Professor Jishi

Combination of Capacitors

Slide Duration:

Section 1: Mechanics
Introduction to Physics (Basic Math)

1h 17m 37s

Intro
0:00
What is Physics?
1:35
Physicists and Philosophers
1:57
Differences Between
2:48
Experimental Observations
3:20
Laws (Mathematical)
3:48
Modification of Laws/Experiments
4:24
Example: Newton's Laws of Mechanics
5:38
Example: Einstein's Relativity
6:18
Units
8:50
Various Units
9:37
SI Units
10:02
Length (meter)
10:18
Mass (kilogram)
10:35
Time (second)
10:51
MKS Units (meter kilogram second)
11:04
Definition of Second
11:55
Definition of Meter
14:06
Definition of Kilogram
15:21
Multiplying/Dividing Units
19:10
Trigonometry Overview
21:24
Sine and Cosine
21:31
Pythagorean Theorem
23:44
Tangent
24:15
Sine and Cosine of Angles
24:35
Similar Triangles
25:54
28:16
Other Angles (30-60-90)
29:16
Law of Cosines
31:38
Proof of Law of Cosines
33:03
Law of Sines
37:03
Proof of Law of Sines
38:03
Scalars and Vectors
41:00
Scalar: Magnitude
41:22
Vector: Magnitude and Direction
41:52
Examples
42:31
Extra Example 1: Unit Conversion
-1
Extra Example 2: Law of Cosines
-2
Extra Example 3: Dimensional Analysis
-3

1h 10m 31s

Intro
0:00
Graphical Method
0:10
Magnitude and Direction of Two Vectors
0:40
Analytical Method or Algebraic Method
8:45
9:12
Parallelogram Rule
11:42
Law of Cosines
14:22
Law of Sines
18:32
Components of a Vector
21:35
Example: Vector Components
23:30
Introducing Third Dimension
31:14
Right Handed System
33:06
Specifying a Vector
34:44
Example: Calculate the Components of Vector
36:33
Vector Addition by Means of Components
41:23
Equality of Vectors
47:11
Dot Product
48:39
-1
Extra Example 2: Angle Between Vectors
-2
-3
Motion in One Dimension

1h 19m 35s

Intro
0:00
Position, Distance, and Displacement
0:12
Position of the Object
0:30
Distance Travelled by The Object
5:34
Displacement of The Object
9:05
Average Speed Over a Certain Time Interval
14:46
Example Of an Object
15:15
Example: Calculating Average Speed
20:19
Average Velocity Over a Time Interval
22:22
Example Calculating Average Velocity of an Object
22:45
Instantaneous Velocity
30:45
Average Acceleration Over a Time Interval
40:50
Example: Average Acceleration of an Object
42:01
Instantaneous Acceleration
47:17
Example: Acceleration of Time T
47:33
Example with Realistic Equation
49:52
Motion With Constant Acceleration: Kinematics Equation
53:39
Example: Motion of an Object with Constant Acceleration
53:55
Extra Example 1: Uniformly Accelerated Motion
-1
Extra Example 2: Catching up with a Car
-2
Extra Example 3: Velocity and Acceleration
-3
Kinematics Equation Of Calculus

59m

Intro
0:00
The Derivative
0:12
Idea of a Derivative
0:27
Derivative of a function X= df/dx
6:55
Example: F(x)=Constant c
7:22
Example: F(x)= X
9:37
Example: F(x)= AX
11:29
Example: F(x)= X squared
12:30
Example: F(x)= X cubed
15:23
Example: F(x) =SinX
16:24
Example: F(x) =CosX
16:30
Product of Functions
16:56
Example: F(x) = X (squared) Sin X
17:15
Quotient Rule
23:03
Example: F(x)=uV-vU/V2
23:48
Kinematics of Equation
25:10
First Kinematic Equation : V=Vo+aT
31:13
Extra Example 1: Particle on X-Axis
-1
Extra Example 2: Graphical Analysis
-2
Freely Falling Objects

1h 28m 59s

Intro
0:00
Acceleration Due to Gravity
0:11
Dropping an Object at Certain Height
0:25
Signs : V , A , D
7:07
Example: Shooting an Object Upwards
7:34
Example: Ground To Ground
12:13
Velocity at Maximum Height
14:30
Time From Ground to Ground
23:10
Shortcut: Calculate Time Spent in Air
24:07
Example: Object Short Downwards
30:19
Object Short Downwards From a Height H
30:30
36:23
Example: Bouncing Ball
41:00
Ball Released From Certain Height
41:22
Time Until Stationary
43:10
Coefficient of Restitution
46:40
Example: Bouncing Ball. Continued
53:02
Extra Example 1: Object Shot Off Cliff
-1
Extra Example 2: Object Released Off Roof
-2
Extra Example 3: Rubber Ball (Coefficient of Restitution)
-3
Motion in Two Dimensions, Part 1

1h 8m 38s

Intro
0:00
Position, Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration
0:10
Position of an Object in X-Y Plane
0:19
Displacement of an Object
2:48
Average Velocity
4:30
Instantaneous Velocity at Time T
5:22
Acceleration of Object
8:49
Projectile Motion
9:57
Object Shooting at Angle
10:15
Object Falling Vertically
14:48
Velocity of an Object
18:17
Displacement of an Object
19:20
Initial Velocity Remains Constant
21:24
Deriving Equation of a Parabola
25:23
Example: Shooting a Soccer Ball
25:25
Time Ball Spent in Air (Ignoring Air Resistance)
27:48
Range of Projectile
34:49
Maximum Height Reached by the Projectile
36:25
Example: Shooting an Object Horizontally
40:38
Time Taken for Shooting
42:34
Range
46:01
Velocity Hitting Ground
46:30
Extra Example 1: Projectile Shot with an Angle
-1
Extra Example 2: What Angle
-2
Motion in Two Dimensions, Part 2: Circular Dimension

1h 1m 54s

Intro
0:00
Uniform Circular Motion
0:15
Object Moving in a Circle at Constant Speed
0:26
Calculation Acceleration
3:30
Change in Velocity
3:45
Magnitude of Acceleration
14:21
Centripetal Acceleration
18:15
Example: Earth Rotating Around The Sun
18:42
Center of the Earth
20:45
Distance Travelled in Making One Revolution
21:34
Acceleration of the Revolution
23:37
25:35
If Magnitude and Direction Change During Travel
26:22
Tangential Acceleration
27:45
Example: Car on a Curved Road
29:50
Finding Total Acceleration at Time T if Car is at Rest
31:13
Extra Example 1: Centripetal Acceleration on Earth
-1
Extra Example 2: Pendulum Acceleration
-2
Extra Example 3: Radius of Curvature
-3
Newton's Laws of Motion

1h 29m 51s

Intro
0:00
Force
0:21
Contact Force (Push or Pull)
1:02
Field Forces
1:49
Gravity
2:06
Electromagnetic Force
2:43
Strong Force
4:12
Weak Force
5:17
Contact Force as Electromagnetic Force
6:08
Focus on Contact Force and Gravitational Force
6:50
Newton's First Law
7:37
Statement of First Law of Motion
7:50
Uniform Motion (Velocity is Constant)
9:38
Inertia
10:39
Newton's Second Law
11:19
Force as a Vector
11:35
Statement of Second Law of Motion
12:02
Force (Formula)
12:22
Example: 1 Force
13:04
Newton (Unit of Force)
13:31
Example: 2 Forces
14:09
Newton's Third Law
19:38
Action and Reaction Law
19:46
Statement of Third Law of Motion
19:58
Example: 2 Objects
20:15
Example: Objects in Contact
21:54
Example: Person on Earth
22:54
Gravitational Force and the Weight of an Object
24:01
Force of Attraction Formula
24:42
Point Mass and Spherical Objects
26:56
Example: Gravity on Earth
28:37
Example: 1 kg on Earth
35:31
Friction
37:09
Normal Force
37:14
Example: Small Force
40:01
Force of Static Friction
43:09
Maximum Force of Static Friction
46:03
Values of Coefficient of Static Friction
47:37
Coefficient of Kinetic Friction
47:53
Force of Kinetic Friction
48:27
Example: Horizontal Force
49:36
Example: Angled Force
52:36
Extra Example 1: Wire Tension
-1
Extra Example 2: Car Friction
-2
Extra Example 3: Big Block and Small Block
-3
Applications of Newton's Laws, Part 1: Inclines

