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Cory Hills

Cory Hills

Primitivism

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Introduction
Why Study Music History?

9m 19s

Intro
0:00
Music History/Appreciation
0:22
History is Important
0:34
Appreciation is Important
0:44
We are Listeners
1:32
Interesting Music Facts
3:26
Major Industries of the World
3:30
Arts and Entertainment is a Top 5 Industry for the World
4:14
Course Description
5:14
Track Music Throughout History and Relate It to the Present Day
5:28
We Will Cover Music From…
6:17
Lots of Musical Examples
6:25
Review and What's Next
7:37
Music is Everywhere
7:44
Course is Designed to Help Your Ears Make Connections
7:52
Parameters of Music: Building Blocks of Music
8:15
Melody, Harmony, Form, Texture

13m 16s

Intro
0:00
Parameters of Music
0:20
Parameters of Music is Subjective
0:24
Melody, Harmony, Form, and Texture
1:20
Melody
1:30
The Tune, the Singable Aspect of a Work
1:47
The Main Line
1:58
Usually Smooth Line
2:24
Example
2:45
Harmony
3:31
The Chords
3:36
Harmony Supports the Melody
3:46
Example
4:23
Form
5:11
The Overlooked Giant of Music
5:20
Form is the Structure and the Glue
5:37
Important Developments Throughout Music History
6:00
Example
6:57
Texture
8:26
How Much Stuff is Going on at Once
8:40
'Mono' = One Voice
8:45
'Poly' = More Than One Voice
8:56
Number of Instruments, Octaves, Instrument Doubling
9:30
Example
10:06
Review
10:50
Melody, Harmony, Form, Texture
10:54
Identifying Melody, Harmony, Texture, and Form with Example
11:10
Rhythm, Meter, Dynamics, Tone

11m 4s

Intro
0:00
Rhythm
0:19
Allows More Than One Person to Play at the Same Time
0:34
The Notes Tell You When to Play
0:45
Different Kinds of Notes
1:08
Developed Along With Music Notation
1:56
Notation Plays Important Role in Development of Western Music
2:07
Meter
2:44
Tied In With Rhythm
2:50
Time Signatures
2:54
The Larger Beats
3:20
Rhythmic Material Adds Up to the Numerator of the Time Signature
3:37
Example
3:52
Dynamics
5:12
How Loud or Soft You Play
5:20
Spectrum and Special Notation System
5:27
Can Change at Any Moment
5:53
Used to Affect Mood
6:27
Tone
7:20
Also Known as Timbre or Color of the Sound
7:35
Each Instrument has a Unique Sound
7:50
Important in Understanding Instrumentation and Orchestration
8:28
Review
9:06
Rhythm, Meter, Dynamics, Tone
9:12
Identifying Meter of Two Examples: 4/4 or 6/8?
9:25
Instrumentation & Orchestration

15m 53s

Intro
0:00
Why Discuss Instruments?
0:13
We've Assumed Things that Aren’t Actually True
0:30
We Can Use Our Ears to Determine History
1:00
Piano Was Invented in 1700
1:17
Modern Symphony Orchestra Was Described in 1844
1:49
Females Were Not Allowd to Sing in Mass Until 20th Century
2:18
The First Rock 'n' Roll Song Produced in 1953 - 'Rock Around the Clock'
3:17
Instruments
4:49
Middle Ages: Voice, Lute, Recorders
4:50
Renaissance: Violin, Guitar, Sackbut, Lyre, Hurdy Gurdy, More Flutes
5:19
Instruments Cont'd
6:29
Baroque: More Strings, Woodwinds (Oboe, Flute), Harpsichord, Organ, Horn
6:30
Classical: Fortepiano (Piano), Clarinet, Trombone, Bassoon
7:35
Romantic and 20th Century: Modern Day Instruments, Percussion
8:36
What is in a Symphony Orchestra?
9:24
Woodwinds
9:53
Brass
10:17
Percussion
10:35
Keyboards
10:57
Strings
11:04
Review
12:23
There Has Been Major Instrument Development
12:26
Dominant Instruments: Voice, Strings, Keyboards, Recorders
13:00
What Time Period Could This Example Be From?
14:03
II. The Middle Ages
Chant

14m 36s

Intro
0:00
What is Chant?
0:13
Importance of the Catholic Church in Music History
0:40
Monophony
1:13
Examples of Chant
2:03
Chant Characteristics
3:40
Syllabic: One Note of Music for Each Syllable of Text
3:55
Neumatic: One Neume (Two of Three Notes) for Each Syllable of Text
4:17
Melismatic: Numberous Notes Occur for Each Syllable of Text
4:46
Classes of Chant
5:41
Antiphonal: Chants with Phrases Sung by Alternating Choirs
5:48
Responsorial: Chant Sung By Soloist with Response by Choir
6:20
Notation
6:39
Block Notation and Neumes
6:57
Rhythm is not a Primary Focus of Chant
8:16
Church Modes
8:49
Authentic vs. Plagal
9:00
Dorian Starts on D
9:21
Phrygian Starts on E, Lydian Starts on F, Mixolydian Starts on G
9:42
Hypodorian: Down Four, Starts On a Different Note
9:53
Hypophyrgian, Hypolydian, Hypomixolydian
10:53
Review
11:41
Monophony
11:47
Syllabic, Neumatic, Melismatic
12:04
Neume Notation, Block Notation
12:10
8 Church Modes (Authentic, Plagal)
12:28
What Are The 8 Church Modes?
12:53
What is the Difference Between Authentic and Plagal Modes?
13:38
Organum

15m 33s

Intro
0:00
What is Organum?
0:12
Polyphony: More Than One Voice at a Time
0:27
Musica Enchiriadis: 9th Century, Anonymous
1:25
Guido D'Arezzo
2:02
Musica Enchiriadis
2:22
First Known Attempt at Polyphony and Organum
2:30
Organum
3:06
Two Voices: Vox Principalis (Main Voice) and Vox Organalis (Organum, Second Voice)
3:15
Simple, Composite, and Parallel Organum
4:03
Guido
7:44
Micrologus, 1026
7:57
Guidonian Hand: Mnemonic Device for Singers to Read Pitches
8:10
Proto Staff: Four Staff Notation System, Precursor to Modern-Day Staff
8:48
Notre Dame School of Polyphony
9:25
Leonin and Perotin
9:42
Two Voice
10:20
Organum: Melismatic Voice Over Chant
10:30
Discant: Note Against Note, Rhythms by Mode
10:54
Copula: Transition Between Organum and Discant
11:35
Perotin
11:44
Substitute Clausula
12:11
Often present in Discant
12:41
Evolved into Stand Alone Pieces as Substitute Clausula Became Longer
13:00
Experimented with Different Languages and Used Rhythmic Modes
13:57
Motet
14:07
Review
14:20
Motet

