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Matthew M.

Matthew M.

Web Application Development

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

Course Introduction

12m 13s

Intro
0:00
What Is PHP?
0:12
PHP Hypertext Preprocessor
0:13
Why Learn PHP?
1:09
Why Learn PHP?
1:10
Web Application: Educator Store
2:25
Web Application: Educator Store
2:26
Example of Web Application
3:18
PHP in the Educator Store
7:12
Dynamic Content Generation
7:22
Ease of Website Maintenance
7:55
Form Input Processing and Access to Advanced Functionality
9:00
What You Will Learn
9:36
What You Will Learn
9:37
Who Is This Course For?
10:56
Who Is This Course For?
10:57
How PHP & The Web Work

15m 32s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Client-Server Model
0:53
Client-Server Model
0:54
HTTP Protocol
2:15
Definition of Protocol
2:16
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
2:37
Uniform Resource Locators
3:46
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)
3:47
Form of URLs
4:13
Accessing Webpages with URLs
5:13
Serving Webpages
6:14
Serving Webpages, Client Machine, and Server Machine
6:15
Static vs. Dynamic Webpages
8:30
Static Webpage
8:31
Dynamic Webpage
8:55
Server-Side Scripting
9:54
Server-Side Scripting
9:55
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:17
Static and Dynamic Webpage Coding Example
11:18
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:07
Serving Dynamic Webpages
13:08
Setting Up Your Development Environment

33m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
Development Environments
1:04
Development Environments
1:05
Our Default Development Environment: Window 7
1:54
Remote Development
4:04
Development Machine & Remote Server
4:05
Local Development
6:54
Development Machine
6:55
Software Used In This Course
9:41
Firefox Web Browser & Firebug Add-On
9:42
XAMPP
12:15
PSPAD Text Editor
13:16
XAMPP Installation
13:49
XAMPP Installation
13:50
Verify XAMPP Install
16:26
Verify XAMPP Install
16:27
localhost
19:08
localhost and 127.0.0.1 'loopback' IP Address
19:09
Document Root
21:16
Document Root and Directory Name
21:17
Document Root for Apache in XAMPP: htdocs & Example
22:13
Text Editor Spectrum
26:12
Text Editor Spectrum: Barebones to IDE
26:13
PSPad & Example
27:02
Finding Help
30:26
Web Resources
30:27
Homework Challenge
31:36
Homework Challenge
31:37
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
32:39
Your First PHP Script

12m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
.php To HTML
1:00
.php To HTML
1:01
PHP Delimiters
2:20
PHP Delimiters: Opening & Closing PHP Tags
2:21
'Hello, World!' Example
4:34
Echo Statement & PHP Tags
4:35
Adding Second Heading
7:34
Homework Challenge
9:56
Homework Challenge
9:57
Basic PHP Syntax

40m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
PHP Delimiters
0:38
Long and Script Form
0:39
Short and ASP Style
1:33
Example
2:01
php.ini: PHP's Configuration
3:40
php.ini
3:41
Configuration Directives
3:48
Short and ASP Style: Enabled/Disabled
4:13
phpinfo()
7:58
Statements
14:28
PHP Statements
14:29
Example: PHP Statements
14:55
Comments
16:53
PHP Comments
16:55
Single-line Comments
17:37
Multi-line Comments
18:13
Example: PHP Comments
18:47
Coding Conventions
24:26
Coding Conventions
24:27
Example: PHP Coding Conventions
26:19
Homework Challenge #1
33:51
Homework Challenge #1
33:52
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:41
Homework Challenge #1 (cont.)
35:42
Homework Challenge #2
36:09
Homework Challenge #2
36:10
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:07
Homework Challenge #2 (cont.)
38:08
Variables & Numeric Data Types

16m 38s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:12
Working With Data
0:48
8 Types of Data for PHP
0:49
Identifiers
1:40
Identifiers: Definition and Example
1:41
Variables
2:47
Variables Definition
2:48
Variables Syntax
3:06
Integer Data Type
4:44
Integer Data Type
4:45
Integer Literals
5:08
Examples
5:30
Float Data Type
6:26
Float Data Type
6:27
Float Literals
7:00
Example
7:21
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:06
Example: PHP Code Declaring Variables
8:07
var_dump() Function
9:59
var_dump()
10:00
Example: Code and Output
10:30
Example: var_dump() Function
11:19
Coding Conventions: Variables
12:32
Lower Camel Case Notation
12:33
Variable Name Lengths
13:54
Homework Challenge
14:54
Homework Challenge
14:55
String Data Type

18m 6s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
String Data Type
0:29
String Data Type
0:30
Specifying String Literals
1:03
Single-Quoted Strings
1:53
Single-Quoted Strings
1:54
Escape Sequences
2:31
Escape Sequences
2:32
Example
2:46
Escape Sequences for Commonly Used Special Characters
4:32
Double-Quoted Strings
6:04
Double-Quoted Strings
6:05
Variable Interpolation
6:44
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:54
Coding Conventions: Strings
7:55
Homework Challenge
8:54
Homework Challenge
8:55
Include Files & Web Application Introduction

38m 43s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
include Statement
0:47
include Statement: Definition
0:48
Include Statement: Syntax
2:05
include Statement: Example
2:25
include Path
6:32
Absolute and Relative Path
6:34
Specified Path
7:15
Not Specified Path
7:55
Code Reuse
9:35
Code Reuse
9:36
Example
11:11
require Statement
12:56
require Statement: Definition
12:57
require Statement: Syntax
13:32
Include versus Require
13:52
Coding Conventions
16:33
Coding Conventions
16:34
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:32
Introduction to Our Web Application
20:33
Updating Web Application
21:14
Web Application Example
22:59
Homework Challenge
35:33
Homework Challenge
35:34
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:38
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:39
Arrays

