition of Protocol
2:16
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
2:37
Uniform Resource Locators
3:46
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
3:47
Form of URLs
4:13
Accessing Webpages with URLs
5:13
Serving Webpages
6:14
Serving Webpages, Client Machine, and Server Machine
6:15
Static vs. Dynamic Webpages
8:30
Static Webpage
8:31
Dynamic Webpage
8:55
Server-Side Scripting
9:54
Server-Side Scripting
9:55
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:17
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:18
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:07
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:08
Setting Up Your Development Environment

33m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
Development Environments
1:04
Development Environments
1:05
Our Default Development Environment: Window 7
1:54
Remote Development
4:04
Development Machine & Remote Server
4:05
Local Development
6:54
Development Machine
6:55
Software Used In This Course
9:41
Firefox Web Browser & Firebug Add-On
9:42
XAMPP
12:15
PSPAD Text Editor
13:16
XAMPP Installation
13:49
XAMPP Installation
13:50
Verify XAMPP Install
16:26
Verify XAMPP Install
16:27
localhost
19:08
localhost and 127.0.0.1 'loopback' IP Address
19:09
Document Root
21:16
Document Root and Directory Name
21:17
Document Root for Apache in XAMPP: htdocs & Example
22:13
Text Editor Spectrum
26:12
Text Editor Spectrum: Barebones to IDE
26:13
PSPad & Example
27:02
Finding Help
30:26
Web Resources
30:27
Homework Challenge
31:36
Homework Challenge
31:37
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:39
Your First PHP Script

12m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
.php To HTML
1:00
.php To HTML
1:01
PHP Delimiters
2:20
PHP Delimiters: Opening & Closing PHP Tags
2:21
'Hello, World!' Example
4:34
Echo Statement & PHP Tags
4:35
Adding Second Heading
7:34
Homework Challenge
9:56
Homework Challenge
9:57
Basic PHP Syntax

40m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
PHP Delimiters
0:38
Long and Script Form
0:39
Short and ASP Style
1:33
Example
2:01
php.ini: PHP's Configuration
3:40
php.ini
3:41
Configuration Directives
3:48
Short and ASP Style: Enabled/Disabled
4:13
phpinfo()
7:58
Statements
14:28
PHP Statements
14:29
Example: PHP Statements
14:55
Comments
16:53
PHP Comments
16:55
Single-line Comments
17:37
Multi-line Comments
18:13
Example: PHP Comments
18:47
Coding Conventions
24:26
Coding Conventions
24:27
Example: PHP Coding Conventions
26:19
Homework Challenge #1
33:51
Homework Challenge #1
33:52
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:41
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:42
Homework Challenge #2
36:09
Homework Challenge #2
36:10
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:07
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:08
Variables & Numeric Data Types

16m 38s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:12
Working With Data
0:48
8 Types of Data for PHP
0:49
Identifiers
1:40
Identifiers: Definition and Example
1:41
Variables
2:47
Variables Definition
2:48
Variables Syntax
3:06
Integer Data Type
4:44
Integer Data Type
4:45
Integer Literals
5:08
Examples
5:30
Float Data Type
6:26
Float Data Type
6:27
Float Literals
7:00
Example
7:21
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:06
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:07
var_dump() Function
9:59
var_dump()
10:00
Example: Code and Output
10:30
Example: var_dump() Function
11:19
Coding Conventions: Variables
12:32
Lower Camel Case Notation
12:33
Variable Name Lengths
13:54
Homework Challenge
14:54
Homework Challenge
14:55
String Data Type

18m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
String Data Type
0:29
String Data Type
0:30
Specifying String Literals
1:03
Single-Quoted Strings
1:53
Single-Quoted Strings
1:54
Escape Sequences
2:31
Escape Sequences
2:32
Example
2:46
Escape Sequences for Commonly Used Special Characters
4:32
Double-Quoted Strings
6:04
Double-Quoted Strings
6:05
Variable Interpolation
6:44
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:54
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:55
Homework Challenge
8:54
Homework Challenge
8:55
Include Files & Web Application Introduction

38m 43s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
include Statement
0:47
include Statement: Definition
0:48
Include Statement: Syntax
2:05
include Statement: Example
2:25
include Path
6:32
Absolute and Relative Path
6:34
Specified Path
7:15
Not Specified Path
7:55
Code Reuse
9:35
Code Reuse
9:36
Example
11:11
require Statement
12:56
require Statement: Definition
12:57
require Statement: Syntax
13:32
Include versus Require
13:52
Coding Conventions
16:33
Coding Conventions
16:34
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:32
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:33
Updating Web Application
21:14
Web Application Example
22:59
Homework Challenge
35:33
Homework Challenge
35:34
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:39
Arrays