1h 24m 35s

Intro
0:00
Acceleration on a Frictionless Incline
0:35
Force Action on the Object(mg)
1:31
Net Force Acting on the Object
2:20
Acceleration Perpendicular to Incline
8:45
Incline is Horizontal Surface
11:30
Example: Object on an Inclined Surface
13:40
Rough Inclines and Static Friction
20:23
Box Sitting on a Rough Incline
20:49
Maximum Values of Static Friction
25:20
Coefficient of Static Friction
27:53
Acceleration on a Rough Incline
29:00
Kinetic Friction on Rough Incline
29:15
Object Moving up the Incline
33:20
Net force on the Object
36:36
Example: Time to Reach the Bottom of an Incline
41:50
Displacement is 5m Down the Incline
45:26
Velocity of the Object Down the Incline
47:49
Extra Example 1: Bottom of Incline
-1
Extra Example 2: Incline with Initial Velocity
-2
Extra Example 3: Moving Down an Incline
-3
Applications of Newton's Laws, Part 2: Strings and Pulleys

1h 10m 3s

Intro
0:00
Atwood's Machine
0:19
Object Attached to a String
0:39
Tension on a String
2:15
Two Objects Attached to a String
2:23
Pulley Fixed to the Ceiling, With Mass M1 , M2
4:53
Applying Newton's 2nd Law to Calculate Acceleration on M1, M2
9:21
One Object on a Horizontal Surface: Frictionless Case
17:36
Connecting Two Unknowns, Tension and Acceleration
20:27
One Object on a Horizontal Surface: Friction Case
23:57
Two Objects Attached to a String with a Pulley
24:14
Applying Newton's 2nd Law
26:04
Tension of an Object Pulls to the Right
27:31
One of the Object is Incline : Frictionless Case
32:59
Sum of Two Forces on Mass M2
34:39
If M1g is Larger Than M2g
36:29
One of the Object is Incline : Friction Case
40:29
Coefficient of Kinetic Friction
41:18
Net Force Acting on M2
45:12
Extra Example 1: Two Masses on Two Strings
-1
Extra Example 2: Three Objects on Rough Surface
-2
Extra Example 3: Acceleration of a Block
-3
Accelerating Frames

1h 13m 28s

Intro
0:00
What Does a Scale Measure
0:11
Example: Elevator on a Scale
0:22
Normal Force
4:57
Apparent Weight in an Elevator
7:42
Example: Elevator Starts Moving Upwards
9:05
Net Force (Newton's Second Law)
11:34
Apparent Weight
14:36
Pendulum in an Accelerating Train
15:58
Example: Object Hanging on the Ceiling of a Train
16:15
Angle In terms of Increased Acceleration
22:04
Mass and Spring in an Accelerating Truck
23:40
Example: Spring on a Stationary Truck
23:55
Surface of Truck is Frictionless
27:38
Spring is Stretched by distance X
28:40
Cup of Coffee
29:55
Example: Moving Train and Stationary Objects inside Train
30:05
Train Moving With Acceleration A
32:45
Force of Static Friction Acting on Cup
36:30
Extra Example 1: Train Slows with Pendulum
-1
Extra Example 2: Person in Elevator Releases Object
-2
Extra Example 3: Hanging Object in Elevator
-3
Circular Motion, Part 1

1h 1m 15s

Intro
0:00
Object Attached to a String Moving in a Horizontal Circle
0:09
Net Force on Object (Newton's Second Law)
1:51
Force on an Object
3:03
Tension of a String
4:40
Conical Pendulum
5:40
Example: Object Attached to a String in a Horizontal Circle
5:50
Weight of an Object Vertically Down
8:05
Velocity And Acceleration in Vertical Direction
11:20
Net Force on an Object
13:02
16:09
Net Force on Car (Net Vertical Force)
18:03
18:43
22:41
Maximum Speed of Car Without Skidding
26:05
28:13
Road Inclined at an Angle ø
28:32
Force on Car
29:50
30:45
36:22
Extra Example 1: Object Attached to Rod with Two Strings
-1
Extra Example 2: Car on Banked Road
-2
Extra Example 3: Person Held Up in Spinning Cylinder
-3
Circular Motion, Part 2

50m 29s

Intro
0:00
Normal Force by a Pilot Seat
0:14
Example : Pilot Rotating in a Circle r and Speed s
0:33
Pilot at Vertical Position in a Circle of Radius R
4:18
Net Force on Pilot Towards Center (At Bottom)
5:53
Net Force on Pilot Towards Center (At Top)
7:55
Object Attached to a String in Vertical Motion
10:46
Example: Object in a Circle Attached to String
10:59
Case 1: Object with speed v and Object is at Bottom
11:30
Case 2: Object at Top in Vertical Motion
15:24
Object at Angle ø (General Position)
17:48
2 Radial Forces (Inward & Outward)
20:32
Tension of String
23:44
Extra Example 1: Pail of Water in Vertical Circle
-1
Extra Example 2: Roller Coaster Vertical Circle
-2
Extra Example 3: Bead in Frictionless Loop
-3
Work

1h 27m 50s

Work Done by a Constant Force
0:09
Example: Force f on Object Moved a Displacement d in Same Direction
0:24
Force Applied on Object at Angle ø and Displacement d
2:00
Work Done
3:59
Force Perpendicular to Displacement (No Work)
5:40
Example: Lifting an Object from the Surface of Earth to Height h
5:58
Total Work Done
7:39
Example: Object on an Inclined Surface
8:08
Example: Object on Truck
10:18
Work Done on a Box with No Friction
11:05
Work Done with Static Friction
14:38
Stretching or Compressing a Spring
14:50
Example: Stretching a Spring
15:20
Work Done in Stretching a Spring
15:51
Spring Stretched Amount A
17:00
Spring Stretched Amount B With Constant Velocity
17:59
Force at Starting
19:29
Force at End
19:51
Total Displacement
20:43
Average Force
21:20
Work Done
21:51
Compressing a Spring
23:32
Work Kinetic Energy Theorem
24:02
Object Mass M on Frictionless Surface
24:32
Object Moved a Displacement d With Acceleration a
26:20
Work Done on an Object by Net Force (Kinetic Energy Theorem)
28:41
Example: Object at Height
30:39
Force on Object
32:25
Work Energy Theorem
34:14
Block Pulled on a Rough Horizontal Surface
35:14
Object on a Surface with Friction
35:26
Coefficient of Kinetic Friction
35:50
Work Done by Net Force = Change in K.E
38:09
Applying a Force on an Object at an Angle ø and Displacement d
39:40
Net Force
43:30
Work Done
44:03
Potential Energy of a System
44:39
Potential Energy of Two or More Objects
45:28
Example: Object of Mass m at Height h
46:15
Earth and Object in Position
46:56
Potential Energy, u=mgh
49:05
Absolute Value of Potential Energy
49:55
Example: Two Objects at Different Heights
50:47
Elastic Potential Energy in a Spring Block System
52:03
Example: Spring of Mass m Stretching
52:30
Work Done Stretching a Spring
54:29
Power
55:24
Work Done by an Object
56:13
Rate of Doing Work
56:41
Extra Example 1: Work Done, Block on Horizontal Surface
-1
Extra Example 2: Object and Compressed Spring
-2
Extra Example 3: Person Running
-3
Conservation of Energy, Part 1

1h 24m 49s

Intro
0:00
Total Energy of an Isolated System
0:13
Example: Object in an Empty Space
2:22
Force Applied on an Object
3:25
Hot Object t in Vacuum
4:09
Hot Object Placed in Cold Water
5:32
Isolated System (Conservation of Energy)
7:15
Example: Earth and Object (Isolated System)
8:29
Energy May be Transformed from One Form to Another
13:05
Forms of Energy
13:30
Example: Earth Object System
14:17
Example: Object Falls from Height h (Transform of Energy)
16:12
Example: Object Moving on a Rough Surface
17:54
Spring-Block System: Horizontal System
20:52
Example: System of Block & Spring
21:03
Conservation of Energy
26:49
Velocity of Object at Any Point
27:39
29:02
Example: Spring on a Surface Being Compressed
29:19
Speed of Pendulum
37:43
Example: Object Suspended from Ceiling with String
38:07
Swinging the Pendulum at Angle ø From Rest
39:00
Cart on a Circular Track: Losing Contact
45:47
Example: Cart on Circular Track (Frictionless)
46:13
When Does the Cart Lose Contact
49:16
Setting Fn=0 When an Object Loses Contact
52:51
Velocity of anObject at Angle ø (Conservation of Energy)
53:47
Extra Example 1: Mass on Track to Loop
-1
Extra Example 2: Pendulum Released from Rest
-2
Extra Example 3: Object Dropped onto Spring
-3
Conservation of Energy, Part 2