16m 58s

Intro
0:00
Motet
0:07
Substitute Clausulae
0:16
Unique Composition
0:39
Components of a Motet
1:02
New Upper Voices
1:50
Prosula
1:58
Rhythmic Modes
2:22
Used in Discant
2:36
Different Combinations of Longs and Shorts
3:32
Mode 1
3:50
Mode 2
4:00
Mode 3
4:19
Mode 4
4:41
Mode 5
4:50
Mode 6
5:04
Notational Developments
5:25
Famous Rhythmic Developers
5:40
Different Combinations of Longs and Shorts
6:13
Longa, Breve, Semibreve, Minim
6:21
Perfect or Imperfect Prolation
6:31
Notation
6:50
Tempus, Prolation
6:56
Tempus Perfectum/Prolation Major
7:14
Breve
7:50
Semibreves
7:55
Minim
8:03
Breve is the Main Unit of Time
8:15
Tempus Perfectum/Prolation Minor
9:00
Tempus Imperfectum/Prolation Major
9:37
Tempus Imperfectum/Prolation Minor
10:14
Common Time Origin
11:05
Machaut and the Isorhythmic Motet
11:48
Isorhythmic Motet
12:09
Talea
12:30
Color
12:36
Review
13:42
Motet
13:56
Characteristics
14:07
Isorhythmic Motet
14:26
Which Rhythmic Mode Are These Examples?
14:44
Troubadours

12m 9s

Intro
0:00
What is a Troubadour?
0:25
The Singing Minstrel
0:30
Portrayed as a Jester or Joker in Pop Culture
1:13
Served A Major Role in Development of Polyphony Because They Traveled
1:27
Troubadours were Illiterate and Part of the Lower class
2:07
What is a Trouvere?
2:25
Poet and Musician from Northern France Who Wrote about Love, Heroism, and the Unattainable
2:34
Established Guilds, Brought Their Music to the Middle Class
3:24
Simple Forms, Simple Syllabic Melodies, Simple Instrumental Accompaniment
4:10
Formes Fixes
5:18
Three Main Forms: Rondeau, Ballade, Virelai
5:38
A (a) and B (b) Represent Repeated Musical Material
5:51
Capital Letters Represent Repeated Text
6:05
Lowercase Represent New Text
6:13
Virelai
7:00
Example
8:05
Instruments
9:09
Stringed Instruments: Lute, Lyre, Bagpipe, Viol
9:17
Were the First Solo Performers
9:30
Different Form of Polyphony Than Just Voices
9:58
They Traveled, Influencing Different Areas of Europe
10:07
Review
10:41
Important in Distributing Polyphonic Music Throughout Europe
10:49
Polyphony Existed in Churches, But Without Troubadours, Perhaps Polyphony Would Have Never Left the Church
11:10
III. The Renaissance
The Mass

20m 34s

Intro
0:00
Let's Go to Church!
0:22
The Catholic Church is at the Center of Western Classical Music
0:30
Two Types of Masses: Mass Ordinary and Mass Proper
0:50
Let's Go to Church!
1:03
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Benedictus, Agnes Dei
1:16
Mass in the Renaissance
2:38
Polyphonic Settings of Complete Mass Ordinary
2:51
Chant is Still There
3:09
Cantus Firmus: The Chant Line
3:27
Masses Organized around the Cantus Firmus
4:02
Other Voices Newly Composed
4:12
Recall Substitute Clausulae
4:24
Three Types of Cyclic Mass
4:44
Cantus Firmus Mass
5:02
Cants Firmus in the Tenor
5:13
Branched Out to Other Voices
5:52
Chant Melody Chopped, Sliced, Omitted
6:07
Leading Composers: Dufay, Machaut, Dunstable
6:48
Motto Mass
7:28
Start with Identical Motive at Beginning of Each Motive
7:47
Generally Homophonic
8:19
Leading Composers: Dufay, Ockeghem
9:17
Three Types of Cyclic Mass
9:45
Parody Mass Became Most Popular
9:53
More Freely Composed
10:06
Used Pre-existing Textures from Another Work
10:13
Freer Counterpoint and Imitation and Rhythmic Innovation
11:00
Imitation: One Voice Mimics Another
11:10
Ok, So What's Really Going On?
12:57
Composers Were Gaining More Freedom
13:04
How Math Played a Role in Innovation
13:30
Canons
13:35
Inversion
14:05
Retrograde
14:54
Diminution
15:32
Augmentation
16:31
Puzzle Canon
17:06
Musical Palindromes
17:30
Review, Some Important People and Terms
18:00
Early Mass: Machaut
18:18
Mid Mass: Dufay and Ockeghem
18:22
Late Mass: Josquin and Palestrina
18:28
Cantus Firmus: Chant Melody Line in Tenor
18:42
Imitation: One Voice Mimics Another
18:52
Canon: Melody with One or More Imitations
18:59
Each Generation of Renaissance Composer Created New Methods to Write Freer Masses
19:09
Three Main Types of Cyclic Masses: Cantus Firmus, Motto, Parody
19:36
The Madrigal

18m 51s

Intro
0:00
What in the World is a Madrigal?
0:08
Italian Song: Secular Polyphonic Vocal Composition for 2-8 Voices
0:45
Developed in 3 Stages Throughout the Renaissance
1:21
First Generation
1:38
Developed from Frotolla: Homophonic, Rustic, and Popular
1:44
Polyphonic Sections Alternate with Chordal, Homophonic Sections
2:42
Dissonant Harmonies Appear at Specific Moments in the Text
3:03
Primo Libro
4:15
Arcadelt 'Il bianco e dolce cigno'
4:30
Second Generation
5:55
Wider Use of Poetry and More Serious Texts
6:01
Experimental Harmonies
6:26
Vicentino Wrote a Big Treatise in 1555
6:54
Vicentino 'Laura, che 'l verde lauro'
7:42
Third Generation
9:28
Mannerist
9:30
Chose Emotionally Intense Texts to Depict Musically
9:51
Voice Crossings
10:29
Crazy Rhythms
11:00
Sudden Tempo Changes
11:10
Text Painting
11:30
More Third Generation
12:39
Required Skilled Singers and Sophisticated Audiences
12:52
Maurenzio 'Solo et pensoso'
14:00
Monteverdi (1567-1643)
15:11
Review
17:05
Madrigals
17:13
First Generation
17:21
Second Generation
17:30
Third Generation
17:36
Who is Known as the First Opera Composer?
17:55
What is Text Painting?
18:14
Instrumental Music