34m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is an Array?
0:42
What is an Array?
0:43
Arrays in PHP
1:44
Keys and Values
2:15
Types of Arrays
3:37
Indexed Arrays & Associative Arrays
3:38
array() Construct
6:47
Declaring Arrays
6:48
Defining Indexed Array
7:00
Defining Associative Arrays
7:43
Square Bracket Syntax
8:50
Square Bracket Syntax
8:51
Accessing Indexed Arrays
9:02
Accessing Associative Arrays
9:56
Arrays Example
10:41
Indexed Arrays Example
10:45
Associative Arrays Example
13:55
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:28
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:29
Multi-Dimensional Arrays Example
18:51
Multi-Dimensional Arrays in PHP File
20:34
Coding Conventions: Arrays
27:59
Coding Conventions: Arrays
28:00
Homework Challenge #1
29:20
Homework Challenge #1
29:21
Homework Challenge #2
30:38
Homework Challenge #2
30:39
Web Application Development

27m 38s

Intro
0:00
Versions
0:14
Version 3.0
1:23
Version 3.1
8:08
Version 3.2
11:42
Version 3.3
20:27
Homework Challenge
26:31
Homework Challenge
26:32
Script Input & The GET Method

30m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Providing Input to PHP
0:39
GET Method, POST Method, and Cookies
0:40
Name/Value Pairs
1:22
GET Method
1:57
HTTP GET Method
1:58
Query String
2:52
GET Method Example
3:38
GET Method Example
3:39
Review of HTML Forms
8:16
HTML Forms
8:17
Input Control and Submitted Form
9:13
<form> Tag
10:07
<form> Tag
10:08
Method
10:34
Action
11:13
Input Control Examples
11:50
Input Control Examples
11:51
Common Input Controls
17:31
Common Input Controls
17:32
Query Strings
18:52
Query Strings
18:53
Query Strings Syntax
19:12
URL Encoding
20:01
URL Syntax
20:02
Examples
21:17
Simple Form Example
22:28
urlencode() Function
24:08
urlencode() Function
24:09
Example
25:03
urlEncoding Text Example
25:54
Simple Form Example
25:55
Homework Challenge
28:46
Homework Challenge
28:47
Accessing Form Data in PHP

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
$_GET Array
0:48
$_GET Array
0:49
Accessing the Value of a Name/Value Pair Submitted Via GET
1:04
Name Form Example
2:54
Name Form and the $_GET Array
2:55
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:34
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:35
Common Example
6:47
Indexed Array Form Example
8:16
Indexed Array Form Example
8:17
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:14
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:15
Associative Arrays Example
11:41
Associative Arrays Example
11:42
Echo Form Example
15:18
Echo Form Example
15:19
Outputting Arrays In String
23:42
Variable Interpolation
23:43
Outputting a Value in an Indexed Array Within a String
24:12
Simple' Syntax, 'Complex' Syntax, and 'Curly Brace' Syntax
25:00
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:25
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:26
Homework Challenge
29:39
Homework Challenge
29:40
Web Application Development

20m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
Version 3.3
0:38
Version 3.3
0:42
Version 4.0 Changelog
2:43
GET Query
2:45
Adding, Editing, and Removing
3:24
Version 4.0 Coding Example
3:55
item.php, itemID, and itemListing
4:00
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:36
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:37
Version 4.1 Coding Example
11:45
Adding Checkout and Thank You & Editing Footer and Store
11:46
Homework Challenge
18:45
Homework Challenge
18:46
Expression & Operators

31m 56s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Expressions
0:41
Expressions Definition
0:42
Example: Literals
0:55
Example: Variables
1:05
Operators
1:44
Operators Definition
1:45
Unary, Binary, and Ternary Operators
2:07
Assignment Operators
2:52
Assignment Operators
2:53
Array Assignment Operator
3:47
Arithmetic Operators
6:15
Operators for Common Arithmetic Operations
6:16
Modulus Operator
7:41
Arithmetic Operators Example
8:25
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:48
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:49
Pre- and Post- Increment/Decrement
12:43
Coding Example
15:14
Combined Assignment Operators
16:44
Combined Assignment Operators
16:45
Combined Assignment Operators Examples
18:23
Coding Example
19:39
String Operators
20:28
Concatenation Operator, String Variables, and String Literals
20:29
String Operators Example
22:41
Precedence & Associativity
23:40
Precedence & Associativity
23:41
Expression Containing Multiple Operations
23:58
Expression Containing Two Operations of Equal Precedence
25:55
Using Parentheses to Force Precedence
26:52
Precedence & Associativity Review
28:57
Homework Challenge
31:08
Homework Challenge
31:09
Web Application Development

20m 51s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Version 4.1 Review
0:33
Version 4.1 Review
0:34
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:05
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:06
Version 5.0 Example
2:19
Adding View Cart & Editing Checkout, Footer and Store
2:20
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:36
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:37
Version 5.1 Coding Example
17:33
Forwarding Order Total to Thank You Page
17:34
Homework Challenge
20:09
Homework Challenge
20:10
Boolean & Null Data Types

20m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Boolean Data Type
0:38
Boolean Data Type
0:39
Two Boolean Literals
1:24
Boolean Example
1:50
Boolean Example
1:51
Comparison Operators
4:00
Comparison Operators Definition
4:01
Common Comparison Operators
4:40
Comparison Operators Example
6:49
Comparison Operators (Cont.)
10:10
Identical and Not Identical
10:11
Example: Identical and Not Identical
11:24
Null Data Type
13:36
Null Data Type Definition
13:37
Null Literal
14:08
Variable and Null Data Type
14:30
'==' Operator
15:24
Null Data Type Example
15:59
Coding Convention
18:41
Coding Convention
18:42
Homework Challenge
19:17
Homework Challenge
19:18
Type Casting

