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Professor Jishi

Interference of Light Waves

Slide Duration:Table of Contents

I. Mechanics

Introduction to Physics (Basic Math)

1h 17m 37s

- Intro0:00
- What is Physics?1:35
- Physicists and Philosophers1:57
- Differences Between2:48
- Experimental Observations3:20
- Laws (Mathematical)3:48
- Modification of Laws/Experiments4:24
- Example: Newton's Laws of Mechanics5:38
- Example: Einstein's Relativity6:18
- Units8:50
- Various Units9:37
- SI Units10:02
- Length (meter)10:18
- Mass (kilogram)10:35
- Time (second)10:51
- MKS Units (meter kilogram second)11:04
- Definition of Second11:55
- Definition of Meter14:06
- Definition of Kilogram15:21
- Multiplying/Dividing Units19:10
- Trigonometry Overview21:24
- Sine and Cosine21:31
- Pythagorean Theorem23:44
- Tangent24:15
- Sine and Cosine of Angles24:35
- Similar Triangles25:54
- Right Triangle (Oppposite, Adjacent, Hypotenuse)28:16
- Other Angles (30-60-90)29:16
- Law of Cosines31:38
- Proof of Law of Cosines33:03
- Law of Sines37:03
- Proof of Law of Sines38:03
- Scalars and Vectors41:00
- Scalar: Magnitude41:22
- Vector: Magnitude and Direction41:52
- Examples42:31
- Extra Example 1: Unit Conversion-1
- Extra Example 2: Law of Cosines-2
- Extra Example 3: Dimensional Analysis-3

Vector Addition

1h 10m 31s

- Intro0:00
- Graphical Method0:10
- Magnitude and Direction of Two Vectors0:40
- Analytical Method or Algebraic Method8:45
- Example: Addition of Vectors9:12
- Parallelogram Rule11:42
- Law of Cosines14:22
- Law of Sines18:32
- Components of a Vector21:35
- Example: Vector Components23:30
- Introducing Third Dimension31:14
- Right Handed System33:06
- Specifying a Vector34:44
- Example: Calculate the Components of Vector36:33
- Vector Addition by Means of Components41:23
- Equality of Vectors47:11
- Dot Product48:39
- Extra Example 1: Vector Addition-1
- Extra Example 2: Angle Between Vectors-2
- Extra Example 3: Vector Addition-3

Motion in One Dimension

1h 19m 35s

- Intro0:00
- Position, Distance, and Displacement0:12
- Position of the Object0:30
- Distance Travelled by The Object5:34
- Displacement of The Object9:05
- Average Speed Over a Certain Time Interval14:46
- Example Of an Object15:15
- Example: Calculating Average Speed20:19
- Average Velocity Over a Time Interval22:22
- Example Calculating Average Velocity of an Object22:45
- Instantaneous Velocity30:45
- Average Acceleration Over a Time Interval40:50
- Example: Average Acceleration of an Object42:01
- Instantaneous Acceleration47:17
- Example: Acceleration of Time T47:33
- Example with Realistic Equation49:52
- Motion With Constant Acceleration: Kinematics Equation53:39
- Example: Motion of an Object with Constant Acceleration53:55
- Extra Example 1: Uniformly Accelerated Motion-1
- Extra Example 2: Catching up with a Car-2
- Extra Example 3: Velocity and Acceleration-3

Kinematics Equation Of Calculus

59m

- Intro0:00
- The Derivative0:12
- Idea of a Derivative0:27
- Derivative of a function X= df/dx6:55
- Example: F(x)=Constant c7:22
- Example: F(x)= X9:37
- Example: F(x)= AX11:29
- Example: F(x)= X squared12:30
- Example: F(x)= X cubed15:23
- Example: F(x) =SinX16:24
- Example: F(x) =CosX16:30
- Product of Functions16:56
- Example: F(x) = X (squared) Sin X17:15
- Quotient Rule23:03
- Example: F(x)=uV-vU/V223:48
- Kinematics of Equation25:10
- First Kinematic Equation : V=Vo+aT31:13
- Extra Example 1: Particle on X-Axis-1
- Extra Example 2: Graphical Analysis-2

Freely Falling Objects

1h 28m 59s

- Intro0:00
- Acceleration Due to Gravity0:11
- Dropping an Object at Certain Height0:25
- Signs : V , A , D7:07
- Example: Shooting an Object Upwards7:34
- Example: Ground To Ground12:13
- Velocity at Maximum Height14:30
- Time From Ground to Ground23:10
- Shortcut: Calculate Time Spent in Air24:07
- Example: Object Short Downwards30:19
- Object Short Downwards From a Height H30:30
- Use of Quadratic Formula36:23
- Example: Bouncing Ball41:00
- Ball Released From Certain Height41:22
- Time Until Stationary43:10
- Coefficient of Restitution46:40
- Example: Bouncing Ball. Continued53:02
- Extra Example 1: Object Shot Off Cliff-1
- Extra Example 2: Object Released Off Roof-2
- Extra Example 3: Rubber Ball (Coefficient of Restitution)-3

Motion in Two Dimensions, Part 1

1h 8m 38s

- Intro0:00
- Position, Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration0:10
- Position of an Object in X-Y Plane0:19
- Displacement of an Object2:48
- Average Velocity4:30
- Instantaneous Velocity at Time T5:22
- Acceleration of Object8:49
- Projectile Motion9:57
- Object Shooting at Angle10:15
- Object Falling Vertically14:48
- Velocity of an Object18:17
- Displacement of an Object19:20
- Initial Velocity Remains Constant21:24
- Deriving Equation of a Parabola25:23
- Example: Shooting a Soccer Ball25:25
- Time Ball Spent in Air (Ignoring Air Resistance)27:48
- Range of Projectile34:49
- Maximum Height Reached by the Projectile36:25
- Example: Shooting an Object Horizontally40:38
- Time Taken for Shooting42:34
- Range46:01
- Velocity Hitting Ground46:30
- Extra Example 1: Projectile Shot with an Angle-1
- Extra Example 2: What Angle-2

Motion in Two Dimensions, Part 2: Circular Dimension

1h 1m 54s

- Intro0:00
- Uniform Circular Motion0:15
- Object Moving in a Circle at Constant Speed0:26
- Calculation Acceleration3:30
- Change in Velocity3:45
- Magnitude of Acceleration14:21
- Centripetal Acceleration18:15
- Example: Earth Rotating Around The Sun18:42
- Center of the Earth20:45
- Distance Travelled in Making One Revolution21:34
- Acceleration of the Revolution23:37
- Tangential Acceleration and Radial Acceleration25:35
- If Magnitude and Direction Change During Travel26:22
- Tangential Acceleration27:45
- Example: Car on a Curved Road29:50
- Finding Total Acceleration at Time T if Car is at Rest31:13
- Extra Example 1: Centripetal Acceleration on Earth-1
- Extra Example 2: Pendulum Acceleration-2
- Extra Example 3: Radius of Curvature-3