8m 17s

Intro
0:00
Wait…There Were Instruments Too?
0:12
Period Dominated by the Voice
0:25
La Familia Gabrieli
0:35
Andrea Gabrieli
0:46
Giovanni Gabrieli
0:57
Andrea Gabrieli
1:42
Madrigal Composer, Third Generation
1:45
Well-Known Church Organist
2:07
Madrigal Became Simpler, More Pastoral, and More Homophonic
2:30
Cori Spezzati: Divided Choir
2:50
Doubled Some Parts with Instruments
3:18
Instruments Then Became Second Choir, Written for Exclusively
3:31
Giovanni Gabrieli
3:44
Famous Organist and Composer
3:46
Sonata pian' e forte (1597): Groundbreaking, First Piece to Use Dynamics, First Piece Written for Just Instruments
4:21
Review
6:19
Instrumental Music Became Popular Towards the End of the Renaissance
6:22
Explosion of Instrumental Music in Baroque
6:40
Instruments were Always Around
6:51
Classic Composers Started to Write for Them in the Church
7:08
Gained Popularity Outside of the Working Class
7:30
IV. The Baroque Period
Opera

14m 5s

Intro
0:00
Hello Divas!
0:30
Intense Development of Opera
0:57
Started from Monody: Short, Staged Works
1:50
Speech Inspired Continuous Song
2:05
Continuo: Group Playing Bass Line or Basic Accompaniment
2:20
Recitative: Speechlike Reiteration of the Same Note
2:50
Used to Tell the Story to the Audience
3:34
Let's Go to Venice
3:49
Opera Became Popular in Venice (1640)
3:53
Opera Houses were Built, 350 Operas Composed in 40 Years
4:41
Characteristics
5:44
Arias: Diva Solo
5:54
Da Capo Aria: Aria with Three Sections
6:01
First: Presentation of Music for Voice and Orchestra
6:06
Second: Huge Contrast from First Section
6:16
Third: Repeat of the First Section with a Twist (Improvisation)
6:34
Intended to Show Off the Divas
7:04
Singing was Technical and Virtuosic
7:37
Opera in France
7:45
Lully Popularized Opera in France
8:07
Had Rights to Compose Operas from 1673-1687
8:33
French Operas were Much Different
9:23
Tragedie-Lyrique: Serious Texts
9:30
Not Public
9:41
More Dramatic
10:00
Always Contained an Instrumental Ballet
10:04
Opera Seria
10:12
Spread throughout Europe in the 1700s
10:23
Scarlatti
10:30
Italian Overture
10:39
Handel
10:52
Hasse
10:54
Characteristics of Opera Seria
11:34
Story Based on History or Legend
11:36
No Comedy
11:42
Focus on Virtuosic Singer
12:02
Recitative Furthers Plot
12:05
Aria is for Commentary and Showiness
12:19
Review
12:51
Started by Monody: Speech Inspired Song
13:08
Took Off in Venice
13:17
Opera Seria
13:40
Concerto

18m 50s

Intro
0:00
What is a Concerto Grosso? Is it Gross?
0:52
Definition Concerto Grosso
1:15
Concertino: Small Group of Solo Instruments
2:00
Ripieno: Orchestra
1:33
Important for Developing Instruments as Stand-Alone Musical Entity
2:04
Corelli, Torelli, Vivaldi, Handel, J.S. Bach
2:18
Let's Break it Down
2:43
Concertino: Solo Group of a Handful of Instruments (Normally Violins, Bass)
2:47
Ripieno: Full String Orchestra, Accompanimet
3:14
Soloists were Members of the Orchestra
3:28
Alternates Between Ripieno and Concertino Sections
3:41
Ripieno Sections Often Repeated
3:54
Example of Concerto Grosso: Corelli
4:24
Ripieno Concerto
5:49
No Hierarchy of Soloist and Accompaniment
6:03
Very Homophonic
6:32
Increased Use of Imitation, Counterpoint, and Canons
6:51
Example of Ripieno Concert: Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 by J.S. Bach
7:49
Solo Concerto
9:16
One Person is the Soloist
9:31
At First, Wasn't Popular
9:55
Soloist is the Star
10:16
Orchestra Serves to Backup the Star
10:21
Example of Solo Concerto: Four Seasons by Vivaldi
10:33
Vivaldi and Form
12:32
Became Known as the Concerto King of 1700s
12:43
Developed a Three Movement Structure
12:58
First Movement: Fast
13:39
Second Movement: Slow
13:48
Third Movement: Fast
13:54
Soloist: Violin, Flute, Trumpet, Harpsichord, Cello
14:29
Well-Known Opera Composer
14:57
Used Driving Rhythms
15:13
Used Sequences to Extend Phrases
15:25
Big Review
16:13
Concerto Launched
16:18
Concerto Grosso
16:30
Ripieno Concerto
16:44
Solo Concert
16:50
Concerto Grosso: Corelli Influenced by Gabrielli
16:58
Ripieno: Bach Influenced by Corelli
17:13
Solo: Vivaldi Influenced by Corelli and Opera
17:19
It's All Connected
17:37
What is a Sequence?
17:55
What is the Name of the Solo Group in a Concerto Grosso?
18:23
Solo Keyboard Works