22m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Type Juggling
0:54
Type Juggling
0:55
Automatic Conversion
2:23
Type Casting
3:53
Type Casting
3:54
Implicit and Explicit Type Casting
4:00
Explicitly 'cast' a Variable Example
4:16
Type Casting (cont.)
6:48
PHP Allows the Following Explicit Type Casts
6:49
The settype () Function
8:18
Type Casting Coding Example
9:00
Explicit Type Casts
9:01
String Conversions
14:52
String Conversions
15:05
Common Conversions to String
15:55
Numeric Conversions
18:18
Numeric Conversions
18:19
Boolean Conversions
20:29
Boolean Conversions
20:30
Homework Challenge
21:38
Homework Challenge
21:39
Introduction to Functions

52m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
What are Functions?
0:51
Definition of Faction
0:52
PHP and Function Call
1:53
Function Calls
2:42
Function Calls
2:43
Function Arguments
3:17
Return Values
4:56
Return Values
4:57
Function Chaining
6:29
Function Chaining
6:30
PHP.net Function Reference
8:23
PHP.net & Function Prototypes
8:24
PHP.net Function Reference Example
9:29
Optional Function Arguments
12:28
Optional Function Arguments
12:29
String Functions
14:57
strtoupper() and strtolower()
14:58
implode (), str_replace(), explode(), strpos(), substr(), and strlen()
18:31
Array Functions
25:48
count()
25:49
in_array() and array_key_exists()
26:06
sort() and ksort()
26:37
Example: count() and in_array()
27:50
Example: array_key_exists()
29:53
Example: sort() and ksort()
31:20
Date & Time Functions
33:38
date() and time()
33:39
getdate()
34:49
mktime()
35:01
Date & Time Functions
35:12
Example: date() and time()
35:58
Example: getdate()
42:15
Example: mktime()
43:15
Homework Challenge #1
44:31
Homework Challenge #1
44:32
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:28
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:29
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:06
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:07
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:17
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:18
Homework Challenge #3
50:08
Homework Challenge #3
50:09
Constants

19m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Constants vs. Variables
0:55
Constants vs. Variables
0:56
Constant Identifiers
2:28
Constant Identifiers Definition and Examples
2:29
Declaring Constants
3:47
Two Ways of Declaring Constants
3:48
Syntaxes
4:10
Major Difference in the Two Forms
4:48
Using Constants Example
6:25
Using Constants Example
6:26
Coding Conventions
11:08
Constant Names
11:09
define () Function
11:42
Meaningful Names
12:00
$_SERVER Superglobal
12:23
$_SERVER
12:24
$_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT']
13:15
$_SERVER Superglobal Example
13:52
Homework Challenge
17:40
Homework Challenge
17:41
Web Application Development

26m 29s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 6.0
1:13
Version 6.0 & Version 5.1 Review
1:14
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:24
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:25
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:00
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:01
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:42
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:43
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:18
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:20
Homework Challenge
25:24
Homework Challenge
25:25
Conditional Control Structures

18m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:26
Lesson Overview
0:27
Statement Groups
0:57
Statement Groups
0:58
Example
1:10
Conditional Control Structures
1:38
Conditional Control Structures
1:39
PHP Control Structures
1:56
if Statement
2:32
if Statement
2:33
if Statement (cont.)
3:49
if Statement Coding Example
3:50
else Statement
7:26
else Statement
7:27
if/else Statement Coding Example
8:50
isset() Construct
9:59
isset() Construct
10:00
isset() Construct Coding Example
12:00
Coding Conventions
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:14
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:39
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:40
Homework Challenge
17:25
Homework Challenge
17:26
Error Handling

19m 8s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Error Handling in PHP
0:41
Error Handling in PHP
0:42
Coding Example
1:45
error_reporting() Function
7:02
error_reporting() Function
7:03
Coding Example
8:04
Additional Error Directives
9:02
display_errors
9:13
log_errors
9:37
error_log
9:50
track_errors
10:12
Coding Examples
10:29
Error Control Operator
13:38
Error Control Operator & Coding Example
13:39
Homework Challenge
16:19
Homework Challenge
16:20
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:58
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:59
Logical & Ternary Operators

23m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
Logical Operators
0:49
Logical Operators Definition
0:50
NOT (!)
1:08
OR ( ||, or)
1:35
AND (&&, and)
2:08
XOR (xor)
2:30
Logical Operators (cont.)
2:54
The OR and AND Logical Operators
2:55
Precedence of Logical Operators
3:35
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:58
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:59
Short-Circuit Operators
9:54
Short-Circuit Operators
9:55
Coding Example
10:49
Ternary Operator
14:07
Ternary Operator
14:08
Syntax and Example
14:24
Coding Conventions
17:36
Coding Conventions
17:37
Homework Challenge
19:08
Homework Challenge
19:09
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:26
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:27
Web Application Development

