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For more information, please see full course syllabus of Music History
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Lecture Comments (3)

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Post by Steven Bontempi on May 23, 2015

FYI -- Going to YouTube to listen to the Pérotin excerpt revealed the following note:

"Pérotin: Viderunt omnes [wi..." The YouTube account associated with this video has been terminated due to multiple third-party notifications of copyright infringement.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hills
Mon Oct 29, 2012 12:59 PM

Post by Ikze Cho on October 29, 2012

what's the difference between doubling a voice and singing the exact chant?
thanks in advance


  • Earliest form of polyphony, or more than one voice sounding at a time
  • Musica Enchiriadis from 9th century: discusses organum
  • Vox principalis: main voice
  • Vox Organalis: organum or second voice, below main voice and normally sustained
  • Guido: innovator in notation, proto staff, and Guidonian hand to help in polyphony
  • Notre Dame School: leonine and Perotin
  • Wrote in discant style using rhythmic modes
  • Took original chant and wrote substitute clausulae


Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • What is Organum? 0:12
    • Polyphony: More Than One Voice at a Time
    • Musica Enchiriadis: 9th Century, Anonymous
    • Guido D'Arezzo
  • Musica Enchiriadis 2:22
    • First Known Attempt at Polyphony and Organum
    • Organum
    • Two Voices: Vox Principalis (Main Voice) and Vox Organalis (Organum, Second Voice)
    • Simple, Composite, and Parallel Organum
  • Guido 7:44
    • Micrologus, 1026
    • Guidonian Hand: Mnemonic Device for Singers to Read Pitches
    • Proto Staff: Four Staff Notation System, Precursor to Modern-Day Staff
  • Notre Dame School of Polyphony 9:25
    • Leonin and Perotin
    • Two Voice
    • Organum: Melismatic Voice Over Chant
    • Discant: Note Against Note, Rhythms by Mode
    • Copula: Transition Between Organum and Discant
    • Perotin
  • Substitute Clausula 12:11
    • Often present in Discant
    • Evolved into Stand Alone Pieces as Substitute Clausula Became Longer
    • Experimented with Different Languages and Used Rhythmic Modes
    • Motet
  • Review 14:20