In the lesson, our professor Rebekah Hendershot goes through an introduction on a rhetoric crash course of warrants. She starts by reviewing the three elements of argument and then explains what a warrant is, the types of warrants and evaluation of warrants.
Source: The Elements of Argument, Annette Rottenberg
The Three Elements of Argument
Claim: The main idea, or thesis, of your argument.
Support: The information that backs up your claim.
Warrant: The “big idea” that connects your support to your claim.
An Example: Cutting in Line at the Movies
Warrant: “So what?”
What is a Warrant?
A warrant is the assumption, common belief, or general principle that connects the claim to its support.
In an essay, your warrant may not be stated at all, but you must know what it is in order to construct a solid argument.
The warrant is the “So what?” part of your argument.
Types of Warrants
are based on the credibility of sources.
Example: An expert on organ transplantation is a reliable source of information about kidney transplants.
Substantive warrants are based on beliefs about the reliability of factual evidence.
Example: A survey of 1,000 people represents the opinions of a community of 3,000.
Motivational warrants are based on the values of the arguer and the audience.
Example: First come, first served.
Evaluation of Warrants
To evaluate authoritative warrants, ask:
Is the authority sufficiently respected and reputable?
Do other equally reputable authorities agree?
Are there equally reputable authorities who disagree?
To evaluate substantive warrants, ask:
Are the examples given sufficient
and representative enough to make a general statement?
If the warrant supports a cause-and-effect argument, does the cause seem to account entirely for the effect?
If the argument uses comparisons, are the similarities greater than the differences?
If the argument uses analogies, does the analogy explain or merely describe?
To evaluate motivational warrants, ask:
Are the values ones that the audience will regard as important?
Are the values relevant to the claim?
Rhetoric Crash Course: Warrants
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