19m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 6.2 Review
0:26
Version 6.2 Review
0:27
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:39
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:40
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:35
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:36
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:43
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:44
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:52
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:53
Homework Challenge
17:42
Homework Challenge
17:43
More Conditional Control Structure

20m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
elseif Statement
0:45
elseif Statement
0:46
elseif Statement Coding Example
1:22
Multiple elseif Statements
2:16
Multiple elseif Statements
2:17
Multiple elseif Statements Coding Example
3:07
Adding an else Statement
5:44
Adding an else Statement Overview
5:45
Adding an else Statement Coding Example
6:50
switch() Statement
8:07
switch() Statement
8:08
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:14
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:15
switch() Statement Coding Example
11:09
default Case
14:20
default Case
14:21
default Case Coding Example
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:57
Coding Conventions
15:58
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:10
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:11
Homework Challenge
18:06
Homework Challenge
18:07
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:18
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:19
Nested Conditional Control Structures

24m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Nested Control Structures
0:36
Nested Control Structures
0:37
Nested Control Structures Coding Example
2:08
Coding Conventions
6:34
Nested vs. Not Nested Control Structures
6:35
Debugging Control Structures
7:51
Debugging Control Structures
7:52
Incorrectly Specified Test Conditions and Forgetting a Break Statement
8:32
Incorrectly Placing an Opening or Closing Curly Brace
12:14
Debugging Tips
16:24
Tracing the Execution of Your Code
16:25
Adding Echo Statement
17:15
Homework Challenge
21:41
Homework Challenge
21:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:08
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:09
Web Application Development

28m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 7.1 Review
0:46
Version 7.1 Review
0:47
empty () Construct
1:38
empty () Construct
1:39
empty () Construct Coding Example
2:37
Version 8.0
5:32
Version 8.0 Overview
5:33
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:08
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:09
Version 8.1
16:13
Version 8.1 Overview
16:14
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:48
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:49
Homework Challenge
26:19
Homework Challenge
26:20
Sending Email Using PHP

43m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:14
Lesson Overview
0:15
Built-in Mail Extension
1:28
Built-in Mail Extension
1:29
SMTP Overview
2:04
SMTP Overview
2:05
SMTP - Windows
3:08
SMTP - Windows
3:09
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:58
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:59
Mail Configuration Directives
6:35
Mail Configuration Directives
6:36
Coding Example
7:48
Mail Server Authentication
10:20
Mail Server Authentication
10:21
fake sendmail Program
12:27
fake sendmail for Windows
12:28
Main 'add-on' feature
13:03
Username & Password
13:25
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:07
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:08
Sendmail Example
16:19
Sendmail Example
16:20
mail() Function
18:39
mail() Function
18:40
additional_headers
19:45
'From' Header
20:12
mail() Function Coding Example
21:09
mail() Function Coding Example
21:40
Web Application Development
31:43
Version 9.0 Changelog
31:44
ContactUs.php
32:52
ContactUs.php
32:53
contactInfo
33:45
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:31
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:32
Homework Challenge
41:32
Homework Challenge
41:33
User-Defined Functions

56m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
Defining Functions
1:29
Four Parts of Defining a Function
1:30
Functions Example 1
2:29
Function Parameters
5:29
Function Parameters
5:30
Functions Example 2
8:20
Return Statements
12:53
Return Statements
12:54
Functions Example 3
14:20
Where to Define Functions
20:34
Where to Define Functions
20:35
include_once Construct
22:10
include_once Construct
22:11
include_once Coding Example
23:55
Reasons to Use Functions
27:44
Take Advantage of Code Reuse
27:45
Improve Code Readability
29:56
Use Instead of 'content' Include Files
32:12
Web Application Development
34:42
Version 10.0 Changelog
34:43
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:55
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:56
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:04
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:05
Example
49:02
Coding Conventions
53:16
Coding Conventions
53:17
Homework Challenge
54:33
Homework Challenge
54:34
Variable Scope

31m 37s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is Variable Scope?
0:57
Variable Scope
0:58
Global Scope
1:15
Local Function Scope
1:50
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:26
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:27
global Keyword
8:52
global Keyword Overview
8:53
global Keyword Example
9:25
Superglobals
12:34
Superglobals
12:35
Superglobals Example
14:53
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:34
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:35
When to Define Variables
22:09
When to Define Variables
22:10
Putting It All Together
22:56
Putting It All Together Example
22:57
Function Scope
28:56
Function Scope
28:57
Homework Challenge
29:41
Homework Challenge
29:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
30:59
Homework Challenge (cont.)
31:00
Web Application Development

28m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:56
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:57
processGetVar()
1:42
processGetVar() Overview
1:43
processGetVar() Example
2:25
emailComments()
6:35
emailComments() Overview
6:36
emailComments() Example
7:14
outputItemLink()
11:19
outputItemLink() Overview
11:20
outputItemLink() Example
11:45
calcCartTotal()
19:25
calcCartTotal() Overview
19:26
calcCartTotal() Example
21:14
Homework Challenge
25:56
Homework Challenge
25:57
Optional Parameters