34m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is an Array?
0:42
What is an Array?
0:43
Arrays in PHP
1:44
Keys and Values
2:15
Types of Arrays
3:37
Indexed Arrays & Associative Arrays
3:38
array() Construct
6:47
Declaring Arrays
6:48
Defining Indexed Array
7:00
Defining Associative Arrays
7:43
Square Bracket Syntax
8:50
Square Bracket Syntax
8:51
Accessing Indexed Arrays
9:02
Accessing Associative Arrays
9:56
Arrays Example
10:41
Indexed Arrays Example
10:45
Associative Arrays Example
13:55
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:28
Multi-Dimensional Arrays
18:29
Multi-Dimensional Arrays Example
18:51
Multi-Dimensional Arrays in PHP File
20:34
Coding Conventions: Arrays
27:59
Coding Conventions: Arrays
28:00
Homework Challenge #1
29:20
Homework Challenge #1
29:21
Homework Challenge #2
30:38
Homework Challenge #2
30:39
Web Application Development

27m 38s

Intro
0:00
Versions
0:14
Version 3.0
1:23
Version 3.1
8:08
Version 3.2
11:42
Version 3.3
20:27
Homework Challenge
26:31
Homework Challenge
26:32
Script Input & The GET Method

30m 18s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Providing Input to PHP
0:39
GET Method, POST Method, and Cookies
0:40
Name/Value Pairs
1:22
GET Method
1:57
HTTP GET Method
1:58
Query String
2:52
GET Method Example
3:38
GET Method Example
3:39
Review of HTML Forms
8:16
HTML Forms
8:17
Input Control and Submitted Form
9:13
<form> Tag
10:07
<form> Tag
10:08
Method
10:34
Action
11:13
Input Control Examples
11:50
Input Control Examples
11:51
Common Input Controls
17:31
Common Input Controls
17:32
Query Strings
18:52
Query Strings
18:53
Query Strings Syntax
19:12
URL Encoding
20:01
URL Syntax
20:02
Examples
21:17
Simple Form Example
22:28
urlencode() Function
24:08
urlencode() Function
24:09
Example
25:03
urlEncoding Text Example
25:54
Simple Form Example
25:55
Homework Challenge
28:46
Homework Challenge
28:47
Accessing Form Data in PHP

32m 1s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
$_GET Array
0:48
$_GET Array
0:49
Accessing the Value of a Name/Value Pair Submitted Via GET
1:04
Name Form Example
2:54
Name Form and the $_GET Array
2:55
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:34
Using Arrays with Input Controls
6:35
Common Example
6:47
Indexed Array Form Example
8:16
Indexed Array Form Example
8:17
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:14
Associative Arrays with Input Controls
10:15
Associative Arrays Example
11:41
Associative Arrays Example
11:42
Echo Form Example
15:18
Echo Form Example
15:19
Outputting Arrays In String
23:42
Variable Interpolation
23:43
Outputting a Value in an Indexed Array Within a String
24:12
Simple' Syntax, 'Complex' Syntax, and 'Curly Brace' Syntax
25:00
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:25
Outputting Arrays In String Example
26:26
Homework Challenge
29:39
Homework Challenge
29:40
Web Application Development

20m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:19
Lesson Overview
0:20
Version 3.3
0:38
Version 3.3
0:42
Version 4.0 Changelog
2:43
GET Query
2:45
Adding, Editing, and Removing
3:24
Version 4.0 Coding Example
3:55
item.php, itemID, and itemListing
4:00
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:36
Version 4.1 Changelog
10:37
Version 4.1 Coding Example
11:45
Adding Checkout and Thank You & Editing Footer and Store
11:46
Homework Challenge
18:45
Homework Challenge
18:46
Expression & Operators

31m 56s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Expressions
0:41
Expressions Definition
0:42
Example: Literals
0:55
Example: Variables
1:05
Operators
1:44
Operators Definition
1:45
Unary, Binary, and Ternary Operators
2:07
Assignment Operators
2:52
Assignment Operators
2:53
Array Assignment Operator
3:47
Arithmetic Operators
6:15
Operators for Common Arithmetic Operations
6:16
Modulus Operator
7:41
Arithmetic Operators Example
8:25
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:48
Increment/Decrement Operators
10:49
Pre- and Post- Increment/Decrement
12:43
Coding Example
15:14
Combined Assignment Operators
16:44
Combined Assignment Operators
16:45
Combined Assignment Operators Examples
18:23
Coding Example
19:39
String Operators
20:28
Concatenation Operator, String Variables, and String Literals
20:29
String Operators Example
22:41
Precedence & Associativity
23:40
Precedence & Associativity
23:41
Expression Containing Multiple Operations
23:58
Expression Containing Two Operations of Equal Precedence
25:55
Using Parentheses to Force Precedence
26:52
Precedence & Associativity Review
28:57
Homework Challenge
31:08
Homework Challenge
31:09
Web Application Development

20m 51s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:15
Lesson Overview
0:16
Version 4.1 Review
0:33
Version 4.1 Review
0:34
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:05
Version 5.0 Changelog
1:06
Version 5.0 Example
2:19
Adding View Cart & Editing Checkout, Footer and Store
2:20
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:36
Version 5.1 Changelog
15:37
Version 5.1 Coding Example
17:33
Forwarding Order Total to Thank You Page
17:34
Homework Challenge
20:09
Homework Challenge
20:10
Boolean & Null Data Types

20m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Boolean Data Type
0:38
Boolean Data Type
0:39
Two Boolean Literals
1:24
Boolean Example
1:50
Boolean Example
1:51
Comparison Operators
4:00
Comparison Operators Definition
4:01
Common Comparison Operators
4:40
Comparison Operators Example
6:49
Comparison Operators (Cont.)
10:10
Identical and Not Identical
10:11
Example: Identical and Not Identical
11:24
Null Data Type
13:36
Null Data Type Definition
13:37
Null Literal
14:08
Variable and Null Data Type
14:30
'==' Operator
15:24
Null Data Type Example
15:59
Coding Convention
18:41
Coding Convention
18:42
Homework Challenge
19:17
Homework Challenge
19:18
Type Casting