19m 46s

Intro
0:00
Another Lesson NOT on the Voice!
0:18
Big Developments in Europe: Money, Courts, Entertainment
0:30
Flourish of Activity in Europe
1:28
Increased Trade Meant a Cultural Influence
1:49
Money Spent on Music Led to More Music
2:06
There Wasn't a New Opera Everyday
2:23
Concertos were Blooming, but Not Full Concerts
2:40
More Intimate Setting for a Soloist led to Solo Keyboard Works
2:57
Ready Stop…It's Sonata Time!
3:20
Why Do Most People Recognize the Term 'Sonata?'
3:33
Sonata is the Most Important Form Development in the History of Western Classical Music
3:47
Sonata is Both a Genre and a Form
4:00
Sonata Movement of a Symphony
4:25
Sonatas
4:48
Different Times
4:49
Sonata de Camera: Suite of Dances for Two Players and Continuo Performed in Private Concerts
4:58
Corelli
5:36
Sonata de Chiesa: Collection of Dances in Four Movement Form Used to Fill Space Between Mass Movements
5:40
Solo Sonata: Instrumental Piece in Several Movements Designed for a Soloist
6:17
Solo Sonata
6:51
Imitative Piece in Sections
6:55
Changes in Meter and Tempo
7:01
Recapitulatory Endings: Summary
7:08
Example of Solo Keyboard Sonata: Domenico Scarlatti
7:39
Binary Form
9:12
Ternary Form
10:23
Rounded Binary
11:09
YouTube Example of Binary Form
12:10
Why is This Important?
12:34
Meant a Tight-Knit Structural Form
12:41
Presented an Open-Ended Tight-Knit Form
13:15
Composer Freedom
13:50
Manipulate Musical Parameters, Most Notably Harmony
14:04
Large Scale Musical Unity
14:34
Sonata Diagram Time!
14:54
Exposition, Development, Recapitulation
16:00
Review
16:57
Solo Keyboard Works Important in Developing the Sonata
17:00
Tight-Knit Structure Dominated in a Formulaic Time
17:09
Binary, Ternary, Rounded Binary
17:28
Exposition, Development, Recapitulation
17:34
What Form is This?
17:45
Dance Forms

13m 33s

Intro
0:00
It's Time to Dance
0:29
Dance Works, Known as Suites
0:41
Importance of Dance Suites
0:54
Baroque Period was All About Organization
1:08
Suite: Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Gigue
1:38
Back to Bach
2:06
Wrote Sonatas and Partitas for Solo Violin
2:19
Explored Counterpoint, Harmonic Movement, Rhythmic Motion, Form, Imitation, and Texture
2:40
Suites are Short Practice Canvases
3:27
Allemande
4:07
Moderate Tempo
4:10
Duple Meter
4:16
Polyphonic Texture
4:21
Prelude
4:24
Starts on Anacrusis, or Upbeat
4:35
Running Patterns
4:47
Example of Allemande: Sonata in B Minor
4:57
Courante
6:10
Binary Form
6:17
Triple Form
6:22
Quick
6:30
Homophonic Texture
6:33
Hemiolas (3:2)
6:42
Dotted Rhythms to Show Hopping Character of Dance
6:54
Example of Courante: Sonata in B Minor
7:04
Sarabande
7:55
Slow Tempo
8:03
Triple Meter
8:05
Commences on Down Beat
8:07
Originated from 16th Century Latin
8:15
Fast Version for Spain, England, and Italy
8:27
Slow Version for Germany and France
8:34
Example of Sarabande: Sonata in B Minor
8:41
Gigue
9:32
The Ending
9:40
Compound Duple or Triple Meter
9:44
Very Quick
9:49
Starts on 8th Note Upbeat
10:00
Binary Form
10:09
Triplets
10:10
Wide Melodic Leaps
10:11
Imitation
10:12
Slower Harmonic Rhythm: How Quickly the Harmonies Change
10:14
Example of Gigue: Sonata in B Minor
10:46
Review
11:44
Why Are the Dance Suite Movements Important?
11:46
Miniature Pieces Become Large, Long, and Extremely Detailed Works
12:04
Writing Out the Basic Plot for Binary Form
12:21
Which Dance Movements are in Two, and Which are in Three?
12:45
V. The Classical Period
Opera

14m 29s

Intro
0:00
Yay, More Opera!
0:30
Opera Seria vs. Opera Buffa
0:46
Review of Opera Seria
0:55
Da Capo Aria
1:44
Recitative Furthered Plot
3:20
Where’s the Buffa?
3:43
Intermezzo: Between Acts
4:05
Characters from Commeda Dell'Arte: Italian Theater with Stock Characters
4:46
Where's the Buffa?
5:39
Emphasis on the Bass Voice
5:48
Unexpected Accents
6:16
Quick Tempos
6:17
Wide Leaps
6:19
Frequent Use of Vocal Ensemble
6:22
Example: Pergolesi's La Serva de Padrona (1733)
6:55
Became So Popular, The Intermezzo Toured On Its Own
7:59
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
8:22
Child Prodigy Gone Bad
8:35
Composed In All Forms and All Genres
9:21
Redefined Opera Buffa As Its Own Category
9:37
The Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute, Don Giovanni
9:48
Example: The Marriage of Figaro
10:00
Simpler Melodies
11:18
Formulaic Structures
11:36
Emphasis on the Connection of Voice and Text
11:38
Stories Never Stalled
11:57
Replaced Stock Characters with More Psychologically In-Depth Characters
12:12
Review
12:38
Development of Opera Continued Into Romantic Period
12:59
Rossini Took Over From Mozart (William Tell, Barber of Seville)
12:07
Audiences Liked Intermezzos More than the Opera Seria
13:42
Transformed into Opera Buffa
13:53
Symphony

14m 32s

Intro
0:00
The Symphony
0:08
Later Developing, 1700s
0:20
Italian Overture from Opera
0:26
Concerto Grosso, Solo Sonata
0:51
4 Movements
1:18
Tonally Connected
1:43
Classical Symphony: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
2:20
Symphony Four Movement Structure
3:34
Writing Out the Four Movements of a Symphony
3:46
First Movement
4:02
Second Movement
4:15
Third Movement
4:42
Fourth Movement
4:45
High Time for Some Haydn
5:48
Father of the Symphony, Wrote 104 Symphonies
6:02
High-Quality Pieces of Historical Significance
6:24
Used Moderately Sized Orchestra
6:47
Inserted Minuet and Trio as the Third Movement: Playful
7:04
Ludvig Van Beethoven
7:47
1770-1827
8:05
Tortured Genius
8:11
Both Classical and Romantic Composer, Launched the Romantic Era
8:42
Revolutionized Harmony by Obsessing Over Motives
9:09
New Era for Composition
10:10
First Freelancing Musician Who Sold His Scores
10:38
Took Composing to a New Level
11:14
Motives
11:19
Motives
11:22
A Seed
11:25
Beethoven Wrote What He Wanted
12:01
Piece Organized Around a Musical Idea, and the Piece Develops
12:09
Beethoven Expanded the Orchestra
12:34
Review
12:51
Symphony Came a Long Way in a Short Amount of Time
13:03
The Big Three: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
13:20
Haydn Backed Up to the Baroque
13:32
Mozart Was Solely Classical
13:35
Beethoven Backed Into the Romantic
13:37
Form Variation