19m 35s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Optional Parameters
0:26
Optional Parameters Definition
0:27
Default Values
0:53
Optional Parameters Coding Example
3:26
More on Optional Parameters
6:55
Multiple Optional Parameters
6:56
Coding Example
8:05
Homework Challenge
16:18
Homework Challenge
16:19
Web Application Development

23m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:55
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:56
Update to outputLink()
1:44
Update to outputLink()
1:45
outputLink() Coding Example
2:40
outputImg()
13:57
outputImg() Overview
13:58
outputImg() Coding Example
15:35
Homework Challenge
22:05
Homework Challenge
22:06
Introduction to Conditional Loops

57m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
while Loop
0:48
Definition
0:49
Syntax and Usage
1:12
Coding Example
3:33
Looping Over Arrays
13:16
Looping Over Arrays
13:17
Coding Example
13:53
Looping Over Arrays (cont.)
16:43
Internal Array Pointer
16:44
Array Traversal Functions
17:29
current ()
17:30
next () and prev ()
18:16
reset () and end ()
19:25
key ()
19:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:41
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:06
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:07
Array Traversal Functions (cont.)
29:41
list () Construct and Example
30:07
each () Construct and Example
34:40
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:13
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:14
Control Structure Scope
50:37
Definition and Example
50:38
Control Structure Scope Coding Example
51:59
Coding Conventions
54:20
Coding Conventions
54:21
Homework Challenge
54:58
Homework Challenge
54:49
More on Conditional Loops

35m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
do-while Loop
0:42
do-while Loop
0:43
Simple do-while Loop Example
1:51
Another do-while Loop Example
4:09
continue Statement
10:46
continue Statement
10:47
For Example
11:07
continue Statement Coding Example
12:44
break Statement Re-Visited
18:10
break Statement Re-Visited
18:11
break Statement In while Loops Example
19:38
Infinite Loops
23:26
Infinite Loops
23:27
Coding Example
24:57
Common Loop Pitfalls
25:59
Counter Initialization Occurs in Loop
26:30
Counter Not Incremented in Loop
29:30
Unreachable Break Statement
30:50
Coding Conventions
33:48
Do-while Statements Coding Conventions
33:49
Homework Challenge
34:28
Homework Challenge
34:29
Web Application Development

22m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 13.0 Changelog
0:48
Updating 'viewCart.php' and calcCartTotal()
0:49
Creating isValidCart()
9:22
Adding Three New Item to the Store & Links
15:56
Version 13.1 Changelog
17:20
Updating outputItemLink() to Remove Its Global Dependency on $itemCatalog
17:21
Homework Challenge
20:34
Homework Challenge
20:35
For & Foreach Loops

29m 28s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
for Loops
0:45
for Loops
0:46
Expression 1
1:22
Expression 2
1:47
Expression 3
2:01
Simple Example
2:27
Simple Example
2:28
Notes on for Loops
8:56
Notes on for Loops
8:57
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:06
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:07
foreach Loops
12:03
foreach Loops
12:04
Indexed Array Syntax
14:10
Syntax
14:11
Example
15:23
Associative Array Syntax
18:31
Syntax
18:32
Example
19:47
Coding Conventions
25:05
for Loops
25:06
foreach Loops
25:58
Homework Challenge
26:52
Homework Challenge
26:53
Web Application Development

25m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:19
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:20
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:57
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:59
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:39
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:40
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:06
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:07
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:37
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:38
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:25
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:26
Homework Challenge
23:35
Homework Challenge
23:36
Conditional Loop Wrap-Up

23m 12s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Nested Conditional Loops
0:39
Nested Conditional Loops
0:40
Coding Example
1:10
continue & break Re-Visited
5:17
Continue Statements and Coding Example
5:30
Break Statements and Coding Example
11:34
Loop Debugging Tips
15:16
Add Short Debug Statement At the Very Beginning
15:17
Output a Counter Variable
18:10
Add Debug Statement At the Very End
19:20
Homework Challenge
20:20
Homework Challenge
20:21
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:00
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:01
Variable-Length Parameter Lists

22m 16s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:34
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:35
Coding Example
1:51
Variable-Length Parameter Lists (cont.)
5:21
When a Parameter List is Defined For the Functions
5:22
Coding Example
6:32
Variable Type Functions
9:54
is_int (), is_float (), is_string (), and is_bool()
9:55
is_ array ()
10:50
is_null ()
11:01
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 1
11:27
is_numeric() and Example
15:57
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 2
17:12
Homework Challenge
19:35
Homework Challenge
19:36
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:52
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:53
Web Application Development

38m 36s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 15.0 Changelog
0:33
outputLink (), outputImg (), is_array () and is_string ()
0:34
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:31
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:32
Version 15.1 Changelog
7:55
Removing Redundant Code and Adding New Function Called outputHtmlTag ()
7:56
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:37
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:38
Version 16.0 Changelog
14:55
Creating emailOrder() Using New Constants ORDER_EMAIL_FROM and ORDER_EMAIL_SUBJECT
14:56
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:30
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:31
Version 16.1 Changelog
32:21
Creating formatAsDollars ()
32:22
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:57
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:58
Homework Challenge
36:27
Homework Challenge
36:28
Miscellaneous Topics