22m 41s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Type Juggling
0:54
Type Juggling
0:55
Automatic Conversion
2:23
Type Casting
3:53
Type Casting
3:54
Implicit and Explicit Type Casting
4:00
Explicitly 'cast' a Variable Example
4:16
Type Casting (cont.)
6:48
PHP Allows the Following Explicit Type Casts
6:49
The settype () Function
8:18
Type Casting Coding Example
9:00
Explicit Type Casts
9:01
String Conversions
14:52
String Conversions
15:05
Common Conversions to String
15:55
Numeric Conversions
18:18
Numeric Conversions
18:19
Boolean Conversions
20:29
Boolean Conversions
20:30
Homework Challenge
21:38
Homework Challenge
21:39
Introduction to Functions

52m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
What are Functions?
0:51
Definition of Faction
0:52
PHP and Function Call
1:53
Function Calls
2:42
Function Calls
2:43
Function Arguments
3:17
Return Values
4:56
Return Values
4:57
Function Chaining
6:29
Function Chaining
6:30
PHP.net Function Reference
8:23
PHP.net & Function Prototypes
8:24
PHP.net Function Reference Example
9:29
Optional Function Arguments
12:28
Optional Function Arguments
12:29
String Functions
14:57
strtoupper() and strtolower()
14:58
implode (), str_replace(), explode(), strpos(), substr(), and strlen()
18:31
Array Functions
25:48
count()
25:49
in_array() and array_key_exists()
26:06
sort() and ksort()
26:37
Example: count() and in_array()
27:50
Example: array_key_exists()
29:53
Example: sort() and ksort()
31:20
Date & Time Functions
33:38
date() and time()
33:39
getdate()
34:49
mktime()
35:01
Date & Time Functions
35:12
Example: date() and time()
35:58
Example: getdate()
42:15
Example: mktime()
43:15
Homework Challenge #1
44:31
Homework Challenge #1
44:32
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:28
Homework Challenge #1 (Cont.)
45:29
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2
46:34
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:06
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
48:07
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:17
Homework Challenge #2 (Cont.)
49:18
Homework Challenge #3
50:08
Homework Challenge #3
50:09
Constants

19m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Constants vs. Variables
0:55
Constants vs. Variables
0:56
Constant Identifiers
2:28
Constant Identifiers Definition and Examples
2:29
Declaring Constants
3:47
Two Ways of Declaring Constants
3:48
Syntaxes
4:10
Major Difference in the Two Forms
4:48
Using Constants Example
6:25
Using Constants Example
6:26
Coding Conventions
11:08
Constant Names
11:09
define () Function
11:42
Meaningful Names
12:00
$_SERVER Superglobal
12:23
$_SERVER
12:24
$_SERVER ['DOCUMENT_ROOT']
13:15
$_SERVER Superglobal Example
13:52
Homework Challenge
17:40
Homework Challenge
17:41
Web Application Development

26m 29s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 6.0
1:13
Version 6.0 & Version 5.1 Review
1:14
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:24
Version 6.0 Changelog
11:25
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:00
Version 6.1 Changelog
12:01
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:42
Version 6.1 Coding Example
12:43
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:18
Version 6.2 Changelog
15:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:19
Version 6.2 Coding Example
18:20
Homework Challenge
25:24
Homework Challenge
25:25
Conditional Control Structures

18m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:26
Lesson Overview
0:27
Statement Groups
0:57
Statement Groups
0:58
Example
1:10
Conditional Control Structures
1:38
Conditional Control Structures
1:39
PHP Control Structures
1:56
if Statement
2:32
if Statement
2:33
if Statement (cont.)
3:49
if Statement Coding Example
3:50
else Statement
7:26
else Statement
7:27
if/else Statement Coding Example
8:50
isset() Construct
9:59
isset() Construct
10:00
isset() Construct Coding Example
12:00
Coding Conventions
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:14
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:39
Coding Conventions (Cont.)
16:40
Homework Challenge
17:25
Homework Challenge
17:26
Error Handling

19m 8s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Error Handling in PHP
0:41
Error Handling in PHP
0:42
Coding Example
1:45
error_reporting() Function
7:02
error_reporting() Function
7:03
Coding Example
8:04
Additional Error Directives
9:02
display_errors
9:13
log_errors
9:37
error_log
9:50
track_errors
10:12
Coding Examples
10:29
Error Control Operator
13:38
Error Control Operator & Coding Example
13:39
Homework Challenge
16:19
Homework Challenge
16:20
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:58
Homework Challenge (cont.)
17:59
Logical & Ternary Operators

23m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
Logical Operators
0:49
Logical Operators Definition
0:50
NOT (!)
1:08
OR ( ||, or)
1:35
AND (&&, and)
2:08
XOR (xor)
2:30
Logical Operators (cont.)
2:54
The OR and AND Logical Operators
2:55
Precedence of Logical Operators
3:35
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:58
Logical Operators Coding Example
3:59
Short-Circuit Operators
9:54
Short-Circuit Operators
9:55
Coding Example
10:49
Ternary Operator
14:07
Ternary Operator
14:08
Syntax and Example
14:24
Coding Conventions
17:36
Coding Conventions
17:37
Homework Challenge
19:08
Homework Challenge
19:09
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:26
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:27
Web Application Development

19m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 6.2 Review
0:26
Version 6.2 Review
0:27
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:39
Version 7.0 Changelog
2:40
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:35
Version 7.0 Coding Example
4:36
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:43
Version 7.1 Changelog
12:44
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:52
Version 7.1 Coding Example
13:53
Homework Challenge
17:42
Homework Challenge
17:43
More Conditional Control Structure