1h 2m 52s

Intro
0:00
Block Spring Collision
0:16
Spring Attached to Mass
0:31
Frictionless Surface
0:51
Object Collides with a Spring and Stops
1:51
Amount of Compression in a Spring
3:39
Surface with Friction
4:17
Object Collidse with Spring (Object Stops at Collision)
4:51
Force of Friction
9:18
Object Sliding Down an Incline
10:58
Example: Object on Inclined Surface
11:15
Frictionless Case to Find Velocity of an Object
12:08
Object at Rough Inclined Surface(Friction Case)
14:52
Heat Produced
16:30
Object Arrives at Lesser Speed with Friction
21:11
Connected Object in Motion
22:35
Two Objects Connected Over a Pulley ,Spring Connected to One Object
22:47
Coefficient of Friction (Initial & Final Configuration at Rest)
25:27
Object of m1 at Height h
27:40
If No Friction
29:51
Amount of Heat Produced In Presence of Friction
30:31
Extra Example 1: Objects and Springs
-1
Extra Example 2: Mass against Horizontal Spring
-2
Collisions, Part 1

1h 31m 19s

Intro
0:00
Linear Momentum
0:10
Example: Object of Mass m with Velocity v
0:25
Example: Object Bounced on a Wall
1:08
Momentum of Object Hitting a Wall
2:20
Change in Momentum
4:10
Force is the Rate of Change of Momentum
4:30
Force=Mass*Acceleration (Newton's Second Law)
4:45
Impulse
10:24
Example: Baseball Hitting a Bat
10:40
Force Applied for a Certain Time
11:50
Magnitude Plot of Force vs Time
13:35
Time of Contact of Baseball = 2 milliseconds (Average Force by Bat)
17:42
Collision Between Two Particles
22:40
Two Objects Collide at Time T
23:00
Both Object Exerts Force on Each Other (Newton's Third Law)
24:28
Collision Time
25:42
Total Momentum Before Collision = Total momentums After Collision
32:52
Collision
33:58
Types of Collisions
34:13
Elastic Collision ( Mechanical Energy is Conserved)
34:38
Collision of Particles in Atoms
35:50
Collision Between Billiard Balls
36:54
Inelastic Collision (Rubber Ball)
39:40
Two Objects Collide and Stick (Completely Inelastic)
40:35
Completely Inelastic Collision
41:07
Example: Two Objects Colliding
41:23
Velocity After Collision
42:14
Heat Produced=Initial K.E-Final K.E
47:13
Ballistic Pendulum
47:37
Example: Determine the Speed of a Bullet
47:50
Mass Swings with Bulled Embedded
49:20
Kinetic Energy of Block with the Bullet
50:28
Extra Example 1: Ball Strikes a Wall
-1
Extra Example 2: Clay Hits Block
-2
Extra Example 3: Bullet Hits Block
-3
Extra Example 4: Child Runs onto Sled
-4
Collisions, Part 2

1h 18m 48s

Intro
0:00
Elastic Collision: One Object Stationary
0:28
Example: Stationary Object and Moving Object
0:42
Conservation of Momentum
2:48
Mechanical Energy Conservation
3:43
Elastic Collision: Both Objects Moving
17:34
Example: Both Objects Moving Towards Each Other
17:48
Kinetic Energy Conservation
19:20
Collision With a Spring-Block System
29:17
Example: Object of Mass Moving with Velocity
29:30
Object Attached to Spring of Mass with Velocity
29:50
Two Objects Attached to a Spring
31:30
Compression of Spring after Collision
33:41
Before Collision: Total Energy (Conservation of Energy)
37:25
After Collision: Total Energy
38:49
Collision in Two Dimensions
42:29
Object Stationary and Other Object is Moving
42:46
Head on Collision (In 1 Dimension)
44:07
Momentum Before Collision
45:45
Momentum After Collision
46:06
If Collision is Elastic (Conservation of Kinetic Energy) Before Collision
50:29
Example
51:58
Objects Moving in Two Directions
52:33
Objects Collide and Stick Together (Inelastic Collision)
53:28
Conservation of Momentum
54:17
Momentum in X-Direction
54:27
Momentum in Y-Direction
56:15
Maximum Height after Collision
-1
Extra Example 2: Two Objects Hitting a Spring
-2
Extra Example 3: Mass Hits and Sticks
-3
Rotation of a Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis

1h 13m 20s

Intro
0:00
Particle in Circular Motion
0:11
Specify a Position of a Particle
0:55
3:02
Angular Displacement
8:50
Rotation of a Rigid Body
15:36
Example: Rotating Disc
16:17
Disk at 5 Revolution/Sec
17:24
Different Points on a Disk Have Different Speeds
21:56
Angular Velocity
23:03
Constant Angular Acceleration: Kinematics
31:11
Rotating Disc
31:42
Object Moving Along x-Axis (Linear Case)
33:05
If Alpha= Constant
35:15
Rotational Kinetic Energy
42:11
Rod in X-Y Plane, Fixed at Center
42:43
Kinetic Energy
46:45
Moment of Inertia
52:46
Moment of Inertia for Certain Shapes
54:06
Rod at Center
54:47
Ring
55:45
Disc
56:35
Cylinder
56:56
Sphere
57:20
Extra Example 1: Rotating Wheel
-1
Extra Example 2: Two Spheres Attached to Rotating Rod
-2
Static Equilibrium

1h 38m 57s

Intro
0:00
Torque
0:09
Introduction to Torque
0:16
Rod in X-Y Direction
0:30
Particle in Equilibrium
18:15
Particle in Equilibrium, Net Force=0
18:30
Extended Object Like a Rod
19:13
Conditions of Equilibrium
26:34
Forces Acting on Object (Proof of Torque)
31:46
The Lever
35:38
Rod on Lever with Two Masses
35:51
Standing on a Supported Beam
40:53
Example : Wall and Beam Rope Connect Beam and Wall
41:00
Net Force
45:38
Net Torque
48:33
Finding ø
52:50
53:38
Example: Finding Angle ø Where Ladder Doesn't slip
53:44
Extra Example 1: Bear Retrieving Basket
-1
Extra Example 2: Sliding Cabinet
-2
Simple Harmonic Motion

1h 33m 39s

Intro
0:00
(Six x)/x
0:09
(Sin x)/x Lim-->0
0:17
Definition of Sine
5:57
8:09
Example: Sin(5.73)
9:26
Derivative Sin(Ax+b)
12:14
f(x)=Sin(ax+b)
13:11
Sin(α+β)
14:56
Derivative Cos(Ax+b)
20:05
F(x)=Cos(Ax+b)
20:10
Harmonic Oslillation: Equation of Motion
26:00
Example: Object Attached to Spring
26:25
Object is Oscillating
27:04
Force Acting on Object F=m*a
31:21
Equation of Motion
34:41
Solution to The Equation of Motion
36:40
x(t) Funtion of time
38:50
x=Cos(ωt+ø) Taking Derivative
41:33
Period
50:37
Pull The Spring With Mass and Time t Released
50:54
Calculating Time Period =A cos(ωt - φ)
52:53
Energy of Harmonic Oscillator
55:59
Energy of The Oscillator
56:58
Pendulum
58:10
Mass Attached to String and Swing
58:20
Extra Example 1: Two Springs Attached to Wall
-1
Extra Example 2: Simple Pendulum
-2
Extra Example 3: Block and Spring Oscillation
-3
Universal Gravitation

1h 9m 20s

Intro
0:00
Newton's Law of Gravity
0:09
Two Particles of Mass m1,m2
1:22
Force of Attraction
3:02
Sphere and Small Particle of Mass m
4:39
Two Spheres
5:35
Variation of g With Altitude
7:24
Consider Earth as an Object
7:33
Force Applied To Object
9:27
At or Near Surface of Earth
11:51
Satellites
15:39
Earth and Satellite
15:45
Geosynchronous Satellite
21:25
Gravitational Potential Energy
27:32
Object and Earth Potential Energy=mgh
24:45
P.E=0 When Objects are Infinitely Separated
30:32
Total Energy
38:28
If Object is Very Far From Earth, R=Infinity
40:25
Escape
42:33
Shoot an Object Which Should Not Come Back Down
43:06
Conservation of Energy
48:48
Object at Maximum Height (K.E=0)
45:22
Escape Velocity (Rmax = Infinity)
46:50
Extra Example 1: Density of Earth and Moon
-1
Extra Example 2: Satellite Orbiting Earth
-2
Fluids: Statics