31m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
register_globals Directive
0:58
register_globals
0:59
Coding Example
2:04
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:07
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:08
register_long_arrays Directive Coding Example
5:44
Magic Constants
7:30
Magic Constants
7:31
__LINE__, __FILE__, __FIR__, and __FUNCTION__
8:16
Coding Example
9:06
exist() & die()
13:19
exist() & die()
13:20
Coding Example
14:08
Execution Operator
16:23
Execution Operator
16:24
Coding Example
17:27
Array Operators
18:23
Equality (==) and Inequality (!=, <>)
18:43
Identity (===) and Non-Identity (!==)
19:13
Union (+) Operator
19:41
Array Operators Coding Example
20:07
Variable Variables
24:13
Variable Variables
24:14
Coding Example
26:07
Variable Functions
28:02
Variable Functions
28:03
Coding Example
29:13
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Lecture Comments (3)

2 answers

Last reply by: Matthew M.
Tue Feb 7, 2012 2:17 AM

Post by Jacob Case on November 19, 2011

This is proving to be a very thorough and exhaustive course. I haven't found other online PHP courses with comparable scope and depth. The way you alternate the practical application of building a web store with lessons about the fundamentals is perfect for me. THANK YOU!

Constants

  • A constant is an identifier that can be assigned a data value that cannot change during the execution of a script.
  • Constants can only be assigned scalar (integer, float, string, & boolean) values.
  • Constant identifiers obey the same naming rules as variable identifiers, except that they do not begin with a dollar sign.
  • Constant identifiers cannot be used within double-quoted strings as variable interpolation does not apply to constants.
  • PHP provides two ways of declaring constants:
    • Using the define() function
    • An assignment statement using the const keyword
  • When using the define() method, a constant can be assigned the value of any expression, not just a static value.
  • $_SERVER is a superglobal variable that is automatically defined and made available by PHP. It contains information about the webserver configuration and the current script.
  • $_SERVER[‘DOCUMENT_ROOT’] provides the full path in the local file system to the currently running webserver’s document root.
  • Additional Resources:

Constants

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:09
    • Lesson Overview
  • Constants vs. Variables 0:55
    • Constants vs. Variables
  • Constant Identifiers 2:28
    • Constant Identifiers Definition and Examples
  • Declaring Constants 3:47
    • Two Ways of Declaring Constants
    • Syntaxes
    • Major Difference in the Two Forms
  • Using Constants Example 6:25
    • Using Constants Example
  • Coding Conventions 11:08
    • Constant Names
    • define () Function
    • Meaningful Names
  • $_SERVER Superglobal 12:23
    • $_SERVER
    • $_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT']
    • $_SERVER Superglobal Example
  • Homework Challenge 17:40
    • Homework Challenge

Transcription: Constants

Hello again, and welcome back to Educator.com's Introduction to PHP course.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to be talking about what are known as constants.0004

Particularly, in this lecture, we are going to be going over the difference between constants and variables.0011

We are going to talk about how to name a constant--talk about constant identifiers.0017

We are going to talk about the different ways you can declare constants within your PHP code.0023

And then, we are going to go over some coding conventions that we are going to use for this course when it comes to constants.0027

We are also going to talk about the _SERVER superglobal variable, which is a superglobal variable,0033

like the _get variable that we have used to process form data.0040

We are including that description in this lecture, because it's something that is often used when defining constants in web application configuration files.0046

What is a constant? Well, as the name implies, it's a value that doesn't change.0057

In PHP, specifically, it's an identifier that you can assign a value to.0062

However, unlike a variable, once it has been assigned a value, that value can't change during the execution of the script.0067

This is something that is enforced by the PHP Interpreter; so, if you define or declare a constant, and set it equal to one value,0073

and try to do it again later in your script, you are going to get a warning, and then also the redefinition is not going to work.0080

One other difference between constants and variables is that variables can be used to hold any PHP data type--0087

arrays, the scalar data types, special data types like null.0094

However, constants can only be assigned scalar data types, which, as we know, are integer, float, string, and boolean.0098

It can only be one of those four data types.0105

Additionally, as mentioned, constants are often used in what you would call config files0111

for defining constant values that you use in many places throughout your web application.0118

I say "things that never change," because basically...they change, but they are not going to change during the execution of your web application.0125

Examples might be the sales tax rate, which isn't going to change very often.0134

And maybe you will have an email form on your website, and you always want it to email to a default administrator's email address.0138

That is something you could define as a constant.0146

Now, the way constant identifiers work is similar to variable identifiers.0150

The one big difference is that they don't begin with a dollar sign; other than that, all of the same rules apply.0155

They have to start with an underscore, letter, and then after that, they can be any combination of letters, underscores, and numbers.0162

Here are a couple of examples of four different constants that we have declared.0168

For example, we have declared a different constant for each of the different scalar data types,0174

which are the only types, again, that you can use to assign to a constant identifier.0179

We created one, DAYS_IN_A_WEEK=7, set the sales tax rate to 10%...we have a string, SERVER_NAME, that we set to educator.com.0184

And then, we might have a boolean constant in our configuration file that says, "Are we going to require a password?"0195