20m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
elseif Statement
0:45
elseif Statement
0:46
elseif Statement Coding Example
1:22
Multiple elseif Statements
2:16
Multiple elseif Statements
2:17
Multiple elseif Statements Coding Example
3:07
Adding an else Statement
5:44
Adding an else Statement Overview
5:45
Adding an else Statement Coding Example
6:50
switch() Statement
8:07
switch() Statement
8:08
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:14
switch() Statement (Cont.)
9:15
switch() Statement Coding Example
11:09
default Case
14:20
default Case
14:21
default Case Coding Example
15:13
Coding Conventions
15:57
Coding Conventions
15:58
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:10
Coding Conventions (cont.)
17:11
Homework Challenge
18:06
Homework Challenge
18:07
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:18
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:19
Nested Conditional Control Structures

24m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Nested Control Structures
0:36
Nested Control Structures
0:37
Nested Control Structures Coding Example
2:08
Coding Conventions
6:34
Nested vs. Not Nested Control Structures
6:35
Debugging Control Structures
7:51
Debugging Control Structures
7:52
Incorrectly Specified Test Conditions and Forgetting a Break Statement
8:32
Incorrectly Placing an Opening or Closing Curly Brace
12:14
Debugging Tips
16:24
Tracing the Execution of Your Code
16:25
Adding Echo Statement
17:15
Homework Challenge
21:41
Homework Challenge
21:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:08
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:09
Web Application Development

28m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 7.1 Review
0:46
Version 7.1 Review
0:47
empty () Construct
1:38
empty () Construct
1:39
empty () Construct Coding Example
2:37
Version 8.0
5:32
Version 8.0 Overview
5:33
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:08
Version 8.0 Coding Example
7:09
Version 8.1
16:13
Version 8.1 Overview
16:14
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:48
Version 8.1 Coding Example
19:49
Homework Challenge
26:19
Homework Challenge
26:20
Sending Email Using PHP

43m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:14
Lesson Overview
0:15
Built-in Mail Extension
1:28
Built-in Mail Extension
1:29
SMTP Overview
2:04
SMTP Overview
2:05
SMTP - Windows
3:08
SMTP - Windows
3:09
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:58
SMTP - Linux/UNIX
4:59
Mail Configuration Directives
6:35
Mail Configuration Directives
6:36
Coding Example
7:48
Mail Server Authentication
10:20
Mail Server Authentication
10:21
fake sendmail Program
12:27
fake sendmail for Windows
12:28
Main 'add-on' feature
13:03
Username & Password
13:25
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:07
SMTP - XAMPP for Windows
14:08
Sendmail Example
16:19
Sendmail Example
16:20
mail() Function
18:39
mail() Function
18:40
additional_headers
19:45
'From' Header
20:12
mail() Function Coding Example
21:09
mail() Function Coding Example
21:40
Web Application Development
31:43
Version 9.0 Changelog
31:44
ContactUs.php
32:52
ContactUs.php
32:53
contactInfo
33:45
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:31
Version 9.0 Coding Example
34:32
Homework Challenge
41:32
Homework Challenge
41:33
User-Defined Functions

56m

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
Defining Functions
1:29
Four Parts of Defining a Function
1:30
Functions Example 1
2:29
Function Parameters
5:29
Function Parameters
5:30
Functions Example 2
8:20
Return Statements
12:53
Return Statements
12:54
Functions Example 3
14:20
Where to Define Functions
20:34
Where to Define Functions
20:35
include_once Construct
22:10
include_once Construct
22:11
include_once Coding Example
23:55
Reasons to Use Functions
27:44
Take Advantage of Code Reuse
27:45
Improve Code Readability
29:56
Use Instead of 'content' Include Files
32:12
Web Application Development
34:42
Version 10.0 Changelog
34:43
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:55
Version 10.0 Coding Example
37:56
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:04
Outputting HTML in Functions
47:05
Example
49:02
Coding Conventions
53:16
Coding Conventions
53:17
Homework Challenge
54:33
Homework Challenge
54:34
Variable Scope

31m 37s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is Variable Scope?
0:57
Variable Scope
0:58
Global Scope
1:15
Local Function Scope
1:50
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:26
Variable Scope Coding Example
2:27
global Keyword
8:52
global Keyword Overview
8:53
global Keyword Example
9:25
Superglobals
12:34
Superglobals
12:35
Superglobals Example
14:53
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:34
Pitfalls of Global Variables
18:35
When to Define Variables
22:09
When to Define Variables
22:10
Putting It All Together
22:56
Putting It All Together Example
22:57
Function Scope
28:56
Function Scope
28:57
Homework Challenge
29:41
Homework Challenge
29:42
Homework Challenge (cont.)
30:59
Homework Challenge (cont.)
31:00
Web Application Development

28m 27s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:56
Version 11.0 Changelog
0:57
processGetVar()
1:42
processGetVar() Overview
1:43
processGetVar() Example
2:25
emailComments()
6:35
emailComments() Overview
6:36
emailComments() Example
7:14
outputItemLink()
11:19
outputItemLink() Overview
11:20
outputItemLink() Example
11:45
calcCartTotal()
19:25
calcCartTotal() Overview
19:26
calcCartTotal() Example
21:14
Homework Challenge
25:56
Homework Challenge
25:57
Optional Parameters

19m 35s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Optional Parameters
0:26
Optional Parameters Definition
0:27
Default Values
0:53
Optional Parameters Coding Example
3:26
More on Optional Parameters
6:55
Multiple Optional Parameters
6:56
Coding Example
8:05
Homework Challenge
16:18
Homework Challenge
16:19
Web Application Development

23m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:55
Version 12.0 Changelog
0:56
Update to outputLink()
1:44
Update to outputLink()
1:45
outputLink() Coding Example
2:40
outputImg()
13:57
outputImg() Overview
13:58
outputImg() Coding Example
15:35
Homework Challenge
22:05
Homework Challenge
22:06
Introduction to Conditional Loops