15m 58s

Intro
0:00
Let's Review Form
0:27
Form is the Structure of the Piece
0:33
Form is the Organization
0:40
How to Get From A to B to C and So On
0:44
Classical Period Marked A Time for Form Variants
1:11
Classical Composers Start to Get Clever with Form
1:55
Sonata-Rondo
2:07
We Know About a Sonata
2:22
Rondo is ABA or ABACA or ABACADA
2:50
A is the Refrain, Other Letters are New Thematic Material
3:35
Sonata-Rondo: Exposition, Development, Recapitulation
3:56
Minuet and Trio
6:14
Minuet: Refers to the Original Dance
6:25
Trio: Refers to the Three Instruments That Accompany a Second Part of a Dance
6:48
Trio Became the Third Movement in a Symphony or String Quartet
7:20
Moderate Tempo in Triple Meter
7:52
Form: ABA, With B Being the Trio
8:16
Third Movement Often Least Complex
8:31
Theme and Variations
8:55
Initial Theme That Gets Varied
9:08
Originally Used to Improvise for audiences
10:08
How Are These Themes Varied?
10:37
Musical Parameters
10:44
Scherzo
11:12
Scherzo Means Joke
11:21
Scherzo Became Another Variation of the Third Movement
11:50
Faster Than a Minuet, In Three, In Ternary or Rounded Binary Form
12:09
Very Light and Playful
12:19
Why is This Important?
12:40
Composers Have Experimented with Parameters, But Not Form
12:55
Form is Steeped in Tradition, So It Changes Gradually
13:12
Changes in Form Give Composers More Freedom
13:59
Review
14:52
Many Different Formal Variations with Basic Plot
14:56
Sonata-Rondo, Theme and Variations, Minuet and Trio, Scherzo
15:07
More Composer Freedom
15:41
Expression, Emotion, Story
15:48
Concert/Solo Instrumental Works

14m 8s

Intro
0:00
Solo Concert
0:22
Similar to Baroque, But With More Development
0:28
More Instruments and More Variation, Unlike Baroque
1:03
Decline of Concerto Grosso
2:05
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
2:30
Very Similar to Styles of Symphony
2:45
Solo Works
2:58
Sonata in Every Instrument
3:00
Became the 'It' Form
3:22
Decline of the Dance Suite
3:30
Rise of Chamber Music
4:02
Chamber Music: Anything with More than One Performer (Duo, Trio, Quartet, Etc.)
4:10
So Why is Chamber Music Important?
4:43
Keep In Mind the Intense Musical Development From Polyphony
4:49
Larger-Scale Works
5:15
Smaller Works Allow for More Exploration of Tone, Timbre, Texture, and Orchestration
5:22
Rumored that Beethoven 5 Motive was Used in Other Works as a Tryout
6:27
Like Picasso Sketches
6:59
Examples
7:25
Mozart Quintet (5) for Clarinet and String Quartet
7:34
Combines String Quartet with Solo Writing
8:02
Haydn Trio for Flute, Cello, and Piano
8:31
Listen to Examples
10:04
Haydn: Sounds Like a Symphony
10:22
Beethoven: Sounds Like Experiments
10:55
Mozart: Seeks Performative Balance
11:14
Review
11:59
Concerto Continued in Its Development
12:03
Solo Writing Continued in Development
12:24
Chamber Music Slowly Took Off
12:36
Similar to the Need in Baroque for More Intimate Concert Settings
12:52
Gave Composers an Outlet for Experimenting
13:32
VI. The Romantic Period
Programmatic Music

18m 51s

Intro
0:00
They Call it Romantic for a Reason
0:29
Finally Getting Some Emotion
0:36
Programmatic Music: Narrative or Descriptive Content that Attempts to Represent Extra-Musical Concepts without Text
0:58
Uses Referential Elements or References to the World Outside of the Composition
1:16
Franz Liszt Coined the term, But It Originated with Beethoven
2:06
Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony Was an Expression of His Feelings
2:14
Music Governed by a Poetic Idea
2:48
So Why All of a Sudden?
2:57
Arts were Becoming Unified Across Europe
3:06
Particularly the Rise of the Narrative
3:38
Composers Found They Wanted to Tell Stories Through Music Without Text
3:46
Descriptive, Narrative, Evocative
3:57
Used Titles, Instruments, Imitation, Harmony, and Text Painting
4:23
Berlioz
6:37
Symphony Fantastique: 1830
7:04
Narrative Work Associated with a Text
7:10
Subtitled: An Episode in the Life of an Artist
7:15
Provided an Autobiographical Program at the Work's Premiere, Considering the text an Essential Part of the Work
7:38
Idee Fixe: Represented the Motive That Appears Throughout the Piece
8:05
Listening to Symphony Fantastique
9:02
Liszt and Wagner
11:38
Liszt Invented the Symphonic Poem: One-Movement Piece for a Symphony Orchestra
12:13
Wagner: Opera
12:40
Wagner Came Up With the Leitmotif
12:56
Leitmotif: Using Music Material to Represent People, Places, Events, Emotions, Etc.
13:09
Some Famous Leitmotifs Through the Ages
14:01
Think TV, Film, Advertising That Make You Think of Something
14:17
Review
17:13
Programmatic Music
17:15
Began to Dominate Classical Music and Still Does Today
17:25
Telling a Story Through Music Without Text
17:48
Very Emotional, Vivid, Imagery
17:52
Gave Composers Yet Another Outlet for Experimenting
17:57
Eventually Became a Battle Between Absolute and Program Music
18:08
Symphony