Newton's Laws of Motion

1h 29m 51s

- Intro0:00
- Force0:21
- Contact Force (Push or Pull)1:02
- Field Forces1:49
- Gravity2:06
- Electromagnetic Force2:43
- Strong Force4:12
- Weak Force5:17
- Contact Force as Electromagnetic Force6:08
- Focus on Contact Force and Gravitational Force6:50
- Newton's First Law7:37
- Statement of First Law of Motion7:50
- Uniform Motion (Velocity is Constant)9:38
- Inertia10:39
- Newton's Second Law11:19
- Force as a Vector11:35
- Statement of Second Law of Motion12:02
- Force (Formula)12:22
- Example: 1 Force13:04
- Newton (Unit of Force)13:31
- Example: 2 Forces14:09
- Newton's Third Law19:38
- Action and Reaction Law19:46
- Statement of Third Law of Motion19:58
- Example: 2 Objects20:15
- Example: Objects in Contact21:54
- Example: Person on Earth22:54
- Gravitational Force and the Weight of an Object24:01
- Force of Attraction Formula24:42
- Point Mass and Spherical Objects26:56
- Example: Gravity on Earth28:37
- Example: 1 kg on Earth35:31
- Friction37:09
- Normal Force37:14
- Example: Small Force40:01
- Force of Static Friction43:09
- Maximum Force of Static Friction46:03
- Values of Coefficient of Static Friction47:37
- Coefficient of Kinetic Friction47:53
- Force of Kinetic Friction48:27
- Example: Horizontal Force49:36
- Example: Angled Force52:36
- Extra Example 1: Wire Tension-1
- Extra Example 2: Car Friction-2
- Extra Example 3: Big Block and Small Block-3

Applications of Newton's Laws, Part 1: Inclines

1h 24m 35s

- Intro0:00
- Acceleration on a Frictionless Incline0:35
- Force Action on the Object(mg)1:31
- Net Force Acting on the Object2:20
- Acceleration Perpendicular to Incline8:45
- Incline is Horizontal Surface11:30
- Example: Object on an Inclined Surface13:40
- Rough Inclines and Static Friction20:23
- Box Sitting on a Rough Incline20:49
- Maximum Values of Static Friction25:20
- Coefficient of Static Friction27:53
- Acceleration on a Rough Incline29:00
- Kinetic Friction on Rough Incline29:15
- Object Moving up the Incline33:20
- Net force on the Object36:36
- Example: Time to Reach the Bottom of an Incline41:50
- Displacement is 5m Down the Incline45:26
- Velocity of the Object Down the Incline47:49
- Extra Example 1: Bottom of Incline-1
- Extra Example 2: Incline with Initial Velocity-2
- Extra Example 3: Moving Down an Incline-3

Applications of Newton's Laws, Part 2: Strings and Pulleys

1h 10m 3s

- Intro0:00
- Atwood's Machine0:19
- Object Attached to a String0:39
- Tension on a String2:15
- Two Objects Attached to a String2:23
- Pulley Fixed to the Ceiling, With Mass M1 , M24:53
- Applying Newton's 2nd Law to Calculate Acceleration on M1, M29:21
- One Object on a Horizontal Surface: Frictionless Case17:36
- Connecting Two Unknowns, Tension and Acceleration20:27
- One Object on a Horizontal Surface: Friction Case23:57
- Two Objects Attached to a String with a Pulley24:14
- Applying Newton's 2nd Law26:04
- Tension of an Object Pulls to the Right27:31
- One of the Object is Incline : Frictionless Case32:59
- Sum of Two Forces on Mass M234:39
- If M1g is Larger Than M2g36:29
- One of the Object is Incline : Friction Case40:29
- Coefficient of Kinetic Friction41:18
- Net Force Acting on M245:12
- Extra Example 1: Two Masses on Two Strings-1
- Extra Example 2: Three Objects on Rough Surface-2
- Extra Example 3: Acceleration of a Block-3

Accelerating Frames

1h 13m 28s

- Intro0:00
- What Does a Scale Measure0:11
- Example: Elevator on a Scale0:22
- Normal Force4:57
- Apparent Weight in an Elevator7:42
- Example: Elevator Starts Moving Upwards9:05
- Net Force (Newton's Second Law)11:34
- Apparent Weight14:36
- Pendulum in an Accelerating Train15:58
- Example: Object Hanging on the Ceiling of a Train16:15
- Angle In terms of Increased Acceleration22:04
- Mass and Spring in an Accelerating Truck23:40
- Example: Spring on a Stationary Truck23:55
- Surface of Truck is Frictionless27:38
- Spring is Stretched by distance X28:40
- Cup of Coffee29:55
- Example: Moving Train and Stationary Objects inside Train30:05
- Train Moving With Acceleration A32:45
- Force of Static Friction Acting on Cup36:30
- Extra Example 1: Train Slows with Pendulum-1
- Extra Example 2: Person in Elevator Releases Object-2
- Extra Example 3: Hanging Object in Elevator-3

Circular Motion, Part 1

1h 1m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Object Attached to a String Moving in a Horizontal Circle0:09
- Net Force on Object (Newton's Second Law)1:51
- Force on an Object3:03
- Tension of a String4:40
- Conical Pendulum5:40
- Example: Object Attached to a String in a Horizontal Circle5:50
- Weight of an Object Vertically Down8:05
- Velocity And Acceleration in Vertical Direction11:20
- Net Force on an Object13:02
- Car on a Horizontal Road16:09
- Net Force on Car (Net Vertical Force)18:03
- Frictionless Road18:43
- Road with Friction22:41
- Maximum Speed of Car Without Skidding26:05
- Banked Road28:13
- Road Inclined at an Angle ø28:32
- Force on Car29:50
- Frictionless Road30:45
- Road with Friction36:22
- Extra Example 1: Object Attached to Rod with Two Strings-1
- Extra Example 2: Car on Banked Road-2
- Extra Example 3: Person Held Up in Spinning Cylinder-3

Circular Motion, Part 2

50m 29s

- Intro0:00
- Normal Force by a Pilot Seat0:14
- Example : Pilot Rotating in a Circle r and Speed s0:33
- Pilot at Vertical Position in a Circle of Radius R4:18
- Net Force on Pilot Towards Center (At Bottom)5:53
- Net Force on Pilot Towards Center (At Top)7:55
- Object Attached to a String in Vertical Motion10:46
- Example: Object in a Circle Attached to String10:59
- Case 1: Object with speed v and Object is at Bottom11:30
- Case 2: Object at Top in Vertical Motion15:24
- Object at Angle ø (General Position)17:48
- 2 Radial Forces (Inward & Outward)20:32
- Tension of String23:44
- Extra Example 1: Pail of Water in Vertical Circle-1
- Extra Example 2: Roller Coaster Vertical Circle-2
- Extra Example 3: Bead in Frictionless Loop-3