And in this case, we set it to true.0202

One thing to note, in particular, is that, unlike variables and variable identifiers, you can't use a constant within a double-quoted string.0206

So, variables--you can make use of variable interpolation; but that does not work for constants.0215

If you output a constant name within a string, it is just simply going to output the name of the constant.0220

We know what constants are and the rules for their identifiers in PHP.0229

Now, let's talk about how we actually declare constants within our code.0234

PHP provides two different methods; the first method is through the use of a function called the define function,0239

and the second is using an assignment statement with the const keyword.0246

And this bullet right here shows the two different syntaxes in action.0252

Here, we are using the define function to define a constant called PI, and we are setting it equal to the float value 3.14.0257

Now, if we wanted to do the same thing, using a constant assignment method, we have a variable name called the assignment operator,0267

and the value we are assigning to it, and then we precede all this with the const keyword.0277

That says that we are declaring a constant pi and setting it equal to 3.14; this value cannot be changed.0282

One major difference between the two forms is that, with the define function, a constant can be defined as the output of an expression.0290

For example, we could define a constant HOME, and let's say we know that the protocol is always going to be HTPP,0299

but we are going to use a variable to set the server name of this home page, and that could be a variable.0309

So, using the define function, we can use an expression in the value portion of the function.0317

And I should mention, actually, that the first argument to the define function is the name of the constant that you want, enclosed in quotes.0323

And then, the value that you want to assign to the constant is the second argument.0333

In this case, we are assigning it a value that is a string, that is the concatenation of this string literal http:/ and the value of the variable serverName.0338

Now, you can't do this with the const assignment version; if we tried to do it down here in the same way,0353

it would generate a parse error, because using the const assignment method, you can only assign static values.0360

So, we would have to hard-code it as http...0367

That makes the define function, in some ways, a lot more useful; and it is mostly what we are going to be using in this course.0379

Let's take a look at a file called constants.php.0387

Well, before we do that, let's take a look at the actual code that shows you how this defining constants works in real PHP code.0392

So here, we have a define statement that defines, as before, the constant PI, giving it the name PI in capital letters.0402

We are assigning it the value 3.14; and then here, we have an echo statement that echoes the pi value.0410

And remember, as mentioned, you can't include constants within double-quoted strings.0416

So, in order to output it as part of another string, we use the concatenation operator.0420

And then, here we have a constant declaration that uses the const assignment method.0426

So, we are declaring the variable pi, and in this case, we are making it a little more precise,0436

and we're setting it to the value 3.14159, as opposed to just 3.14, and then echoing it.0441

However, as we know, constants cannot be redefined; so when you try to run this page right here,0449

when you try to make this second declaration, you are going to get an error generated.0456

Additionally, the constant PI is not going to get updated; so when we echo PI down here,0461

it is not going to echo the second value that we tried to set it to, but the first one.0466

So, if we go and look at this page, constants.php, we can see, it output 3.14 twice, because PI wasn't reassigned.0471

We also get a notice stating that we had already defined PI within the file.0480

Let me go ahead and...one thing that we could do, if we wanted to make this legal and output a different value for PI--0488

we could create a constant with a different name, called PI2, which would eliminate the error with redefining a constant.0499

And then, we should be able to echo the second value; and let me go through and do this...0506

We don't get the error, and we see that we have the output value of PI2.0511

But that kind of defeats the purpose of what we are doing; I was just doing that to show you how you could change that,0516

so that the error doesn't occur; but typically, you are not going to be doing this.0522

Down here in this other section that I had commented out, I'm going to talk about how you can use expressions within the define function, as we mentioned.0527

For example, we're defining a variable called server, and we're setting it to the value www.educator.com.0536

And then, I'm going to define a constant called HOME_HTTP, which is going to be an HTTP link to that server.0543

And as the value of HOME_HTTP, I'm going to assign it the value of this expression,0552

which is the concatenation of the http:// string literal and the value of the server variable.0558

And then, in this next line, I am just going to output that variable.0567

Now, if we try to do that same thing down here in a const assignment statement, we are going to get an error,0571

because, as we had mentioned on the slide, constant assignment statements using this method can only have static values.0579

They can't be expressions, which in this case, would be the concatenation of the server variable with FTP.0590

So, for example, if we wanted to create a different constant, HOME_FTP, we couldn't use this type of definition; we would have to replace it.0597

So, if we go ahead and view this page again now, with the section uncommented, we can see that we get a parse error,0606

unexpected . (which is a concatenation operator) on line 43.0614

We go back and look at line 43; we see that this section of code, we thought, would cause an error,0619

because this is not legal syntax; so the way we could replace that would be to just hard-code the link in.0624

And again, this is something you probably wouldn't do; you would usually use the define function, because0635

it gives you this additional flexibility; but to demonstrate this, and to show both of these constants' output,0642

we can make that change, and we won't get the error, and it should output all the information.0649

Here are the two PI values from before, and then we can see the values of the two different constants, HOME_HTTP and HOME_FTP.0654

So now, I just want to talk about some coding conventions that we are going to use in this course for constants.0669

As you have probably noticed, all of our constants were declared using uppercase letters, and spaces between words were replaced with underscores.0674