57m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
while Loop
0:48
Definition
0:49
Syntax and Usage
1:12
Coding Example
3:33
Looping Over Arrays
13:16
Looping Over Arrays
13:17
Coding Example
13:53
Looping Over Arrays (cont.)
16:43
Internal Array Pointer
16:44
Array Traversal Functions
17:29
current ()
17:30
next () and prev ()
18:16
reset () and end ()
19:25
key ()
19:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:40
Indexed Arrays: Using current () and next ()
20:41
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:06
Associative Arrays: Using key (), current (), and next ()
24:07
Array Traversal Functions (cont.)
29:41
list () Construct and Example
30:07
each () Construct and Example
34:40
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:13
Lopping Over Arrays Using list(), each()
42:14
Control Structure Scope
50:37
Definition and Example
50:38
Control Structure Scope Coding Example
51:59
Coding Conventions
54:20
Coding Conventions
54:21
Homework Challenge
54:58
Homework Challenge
54:49
More on Conditional Loops

35m 50s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
do-while Loop
0:42
do-while Loop
0:43
Simple do-while Loop Example
1:51
Another do-while Loop Example
4:09
continue Statement
10:46
continue Statement
10:47
For Example
11:07
continue Statement Coding Example
12:44
break Statement Re-Visited
18:10
break Statement Re-Visited
18:11
break Statement In while Loops Example
19:38
Infinite Loops
23:26
Infinite Loops
23:27
Coding Example
24:57
Common Loop Pitfalls
25:59
Counter Initialization Occurs in Loop
26:30
Counter Not Incremented in Loop
29:30
Unreachable Break Statement
30:50
Coding Conventions
33:48
Do-while Statements Coding Conventions
33:49
Homework Challenge
34:28
Homework Challenge
34:29
Web Application Development

22m 7s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 13.0 Changelog
0:48
Updating 'viewCart.php' and calcCartTotal()
0:49
Creating isValidCart()
9:22
Adding Three New Item to the Store & Links
15:56
Version 13.1 Changelog
17:20
Updating outputItemLink() to Remove Its Global Dependency on $itemCatalog
17:21
Homework Challenge
20:34
Homework Challenge
20:35
For & Foreach Loops

29m 28s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
for Loops
0:45
for Loops
0:46
Expression 1
1:22
Expression 2
1:47
Expression 3
2:01
Simple Example
2:27
Simple Example
2:28
Notes on for Loops
8:56
Notes on for Loops
8:57
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:06
Ending Loop Using Test Condition and Break Statement
10:07
foreach Loops
12:03
foreach Loops
12:04
Indexed Array Syntax
14:10
Syntax
14:11
Example
15:23
Associative Array Syntax
18:31
Syntax
18:32
Example
19:47
Coding Conventions
25:05
for Loops
25:06
foreach Loops
25:58
Homework Challenge
26:52
Homework Challenge
26:53
Web Application Development

25m 58s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:19
Version 14.0 Changelog
1:20
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:57
Version 14.0 Coding Example
1:59
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:39
Version 14.1 Changelog
5:40
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:06
Version 14.1 Coding Example
7:07
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:37
Version 14.2 Changelog
15:38
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:25
Version 14.2 Coding Example
16:26
Homework Challenge
23:35
Homework Challenge
23:36
Conditional Loop Wrap-Up

23m 12s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Nested Conditional Loops
0:39
Nested Conditional Loops
0:40
Coding Example
1:10
continue & break Re-Visited
5:17
Continue Statements and Coding Example
5:30
Break Statements and Coding Example
11:34
Loop Debugging Tips
15:16
Add Short Debug Statement At the Very Beginning
15:17
Output a Counter Variable
18:10
Add Debug Statement At the Very End
19:20
Homework Challenge
20:20
Homework Challenge
20:21
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:00
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:01
Variable-Length Parameter Lists

22m 16s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:34
Variable-Length Parameter Lists
0:35
Coding Example
1:51
Variable-Length Parameter Lists (cont.)
5:21
When a Parameter List is Defined For the Functions
5:22
Coding Example
6:32
Variable Type Functions
9:54
is_int (), is_float (), is_string (), and is_bool()
9:55
is_ array ()
10:50
is_null ()
11:01
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 1
11:27
is_numeric() and Example
15:57
Variable Type Functions Coding Example 2
17:12
Homework Challenge
19:35
Homework Challenge
19:36
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:52
Homework Challenge (cont.)
20:53
Web Application Development

38m 36s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
Version 15.0 Changelog
0:33
outputLink (), outputImg (), is_array () and is_string ()
0:34
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:31
Version 15.0 Coding Example
1:32
Version 15.1 Changelog
7:55
Removing Redundant Code and Adding New Function Called outputHtmlTag ()
7:56
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:37
Version 15.1 Coding Example
8:38
Version 16.0 Changelog
14:55
Creating emailOrder() Using New Constants ORDER_EMAIL_FROM and ORDER_EMAIL_SUBJECT
14:56
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:30
Version 16.0 Coding Example
16:31
Version 16.1 Changelog
32:21
Creating formatAsDollars ()
32:22
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:57
Version 16.1 Coding Example
32:58
Homework Challenge
36:27
Homework Challenge
36:28
Miscellaneous Topics

31m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
register_globals Directive
0:58
register_globals
0:59
Coding Example
2:04
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:07
$_GET vs. $HTTP_GET_VARS
4:08
register_long_arrays Directive Coding Example
5:44
Magic Constants
7:30
Magic Constants
7:31
__LINE__, __FILE__, __FIR__, and __FUNCTION__
8:16
Coding Example
9:06
exist() & die()
13:19
exist() & die()
13:20
Coding Example
14:08
Execution Operator
16:23
Execution Operator
16:24
Coding Example
17:27
Array Operators
18:23
Equality (==) and Inequality (!=, <>)
18:43
Identity (===) and Non-Identity (!==)
19:13
Union (+) Operator
19:41
Array Operators Coding Example
20:07
Variable Variables
24:13
Variable Variables
24:14
Coding Example
26:07
Variable Functions
28:02
Variable Functions
28:03
Coding Example
29:13
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Lecture Comments (6)

0 answers

Post by Kitt Parker on December 31, 2014

Brilliant item consolidation.  Just took a web design course at my local University and this approach was not mentioned.