1h 41m

Intro
0:00
Mass Density
0:23
Density of Mass Solid
0:33
Density of Liquid
1:06
Density of Gas
1:22
Density of Aluminium
2:03
Desnsity of Water
2:34
Density of Air
2:45
Example: Room
3:11
Pressure
4:59
Pressure at Different Points in Liquid
5:09
Force on Face of Cube
6:40
Molecules Collide on Face of Cube
9:34
Newton's Third Law
10:20
Variation of Pressure With Depth
15:12
Atmospheric Pressure
16:08
Cylinder in a Fluid of Height H
19:40
Hydraulic Press
29:50
Fluid Cylider
30:12
Hydraulics
35:56
Archimedes Principle
40:23
Object in a Fluid (Submerged)
40:55
Volume of a Cylinder
45:24
Mass of Displaced Fluid
45:48
Buoyant Force
47:30
Weighing a Crown
51:03
Crown Suspended on Scale in Air
51:24
Crown Weighed in Water
51:42
Density of Gold
57:20
Extra Example 1: Aluminum Ball in Water
-1
Extra Example 2: Swimming Pool
-2
Extra Example 3: Helium Balloon
-3
Extra Example 4: Ball in Water
-4
Fluids in Motion

1h 8m 43s

Intro
0:00
Ideal Fluid Flow
0:15
0:57
Fluid is Incompressable (Density is Uniform)
2:50
Fluid Flow is Non-Viscous
3:49
Honey
4:10
Water
4:32
Fluid Flow (Rotational)
6:15
Equation of Continuity
9:05
Fluid Flowing in a Pipe
9:20
Fluid Entering Pipe
11:00
Fluid Leaving Pipe
15:26
Garden Hose
21:20
Filling a Bucket
22:30
Speed of Water
24:05
Bernoulli's Equation
28:45
Pipe Varying with Height and Cross Section
29:18
Net Work Done
35:37
Venturi Tube
43:31
Finding V1, V2 with Two Unknowns
46:20
Equation of Continutity
46:55
Extra Example 1: Water in a Pipe
-1
Extra Example 2: Water Tank with Hole
-2
Section 2: Thermodynamics
Temperature

1h 16m 17s

Intro
0:00
Celsius and Fahrenheit
0:20
Thermometer in Ice Water
1:03
Thermometer in Boiling Water
3:03
Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion
10:30
Kelvin Temperature Scale
11:15
Constant Volume Gas Thermometer
11:57
Measuring Temperature of Liquid
12:25
Temperature Increase, Pressure Increase
14:56
Absolute Zero -273.15 Degree/Celsius
22:34
Thermometers
25:44
Thermometric Property
26:14
Constant Volume Gas Thermometer
27:53
Example: Electrical Resistance
29:05
Linear Thermal Expansion
31:40
Heated Metal Rod
31:58
Expansion of Holes
41:05
Sheet of Some Substance and Heat it
41:16
Sheet with Hole
42:04
As Temperature Increases, Hole Expands
46:42
Volume Thermal Expansion
47:02
Cube of Aluminum
47:14
Water Expands More than Glass
53:44
Behavior of Water Near 4c
54:33
Plotting the Density of Water
54:55
Extra Example 1: Volume of Diesel Fuel
-1
Extra Example 2: Brass Pendulum
-2
Heat

1h 22m 1s

Intro
0:00
Heat and Internal Energy
0:09
Cup of Hot Tea, Object is Hot
0:50
Heat Flows From Hot Object to Cold Object
3:06
Internal Energy , Kinetic+Potential Energy of All Atoms
5:50
Specific Heat
9:01
Object of Substance
9:18
Temperature Change by Delta T
10:03
Mass of Water
17:29
Calorimeter
21:35
Calorimeter-Thermal Insulated Container
22:23
Latent Heat
30:23
Ice at 0 degrees
30:52
Heating the Ice
31:15
Water-Latent Heat of Fusion
33:50
Converting Ice from -20 to 0 Degree
38:35
Example: Ice Water
42:10
Water of Mass 0.2 Kg
42:23
Mass of Ice that is Melted
48:23
Transfer Of Heat
48:27
Convection Mass Moment
49:00
Conduction
53:14
57:42
Extra Example 1: Electric Heater with Water
-1
Extra Example 2: Mass of Steam
-2
Extra Example 3: Water in Pool
-3
Kinetic Theory of Gases

1h 14m 37s

Intro
0:00
Ideal Gas Law
0:08
Ideal Gas Definition
0:24
1 Mole of Gas
1:49
2:21
Gas in a Container, Pressure Increases with Temperature
6:22
Ideal Gas law
10:30
Boltzmann's Constant
12:49
Example
13:30
Conceptual Example
13:48
Shake and Open the Coke Bottle
14:36
Quantitative Example: Container with Gas
19:50
Heat the Gas to 127 Degrees
20:23
Kinetic Theory
24:06
Container in a Cube Shape
24:16
Molecules Travelling with Velocity v
26:01
Change in Momentum of Molecule Per Second
30:38
Newton's Third law
31:58
Example
45:40
5 Moles of Helium in Container
45:50
Finding Number of Atoms
47:23
Calculating Pressure
48:46
Distribution of Molecules
49:45
Root Mean Square
53:10
Extra Example 1: Helium Gas in Balloon
-1
Extra Example 2: Oxygen Molecules
-2
First Law of Thermodynamics

1h 31m 27s

Intro
0:00
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
0:09
Two Objects in Contact
0:29
Thermometer in Thermal Equilibrium (Exchanged Energy)
5:20
First Law of Thermodynamics
6:06
Monatomic Ideal Gas
6:20
Internal Energy
9:59
Change in Internal Energy of System
18:35
Work Done on a Gas
22:29
Cylinder with Frictionless Piston
22:50
Displacement of Piston
25:11
Under Constant Pressure
27:37
Work Done by Gas
34:24
Example
35:29
Ideal gas, Monatomic Expands Isobarically
35:48
Isobaric: Process at Constant Atmospheric Pressure
37:33
Work Done By Gas
40:21
Example 2
47:19
Steam
47:30
Cylinder with Steam
49:20
Work Done By Gas
51:20
Change in Internal Energy of System
52:53
Extra Example 1: Gas Expanding Isobarically
-1
Extra Example 2: Block of Aluminum
-2
Extra Example 3: Gas in Piston
-3
Thermal Process in an Ideal Gas

1h 47m 16s

Intro
0:00
Isobaric and Isovolumetric Process
0:13
Isobaric Definition
0:24
PV Diagram
0:54
Isovolumetric Process
1:37
Total work done By gas
8:08
Isothermal Expansion
11:20
Isothermal Definition
11:42
Piston on a Container
12:57
Work Done by Gas
22:01
Example
22:09
5 Moles of Helium gas
22:20
Determining T
26:20
Molar Specific Heat
27:11
Heating a Substance
27:30
Ideal Monoatomics Gas
35:15
Temperature Change in Constant Volume
35:31
Temperature Change in Constant Pressure
39:10
48:44
IsoVolumetric Process V=0
48:57
Isobaric Process at P=0
49:15
Isothermal C=0
49:36
50:33
Extra Example 1: Gas in Cycle
-1
Extra Example 2: Gas Compressed Isothermally
-2
Extra Example 3: Two Compartments of Gas
-3
Heat Engines and Second Law of Thermodynamics

1h 3m 37s

Intro
0:00
Introduction
0:13
Statement of Conservation of Energy
0:44
Flow of Heat from Hot to Cold
3:31
Heat Engines: Kelvin-Plank Statement
4:36
Steam Engine
4:55
Efficiency of Engine
10:49
Kelvin Plank Statement of Second Law
13:25
Example
17:01
Heat Engine with Efficiency 25%
17:10
Work Done During 1 cycle
18:03
Power
20:15
Heat Pump: Clausius Statement
20:47
Refrigerator
26:35
Coefficient of Performance (COP)
27:48
Clausius Statement
34:03
Impossible Engine
35:15
Equivalence of Two Statements
36:51
Suppose Kelvin-Plank Statement is False
38:16
Clausius Statement is False
43:46
Extra Example 1: Heat Engine Cycle
-1
Extra Example 2: Refrigerator
-2
Carnot Engine

1h 36m 57s

Intro
0:00
Reversible Process
0:55
All Real Processes are Irreversible
3:20
Ball Falls Onto Sand
3:49
Heat Flow from Hot to Cold
7:30
Container with Gas and Piston (Frictionless)
9:20
Carnot Engine
15:29
Cylinder With Piston
16:01
Isothermal Expansion
19:15
Insulate Base of Cylinder
19:39
Efficiency
32:40
Work Done by Gas
34:42
Carnot Principle
46:44
Heat Taken From Hot Reservoir
54:40
Example
56:53
Steam Engine with Two Temperatures
57:12
Work Done
59:21
Extra Example 1: Carnot Isothermal Expansion
-1
Extra Example 2: Energy In Out as Heat
-2
Extra Example 3: Gas through Cycle
-3
Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics

53m 32s

Intro
0:00
One Way Process
0:40
Hot to Cold (Conserved Energy)
1:12
Gas in a Insulated Container
2:03
Entropy
9:05
Change in Entropy
16:13
System at Constant Temperature
16:35
Insulated Container
19:51
Work Done by Gas
26:40
Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy Statement
29:30
Irreversible Process
30:10
Gas Reservoir
33:02
Extra Example 1: Ice Melting
-1
Extra Example 2: Partition with Two Gases
-2
Extra Example 3: Radiation from Sun
-3
Section 3: Waves
Traveling Waves

1h 21m 27s

Intro
0:00
What is a Wave?
0:19
Example: Rod and Swinging Balls
0:55
Huge Number of Atoms
2:35
Disturbance Propagates
5:51
Source of Disturbance
8:25
Wave Propagation
8:50
Mechanism of Medium
10:18
Disturbance Moves
12:19
Types of Waves
12:52
Transverse Wave
13:11
Longitudinal Wave
17:30
Sinusoidal Waves
26:47
Every Cycle has 1 Wavelength
35:15
Time for Each Cycle
36:32
Speed of Wave
37:10
Speed of Wave on Strings
42:24
Formula for Wave Speed
51:11
Example
51:25
51:35
Reflection of Waves
55:18
String Fixed at End
55:37
Wave Inverted
58:31
Wave on a Frictionless Ring
58:52
Free End: No Inverted Reflection
1:00:18
Extra Example 1: Tension in Cord
-1
Extra Example 2: Waves on String
-2
Extra Example 3: Mass on Cord with Pulse
-3
Sound

1h 20m 56s

Intro
0:00
Longitudinal Sound Wave
0:12
Tube Filled With Gas and Piston at One End
1:07
Compression or Condensation
5:01
Moving the Piston Back
6:16
Rarefraction
7:06
Wavelength
11:57
Frequency
13:07
Diaphragm of a Large Speaker
13:20
Audible Wave Human Being
14:50
Frequency Less Than 20 Khz Infrasonic Wave
15:40
Larger Than 20 Khz Ultrasonic Wave
16:15
Pressure as a Sound Wave
18:30
Sound Wave Propagation in Tube
19:13
Speed of Sound
25:10
Speed of Sound in Gas
32:50
Speed of Sound at 0 Degrees
36:50
Speed of Sound in Liquid
41:48
Speed of Sound in Solid
46:00
Sound Intensity
46:29
Energy Produced/Sec
49:12
Decibels
51:10
Sound Level or Intensity Level
54:30
Threshold of Hearing
54:52
Extra Example 1: Eardrum
-1
Extra Example 2: Sound Detector
-2
Extra Example 3: Lightning and Thunder
-3
Doppler Effect

1h 33m 51s

Intro
0:00
Observer Moving, Source Stationary
0:10
Observer Intercepts the Wave Front
1:47
Number of Waves Intercepted
5:25
Wave Fronts Integrated
6:05
Towards the Source
11:15
Moving Away from Source
15:02
Example: Rain
19:42
Observer Stationary Source Moving
20:40
During Time
27:43
Wavelength Measured by Observed
28:38
General Case
33:27
Source and Observer Moving
33:40
Observer is Moving
33:50
Observer is Stationary
34:24
Supersonic Speed
43:30
Airplane
44:03
Extra Example 1: Oscillating Spring
-1
Extra Example 2: Police Siren
-2
Extra Example 3: Sonic Jet
-3
Interference

1h 18m 44s

Intro
0:00
Principle of Linear Superposition
0:10
Example: String Sending Two Pulses
1:26
Sum of Two Pulses
3:38
Interference
11:56
Two Speakers Driven By Same Frequency
12:29
Constructive Interference
22:09
Destructive Interference
33:06
Example
37:25
Two Speakers
37:42
Speed of Sound
38:25
Diffraction
43:53
Circular Aperture
49:59
Beats
52:15
Two Frequency
53:02
Time Separated by 1 sec
59:55
Extra Example 1: Two Speakers
-1
Extra Example 2: Tube and Sound Detector
-2
Standing Waves

1h 34m 34s

Intro
0:00
Standing Wave on String
0:09
Propagation Waves
0:59
String with Both Ends Fixed
1:06
Sine Wave
5:43
Placing Two Nodes and Vibrating String
7:26
Fundamental Frequency
13:50
First Overtone
14:05
Example
20:49
Spring
21:08
Hanging a Weight with a Pulley
21:26
Air Columns
26:22
Pipe Open at Both Ends
27:13
Pipe Open at One End
36:55
Example
41:56
Container with Water
42:05
Tuning Fork
43:00
Resonance
44:07
Length of Pipe Producing Wavelength
51:51
Extra Example 1: String Sound Wave
-1
Extra Example 2: Block with Wire is Plucked
-2
Extra Example 3: Pipe Natural Frequencies
-3
Section 4: Electricity and Magnetism
Electric Force

56m 18s

Intro
0:00
Electric Charge
0:18
Matter Consists of Atom
1:01
Two Types of Particles: Protons & Neutrons
1:48
Object with Excess Electrons: Negatively Charged
7:58
Carbon Atom
8:30
Positively Charged Object
9:55
Electric Charge
10:07
Rubber Rod Rubs Against Fur (Negative Charge)
10:16
Glass Rod Rub Against Silk (Positive Charge)
11:48
Hanging Rubber Rod
12:44
Conductors and Insulators
16:00
Electrons Close to Nucleus
18:34
Conductors Have Mobile Charge
21:30
Insulators: No Moving Electrons
23:06
Copper Wire Connected to Excess Negative charge
23:22
Other End Connected to Excess Positive Charge
24:09
Charging a Metal Object
27:25
By Contact
28:05
Metal Sphere on an Insulating Stand
28:16
Charging by Induction
30:59
Negative Rubber Rod
31:26
Size of Atom
36:08
Extra Example 1: Three Metallic Objects
-1
Extra Example 2: Rubber Rod and Two Metal Spheres
-2
Coulomb's Law

1h 27m 18s

Intro
0:00
Coulomb's Law
0:59
Two Point Charges by Distance R
1:11
Permitivity of Free Space
5:28
Charges on the Vertices of a Triangle
8:00
3 Charges on Vertices of Right Triangle
8:29
Charge of 4, -5 and -2 micro-Coulombs
10:00
Force Acting on Each Charge
10:58
Charges on a Line
21:29
2 Charges on X-Axis
22:40
Where Should Q should be Placed, Net Force =0
23:23
Two Small Spheres Attached to String
31:08
32:03
Equilibrium Net Force on Each Sphere = 0
33:38
Simple Harmonic Motion of Point Charge
37:40
Two Charges on Y-Axis
37:55
Charge is Attracted
39:52
Magnitude of Net Force on Q
42:23
Extra Example 1: Vertices of Triangle
-1
Extra Example 2: Tension in String
-2
Extra Example 3: Two Conducting Spheres
-3
Extra Example 4: Force on Charge
-4
Electric Field

1h 37m 24s

Intro
0:00
Definition of Electric Field
0:11
Q1 Produces Electric Field
3:23
Charges on a Conductor
4:26
Field of a Point Charge
13:10
Charge Point Between Two Fields
13:20
Electric Field E=kq/r2
14:29
Direction of the Charge Field
15:10
Positive Charge, Field is Radially Out
15:45
Field of a Collection of a Point Charge
19:40
Two Charges Q1,Q2
19:56
Q1 Positive, Electric Field is Radially Out
20:32
Q2 is Negative, Electric Field is Radially Inward
20:46
4 Charges are Equal
23:54
Parallel Plate Capacitor
25:42
Two Plates ,Separated by a Distance
26:44
Fringe Effect
30:26
E=Constant Between the Parallel Plate Capacitor
30:40
Electric Field Lines
35:16
Pictorial Representation of Electric Field
35:30
Electric Lines are Tangent to the Vector
35:57
Lines Start at Positive Charge, End on Negative Charge
41:24
Parallel Line Proportional to Charge
45:51
Lines Never Cross
46:00
Conductors and Shielding
49:33
Static Equilibrium
51:09
No Net Moment of Charge
53:09
Electric Field is Perpendicular to the Surface of Conductor
55:40
Extra Example 1: Plastic Sphere Between Capacitor
-1
Extra Example 2: Electron Between Capacitor
-2
Extra Example 3: Zero Electric Field
-3
Extra Example 4: Dimensional Analysis
-4
Electric Potential