This is the convention we are going to be using, and it is pretty much the convention that all PHP developers use.0685

It signifies that, any time you see an identifier that is in all capital letters, you know that it is a constant.0691

So, it is what we are going to use in this course, and it is what is used out there in the real world.0697

Additionally, there are those two methods we mentioned for defining constants.0703

We are pretty much going to use only the define function for defining our constants, as opposed to the const assignment statement.0707

The reason for that is: it gives us the added flexibility of using expressions to set the value of the constant.0714

As before, as we talked about in the coding conventions for variables, your constant identifiers should be given meaningful names,0722

so that they describe what their purpose is.0731

Instead of calling something just LINK, you might call it HOME_PAGE, which tells you that the link is to your home page.0734

So now, I want to talk about the _SERVER superglobal.0745

And basically, to mention it again--we haven't talked too much about superglobals, and we're going to get to that later in the course.0749

But a superglobal is a variable that is pre-defined by PHP, and it is made available to you everywhere in your script, and it is automatically populated by PHP.0755

The one superglobal we have used before is the _get superglobal, which is used to access, as we know, GET data that is input to a form.0766

The _SERVER superglobal provides information about the current web server configuration,0778

and also provides a lot of information, like the web server's document root and any HTTP header information for the currently-running script.0784

And it's an associative array, like GET, and one of the more common keys that we are going to use to access this array is DOCUMENT_ROOT,0796

and that provides the full path in the local file system to the web server's document root.0806

And this is useful, because in configuration files, we can use that value to define where include directories are,0812

so that when we include files, we can create an include directory constant, and it will make use of this.0819

And then, that way, when we include a file, it will know which directory to look in.0827

Let's take a look at a file called serverSuperglobal.php.0833

The beginning of this file--what it does is: it outputs the phpinfo.0841

What that is going to do is: that shows all of the information in the _SERVER superglobal, so we can see what it looks like.0850

And then, I have also just added an anchor and a link to the bottom, so that we can quickly get to the _SERVER information,0856

because on phpinfo, it's listed at the bottom.0866

So, if we go and we view this page, and we see phpinfo generated, and click Scroll to Bottom,0868

at the bottom down here, you can see, it has information about the _SERVER variable.0876

It provides all sorts of different information; there is information from HTTP headers about the user agent...all sorts of information.0882

It gives information about the page that was used to refer you to this script page.0891

And in particular, what we are looking for is the $_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT'].0898

What that says is: that is giving us the document root of the web server that is serving this page.0903

And in this case, it's C:/Users/educator1/xampp/htdocs, which is as we expect.0909

We learned in our lesson on setting up a development environment that the htdocs directory in the XAMPP folder in our User directory0916

is the document root for the default XAMPP configuration.0927

So now, if we go back to this page in the code editor, and uncomment a section we have below,0932

you can see that what I have done is defined a constant called INCLUDE_DIR, which is to represent the include directory.0941

And we set the value equal to the $_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] value, which, as we know, is the htdocs directory.0950

And then, what I have done is concatenated to that a string that directs you to the path of the include directory for, for example, lecture_19.0963

If we had include files in lecture_19, we would put them in an includes directory.0975

So, any time you would want to include a file--for example,0980

we are in this lecture_19 web application; we want to include a file called header.html--0989

we can use this constant in the file header.html, and PHP will be able to use the constant that uses the $_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT']0994

variable to resolve this link, and it will know where to find header.html.1008

Let me erase this.1012

So, now that we have defined this constant, I have gone ahead and echoed it.1017

And if we reload the script, it should show up at the bottom of the page.1022

And if we look down here at the very bottom of the page, we can see, it says INCLUDE_DIR, and then it lists the include directory,1031

which is this part right here, which is the document root, which is from the $_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] value.1037

And then, we have appended to it the path to our current include directory.1045

And we can use that, for example, in a configuration file for our web application, to prepend all include files.1050

For today's homework challenge, I just want to give you a little practice with defining constants.1061

We are going to have you use the define function, which is the method we are going to use most in this course.1065

And basically, I want to get you to have some experience with also using expressions to set the value of the constant.1072

So, I'm going to have you define a constant called ADMIN_EMAIL, using the define function.1079

And set its value to a valid email address, and then output its value.1083

That will give you practice defining a constant, and it will also give you practice echoing out a constant,1089

because you will learn that you can't include it in double quotes, as you can with variables.1096

Then, I am going to have you just delete the constant altogether and create two new constants, one called USER and one called DOMAIN_NAME.1102

I am going to have you define the USER constant to be the value that was to the left of the @ sign in your admin email address,1111

and the DOMAIN_NAME constant to be the value to the right of the @ sign in your domain address.1117

Then, I'm going to have you redefine the ADMIN_EMAIL constant, and I want you to use the USER and DOMAIN_NAME constants1123

we just created together to create the same admin email address that was created here in step 1.1133

That is just going to, again, give you a little practice with learning how to use expressions.1141

In this case, the expression is a concatenation operation when setting the value of a constant,1146

and you should be able to output the admin email in this updated script, and it should be the same value as in step 1.1151

That ends today's lesson; thank you for watching Educator.com--I look forward to seeing you next time.1159

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