0 answers

Post by Shachar A on November 21, 2013

What is the include_once that you have in version 3.3?

0 answers

Post by Guan Yao Ng on June 25, 2012

Hi, I'm upgrading my web pages from html to php as learn from the courses up to now. I found some ? symbol displayed in my new pages which is not the original content.

When I look at the source code, the symbol is made of:
<td>�</td>
But the original html file is:
<td> </td>

When in html page, there is no ? symbol display. Once the page is php, those symbol will come out to replace any space before or after the html code.

May I know how to solve this problem? Here is the pages that I'm talking about: http://www.conceptforall.com/redemption/NSS.php

0 answers

Post by Chudamuni Dahal on June 14, 2012

Very informative! I taught myself basic PHP, but when I started to watch your video, not only did it helped me brush my previous skills, it also made me a better php coder. I am really going to utilize all of your technique and built the base of coding on it.

1 answer

Last reply by: Matthew M.
Wed Apr 11, 2012 3:58 PM

Post by David L on March 4, 2012

Why is the training files source code different than the lecture codes? I'm at 15:48 and just noticed that the HTML in the training files are done with div tags and div ID whereas the HTML at 15:48 for the item-1001.php, item-1002.php, etc. files have span tags and paragraph tags. Is the training file newer and more updated?

Web Application Development

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Versions 0:14
    • Version 3.0
    • Version 3.1
    • Version 3.2
    • Version 3.3
  • Homework Challenge 26:31
    • Homework Challenge

Transcription: Web Application Development

Hello, and welcome back to Educator.com's Introduction to PHP course.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to be continuing work on our web application for the mock store that we have been developing.0004

We are going to be integrating the material we learned in our last lesson on arrays.0009

In today's lecture, we are going to have four different versions of the web application store that we are going to go through.0016

The first one, version 3.0, is going to upgrade from our last one, which was 2.1.0023

What that is going to do is: we are going to create a new type of include file that is just a PHP file.0029

It is going to centralize all of our product information, like the item information,0036

such as the name of the product, its image, the description, and so forth.0042

We will see, that becomes quite useful.0047

After we do that...when we centralize it, we are going to be creating an array in a PHP file, and so we are going to, in version 3.1,0049

improve the readability of our application by making an array an associative array.0059

Then, we are going to, in 3.2, make use of a multidimensional array; and finally, in version 3.3,0065

we are going to make use of include files again, as we will find out that there is another opportunity for us to use code reuse.0072

Let's take a look at application version 3.0.0080

Actually, this is version 2.1, which is the last version we went over; and as you can see, this is the store.php page.0086

It is the same as it was in the last lesson.0096

What you can see is that we have things like "100% Cotton T-shirt" and "42" LCD Television" hard-coded as links into our homepage.0098

The homepage is going to look like this, if you remember.0110

For example, if we click on 100% Cotton T-shirt, it goes to the cotton T-shirt page.0121

Well, this 100% Cotton T-shirt phrase is hard-coded into the page, so if we want to change the name of the T-shirt, we have to change it here.0125

And then, because we used the name here on the actual product page, we have to change it here, as well.0134

We are going to make it easier to do that by creating a...we're going to call it a configuration file...that is going to contain all of the item's information.0138

Instead of having hard-coded values like this (for example, this is the store page--we have hard-coded all the names of the different products),0151

on the item page, like item-101 (oops, I want that closed)...0160

For example, item-1001.php from the last version--all of the information about the T-shirt is hard-coded:0168

the item number, the price, the name of the image, the description.0178

What we are going to do now is: we are going to create new versions of these pages.0183

To start off with, let's look at the store.php, which is the homepage.0189

If you'll notice, there is a new line at the beginning here--there is a new include statement that says include catalog.php.0194

What catalog.php is: it's a PHP file that contains information about all of the items in our store, sort of like a central repository.0201

If we look at catalog.php, we can see that it contains three arrays, and we have created an array for each item in our store.0213

Right now, we only have three items, and we have called each array item, followed by the item number (so we have item-1001).0223

And then, in the array, in the same order for each of the different arrays (and these are numerically indexed arrays),0232

the first value is the item number; the second value is going to be the name of that particular item.0240

So, item number 1001 has the name 100% Cotton T-shirt.0247

It has the price 14.99; its image is 1001.jpg; and then, the description that we are going to use is "This 100% cotton T-shirt is built for comfort."0252

We have a similar thing that happens for both item 2001 and item 2003.0265

So, what that is going to allow us to do: because we have included that at the beginning of our store.php page,0272

now all of those variables that were included in that file are available in the rest of our PHP page.0279

So, when we go down here and we want to list the name of item 1001,0286

we can use a PHP echo statement that makes reference to the item-1001 array defined in catalog.0294

We are going to get the second item out of that array, which happens to be the name.0302

So, if we go back here, we can look, and we can see the item-1001; the 1 index refers to 100% Cotton T-shirt.0305

And what that is going to do is allow us to access that information.0315

This is in contrast to in our last one, where it was hard-coded; we just had 100% Cotton T-shirt written in there.0322

Now, we have it stored in one file, and so, anytime we want to access the name of that particular item, we can just access that array.0331

Similarly, on the previous item-1001.php page, all of the information about that item was hard-coded--the name, the item number, the price, and so forth.0338

Well, in our new version, we are going to add that include file again to the top of the page,0353

which is going to make all of those arrays that we defined in catalog.php available in this script.0358

What we are going to do is: we are going to echo the different values contained in those arrays.0367