Work

1h 27m 50s

- Work Done by a Constant Force0:09
- Example: Force f on Object Moved a Displacement d in Same Direction0:24
- Force Applied on Object at Angle ø and Displacement d2:00
- Work Done3:59
- Force Perpendicular to Displacement (No Work)5:40
- Example: Lifting an Object from the Surface of Earth to Height h5:58
- Total Work Done7:39
- Example: Object on an Inclined Surface8:08
- Example: Object on Truck10:18
- Work Done on a Box with No Friction11:05
- Work Done with Static Friction14:38
- Stretching or Compressing a Spring14:50
- Example: Stretching a Spring15:20
- Work Done in Stretching a Spring15:51
- Spring Stretched Amount A17:00
- Spring Stretched Amount B With Constant Velocity17:59
- Force at Starting19:29
- Force at End19:51
- Total Displacement20:43
- Average Force21:20
- Work Done21:51
- Compressing a Spring23:32
- Work Kinetic Energy Theorem24:02
- Object Mass M on Frictionless Surface24:32
- Object Moved a Displacement d With Acceleration a26:20
- Work Done on an Object by Net Force (Kinetic Energy Theorem)28:41
- Example: Object at Height30:39
- Force on Object32:25
- Work Energy Theorem34:14
- Block Pulled on a Rough Horizontal Surface35:14
- Object on a Surface with Friction35:26
- Coefficient of Kinetic Friction35:50
- Work Done by Net Force = Change in K.E38:09
- Applying a Force on an Object at an Angle ø and Displacement d39:40
- Net Force43:30
- Work Done44:03
- Potential Energy of a System44:39
- Potential Energy of Two or More Objects45:28
- Example: Object of Mass m at Height h46:15
- Earth and Object in Position46:56
- Potential Energy, u=mgh49:05
- Absolute Value of Potential Energy49:55
- Example: Two Objects at Different Heights50:47
- Elastic Potential Energy in a Spring Block System52:03
- Example: Spring of Mass m Stretching52:30
- Work Done Stretching a Spring54:29
- Power55:24
- Work Done by an Object56:13
- Rate of Doing Work56:41
- Extra Example 1: Work Done, Block on Horizontal Surface-1
- Extra Example 2: Object and Compressed Spring-2
- Extra Example 3: Person Running-3

Conservation of Energy, Part 1

1h 24m 49s

- Intro0:00
- Total Energy of an Isolated System0:13
- Example: Object in an Empty Space2:22
- Force Applied on an Object3:25
- Hot Object t in Vacuum4:09
- Hot Object Placed in Cold Water5:32
- Isolated System (Conservation of Energy)7:15
- Example: Earth and Object (Isolated System)8:29
- Energy May be Transformed from One Form to Another13:05
- Forms of Energy13:30
- Example: Earth Object System14:17
- Example: Object Falls from Height h (Transform of Energy)16:12
- Example: Object Moving on a Rough Surface17:54
- Spring-Block System: Horizontal System20:52
- Example: System of Block & Spring21:03
- Conservation of Energy26:49
- Velocity of Object at Any Point27:39
- Spring-Loaded Gun Shot Upwards29:02
- Example: Spring on a Surface Being Compressed29:19
- Speed of Pendulum37:43
- Example: Object Suspended from Ceiling with String38:07
- Swinging the Pendulum at Angle ø From Rest39:00
- Cart on a Circular Track: Losing Contact45:47
- Example: Cart on Circular Track (Frictionless)46:13
- When Does the Cart Lose Contact49:16
- Setting Fn=0 When an Object Loses Contact52:51
- Velocity of anObject at Angle ø (Conservation of Energy)53:47
- Extra Example 1: Mass on Track to Loop-1
- Extra Example 2: Pendulum Released from Rest-2
- Extra Example 3: Object Dropped onto Spring-3

Conservation of Energy, Part 2

1h 2m 52s

- Intro0:00
- Block Spring Collision0:16
- Spring Attached to Mass0:31
- Frictionless Surface0:51
- Object Collides with a Spring and Stops1:51
- Amount of Compression in a Spring3:39
- Surface with Friction4:17
- Object Collidse with Spring (Object Stops at Collision)4:51
- Force of Friction9:18
- Object Sliding Down an Incline10:58
- Example: Object on Inclined Surface11:15
- Frictionless Case to Find Velocity of an Object12:08
- Object at Rough Inclined Surface(Friction Case)14:52
- Heat Produced16:30
- Object Arrives at Lesser Speed with Friction21:11
- Connected Object in Motion22:35
- Two Objects Connected Over a Pulley ,Spring Connected to One Object22:47
- Coefficient of Friction (Initial & Final Configuration at Rest)25:27
- Object of m1 at Height h27:40
- If No Friction29:51
- Amount of Heat Produced In Presence of Friction30:31
- Extra Example 1: Objects and Springs-1
- Extra Example 2: Mass against Horizontal Spring-2

Collisions, Part 1

1h 31m 19s

- Intro0:00
- Linear Momentum0:10
- Example: Object of Mass m with Velocity v0:25
- Example: Object Bounced on a Wall1:08
- Momentum of Object Hitting a Wall2:20
- Change in Momentum4:10
- Force is the Rate of Change of Momentum4:30
- Force=Mass*Acceleration (Newton's Second Law)4:45
- Impulse10:24
- Example: Baseball Hitting a Bat10:40
- Force Applied for a Certain Time11:50
- Magnitude Plot of Force vs Time13:35
- Time of Contact of Baseball = 2 milliseconds (Average Force by Bat)17:42
- Collision Between Two Particles22:40
- Two Objects Collide at Time T23:00
- Both Object Exerts Force on Each Other (Newton's Third Law)24:28
- Collision Time25:42
- Total Momentum Before Collision = Total momentums After Collision32:52
- Collision33:58
- Types of Collisions34:13
- Elastic Collision ( Mechanical Energy is Conserved)34:38
- Collision of Particles in Atoms35:50
- Collision Between Billiard Balls36:54
- Inelastic Collision (Rubber Ball)39:40
- Two Objects Collide and Stick (Completely Inelastic)40:35
- Completely Inelastic Collision41:07
- Example: Two Objects Colliding41:23
- Velocity After Collision42:14
- Heat Produced=Initial K.E-Final K.E47:13
- Ballistic Pendulum47:37
- Example: Determine the Speed of a Bullet47:50
- Mass Swings with Bulled Embedded49:20
- Kinetic Energy of Block with the Bullet50:28
- Extra Example 1: Ball Strikes a Wall-1
- Extra Example 2: Clay Hits Block-2
- Extra Example 3: Bullet Hits Block-3
- Extra Example 4: Child Runs onto Sled-4