1h 17m 9s

Intro
0:00
Electric Potential Difference
0:11
Example :Earth and Object
0:36
Work Done
2:01
Work Done Against Field
5:31
Difference in Potential, Between Points
9:08
Va=Vb+Ed
11:35
Potential Difference in a Constant Electric Field
18:03
Force Applied Along the Path
18:42
Work Done Along the Path
23:28
Potential Difference is Same
23:45
Point Charge
28:50
Electric Field of Point Charge is Radial
29:10
Force Applied is Perpendicular to Displacement
32:01
Independent of Path
41:08
Collection of Point Charge
43:56
Electric Potential at Charge Points
44:15
Equipotentail Surface
46:33
Plane Perpendicular to Field
46:49
Force Perpendicular to Surface
47:37
Potential Energy: System of a Two Point Charges
54:17
Work Done in Moving the Charge to Infinity
55:53
Potential Energy: System of Point Charges
57:05
Extra Example 1: Electric Potential of Particle
-1
Extra Example 2: Particle Fired at Other Particle
-2
Capacitor

1h 24m 14s

Intro
0:00
Capacitance
0:09
Consider Two Conductor s
0:25
Electric Field Passing from Positive to Negative
1:19
Potential Difference
3:31
Defining Capacitance
3:51
Parallel Plate Capacitance
8:30
Two Metallic Plates of Area a and Distance d
8:46
Potential Difference between Plates
13:12
Capacitance with a Dielectric
22:14
Applying Electric Field to a Capacitor
22:44
Dielectric
30:32
Example
34:56
Empty Capacitor
35:12
Connecting Capacitor to a Battery
35:26
Inserting Dielectric Between Plates
39:02
Energy of a Charged Capacitor
43:01
Work Done in Moving a Charge, Difference in Potential
47:48
Example
54:10
Parallel Plate Capacitor
54:22
Connect and Disconnect the Battery
55:27
Calculating Q=cv
55:50
Withdraw Mica Sheet
56:49
Word Done in Withdrawing the Mica
1:00:23
Extra Example 1: Parallel Plate Capacitor
-1
Extra Example 2: Mica Dielectric
-2
Combination of Capacitors

1h 3m 23s

Intro
0:00
Parallel Combination
0:20
Two Capacitors in Parallel With a Battery
0:40
Electric Field is Outside
5:47
Point A is Directly Connected to Positive Terminal
7:57
Point B is Directly Connected to Negative Terminal
8:10
Voltage Across Capacitor
12:54
Energy Stored
14:52
Series Combination
17:58
Two Capacitors Connected End to End With a Battery
18:10
Equivalent Capacitor
25:20
A is Same Potential
26:59
C is Same Potential
27:06
Potential Difference Across First Capacitor (Va-Vb)
27:42
(Vb-Vc) is Potential Difference Across Second Capacitor
28:10
Energy Stored in C1,C2
29:53
Example
31:07
Two Capacitor in Series, 2 in Parallel, 3 in Parallel, 1 Capacitor Connected
31:28
Final Equivalent Circuit
37:31
Extra Example 1: Four Capacitors
-1
Extra Example 2: Circuit with Switches
-2
Electric Current

1h 19m 17s

Intro
0:00
Definition
0:20
Consider a Wire ,Cylindrical
0:40
Cross Sectional Area
1:06
Crossing Charges Will be Counted
2:50
Amount of Charge Crosses Cross Sectional Area
3:29
Current I=q/t
4:18
Charges Flowing in Opposite Direction
5:58
Current Density
6:19
Applying Electric Field
11:50
Current in a Wire
15:24
Wire With a Cross Section Area A
15:33
Current Flowing to Right
18:57
How Much Charge Crosses Area A
19:15
Drift Velocity
20:02
Carriers in Cylinder
22:40
Ohm's Law
24:58
Va-Vb = Electric Field times Length of Wire
28:27
Ohm's Law
28:54
Consider a Copper Wire of 1m , Cross Sectional Area 1cm/sq
34:24
Temperature Effect
37:07
Heating a Wire
37:05
Temperature Co-Efficient of Resistivity
39:57
Battery EMF
43:00
Connecting a Resistance to Battery
44:30
Potential Difference at Terminal of Battery
45:15
Power
53:30
Battery Connected with a Resistance
53:47
Work Done on Charge
56:55
Energy Lost Per Second
1:00:35
Extra Example 1: Current
-1
Extra Example 2: Water Heater
-2
Circuits

1h 34m 8s

Intro
0:00
Simple Rules
0:16
Resistance in Series
0:33
Current Passing Per Second is Equal
1:36
Potential Difference
3:10
Parallel Circuit, R1, R2
5:08
Battery, Current Starts From Positive Terminal to Negative Terminal
10:08
Series Combination of Resistances
13:06
R1, R2 Connected to Battery
13:35
Va-Vb=Ir1,Vb-Vc=Ir2
16:59
Three Resistance Connected in Series Req=r1+r2+r3
18:55
Parallel Combination of Resistance
19:28
R1 and R2 Combined Parallel
19:50
I=i1+i2 (Total Current)
24:26
Requ=I/E
24:51
A Simple Circuit
27:57
Intro
28:40
Current Splits
29:15
Total Resistance
31:52
Current I= 6/17.2
35:10
Another Simple Circuit
37:46
Battery has Small Internal Resistance
38:02
2 Ohms Internal Resistance, and Two Resistance in Parallel
38:24
Drawing Circuit
48:53
Finding Current
52:06
RC Circuit
55:17
Battery , Resistance and Capacitance Connected
55:30
Current is Function of Time
58:00
R, C are Time Constants
59:25
Extra Example 1: Resistor Current/Power
-1
Extra Example 2: Find Current
-2
Extra Example 3: Find Current
-3
Extra Example 4: Find Current
-4
Kirchhoff's Rules

1h 42m 2s

Intro
0:00
First Kirchhoff Rule
0:19
Two Resistance Connected With a Battery
0:29
Many Resistance
1:40
Increase in Potential from A to B
4:46
Charge Flowing fromHigher Potential to Lower Potential
5:13
Second Kirchhoff Rule
9:17
Current Entering
9:27
Total Current Arriving is Equal Current Leaving
13:20
Example
14:10
Battery 6 V, Resistance 20, 30 Ohms and Another Battery 4v
14:30
Current Entering I2+I3
21:18
Example 2
31:20
2 Loop circuit with 6v and 12 v and Resistance, Find Current in Each Resistance
32:29
Example 3
42:02
Battery and Resistance in Loops
42:23
Ammeters and Voltmeters
56:22
Measuring Current is Introducing an Ammeter
56:35
Connecting Voltmeter, High Resistance
57:31
Extra Example 1: Find Current
-1
Extra Example 2: Find Current
-2
Extra Example 3: Find Current
-3
Magnetic Field

1h 38m 19s

Intro
0:00
Magnets
0:13
Compass Will Always Point North
3:49
Moving a Compass Needle
5:50
Force on a Charged Particles
10:37
Electric Field and Charge Particle Q
10:48
Charge is Positive Force
11:11
Charge Particle is At Rest
13:38
Taking a Charged Particle and Moving to Right
16:15
Using Right Hand Rule
23:37
C= Magnitude of A, B
26:30
Magnitude of C
26:55
Motion of Particle in Uniform Magnetic Field
33:30
Magnetic Field has Same Direction
34:02
Direction of Force
38:40
Work Done By Force=0
41:40
Force is Perpendicular With Velocity
42:00
Bending an Electron Beam
48:09
Heating a Filament
48:29
Kinetic Energy of Battery
51:54
Introducing Magnetic Field
52:10
Velocity Selector
53:45
Selecting Particles of Specific Velocity
54:00
Parallel Plate Capacitor
54:30
Magnetic Force
56:20
Magnitude of Force
56:45
Extra Example 1: Vectors
-1
Extra Example 2: Proton in Magnetic Field
-2
Extra Example 3: Proton Circular Path
-3
Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field

1h 16m 3s

Intro
0:00
Effect of Magnetic Field on Current
0:44
Conduction Wire, Horse Shoe Magnet
0:55
Introducing a Battery to the Wire
3:10
Wire Bends Pushing Left
3:50
Wire Bends Toward Right
5:08
In Absence of Magnetic Field
5:34
Magnet and Wire Force Towards Upward
10:22
Force
11:55
Conductor Connected to Battery, Carrying Current to Right
12:52
Magnetic Field Oriented into Page
13:20
Force on 1 Change
20:00
Total Force on Wire
21:45
Vector of magnitude
25:40
Direction is Scalar
26:12
Force on Wire
31:00
Torque on a Current loop
35:38
Square of Rectangle of Wire in Loop
35:49
Passing Current
36:14
Force on 1
36:25
Force on 3
40:46
Force on 2
42:26
Force on 4
45:12
Example
49:33
Wire of Length
49:50
Magnetic Field, Force on Wire
52:37
Extra Example 1: Lifting a Wire
-1
Extra Example 2: Rod on Two Rails
-2
Extra Example 3: Rod on Two Rails with Friction
-3
Magnetic Field Produced by Currents