13m 47s

Intro
0:00
Que Romantica!
0:13
The Romantic Symphony Started Around Beethoven's 5th
0:18
Symphony Criticized for Lacking Emotion and Meaning
0:50
Opposite is True in Romantic
1:23
Instrumental Music Closer to Pure Emotion Because No Text
2:06
Every Composer Had to Compose a Symphony as a Rite of Passage
2:11
Symphony Characteristics
2:28
Stayed Remarkably Intact Into the 20th Century
2:39
3, 4, or 5 Movements
2:53
Movement 1: An Extended Opening Movement in Sonata Form
2:58
Movement 2: A Lyrical Slow Movement In Sonata Form, ABA, or Theme and Variations
3:05
Movement 3: A Dance-Inspired Scherzo Movement, Usually in Triple Meter
3:13
Movement 4: A Fast Finale
3:18
Beethoven's Heroic Decade
3:47
Heiligenstadt Testament: Letter to Brother
3:56
Beethoven Saw Art as Redemption
5:00
Then Came the 9th
5:18
Symphony 9 (1823): 'Ode to Joy'
5:28
Redefined the Symphony as More Than a Musical Entertainment
5:51
Curse of the 9th
6:46
First Symphony to Have a Chorus
6:53
Listening to 'Ode to Joy'
7:06
Completely Unified Themes Throughout Movements
7:37
Monumental Themes
7:47
Created a Crisis for Future Generations
8:06
First Time that New Composers were Competing with the Past
8:15
Romantic Composers
9:13
Mendelssohn Threw Away 3 Complete Symphonies
9:18
Schubert Got Sick and Died Writing His 9th
9:28
Brahms was Anti-Program, Reinvented In Other Ways
9:57
Berlioz First Real Competitor
10:19
Mahler Wrote a Symphony for 1000 People
10:34
Wagner said Beethoven's 9th was the Pinnacle
11:07
One Reason for Rise of Symphonic Poem
11:34
Review
11:52
Beethoven Ruled the Symphony
11:58
Beethoven's Symphonies are Still the Models Composers Aspire to Achieve
12:36
Innovative Harmonies, Monumental Orchestration, Grandiose Form, Fully-Unified Theme
12:41
Debate Loomed Between Absolute and Program Music
12:54
Enter the Symphonic Poem for Something Completely Different
13:14
Concerto

12m 36s

Intro
0:00
Solo Concerto
0:15
Started in the Baroque, Virtuosity is Back
0:33
Imagine a Concerto
0:58
Romantic Concerto
1:20
Begins with Beethoven
1:32
Attempt to Mimic the Symphony Sound by One Person
1:46
Very Difficult Pieces
2:10
Let’s Talk Liszt…Again
2:32
Known as Playboy Rock Star
2:41
His Importance is Vital for Performance Aspect of Western Classical Music
2:53
Solo Recital
4:18
Transcribed Symphonies for Solo Piano
4:32
Friends with Paganini and Saint Seans: Both Composers and Instrumental Virtuosos
4:58
Piano Concerto
5:42
Liszt Started It
5:48
Beethoven Wrote 5
6:01
Beethoven, Liszt, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, Grieg, Mendelssohn, Chopin
6:14
Beethoven is Not the Only Freelancing Musician Anymore
6:47
What Was Happening Musically?
7:11
Longer Forms with Combined Movements
7:20
Greater Emphasis on Rhythm
7:50
Texture to the Extreme
8:11
Still Have Romantic Melodies, More Attention to Harmonic Exploration
8:52
Develop a Greater Intensity
9:05
Example
9:20
Review
9:52
Virtuosity
10:01
Composers Who Performed Composed Concertos For Themselves
10:14
Increase in Need for Better Educated, Performing Musicians
10:54
Conservatories Became Bigger
10:59
Romantic Concerto Combined Elements of Symphony, Tone Poem, and Solo Works
11:48
Very Memorable Works That Are Still Standards
11:56
Lieder & Miniatures

16m 27s

Intro
0:00
What In The World Are These?!
0:40
Lieder = Songs or Song Cycles
0:44
Miniatures = Short, Self-Contained Works
1:06
Why Short Pieces?
1:28
Wagner's Opera Cycle, Mahler's Symphony, Concertos
1:36
We All Need a Mental Break
2:10
Opportunity for Short, More Experimental Pieces
2:14
Lieder
2:39
Songs or Song Cycles (Collection of Songs)
2:41
Sung in Operatic Style, But Not an Opera
3:05
Features Singers, But Not Divas
3:24
More of an Art Song
3:42
Always Had Piano Accompaniment
4:16
Very Challenging Works Mentally and Physically
4:19
Schubert
5:20
Franz Schubert (1797-1828)
5:25
A Romantic and Programmatic Composer
5:41
Wrote Over 600 Lieder
5:53
Song Cycles were Unified and Deceitfully Difficult
6:13
Musically
7:02
Difficulty Modulations
7:07
Strophic Forms Around Text
7:49
Sets Poems
7:54
Song Sections Alternated with Declamatory Song
7:57
Dramatic Text
8:31
Piano Centered On Text, Set Mood
8:36
Example
9:30
Piano Miniatures
10:01
Not Large Works
10:05
Often Shorter in Length, But Not in Scope
10:24
Schumann and Chopin as Examples
10:37
Very Programmatic and Nationalistic
10:40
Musically Experimental, Especially Harmony
11:38
Written by Virtuosos for Virtuosos
11:53
Extremely Difficult
11:59
Nocturne, Mazurka, Polonaise
12:04
Strong Forms, Hard Rhythms, Thick Textures
12:09
Why Important/Review
12:37
Example: Chopin
12:43
Lieder and Miniatures Were Essential for Experimental, Eventually Leading to 20th Century
14:23
Lieder: Simple in Some Ways, But Deeply Evocative and Expressionistic
14:43
Miniatures: Paved Way for Major Dissonance and Extreme Use of Musical Parameters
14:57
Symphonic Poem

11m 50s

Intro
0:00
What is a Symphonic Poem?
0:10
Term Coined by Franz Liszt
0:16
Programmatic Piece in One Movement, but for an Entire Symphony Orchestra
0:31
Who is Liszt?
0:55
The First Rock Star of Classical Music
1:33
Important Figure for Both Solo and Orchestral Works
1:44
Had to Perform to the Side Because He was Too Handsome
1:58
Why Symphonic Poems?
2:08
Remember the Composers Competing With Beethoven's Symphony Legacy?
2:16
Now They Didn't Have To
2:45
Russia
3:09
A Slew of Prominent Russian Composers Loved the Symphonic Poem: Tchaikowsky, Mussorgsky, Rimsky-Korsakov
3:20
Wrote Symphonic Poems Centered on Narrative (Highly National in its Context)
4:02
100% Romantic
5:10
Grandiose Themes, Tight Forms, Memorable Melodies, Fast and Driving Rhythms, Dense Textures, Lush Orchestration, Wide Dynamics
5:26
1812 Overture by Tchaikovsky
6:13
1812 is the Epitome of Grandiose (Festival Overture)
6:35
Has Acapella Choir, Brass Fanfare, Cannons, Ringing Chimes
6:47
Leitmotifs Representing Armies
7:35
Example: 1812 Overture
7:57
Review
10:40
Symphonic Poem, Tone Poem, Festive Overture was Dripping with Romanticism
10:47
Coined by Liszt
11:04
Contained Leitmotifs
11:09
Paralleled a Story, Text, Poem
11:12
Imagery, Nationalism, Pride
11:17
Became Popular Because It was not a Symphony
11:27
VII. The 20th Century
Impressionism & Expressionism