Collisions, Part 2

1h 18m 48s

- Intro0:00
- Elastic Collision: One Object Stationary0:28
- Example: Stationary Object and Moving Object0:42
- Conservation of Momentum2:48
- Mechanical Energy Conservation3:43
- Elastic Collision: Both Objects Moving17:34
- Example: Both Objects Moving Towards Each Other17:48
- Kinetic Energy Conservation19:20
- Collision With a Spring-Block System29:17
- Example: Object of Mass Moving with Velocity29:30
- Object Attached to Spring of Mass with Velocity29:50
- Two Objects Attached to a Spring31:30
- Compression of Spring after Collision33:41
- Before Collision: Total Energy (Conservation of Energy)37:25
- After Collision: Total Energy38:49
- Collision in Two Dimensions42:29
- Object Stationary and Other Object is Moving42:46
- Head on Collision (In 1 Dimension)44:07
- Momentum Before Collision45:45
- Momentum After Collision46:06
- If Collision is Elastic (Conservation of Kinetic Energy) Before Collision50:29
- Example51:58
- Objects Moving in Two Directions52:33
- Objects Collide and Stick Together (Inelastic Collision)53:28
- Conservation of Momentum54:17
- Momentum in X-Direction54:27
- Momentum in Y-Direction56:15
- Maximum Height after Collision-1
- Extra Example 2: Two Objects Hitting a Spring-2
- Extra Example 3: Mass Hits and Sticks-3

Rotation of a Rigid Body About a Fixed Axis

1h 13m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Particle in Circular Motion0:11
- Specify a Position of a Particle0:55
- Radian3:02
- Angular Displacement8:50
- Rotation of a Rigid Body15:36
- Example: Rotating Disc16:17
- Disk at 5 Revolution/Sec17:24
- Different Points on a Disk Have Different Speeds21:56
- Angular Velocity23:03
- Constant Angular Acceleration: Kinematics31:11
- Rotating Disc31:42
- Object Moving Along x-Axis (Linear Case)33:05
- If Alpha= Constant35:15
- Rotational Kinetic Energy42:11
- Rod in X-Y Plane, Fixed at Center42:43
- Kinetic Energy46:45
- Moment of Inertia52:46
- Moment of Inertia for Certain Shapes54:06
- Rod at Center54:47
- Ring55:45
- Disc56:35
- Cylinder56:56
- Sphere57:20
- Extra Example 1: Rotating Wheel-1
- Extra Example 2: Two Spheres Attached to Rotating Rod-2

Static Equilibrium

1h 38m 57s

- Intro0:00
- Torque0:09
- Introduction to Torque0:16
- Rod in X-Y Direction0:30
- Particle in Equilibrium18:15
- Particle in Equilibrium, Net Force=018:30
- Extended Object Like a Rod19:13
- Conditions of Equilibrium26:34
- Forces Acting on Object (Proof of Torque)31:46
- The Lever35:38
- Rod on Lever with Two Masses35:51
- Standing on a Supported Beam40:53
- Example : Wall and Beam Rope Connect Beam and Wall41:00
- Net Force45:38
- Net Torque48:33
- Finding ø52:50
- Ladder About to Slip53:38
- Example: Finding Angle ø Where Ladder Doesn't slip53:44
- Extra Example 1: Bear Retrieving Basket-1
- Extra Example 2: Sliding Cabinet-2

Simple Harmonic Motion

1h 33m 39s

- Intro0:00
- (Six x)/x0:09
- (Sin x)/x Lim-->00:17
- Definition of Sine5:57
- Sine Expressed in Radians8:09
- Example: Sin(5.73)9:26
- Derivative Sin(Ax+b)12:14
- f(x)=Sin(ax+b)13:11
- Sin(α+β)14:56
- Derivative Cos(Ax+b)20:05
- F(x)=Cos(Ax+b)20:10
- Harmonic Oslillation: Equation of Motion26:00
- Example: Object Attached to Spring26:25
- Object is Oscillating27:04
- Force Acting on Object F=m*a31:21
- Equation of Motion34:41
- Solution to The Equation of Motion36:40
- x(t) Funtion of time38:50
- x=Cos(ωt+ø) Taking Derivative41:33
- Period50:37
- Pull The Spring With Mass and Time t Released50:54
- Calculating Time Period =A cos(ωt - φ)52:53
- Energy of Harmonic Oscillator55:59
- Energy of The Oscillator56:58
- Pendulum58:10
- Mass Attached to String and Swing58:20
- Extra Example 1: Two Springs Attached to Wall-1
- Extra Example 2: Simple Pendulum-2
- Extra Example 3: Block and Spring Oscillation-3

Universal Gravitation

1h 9m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Newton's Law of Gravity0:09
- Two Particles of Mass m1,m21:22
- Force of Attraction3:02
- Sphere and Small Particle of Mass m4:39
- Two Spheres5:35
- Variation of g With Altitude7:24
- Consider Earth as an Object7:33
- Force Applied To Object9:27
- At or Near Surface of Earth11:51
- Satellites15:39
- Earth and Satellite15:45
- Geosynchronous Satellite21:25
- Gravitational Potential Energy27:32
- Object and Earth Potential Energy=mgh24:45
- P.E=0 When Objects are Infinitely Separated30:32
- Total Energy38:28
- If Object is Very Far From Earth, R=Infinity40:25
- Escape42:33
- Shoot an Object Which Should Not Come Back Down43:06
- Conservation of Energy48:48
- Object at Maximum Height (K.E=0)45:22
- Escape Velocity (Rmax = Infinity)46:50
- Extra Example 1: Density of Earth and Moon-1
- Extra Example 2: Satellite Orbiting Earth-2

Fluids: Statics

1h 41m

- Intro0:00
- Mass Density0:23
- Density of Mass Solid0:33
- Density of Liquid1:06
- Density of Gas1:22
- Density of Aluminium2:03
- Desnsity of Water2:34
- Density of Air2:45
- Example: Room3:11
- Pressure4:59
- Pressure at Different Points in Liquid5:09
- Force on Face of Cube6:40
- Molecules Collide on Face of Cube9:34
- Newton's Third Law10:20
- Variation of Pressure With Depth15:12
- Atmospheric Pressure16:08
- Cylinder in a Fluid of Height H19:40
- Hydraulic Press29:50
- Fluid Cylider30:12
- Hydraulics35:56
- Archimedes Principle40:23
- Object in a Fluid (Submerged)40:55
- Volume of a Cylinder45:24
- Mass of Displaced Fluid45:48
- Buoyant Force47:30
- Weighing a Crown51:03
- Crown Suspended on Scale in Air51:24
- Crown Weighed in Water51:42
- Density of Gold57:20
- Extra Example 1: Aluminum Ball in Water-1
- Extra Example 2: Swimming Pool-2
- Extra Example 3: Helium Balloon-3
- Extra Example 4: Ball in Water-4