1h 16m 19s

Intro
0:00
Long Straight Wire
0:49
Long Wire Connect to Battery (Imaginary Plane)
1:07
Introducing a Compass
3:15
Amperes Law/Biot-Savart law
8:01
Wire With Current I
8:35
Magnetic Permeability of Free Space
11:41
Example
13:22
Wire With Current 5 Amps
13:35
Calculation Magnetic Field Produced By Wire
16:42
Magnetic Force Between Parallel Current Carrying Wire
21:34
Two Wires Carrying Curren
21:45
Calculating Force of Attraction
23:27
Magnetic Field B Produced by First Wire
25:14
Force on Second Wire
28:33
Example
33:59
Wire on Ground
34:10
Another Wire
34:24
Magnetic Force on Wire 2
37:35
Coils
41:16
Circular Loop
42:25
Magnetic Field is Not Uniform
42:55
Magnetic Field at Center
43:11
Solenoid
46:20
Wire of length L in Coil with a Battery
47:11
Extra Example 1: Two Parallel Wires
-1
Extra Example 2: Magnetic Field of Wires
-2
Electromagnetic Induction

1h 34m 15s

Intro
0:00
Induced EMF
0:51
Electro Motive Force
1:05
Hang a Wire Loop and Using a Magnet
3:02
Magnetic Field is Strong
7:07
Induced EMF is Not Related
9:20
Motional EMF
11:43
Conducting Metal
12:10
Rod Moves to Right
12:52
Force Exerted on Charge Carrier
15:20
Potential Difference
20:05
Example
25:57
Rod in Magnetic Field, Connected by Wires
27:10
Power Dissipated
32:18
In 1 Minute, Total Energy Consumption
34:53
Where Does the Energy Come From
37:50
Magnetic Waves with Conductive Bar
38:12
To Keep the Rod Moving With Constant Velocity
46:33
Work Done By External Agent in 1 Min
46:50
Relation to Magnetic Flux
51:03
Area Swept by Rod
54:44
Magnetic Flux
57:34
Magnetic Field is Constant
57:50
Area Perpendicular To field
58:02
Extra Example 1: Motional EMF of Rod
-1
Extra Example 2: Motional EMF, Current, Power
-2
Extra Example 3: Current in Resistor
-3

1h 30m 49s

Intro
0:00
0:57
Coil Connected to Battery With Switch
1:14
3:45
Current in First Coil Drops to Zero
8:30
Change in Flux Generates Current
8:53
Induced EMF
9:13
Example
13:45
Coil Has N Turns
13:55
Connecting the Ends of Wire to Resistance
14:40
Total Flux
16:55
Motional EMF Revisited
25:04
Rod Moving in a Magnetic Field
25:24
Magnetic Force Pushes Electrons
28:01
Magnetic Field is Perpendicular to Area
31:50
Flux in Loop
32:15
Lenz's Law
40:03
Magnetic Field into Page
40:30
Current Induced by Increased Flux
44:35
Current Induced to Oppose Change in Flux
49:28
Flux is Increasing, Opposing Created Magnetic Field In Opposite Direction
55:01
Extra Example 1: Loop of Wire in Magnetic Field
-1
Extra Example 2: Coil in Square
-2
Extra Example 3: Decreasing Magnetic Field
-3
Section 5: Optics
Reflection of Light

1h 12m 22s

Intro
0:00
Nature of Light
0:22
Aristotle: Light Illuminated from Eye
0:58
Light Rays
15:50
Light Source Eliminates Stream Of Light
16:22
Wave Fronts and Crests
16:57
Reflection
18:50
Sending Light on Surface
19:01
Light Reflects Parallel Out
19:20
Specular Reflection
20:06
Surface is Not Smooth
20:16
Reflected in Different Direction
20:35
Law of Reflection
21:47
Light Ray Hits the Plane Mirror
22:08
Drawing Normal Perpendicular to Surface of Mirror
22:50
Angle of Incidence
23:15
Angle of Reflection
23:50
Path of Least Time
26:43
Fermat's Principle
30:14
Light Takes Path of Shortest Time
38:49
Formation of Image by Plane Mirror
40:11
Plane Mirror and a Source
40:20
Looking at first Reflection
42:30
S is the Real Object
48:05
Real and Virtual Object and Image
50:10
Optical Instrument
50:37
If Rays are Divergent Object is Real
51:42
Rays are Convergent, Virtual Object
52:54
Extra Example 1: Object Between Two Mirrors
-1
Extra Example 2: Plane Mirror Polished Side Up
-2
Spherical Mirror

1h 30m 39s

Intro
0:00
Concave and Convex Mirror
0:17
Piece of Mirror From a Spherical Mirror
1:00
If Inner face is Polished, Concave Mirror
2:00
Principal Axix
3:41
Polished Outer Side, Convex Mirror
4:15
Focal Point
5:21
Consider a Concave Mirror
6:03
Sending a Ray of Parallel Light
6:18
Paraxial Rays
9:36
Ray Diagrams
19:10
Concave Mirror
19:25
Principal Axis
19:40
Rays Diverging Virtual Image
29:14
Image Formation in Concave Mirrors: Real Object
30:20
Real Object
30:51
Draw a Ray to Principal Axis
31:05
Put the Object beyond F
38:13
Image Formation in Concave Mirrors: Virtual Object
46:44
Rays Leaving the Image: Diverging
48:00
Summary of Concave Mirror
56:17
Real Object real Image
56:52
Real Object Virtual Image
57:11
Virtual Object Real Image
57:24
Virtual Object Virtual Image
57:40
Extra Example 1: Concave Mirror Image Location
-1
Extra Example 2: Concave Mirror Focal Length
-2
Extra Example 3: Concave Mirror Image Location
-3
Convex Mirror

1h 6m 47s

Intro
0:00
Image Formation: Real Object
0:21
Drawing ray Parallel to Principal Axis
1:15
Virtual Object Producing real Image
17:41
Image Formation: Virtual Objects
18:21
Ray Going through C and Reflects Back
18:40
Real Object Virtual Image
26:20
Virtual Object: Real Image
26:30
Virtual Object: Virtual Image
27:00
Summary
35:30
Size of Image Over Size of Object
36:12
Magnification
41:47
Example: Convex Mirror
42:38
Extra Example 1: Convex Mirror
-1
Extra Example 2: Convex or Concave
-2
Refraction of Light, Part 1

1h 30m 58s

Intro
0:00
Index of Refraction
0:31
Speed of Light
1:15
Speed of Light in Medium
3:02
Index of Refraction of Medium
3:33
Index of Refraction of Water
4:52
Index of Refraction of Glass
5:13
Snell's Law
8:09
Light is Incident from One Medium to Another
9:05
Light Bends Toward the Normal
10:49
Example: Air/Water
12:32
Light is Incident at Angle of 53 Degrees
13:09
Water is more Optically Dense Than Air
17:20
Apparent Depth
18:19
Container of Water
19:01
Penny at the Bottom
19:17
Light Ray is Perpendicular to the Surface
19:35
From Snell's Law
29:39
Derivation of Snell's Law
32:38
Idea of Wave Fronts
33:05
Second Derivation of Snell's Law
48:17
Same as Fermat's Principal
48:38
Air and Water
49:10
Extra Example 1: Light Hits Glass
-1
Extra Example 2: Find Theta
-2
Extra Example 3: Index of Refraction
-3
Refraction of Light, Part 2

1h 21m 37s

Intro
0:00
Prism and the Rainbow
0:13
Monochromatic Light Through Prism
1:09
Sending White Light Through Prism
7:08
Violet Bends More Than Red Light
8:12
Angle Between Incident Light and Red
13:25
Water Drops in the Atmosphere
14:10
Total Internal Reflection
18:13
Surface has Air and Water
18:30
Increase Angle
19:33
Light Traveling in a Larger Index and Meets Lower Index
29:30
Water and Air Angle of Refraction is 90 Degree
29:57
Optical Fibers
32:22
Long Coaxial Cable
32:40
Choose Angle for No Light Leakage
35:03
Thin Lenses
45:13
Two Pieces of Transparent Glass
45:58
Plano Convex
47:32
Bi-Concave
47:50
Plano Concave
48:05
Lens Maker Formula
51:59
Ray Diagrams
53:44
Ray Through the Center
53:06
Extra Example 1: Angle of Incidence
-1
Extra Example 2: Block Underwater
-2
Images Formed by Lenses