So, for example, the item name is the second item we are going to reference.0374

Because this is the page for item-1001, we are going to reference the item-1001 array, the second element, which is the name, and so forth.0377

And so, down here, we are going to access the item ID; we are going to output the price.0388

Within this image tag, we are going to output the name of the image file, and that is useful for...0395

if we want to change an image file, maybe from a GIF to a JPEG, we can just update it in the catalog.php file.0402

And any page that uses that product's image, we can update using this array.0408

And then also, down here, we output the product's description.0417

This was the old version, and then this was the new version; and we actually can even improve on this further.0429

But before we talk about that, let's go ahead and look at...this is what the old website looked like,0438

and the new website is going to look exactly the same--version 3.0--it is just going to be making use of these arrays.0442

Just to verify that, we are going to go up here and take a look at it; and you can see, it's the same website.0450

I think the name of the store changed, because we played around with that in the last lesson.0457

And, if we click on each of the different product pages, we can see that all the information for that product is output.0462

If we read the page source, we can see that all of that information about the item that was output by accessing those arrays0470

in catalog.php has been output to the file.0483

We can improve on this even a little more, and that is going to take us to version 3.1, and we are going to make use of associative arrays.0488

Let's go back here and go to version 3.1.0499

OK, now what we have done is: for version 3.0, we had numerically indexed arrays for each item.0517

And what we have done in version 3.1 is: we have updated catalog.php and turned them into associative arrays.0527

And so, what we have done (bring that up) is: instead of having to access the different values in this array using numeric indexes,0535

which don't have much semantic meaning to them, we associate each value with a particular key that has meaning.0548

So, we are associating the item ID with a key named itemID; we are associating the name of the item with the name key; and so forth.0556

We have price, imageFile, and description--the other keys we are going to use in each of these different arrays.0565

And so, what that is going to do is: it makes our code a little bit easier to read, because when we reference, for example, the name of item 2001,0570

we are going to, using square bracket notation, see item-2001 array name with the square bracket with the string name on the inside.0578

So, it is going to kind of intuitively tell us, "OK, we are getting the name of that," as opposed to before,0587

when it was just the number 1, which doesn't have as much meaning.0591

If we go and look at the new...for example, store.php page, we still have the include up at the top--the catalog.0595

But now, whereas before we had...when we wanted to, for example, output the name of item 1001,0607

we used this array in catalog.php, which is numerically indexed.0618

In the new version of it, it becomes item-1001 name, and so it's a little more intuitive, and we can instantly grasp some meaning0623

as to what the value we are going out and outputting is used for.0631

Similarly, on the product pages, we still have the include for catalog; it's going to include for the new associative array catalog.0637

Now, when we go ahead and output information about it, such as the name, its ID, its price, and image file,0646

we are going to access the arrays in catalog.php, using the string keys.0652

What that is going to do, again, is: it adds a little more semantic meaning to our code.0661

So, we can look down here and know, when we are editing this code, "OK, here is some HTML that is outputting the phrase price and a dollar sign."0666

And then, I am going to echo from PHP an array called item-1001, which intuitively tells you, "OK, this is probably item-1001 in the catalog."0673

And then, we are going to output a value that is associated with the key price.0683

Likely, it is going to be a price; and so, it gives meaning to our script and makes it easier to read.0688

This website is going to look exactly the same as the last one did.0695

We haven't changed any of the code--it's just that we have used an associative array to sort of improve things.0698

We are actually going to take it one step further now, and for 3.2, we are going to make use of multidimensional arrays.0703

That is going to clean things up a little bit.0710

The way that is going to work is (let's go back here and close down some of these older versions...OK, and go to version 3.2):0713

now, let's take a look at catalog.php again...0745

This time, we only have one array to find in here; it is called items, and it is a multidimensional array.0748

Let's clean these lines up; I don't know why they changed.0758

And so, basically, it has the same content of the previous catalog.php, except instead of having three different arrays0761

that we needed to reference using the particular variable identifier we assigned to the array,0771

we are going to combine all three of those arrays into one array called items.0781

It is going to be a numerically indexed array, and it is going to contain all the information for each item--so it's going to contain...0786

Actually, this formatting is off, so it makes it a little harder to read; I'll just fix this really quickly.0801

In the items array, it is going to have three elements in it, and the key for each element is going to be the item ID.0822

So, the key 1001 is going to refer to information about item 1001.0831

To each item ID, we are going to assign a value, which is an array,0838

that contains the name, price, image file, and description information related to that item.0843

If we go back and we look at store.php, and we include catalog.php, now the way we access things is using the multidimensional square bracket syntax.0851

We reference...for example, here we want to output the name of item 1001; so, this right here tells us0866

to pull up item-1001 from the items array, and then get the name value associated with item-1001.0872

This is opposed to the previous version, where we actually had an array created for each different item.0883

Item 1001 needed its own array created in catalog.php; item 2001 needed its own array created in catalog.php.0893

Now, we simply use the same array for all of the different item numbers, and we simply add an additional square bracket in there0903

to refer to the item number in the multidimensional array.0913

If we look at the product pages, we can see the same thing is done.0917

We have the catalog.php inclusion, and what we have done is accessed the 1001 item number.0923

We are going to output the name associated with product ID 1001; we are going to output the price; and so forth.0934

We are accessing it using square bracket notation for multidimensional arrays.0944

And you can see up here, too, that the title which essentially gets passed to the header file to be output as the HTML title--0950

we are going to set it equal to the name of the particular item.0962

So before, we have done that in previous examples--we dynamically set the name of each page.0970

Now, we are doing it using the array; and actually, in the other two versions that we talked about (3.0 and 3.1),0976

we did the same thing, using the different syntax.0981

For example, in the last one, because we still had the individual item arrays, this is how we set the title.0985

One interesting thing we can do here is: you look at, for example, item-1001.php;0994

we can see that we have this number 1001 output several times throughout the script.1000