Fluids in Motion

1h 8m 43s

- Intro0:00
- Ideal Fluid Flow0:15
- Fluid Flow is Steady0:57
- Fluid is Incompressable (Density is Uniform)2:50
- Fluid Flow is Non-Viscous3:49
- Honey4:10
- Water4:32
- Fluid Flow (Rotational)6:15
- Equation of Continuity9:05
- Fluid Flowing in a Pipe9:20
- Fluid Entering Pipe11:00
- Fluid Leaving Pipe15:26
- Garden Hose21:20
- Filling a Bucket22:30
- Speed of Water24:05
- Bernoulli's Equation28:45
- Pipe Varying with Height and Cross Section29:18
- Net Work Done35:37
- Venturi Tube43:31
- Finding V1, V2 with Two Unknowns46:20
- Equation of Continutity46:55
- Extra Example 1: Water in a Pipe-1
- Extra Example 2: Water Tank with Hole-2

II. Thermodynamics

Temperature

1h 16m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Celsius and Fahrenheit0:20
- Thermometer in Ice Water1:03
- Thermometer in Boiling Water3:03
- Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion10:30
- Kelvin Temperature Scale11:15
- Constant Volume Gas Thermometer11:57
- Measuring Temperature of Liquid12:25
- Temperature Increase, Pressure Increase14:56
- Absolute Zero -273.15 Degree/Celsius22:34
- Thermometers25:44
- Thermometric Property26:14
- Constant Volume Gas Thermometer27:53
- Example: Electrical Resistance29:05
- Linear Thermal Expansion31:40
- Heated Metal Rod31:58
- Expansion of Holes41:05
- Sheet of Some Substance and Heat it41:16
- Sheet with Hole42:04
- As Temperature Increases, Hole Expands46:42
- Volume Thermal Expansion47:02
- Cube of Aluminum47:14
- Water Expands More than Glass53:44
- Behavior of Water Near 4c54:33
- Plotting the Density of Water54:55
- Extra Example 1: Volume of Diesel Fuel-1
- Extra Example 2: Brass Pendulum-2

Heat

1h 22m 1s

- Intro0:00
- Heat and Internal Energy0:09
- Cup of Hot Tea, Object is Hot0:50
- Heat Flows From Hot Object to Cold Object3:06
- Internal Energy , Kinetic+Potential Energy of All Atoms5:50
- Specific Heat9:01
- Object of Substance9:18
- Temperature Change by Delta T10:03
- Mass of Water17:29
- Calorimeter21:35
- Calorimeter-Thermal Insulated Container22:23
- Latent Heat30:23
- Ice at 0 degrees30:52
- Heating the Ice31:15
- Water-Latent Heat of Fusion33:50
- Converting Ice from -20 to 0 Degree38:35
- Example: Ice Water42:10
- Water of Mass 0.2 Kg42:23
- Mass of Ice that is Melted48:23
- Transfer Of Heat48:27
- Convection Mass Moment49:00
- Conduction53:14
- Radiation57:42
- Extra Example 1: Electric Heater with Water-1
- Extra Example 2: Mass of Steam-2
- Extra Example 3: Water in Pool-3

Kinetic Theory of Gases

1h 14m 37s

- Intro0:00
- Ideal Gas Law0:08
- Ideal Gas Definition0:24
- 1 Mole of Gas1:49
- Avogadro's Number2:21
- Gas in a Container, Pressure Increases with Temperature6:22
- Ideal Gas law10:30
- Boltzmann's Constant12:49
- Example13:30
- Conceptual Example13:48
- Shake and Open the Coke Bottle14:36
- Quantitative Example: Container with Gas19:50
- Heat the Gas to 127 Degrees20:23
- Kinetic Theory24:06
- Container in a Cube Shape24:16
- Molecules Travelling with Velocity v26:01
- Change in Momentum of Molecule Per Second30:38
- Newton's Third law31:58
- Example45:40
- 5 Moles of Helium in Container45:50
- Finding Number of Atoms47:23
- Calculating Pressure48:46
- Distribution of Molecules49:45
- Root Mean Square53:10
- Extra Example 1: Helium Gas in Balloon-1
- Extra Example 2: Oxygen Molecules-2

First Law of Thermodynamics

1h 31m 27s

- Intro0:00
- Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics0:09
- Two Objects in Contact0:29
- Thermometer in Thermal Equilibrium (Exchanged Energy)5:20
- First Law of Thermodynamics6:06
- Monatomic Ideal Gas6:20
- Internal Energy9:59
- Change in Internal Energy of System18:35
- Work Done on a Gas22:29
- Cylinder with Frictionless Piston22:50
- Displacement of Piston25:11
- Under Constant Pressure27:37
- Work Done by Gas34:24
- Example35:29
- Ideal gas, Monatomic Expands Isobarically35:48
- Isobaric: Process at Constant Atmospheric Pressure37:33
- Work Done By Gas40:21
- Example 247:19
- Steam47:30
- Cylinder with Steam49:20
- Work Done By Gas51:20
- Change in Internal Energy of System52:53
- Extra Example 1: Gas Expanding Isobarically-1
- Extra Example 2: Block of Aluminum-2
- Extra Example 3: Gas in Piston-3

Thermal Process in an Ideal Gas

1h 47m 16s

- Intro0:00
- Isobaric and Isovolumetric Process0:13
- Isobaric Definition0:24
- PV Diagram0:54
- Isovolumetric Process1:37
- Total work done By gas8:08
- Isothermal Expansion11:20
- Isothermal Definition11:42
- Piston on a Container12:57
- Work Done by Gas22:01
- Example22:09
- 5 Moles of Helium gas22:20
- Determining T26:20
- Molar Specific Heat27:11
- Heating a Substance27:30
- Ideal Monoatomics Gas35:15
- Temperature Change in Constant Volume35:31
- Temperature Change in Constant Pressure39:10
- Adiabatic Process48:44
- IsoVolumetric Process V=048:57
- Isobaric Process at P=049:15
- Isothermal C=049:36
- Adiabatic Process: Definition50:33
- Extra Example 1: Gas in Cycle-1
- Extra Example 2: Gas Compressed Isothermally-2
- Extra Example 3: Two Compartments of Gas-3

Heat Engines and Second Law of Thermodynamics

1h 3m 37s

- Intro0:00
- Introduction0:13
- Statement of Conservation of Energy0:44
- Flow of Heat from Hot to Cold3:31
- Heat Engines: Kelvin-Plank Statement4:36
- Steam Engine4:55
- Efficiency of Engine10:49
- Kelvin Plank Statement of Second Law13:25
- Example17:01
- Heat Engine with Efficiency 25%17:10
- Work Done During 1 cycle18:03
- Power20:15
- Heat Pump: Clausius Statement20:47
- Refrigerator26:35
- Coefficient of Performance (COP)27:48
- Clausius Statement34:03
- Impossible Engine35:15
- Equivalence of Two Statements36:51
- Suppose Kelvin-Plank Statement is False38:16
- Clausius Statement is False43:46
- Extra Example 1: Heat Engine Cycle-1
- Extra Example 2: Refrigerator-2