13m 55s

Intro
0:00
Impressionism
0:35
Known As An Art Movement (Monet)
0:50
Hazy, Looking Different Up Close As They Do Far Away
1:18
Attempted in Music Most Notably by Claude Debussy
1:31
Debussy: Wrote Every Style, Major Composer of 20th Century
1:50
Paris World Fair
2:25
Debussy
2:50
Both a Romantic and 20th Century Composer
2:54
Also Interested in Evening the Tonal Playing Field
3:07
Did It Through Unique Scales Influenced by Far East
3:25
Whole Tone, Pentatonic, Octatonic
3:34
Modes: Ionian, Dorian, Phyrigian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian, Locrian
4:58
What Does This Do? Obscures the Tonic, Makes It Hazy
6:00
Example
6:37
Expressionism
7:20
Really Heavy Stuff
7:31
Schoenberg, Berg (Wozzeck)
7:50
Example
8:05
Richard Strauss
8:52
Wagner Continued Tradition to Huge Romantic Levels
9:04
Strauss Took It and Ran Into Psychoanalytical Analysis
9:34
Salome and Elektra
9:43
Meant to Express the Subconscious
10:00
Major Dissonance
10:40
Salome Dances with the Head of John the Baptist Before She Gets Killed
10:58
Very Programmatic
11:22
Lush Orchestration, Timbres
11:27
Music to Make You Think, Feel and Express
11:32
Example: Final Scene of Salome
11:42
Review
12:20
Many Different -isms
12:29
Impressionism and Expressionism Paralleled Art Movements of the Time
12:47
Debussy: Impressionism through Blurring Lines of Tonality
13:03
Expressionism: Extra Attention to Text and Desire to Look Within Self
13:20
Sets Scene for Second Viennese School and Serialism
13:33
Serialism

17m 37s

Intro
0:00
Oh Boy, Here We Go!
0:10
Don't Let Serialism Intimidate You
0:22
End of the 19th Century = Opera Experimentation
0:58
Wagner Pushed Into Extreme Tonality and Harmonic Shifts
1:25
Debussy Started with Impressionism and Used Different Scale Sets
2:00
Schoenberg and Others Delved into Expressionism
2:16
Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
2:21
Pivotal Figure to Say the Least
2:43
Also Known as Philosopher and Writer
3:00
Romantic Composer Who Liked to Experiment
3:37
Austrian Composer/Theorist
3:42
Moved to California in 1931 to UCLA
3:53
Extreme Figure in Music History
4:07
Emancipated Dissonance
4:32
Emancipation of Dissonance
4:44
Misleading topic
4:48
Serialism and Atonality Not the Same Thing
5:02
Serialism is Twelve-Tone
5:18
Atonality Has No Tonal Center
5:25
Started with Motives to the Extreme
5:51
Started with Trichords (3-Notes) and Hexachords (6-Notes)
6:02
Experimented with Free Atonality and Landed in Serialism
6:44
Example of Free Atonality
6:51
12 Tone Row
7:20
12-Tone Row
7:30
12 Notes in Chromatic Scale
7:34
System of Ordering so that a Note is Not Repeated Until Each Note has been Heard Once
7:52
Creates Equal System of Note Hierarchy
9:01
No Leading Tone
9:18
Absence of Leading Tone Presents the Option of No Tonality
9:21
Gives Composer Complete Control
10:14
Result: Mathematical Stuff That Can Be Hard to Hear
11:06
Second Viennese School
11:21
Schoenberg: Leader of Second Viennese School
11:23
Other Members of the Big 3: Berg, Webern
11:35
Berg: More Lyrical; Webern: More Pointillistic
12:00
Schoenberg: More of a Theorist/Philosopher
13:36
Example: Pierrot Lunaire
12:30
Why Important/Review
14:38
12-Tone Music Dominated Music for Most of 20th Century
14:46
Only Recently Known as Compositional Tool Rather than a Style
15:06
Schoenberg Came Up with the Idea of Flattening the Tonal Playing Field
15:39
Each Note is the Same As Another in 12-Tone Music
15:44
Extreme Way of Compositional Control Taken Further by Other Composers
15:55
Harsh Reactions from Audiences and Composers
16:30
Primitivism

19m 56s

Intro
0:00
What?!
0:08
The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky
0:32
Possibly the Most Important Singular Work in Western Music History
1:11
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1961)
1:49
Russian Composer, Lived in Paris, Moved to U.S.
1:57
Wrote Everything
2:40
Launched to Fame in Paris with Three Ballets: Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911), Rite of Spring (1913)
3:06
Rite of Spring (1913)
3:43
Stravinsky Emancipated Rhythm
4:23
Rite of Spring is a Ballet by Diaghilev and Najinsky
4:43
Complex Rhythms, Crazy Meters, Timbres, and Dissonance
5:48
Polytonality and Polyrhythms
5:57
Primitive Aspect of Ballet and Story
6:44
Historical Rites, Sacrifices, and Fertility
6:57
Rite of Spring
7:44
Premiered in 1913 and the Audience Rioted
7:55
Example: Rite of Spring
9:40
Melody
10:36
Melody: Bassoon
13:29
Harmony: Polytonality
13:38
Form: A Ballet in Two Parts
13:46
Tone: Harsh, Instrumental Extremes
13:55
Meter: Mixed Meter
14:21
Dynamics: Wide and Varied
14:45
Texture: Quick Changes
14:52
Rhythm!
15:12
Polyrhythms (3:2, 4:3, etc.)
15:20
Duplets, Triplets, Quintuplets, Sextuplets, etc.
16:03
Why Important/Review
17:09
Launched the 20th Century as Age of Exploration
17:36
Blew the Lid Off Rhythm and Meter Development
17:44
Orchestration was Off the Hook
18:08
Still One of the Most Recorded and Performed Works
18:18
Audience Rioted
18:56
Has Influenced Scores of Composers and Artists
19:05
One of the Most Written-About Works
19:15
Dixieland, Blues, Jazz