And so, any time we see code that is redundant like that, we want to take advantage of the opportunity to reuse it,1006

because what that is going to do is eliminate the number of errors, because every time we need to reference item 1001,1012

we need to type this string; and each additional time we do that, that gives us one more chance for an error.1018

So actually, what we can do is create, at the top of the page, a new variable called itemID; and we are going to set it to 1001.1024

What we can do now is: everywhere where we have 1001, we can go through and replace it with the variable itemID.1042

I'll use the Search and Replace feature to do that.1056

And, as you can see, what we have done is replaced all of these 1001's that were referenced down here with itemID up here.1077

So now, any time you want to update the item number, we only have to do in one spot, not in (in this case) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 different places.1083

Additionally, because we are going to be passing the name of the item on to the header include file, we're going to get rid of this 1001, too.1091

And so, we include itemID here; and what is key to notice is that, because we use itemID in the creation of the variable title,1103

we have to have itemID defined ahead of time.1113

If we had defined it below it, then we would get an undefined variable error, and the title would not be able to be properly output.1115

Let's set that back to normal.1126

And so, we actually could do this for every single page in version 3.2.1132

For example, for item 2001, we can create variable itemID, and then we are going to go through and replace all of the 2001's with itemID.1143

And we have the same thing as on the 1001 page.1165

We are going to go ahead and do that for 3001; and there is an important reason1172

why I am walking through and doing this individually, and you will see it in one second.1176

Actually, I need to replace the original one...oops, I had an extra apostrophe in there.1200

OK, so now, for item 3001 page, we define the number up here; itemID is 3001, and then we reference it down here1212

in the body of HTML that outputs information about that item.1220

Now, if you actually look (after we have made this adjustment) at item-2001.php, we can see that this whole file1228

is exactly the same, except for this number up here.1236

And if we look at item-1001, the content is the same except for the 1001 up here.1240

So again, we have another opportunity for code reuse; and so, that is what we are going to do as we move on to1245

the next version of the website, and the last version we are going to go over today, which is version 3.3.1254

What we are going to do is place all of this common text into an include file, and it is going to simplify our website again,1258

because it is going to move content that might be in, in this case, three different pages.1265

And if we want to make a change to it, instead of having to change three pages individually,1270

we simply go and update the include file that we are going to create.1274

Let me close some of these down; and let's go pull up the file for 3.3.1279

In this version, we have the same exact associative array containing all of our items in catalog.php, so that has not changed.1317

Let me close these.1326

store.php is exactly the same as before, except here--we didn't do it on the last one, but--we could actually update this...1328

Actually, we couldn't do the same thing with the itemID, because it references different items in this.1340

So, store.php is going to stay exactly the same; however, item-1001.php, which used to look like this,1346

which has all of this common code here, is now going to be changed to look like this.1357

It has a lot less information in it; and what it is going to do is: it's going to take out the HTML1363

that outputs information about the particular item, and it's going to put it in an include file, and we've created a new include file called itemListing.phtml.1369

It is called .phtml because it contains both HTML and PHP code.1378

We have taken that and removed it there; and then now, on each of our item pages,1383

whereas before we would have this code after the include for the header file, we simply add another include statement for listing .phtml.1388

Now, the itemListing.phtml is going to reference this itemID defined in the beginning of the file.1400

And as we can see here, we use this itemID as we had described it in the last lesson.1409

So, itemID, again, has to be defined before this file is called, so that the variable is available.1414

So now, if we look at the three pages we have for our three products, item-1001, 2001, and 3001--1423

they are exactly the same, except for the item number listed.1430

So again, what that has done is consolidated our code into one spot, so if we want to change something, for example--1436

like...let's say that we want to place the image instead...well, right now, let's take a look at the web app.1443

In version 3.2, which is our last version, for the Baseball Bat, 1001, this is what our product page looks like.1455

We have the baseball bat above the description; and that is the same for the T-shirt and the LCD television; the picture is above the description.1463

Let's say that now we decide we want to actually put the description above the image.1475

What we can do is...now, we go back to our itemListing.phtml page, and what we can do is take this image tag and move it below the description.1480

What that is going to do is: it is going to put the image below the description in every single one of our product pages.1497

So basically, any time we want to change the layout of how the product pages look, we only have to do it in one file, in this one include file.1502

If we save this and we browse to version 3.3, and we go to Cotton Shirt, we can see that the shirt now is below the description.1510

It has done that for every single one of our products.1523

And likewise, if we decide we want to take it back--simply undo the change--make the change in one spot,1529

and it is going to replicate to all of our different pages.1537

And we go back, and things are back the way that they were.1540

So, this is another example of code reuse, using an include file1549

And we are going to continue to use that theme of extracting out redundant code, and putting it in one place,1553

so that you edit it once, and then it has effects throughout different parts of the website--multiple pages at once.1559

It increases the ease of management and your efficiency, because you only have to manage and update one file,1565

instead of maybe...let's say our store had 1,000 products in it; you might have to update 1,000 HTML pages or 1,000 PHP pages.1572

Now we just have to update one, and it reduces the risk of errors,1580

because instead of having a possible 1,000 chances to make an error, you only have one spot to make that error.1584

That ends our discussion for going over the web application--the changes that we are going to make.1592

I just want to also give you a homework challenge for this lesson.1598

Basically, what I would like you to do is: you can download the web application files and the new versions from the Educator.com website.1603

What you should do is go through and look through the web application files,1614

making sure that you understand what changes were made from one version to the next.1617

For one, we went from a numeric array to an associative array, and we went from an associative array to a multidimensional array.1621

Then we changed things to make an include file.1628

Equally important as noticing the changes, I want you to try and understand why the changes were made1632

and how they serve to improve the site--how they improve things,1637

as far as the efficiency and reduction in opportunities for errors, and also just in code readability.1641

And hopefully, that will give you a better idea of the purposes behind why we are making these changes to the web application.1650

That ends today's lesson; thank you for watching.1656

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