Carnot Engine

1h 36m 57s

- Intro0:00
- Reversible Process0:55
- All Real Processes are Irreversible3:20
- Ball Falls Onto Sand3:49
- Heat Flow from Hot to Cold7:30
- Container with Gas and Piston (Frictionless)9:20
- Carnot Engine15:29
- Cylinder With Piston16:01
- Isothermal Expansion19:15
- Insulate Base of Cylinder19:39
- Efficiency32:40
- Work Done by Gas34:42
- Carnot Principle46:44
- Heat Taken From Hot Reservoir54:40
- Example56:53
- Steam Engine with Two Temperatures57:12
- Work Done59:21
- Extra Example 1: Carnot Isothermal Expansion-1
- Extra Example 2: Energy In Out as Heat-2
- Extra Example 3: Gas through Cycle-3

Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics

53m 32s

- Intro0:00
- One Way Process0:40
- Hot to Cold (Conserved Energy)1:12
- Gas in a Insulated Container2:03
- Entropy9:05
- Change in Entropy16:13
- System at Constant Temperature16:35
- Insulated Container19:51
- Work Done by Gas26:40
- Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy Statement29:30
- Irreversible Process30:10
- Gas Reservoir33:02
- Extra Example 1: Ice Melting-1
- Extra Example 2: Partition with Two Gases-2
- Extra Example 3: Radiation from Sun-3

III. Waves

Traveling Waves

1h 21m 27s

- Intro0:00
- What is a Wave?0:19
- Example: Rod and Swinging Balls0:55
- Huge Number of Atoms2:35
- Disturbance Propagates5:51
- Source of Disturbance8:25
- Wave Propagation8:50
- Mechanism of Medium10:18
- Disturbance Moves12:19
- Types of Waves12:52
- Transverse Wave13:11
- Longitudinal Wave17:30
- Sinusoidal Waves26:47
- Every Cycle has 1 Wavelength35:15
- Time for Each Cycle36:32
- Speed of Wave37:10
- Speed of Wave on Strings42:24
- Formula for Wave Speed51:11
- Example51:25
- String with Blade Generate Pulse51:35
- Reflection of Waves55:18
- String Fixed at End55:37
- Wave Inverted58:31
- Wave on a Frictionless Ring58:52
- Free End: No Inverted Reflection1:00:18
- Extra Example 1: Tension in Cord-1
- Extra Example 2: Waves on String-2
- Extra Example 3: Mass on Cord with Pulse-3

Sound

1h 20m 56s

- Intro0:00
- Longitudinal Sound Wave0:12
- Tube Filled With Gas and Piston at One End1:07
- Compression or Condensation5:01
- Moving the Piston Back6:16
- Rarefraction7:06
- Wavelength11:57
- Frequency13:07
- Diaphragm of a Large Speaker13:20
- Audible Wave Human Being14:50
- Frequency Less Than 20 Khz Infrasonic Wave15:40
- Larger Than 20 Khz Ultrasonic Wave16:15
- Pressure as a Sound Wave18:30
- Sound Wave Propagation in Tube19:13
- Speed of Sound25:10
- Speed of Sound in Gas32:50
- Speed of Sound at 0 Degrees36:50
- Speed of Sound in Liquid41:48
- Speed of Sound in Solid46:00
- Sound Intensity46:29
- Energy Produced/Sec49:12
- Decibels51:10
- Sound Level or Intensity Level54:30
- Threshold of Hearing54:52
- Extra Example 1: Eardrum-1
- Extra Example 2: Sound Detector-2
- Extra Example 3: Lightning and Thunder-3

Doppler Effect

1h 33m 51s

- Intro0:00
- Observer Moving, Source Stationary0:10
- Observer Intercepts the Wave Front1:47
- Number of Waves Intercepted5:25
- Wave Fronts Integrated6:05
- Towards the Source11:15
- Moving Away from Source15:02
- Example: Rain19:42
- Observer Stationary Source Moving20:40
- During Time27:43
- Wavelength Measured by Observed28:38
- General Case33:27
- Source and Observer Moving33:40
- Observer is Moving33:50
- Observer is Stationary34:24
- Supersonic Speed43:30
- Airplane44:03
- Extra Example 1: Oscillating Spring-1
- Extra Example 2: Police Siren-2
- Extra Example 3: Sonic Jet-3

Interference

1h 18m 44s

- Intro0:00
- Principle of Linear Superposition0:10
- Example: String Sending Two Pulses1:26
- Sum of Two Pulses3:38
- Interference11:56
- Two Speakers Driven By Same Frequency12:29
- Constructive Interference22:09
- Destructive Interference33:06
- Example37:25
- Two Speakers37:42
- Speed of Sound38:25
- Diffraction43:53
- Circular Aperture49:59
- Beats52:15
- Two Frequency53:02
- Time Separated by 1 sec59:55
- Extra Example 1: Two Speakers-1
- Extra Example 2: Tube and Sound Detector-2

Standing Waves

1h 34m 34s

- Intro0:00
- Standing Wave on String0:09
- Propagation Waves0:59
- String with Both Ends Fixed1:06
- Sine Wave5:43
- Placing Two Nodes and Vibrating String7:26
- Fundamental Frequency13:50
- First Overtone14:05
- Example20:49
- Spring21:08
- Hanging a Weight with a Pulley21:26
- Air Columns26:22
- Pipe Open at Both Ends27:13
- Pipe Open at One End36:55
- Example41:56
- Container with Water42:05
- Tuning Fork43:00
- Resonance44:07
- Length of Pipe Producing Wavelength51:51
- Extra Example 1: String Sound Wave-1
- Extra Example 2: Block with Wire is Plucked-2
- Extra Example 3: Pipe Natural Frequencies-3

IV. Electricity and Magnetism

Electric Force

56m 18s

- Intro0:00
- Electric Charge0:18
- Matter Consists of Atom1:01
- Two Types of Particles: Protons & Neutrons1:48
- Object with Excess Electrons: Negatively Charged7:58
- Carbon Atom8:30
- Positively Charged Object9:55
- Electric Charge10:07
- Rubber Rod Rubs Against Fur (Negative Charge)10:16
- Glass Rod Rub Against Silk (Positive Charge)11:48
- Hanging Rubber Rod12:44
- Conductors and Insulators16:00
- Electrons Close to Nucleus18:34
- Conductors Have Mobile Charge21:30
- Insulators: No Moving Electrons23:06
- Copper Wire Connected to Excess Negative charge23:22
- Other End Connected to Excess Positive Charge24:09
- Charging a Metal Object27:25
- By Contact28:05
- Metal Sphere on an Insulating Stand28:16
- Charging by Induction30:59
- Negative Rubber Rod31:26
- Size of Atom36:08
- Extra Example 1: Three Metallic Objects-1
- Extra Example 2: Rubber Rod and Two Metal Spheres-2

