In this lesson, our instructor Bryan Cardella gives an introduction on Earth cycles. He discusses Earth's history, thermodynamic equilibrium, the rise of oxygen, cells, and molecules of life. Then he explains geologic cycles, the tectonic cycle, hydrologic cycle, rock cycle, biogeochemical cycles, carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and phosphorous cycle.
Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years old; the Universe is 13.9 billion years old. Our planet has liquid water, plate tectonics, and life. Its atmosphere is made mostly of nitrogen and oxygen
Thermodynamic equilibrium is important to consider regarding Earth and the presence of life. Our planet acts as a “pump” to keep us away from thermodynamic equilibrium (the lowest energy state)
The rise of oxygen early on in Earth’s history is thanks to photosynthesis in single-celled organisms almost 2 billion years ago (evidence found in pyrite and banded-iron formations
Life originated approximately 3.4 billion years ago. Fermentation, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes are important to consider with this information
Macronutrients (carbohydrates, ) are substances required in larger quantities, and micronutrients ( ) are substances required in small quantities. Limiting factors can affect the success of a life form in relation to these nutrients
Geologic cycles involve concepts such as flow, flux, residence time, source, and sink
Tectonic cycle involves the creation/destruction of Earth’s solid outer layer (lithosphere); 3 types of plate boundaries are divergent, convergent, and transform fault
Hydrologic cycle involves the transfer of water via evaporation, precipitation, transpiration, runoff, drainage, etc.
Rock cycle involves processes that produce rocks and soils. Rocks are classified as igneous, metamorphic, or sedimentary
Biogeochemical cycles trace the movement of chemicals through the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere
Carbon cycle, Nitrogen cycle, and Phosphorus cycle trace the movement of elements necessary for life through the various parts of the plant (biotic and abiotic)
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book includes a comprehensive review of the key AP Environmental Science concepts and targeted strategies for acing every section of the exam. Additionally, the book includes two full length practice tests with full answer explanations.
This book is an updated manual that offers a brand-new diagnostic test to pinpoint the test taker's strengths and weak areas, two full-length practice exams with all questions answered and explained, a detailed review of all test topics, supplemented with practice questions and quizzes with answers, an overview of the test plus helpful test-taking strategies, and hundreds of diagrams and illustrations .