1h 25m 20s

Intro
0:00
Converging Lenses: Real Objects
0:25
Ray Going Through Center
1:50
Converging Lens: Virtual Objects
18:30
Reverse Path
20:40
Virtual Object Real Image
22:47
Diverging Lens
24:59
Lens Summary
33:40
Object, Lens, Image
34:52
Object Distance to Lens
35:21
Image Distance to Lens
36:01
Focal Length
36:12
Magnification
37:21
Example: Converging Lens
38:07
Q=50 cm Real Image
41:52
Move Object 10 cm From the Lens
42:30
Diverging Lens
45:20
Extra Example 1: Converging Lens
-1
Extra Example 2: Diverging Lens
-2
Extra Example 3: Two Thing Converging Lenses
-3
Extra Example 4: Diverging Lens Final Image
-4
Interference of Light Waves

1h 27m 2s

Intro
0:00
Condition for Interference
0:24
Two Light Sources S1, S2
0:49
Source are Incoherent
1:36
Uniform Intensity on Screen
6:10
Source Should be Coherent
6:31
Source with Single Wavelength
7:30
Two Slits with One Source
8:37
Young's Double Slit Experiment
13:33
Wave Front Looks Planer
14:15
Light Propagates Like Waves
17:58
Constructive and Destructive Interference
22:39
Two Slits Separated by d
23:01
Consider a Point at Center of Screen
24:33
Path Difference
34:46
Constructive Interference
35:59
Destructive Interference
36:05
Example
43:52
Two Slits Separated
44:09
Screen is 2 ms Away
44:30
Second Order Maximum
45:06
First Maximum
48:48
Extra Example 1: Double Slit Wavelength
-1
Extra Example 2: Two Radio Antennas
-2
Extra Example 3: Double Slit Thickness
-3
Thin Film Interference

1h 4m 58s

Intro
0:00
Change of Phase Due to Reflection
0:37
Plane Mirror
1:28
Object Produces Virtual Image
1:48
Consider a Screen and Point
2:04
Path Difference
3:40
Constructive Interferences
5:09
Destructive Interference
5:26
Two Media N1, N2
15:25
N2>N1 Changes in Phase 180 Degrees
15:40
Thin Film Interference
18:50
Air and Film and Air Film of Thickness
19:12
Angle of Incident is Very Small
19:40
Two Waves are Destructive
22:14
Path Difference
22:30
If Delta=1, 2, 3 No Change in Phase
27:44
Destructive Interference
29:12
Constructive Interferences
32:45
Example: Soap Bubbles
33:34
Air, Soap, Air
33:55
Thickness Results in Constructive Interference
35:58
Example: Non-Reflective Coating For Solar Cells
38:05
Sending Light
41:50
Destructive Interference
44:08
Extra Example 1: Spaced Plates Separation
-1
Extra Example 2: Oil Film
-2
Diffraction

1h 18m 22s

Intro
0:00
Diffraction of Waves
0:18
Source of Sound Waves
0:31
Huygens' Principle
1:14
Diffraction of Light from Narrow Slit
10:57
Light From a Distant Source
11:48
Pick Any Point
13:55
Source of Wave Front
14:36
Waves Traveling Parallel to Each Other
15:27
Franhofer Diffraction
19:38
Drawing Perpendicular
20:12
First Maximum
23:12
Every Wave Has Interference and Diffraction
27:44
Width of Central Maximum
32:49
Width of Slit is 0.2 mm
33:13
Monochromatic Light
33:40
If Angle is << 1
36:39
If W= 2cms
41:15
Intensity of Diffraction Patterns
44:21
Plotting Intensity Versus Light
44:59
Resolution
45:35
Considering Two Source
45:55
Two Objects Resolved
46:41
Rayleigh Principle
47:44
Diffraction Grating
51:18
First Order Max
58:00
Intensity Shown in Figure
58:21
Extra Example 1: Slit Diffraction
-1
Extra Example 2: Minima in Diffraction Pattern
-2
Extra Example 3: Diffraction Grating
-3
Section 6: Modern Physics
Dual Nature of Light

1h 19m 2s

Intro
0:00
Photoelectric Effect
0:13
Shine Light on Metal Surface
2:39
Another Metal Surface Both Enclosed and Connected to Battery
3:02
3:50
Connecting a Variable Voltage
4:20
Negative Voltage Has Stopping Potential
10:20
Features of Photoelectric Effect
20:44
Dependence on Intensity
21:01
Energy Carried By Wave Proportional to Intensity
21:11
Kinetic Energy
23:21
Dependence of Photoemission on Time
23:40
Dependence on Frequency
26:54
Measuring Maximum Kinetic Energy
31:11
Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
31:21
Stream of Quantum Particles
33:00
Dim Blue Light, Few Photons
36:42
Bright Red Light, Many Photons
37:31
Electron is Bound to Surface of Metal
39:33
Example
44:20
Incident Light 200 nm
45:20
Compton Scattering
50:22
Shooting X-Rays at Targets
50:45
Photons Colliding with Electrons
55:48
Compton Wavelength of Electron
56:05
Example
57:25
Lambda=0.1nm
57:30
Extra Example 1: Photoelectric Effect
-1
Extra Example 2: Different Frequency Radiation
-2
Matter Waves

1h 30m 10s

Intro
0:00
De Broglie Wavelength
1:42
Photon of light E=hf
4:23
For particles Lambda=hp
12:20
Davisson and Germer, Electron Diffraction
14:06
Double Slit, Instead of Light Shooting Electrons
18:25
Detecting Electrons on Flourescent Screen
18:55
Bright Fringes
21:37
Example
26:03
Electron Moves
26:18
Kinetic Energy of Electron
32:20
Wavelength of Baseball
33:59
Refraction Pattern
40:00
Uncertainty Principle
41:44
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
42:05
Sending an Electron Through a Hole
47:54
In Y Direction the Position is Uncertain
51:54
Example
57:00
Speed of Electron
57:09
Position of Electron
1:00:38
Extra Example 1: Kinetic Energy of Electrons
-1
Extra Example 2: Uncertainty Principle
-2
Extra Example 3: Wavelength of Electron and Photon
-3
Hydrogen Atom

1h 25m 50s

Intro
0:00
Nuclear Model
0:12
J.J. Thomson Discovered Electrons
1:40
Rutherford Experiment
2:52
Example: Solar System
13:39
Planetary Model
14:40
Centripetal Acceleration
16:48
Line Spectra
18:48
Low Pressure Gas Connecting to High Voltage
19:37
Group of Wavelength
21:06
Emission Spectra
21:28
Lyman
22:38
Balmer Series
22:52
Pascen Series
23:04
Bohr's Model
27:14
Electron in Circular Orbit
27:30
Stationary Orbits
28:34
Radiation is Emitted When Electron Makes Transition
29:37
For Each Orbit Mass, Speed, Radius
33:55
Quantized Energy of the Bohr Model
35:58
Electron in Circular Orbit
36:24
Total Energy
45:18
Line Spectra Intercepted
46:12
Energy of Orbit
46:30
Balmer Series
53:36
Paschen Series
53:56
Example
54:57
N=1 and N=2
55:01
Extra Example 1: Balmer Series for Hydrogen
-1
Extra Example 2: Minimum n for Hydrogen
-2
Extra Example 3: Energy to Transition Electron
-3
Nuclear Physics

1h 30m 30s

Intro
0:00
Nucleus
0:33
Positively Charged Particles
0:53
Z=Atomic Mass Number
2:08
Example of Carbon, 6 Protons and 6 Neutrons
5:34
Nucleus with 27 Protons
10:48
Binding Energy
18:56
Intro
19:10
Helium Nucleus
19:51
Binding Energy
24:28
Alpha Decay
29:08
Energy of Uranium
38:04
Beta Decay
43:03
Nuclei Emits Negative Particles
45:00
Beta Particles are Electrons
45:24
Gamma Decay
57:01
Gamma Ray is Photon of High Energy
57:13
Nucleus Emits a Photon
59:02
Extra Example 1: Radium Alpha Decay
-1
Extra Example 2: Binding Energy of Iron
-2
Extra Example 3: Missing Particle
-3

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### Combination of Capacitors

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### Combination of Capacitors

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• Intro 0:00
• Parallel Combination 0:20
• Two Capacitors in Parallel With a Battery
• Electric Field is Outside
• Point A is Directly Connected to Positive Terminal
• Point B is Directly Connected to Negative Terminal
• Voltage Across Capacitor
• Energy Stored
• Series Combination 17:58
• Two Capacitors Connected End to End With a Battery
• Equivalent Capacitor
• A is Same Potential
• C is Same Potential
• Potential Difference Across First Capacitor (Va-Vb)
• (Vb-Vc) is Potential Difference Across Second Capacitor
• Energy Stored in C1,C2
• Example 31:07
• Two Capacitor in Series, 2 in Parallel, 3 in Parallel, 1 Capacitor Connected
• Final Equivalent Circuit
• Extra Example 1: Four Capacitors
• Extra Example 2: Circuit with Switches

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