Coulomb's Law

1h 27m 18s

- Intro0:00
- Coulomb's Law0:59
- Two Point Charges by Distance R1:11
- Permitivity of Free Space5:28
- Charges on the Vertices of a Triangle8:00
- 3 Charges on Vertices of Right Triangle8:29
- Charge of 4, -5 and -2 micro-Coulombs10:00
- Force Acting on Each Charge10:58
- Charges on a Line21:29
- 2 Charges on X-Axis22:40
- Where Should Q should be Placed, Net Force =023:23
- Two Small Spheres Attached to String31:08
- Adding Some Charge32:03
- Equilibrium Net Force on Each Sphere = 033:38
- Simple Harmonic Motion of Point Charge37:40
- Two Charges on Y-Axis37:55
- Charge is Attracted39:52
- Magnitude of Net Force on Q42:23
- Extra Example 1: Vertices of Triangle-1
- Extra Example 2: Tension in String-2
- Extra Example 3: Two Conducting Spheres-3
- Extra Example 4: Force on Charge-4

Electric Field

1h 37m 24s

- Intro0:00
- Definition of Electric Field0:11
- Q1 Produces Electric Field3:23
- Charges on a Conductor4:26
- Field of a Point Charge13:10
- Charge Point Between Two Fields13:20
- Electric Field E=kq/r214:29
- Direction of the Charge Field15:10
- Positive Charge, Field is Radially Out15:45
- Field of a Collection of a Point Charge19:40
- Two Charges Q1,Q219:56
- Q1 Positive, Electric Field is Radially Out20:32
- Q2 is Negative, Electric Field is Radially Inward20:46
- 4 Charges are Equal23:54
- Parallel Plate Capacitor25:42
- Two Plates ,Separated by a Distance26:44
- Fringe Effect30:26
- E=Constant Between the Parallel Plate Capacitor30:40
- Electric Field Lines35:16
- Pictorial Representation of Electric Field35:30
- Electric Lines are Tangent to the Vector35:57
- Lines Start at Positive Charge, End on Negative Charge41:24
- Parallel Line Proportional to Charge45:51
- Lines Never Cross46:00
- Conductors and Shielding49:33
- Static Equilibrium51:09
- No Net Moment of Charge53:09
- Electric Field is Perpendicular to the Surface of Conductor55:40
- Extra Example 1: Plastic Sphere Between Capacitor-1
- Extra Example 2: Electron Between Capacitor-2
- Extra Example 3: Zero Electric Field-3
- Extra Example 4: Dimensional Analysis-4

Electric Potential

1h 17m 9s

- Intro0:00
- Electric Potential Difference0:11
- Example :Earth and Object0:36
- Work Done2:01
- Work Done Against Field5:31
- Difference in Potential, Between Points9:08
- Va=Vb+Ed11:35
- Potential Difference in a Constant Electric Field18:03
- Force Applied Along the Path18:42
- Work Done Along the Path23:28
- Potential Difference is Same23:45
- Point Charge28:50
- Electric Field of Point Charge is Radial29:10
- Force Applied is Perpendicular to Displacement32:01
- Independent of Path41:08
- Collection of Point Charge43:56
- Electric Potential at Charge Points44:15
- Equipotentail Surface46:33
- Plane Perpendicular to Field46:49
- Force Perpendicular to Surface47:37
- Potential Energy: System of a Two Point Charges54:17
- Work Done in Moving the Charge to Infinity55:53
- Potential Energy: System of Point Charges57:05
- Extra Example 1: Electric Potential of Particle-1
- Extra Example 2: Particle Fired at Other Particle-2

Capacitor

1h 24m 14s

- Intro0:00
- Capacitance0:09
- Consider Two Conductor s0:25
- Electric Field Passing from Positive to Negative1:19
- Potential Difference3:31
- Defining Capacitance3:51
- Parallel Plate Capacitance8:30
- Two Metallic Plates of Area a and Distance d8:46
- Potential Difference between Plates13:12
- Capacitance with a Dielectric22:14
- Applying Electric Field to a Capacitor22:44
- Dielectric30:32
- Example34:56
- Empty Capacitor35:12
- Connecting Capacitor to a Battery35:26
- Inserting Dielectric Between Plates39:02
- Energy of a Charged Capacitor43:01
- Work Done in Moving a Charge, Difference in Potential47:48
- Example54:10
- Parallel Plate Capacitor54:22
- Connect and Disconnect the Battery55:27
- Calculating Q=cv55:50
- Withdraw Mica Sheet56:49
- Word Done in Withdrawing the Mica1:00:23
- Extra Example 1: Parallel Plate Capacitor-1
- Extra Example 2: Mica Dielectric-2

Combination of Capacitors

1h 3m 23s

- Intro0:00
- Parallel Combination0:20
- Two Capacitors in Parallel With a Battery0:40
- Electric Field is Outside5:47
- Point A is Directly Connected to Positive Terminal7:57
- Point B is Directly Connected to Negative Terminal8:10
- Voltage Across Capacitor12:54
- Energy Stored14:52
- Series Combination17:58
- Two Capacitors Connected End to End With a Battery18:10
- Equivalent Capacitor25:20
- A is Same Potential26:59
- C is Same Potential27:06
- Potential Difference Across First Capacitor (Va-Vb)27:42
- (Vb-Vc) is Potential Difference Across Second Capacitor28:10
- Energy Stored in C1,C229:53
- Example31:07
- Two Capacitor in Series, 2 in Parallel, 3 in Parallel, 1 Capacitor Connected31:28
- Final Equivalent Circuit37:31
- Extra Example 1: Four Capacitors-1
- Extra Example 2: Circuit with Switches-2

Electric Current

1h 19m 17s

- Intro0:00
- Definition0:20
- Consider a Wire ,Cylindrical0:40
- Cross Sectional Area1:06
- Crossing Charges Will be Counted2:50
- Amount of Charge Crosses Cross Sectional Area3:29
- Current I=q/t4:18
- Charges Flowing in Opposite Direction5:58
- Current Density6:19
- Applying Electric Field11:50
- Current in a Wire15:24
- Wire With a Cross Section Area A15:33
- Current Flowing to Right18:57
- How Much Charge Crosses Area A19:15
- Drift Velocity20:02
- Carriers in Cylinder22:40
- Ohm's Law24:58
- Va-Vb = Electric Field times Length of Wire28:27
- Ohm's Law28:54
- Consider a Copper Wire of 1m , Cross Sectional Area 1cm/sq34:24
- Temperature Effect37:07
- Heating a Wire37:05
- Temperature Co-Efficient of Resistivity39:57
- Battery EMF43:00
- Connecting a Resistance to Battery44:30
- Potential Difference at Terminal of Battery45:15
- Power53:30
- Battery Connected with a Resistance53:47
- Work Done on Charge56:55
- Energy Lost Per Second1:00:35
- Extra Example 1: Current-1
- Extra Example 2: Water Heater-2

