In this lesson, our instructor Bryan Cardella gives an introduction on water resources and use. He discusses hydrologics, water supply, groundwater and streams, desalination, off stream and in stream use, aral sea wake up call, water transport, water conservation, water sustainability, virtual water footprint, wetlands, and dams.
Water is a molecule with polar covalent bonds, hydrogen bonding between molecules, high specific heat, high surface tension, cohesion/adhesion, less density as a solid than liquid, and it’s nature’s solvent
Worldwide, water is found in (ranked from highest percentage to lowest): oceans, icecaps/glaciers, groundwater, surface water (lakes, swamps, rivers)
Water budgets track where water goes with models (involves precipitation, evaporation, runoff)
Groundwater is water below the water table, and there are recharge zones and discharge zones. An aquifer is an area underground from which groundwater can be extracted. Streams can be effluent or influent, perennial or ephemeral
Over-extraction and overuse of groundwater can have major problems: drought, damage to the ecosystem, land subsidence)
Desalination is an option to produce freshwater from salt water, but it is very expensive and the discharge from the process is not environmentally friendly
Off-stream and in-stream use of surface water must be taken into account
The Aral Sea in Kazakhstan is a modern lesson in the consequences of diverting water from a stream over the long run
Water transport (for consumption and power) has become increasingly crucial in recent years
Suggestions for conserving agricultural water use: lower subsidies, lining/covering canals, more effective irrigation, and increased use of drought-resistant crops
Suggestions for conserving home water use: less use of lawns, low flow faucets/toilets, turn off water when not used, minimal-use appliances, reduce bath/shower volumes, etc.
Water sustainability (careful use and protection of water resources) and your virtual water footprint (green, blue, and gray) are important to consider
Wetlands must be conserved as much as possible, and we must be careful with the installation of more large-scale dams (due to major environmental concerns)
Water Resources & Use
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book includes a comprehensive review of the key AP Environmental Science concepts and targeted strategies for acing every section of the exam. Additionally, the book includes two full length practice tests with full answer explanations.
This book is an updated manual that offers a brand-new diagnostic test to pinpoint the test taker's strengths and weak areas, two full-length practice exams with all questions answered and explained, a detailed review of all test topics, supplemented with practice questions and quizzes with answers, an overview of the test plus helpful test-taking strategies, and hundreds of diagrams and illustrations .