18m 43s

Intro
0:00
Now for Something Completely Different!
1:01
Dixieland to Blues to Jazz to Rock
1:15
All Linked Through Post-Civil War America and Chicago World Fair 1893
2:05
The Fair Changed Everything
2:34
Civil War Lesson on Geography
3:03
We Know About This Time Period in American History, but Maybe Not in Music
5:22
Dixieland
5:39
Slave Spirituals, Musical Accompaniment, and Entertainment
5:40
Dixieland from South (New Orleans), Down the Mississippi
5:45
Louis Armstrong
5:50
Musically: Bass Line, Hopping Harmony, Soloist (Trumpet Plays Main Line), Rhythm Section that Improvises
6:33
Polyphonic Setting Around a Theme and Variations
7:11
Example 1
7:30
Example 2: Oh When the Saints
8:22
Blues
8:48
Another Style from the Turn of the Century
8:50
Very Influential for Rock 'n' Roll
8:55
Each Style in the South had Unique Style and Sound
9:28
Centered on Form: 12 Bar Blues
9:53
Simple Form, Simple Instrumentation, Heavy Backbeat
11:09
Lyrics Were Very Important, About Real Life
11:32
Also Used Blues Scale: C, E Flat, F, F#, G, B Flat, C
11:40
Jazz
12:53
Encompasses So Much Music
13:00
Jazz Band
13:07
Instrumentation from Big Band to Combo
13:11
Horns, Rhythm Section
13:20
Musically: Blues Notes, Polyphony, Improvisation, Syncopation, Swung Note
13:33
Important People
15:02
Duke Ellington, Art Blakey, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Ornette Coleman, etc.
15:08
Example
15:47
Why Is This Important? Pop Culture!
16:05
Jazz Influenced Everything from Classical, TV, Film, and Rock
16:11
More/Review
16:40
Dixieland, Blues, Jazz Came from the South
16:44
Origins in Slave Spirituals Used During Work and for Entertainment
16:47
Came to Chicago During the World Fair
16:55
Spread Through the South and Eventually North Through Jazz Bands
17:21
Big Band Culture and Fever Swept the North in 20s and 30s, Setting Stage for Pop Culture Influence
17:29
Post-War Influence: A Need for Far-Reaching Music to The Masses
18:17
Enter Rock 'n' Roll
18:28
Later 20th Century

15m 6s

Intro
0:00
Wait…There's Still Classical Music!
0:36
Classical Music Continues
0:46
John Cage and Aleatory
2:00
Chance Music
2:13
Based on I-Ching
2:25
4'33''
3:25
Restructuring the Ear: Hearing Things in Different Ways
3:34
Steve Reich and Minimalism
4:35
System of Repeated Cells with Change Over Time
4:42
Example: Clapping Music
5:51
Rock
6:58
Rock 'n' Roll: Product of Times
7:01
History is Important in Development
7:13
Post-WWII America and Britain
7:16
Rise of the Middle Class
7:31
Rock Was For the Masses
7:50
Not Necessarily Anti-Establishment (Beatles)
8:33
Song-Writing Changed to Fit the Needs of Pop Culture
9:09
Shorter Songs, Easy Melodies, Digestible Harmonies, Simple Rhythms, Relatable Subject Matter
9:14
Cage and Reich Influenced Rock
10:08
John Cage Met Yoko Ono
10:20
Ono Married John Lennon
10:26
Cage and Lennon Were Friends
10:31
Reich Worked with Andy Warhol
10:55
Andy Warhol was Friends with David Bowie, Phillip Glass, the Ramones, Talking Heads, DJ Dangermouse
10:58
Cage and Reich were Influenced by Stravinsky
11:40
Stravinsky was Influenced by Beethoven, Beethoven by Mozart…All the Way Back!
11:53
That's Funny!
12:11
Artists of Today Influenced by Artists of Yesterday
12:17
More Communication Between Cultures
12:34
Ability to Write in Any Style From Any Time Period
12:38
New Genres? New Time Periods? What's to Come?
12:39
We're Still Just Experimenting with Organized Sound
13:51
Wrap Up
14:16
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Primitivism

  • Made popular through Igor Stravinsky and his three ballets
  • Rite of Spring (1913)
  • One of most influential and controversial works in history
  • People rioted, booed, and threw things
  • Emancipated rhythm with polyrhythms and mixed meter
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jF1OQkHybEQ

Primitivism

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • What?! 0:08
    • The Rite of Spring by Igor Stravinsky
    • Possibly the Most Important Singular Work in Western Music History
  • Igor Stravinsky (1882-1961) 1:49
    • Russian Composer, Lived in Paris, Moved to U.S.
    • Wrote Everything
    • Launched to Fame in Paris with Three Ballets: Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911), Rite of Spring (1913)
  • Rite of Spring (1913) 3:43
    • Stravinsky Emancipated Rhythm
    • Rite of Spring is a Ballet by Diaghilev and Najinsky
    • Complex Rhythms, Crazy Meters, Timbres, and Dissonance
    • Polytonality and Polyrhythms
    • Primitive Aspect of Ballet and Story
    • Historical Rites, Sacrifices, and Fertility
  • Rite of Spring 7:44
    • Premiered in 1913 and the Audience Rioted
    • Example: Rite of Spring
    • Melody
    • Melody: Bassoon
    • Harmony: Polytonality
    • Form: A Ballet in Two Parts
    • Tone: Harsh, Instrumental Extremes
    • Meter: Mixed Meter
    • Dynamics: Wide and Varied
    • Texture: Quick Changes
  • Rhythm! 15:12
    • Polyrhythms (3:2, 4:3, etc.)
    • Duplets, Triplets, Quintuplets, Sextuplets, etc.
  • Why Important/Review 17:09
    • Launched the 20th Century as Age of Exploration
    • Blew the Lid Off Rhythm and Meter Development
    • Orchestration was Off the Hook
    • Still One of the Most Recorded and Performed Works
    • Audience Rioted
    • Has Influenced Scores of Composers and Artists
    • One of the Most Written-About Works
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