Circuits

1h 34m 8s

- Intro0:00
- Simple Rules0:16
- Resistance in Series0:33
- Current Passing Per Second is Equal1:36
- Potential Difference3:10
- Parallel Circuit, R1, R25:08
- Battery, Current Starts From Positive Terminal to Negative Terminal10:08
- Series Combination of Resistances13:06
- R1, R2 Connected to Battery13:35
- Va-Vb=Ir1,Vb-Vc=Ir216:59
- Three Resistance Connected in Series Req=r1+r2+r318:55
- Parallel Combination of Resistance19:28
- R1 and R2 Combined Parallel19:50
- I=i1+i2 (Total Current)24:26
- Requ=I/E24:51
- A Simple Circuit27:57
- Intro28:40
- Current Splits29:15
- Total Resistance31:52
- Current I= 6/17.235:10
- Another Simple Circuit37:46
- Battery has Small Internal Resistance38:02
- 2 Ohms Internal Resistance, and Two Resistance in Parallel38:24
- Drawing Circuit48:53
- Finding Current52:06
- RC Circuit55:17
- Battery , Resistance and Capacitance Connected55:30
- Current is Function of Time58:00
- R, C are Time Constants59:25
- Extra Example 1: Resistor Current/Power-1
- Extra Example 2: Find Current-2
- Extra Example 3: Find Current-3
- Extra Example 4: Find Current-4

Kirchhoff's Rules

1h 42m 2s

- Intro0:00
- First Kirchhoff Rule0:19
- Two Resistance Connected With a Battery0:29
- Many Resistance1:40
- Increase in Potential from A to B4:46
- Charge Flowing fromHigher Potential to Lower Potential5:13
- Second Kirchhoff Rule9:17
- Current Entering9:27
- Total Current Arriving is Equal Current Leaving13:20
- Example14:10
- Battery 6 V, Resistance 20, 30 Ohms and Another Battery 4v14:30
- Current Entering I2+I321:18
- Example 231:20
- 2 Loop circuit with 6v and 12 v and Resistance, Find Current in Each Resistance32:29
- Example 342:02
- Battery and Resistance in Loops42:23
- Ammeters and Voltmeters56:22
- Measuring Current is Introducing an Ammeter56:35
- Connecting Voltmeter, High Resistance57:31
- Extra Example 1: Find Current-1
- Extra Example 2: Find Current-2
- Extra Example 3: Find Current-3

Magnetic Field

1h 38m 19s

- Intro0:00
- Magnets0:13
- Compass Will Always Point North3:49
- Moving a Compass Needle5:50
- Force on a Charged Particles10:37
- Electric Field and Charge Particle Q10:48
- Charge is Positive Force11:11
- Charge Particle is At Rest13:38
- Taking a Charged Particle and Moving to Right16:15
- Using Right Hand Rule23:37
- C= Magnitude of A, B26:30
- Magnitude of C26:55
- Motion of Particle in Uniform Magnetic Field33:30
- Magnetic Field has Same Direction34:02
- Direction of Force38:40
- Work Done By Force=041:40
- Force is Perpendicular With Velocity42:00
- Bending an Electron Beam48:09
- Heating a Filament48:29
- Kinetic Energy of Battery51:54
- Introducing Magnetic Field52:10
- Velocity Selector53:45
- Selecting Particles of Specific Velocity54:00
- Parallel Plate Capacitor54:30
- Magnetic Force56:20
- Magnitude of Force56:45
- Extra Example 1: Vectors-1
- Extra Example 2: Proton in Magnetic Field-2
- Extra Example 3: Proton Circular Path-3

Force on a Current in a Magnetic Field

1h 16m 3s

- Intro0:00
- Effect of Magnetic Field on Current0:44
- Conduction Wire, Horse Shoe Magnet0:55
- Introducing a Battery to the Wire3:10
- Wire Bends Pushing Left3:50
- Wire Bends Toward Right5:08
- In Absence of Magnetic Field5:34
- Magnet and Wire Force Towards Upward10:22
- Force11:55
- Conductor Connected to Battery, Carrying Current to Right12:52
- Magnetic Field Oriented into Page13:20
- Force on 1 Change20:00
- Total Force on Wire21:45
- Vector of magnitude25:40
- Direction is Scalar26:12
- Force on Wire31:00
- Torque on a Current loop35:38
- Square of Rectangle of Wire in Loop35:49
- Passing Current36:14
- Force on 136:25
- Force on 340:46
- Force on 242:26
- Force on 445:12
- Example49:33
- Wire of Length49:50
- Magnetic Field, Force on Wire52:37
- Extra Example 1: Lifting a Wire-1
- Extra Example 2: Rod on Two Rails-2
- Extra Example 3: Rod on Two Rails with Friction-3

Magnetic Field Produced by Currents

1h 16m 19s

- Intro0:00
- Long Straight Wire0:49
- Long Wire Connect to Battery (Imaginary Plane)1:07
- Introducing a Compass3:15
- Amperes Law/Biot-Savart law8:01
- Wire With Current I8:35
- Magnetic Permeability of Free Space11:41
- Example13:22
- Wire With Current 5 Amps13:35
- Calculation Magnetic Field Produced By Wire16:42
- Magnetic Force Between Parallel Current Carrying Wire21:34
- Two Wires Carrying Curren21:45
- Calculating Force of Attraction23:27
- Magnetic Field B Produced by First Wire25:14
- Force on Second Wire28:33
- Example33:59
- Wire on Ground34:10
- Another Wire34:24
- Magnetic Force on Wire 237:35
- Coils41:16
- Circular Loop42:25
- Magnetic Field is Not Uniform42:55
- Magnetic Field at Center43:11
- Solenoid46:20
- Wire of length L in Coil with a Battery47:11
- Extra Example 1: Two Parallel Wires-1
- Extra Example 2: Magnetic Field of Wires-2

Electromagnetic Induction

1h 34m 15s

- Intro0:00
- Induced EMF0:51
- Electro Motive Force1:05
- Hang a Wire Loop and Using a Magnet3:02
- Magnetic Field is Strong7:07
- Induced EMF is Not Related9:20
- Motional EMF11:43
- Conducting Metal12:10
- Rod Moves to Right12:52
- Force Exerted on Charge Carrier15:20
- Potential Difference20:05
- Example25:57
- Rod in Magnetic Field, Connected by Wires27:10
- Power Dissipated32:18
- In 1 Minute, Total Energy Consumption34:53
- Where Does the Energy Come From37:50
- Magnetic Waves with Conductive Bar38:12
- To Keep the Rod Moving With Constant Velocity46:33
- Work Done By External Agent in 1 Min46:50
- Relation to Magnetic Flux51:03
- Area Swept by Rod54:44
- Magnetic Flux57:34
- Magnetic Field is Constant57:50
- Area Perpendicular To field58:02
- Extra Example 1: Motional EMF of Rod-1
- Extra Example 2: Motional EMF, Current, Power-2
- Extra Example 3: Current in Resistor-3

Faraday's Law

1h 30m 49s

- Intro0:00
- Faraday's Law0:57
- Coil Connected to Battery With Switch1:14
- Closed Switch Ammeter Reads Current3:45
- Current in First Coil Drops to Zero8:30
- Change in Flux Generates Current8:53
- Induced EMF9:13
- Example13:45
- Coil Has N Turns13:55
- Connecting the Ends of Wire to Resistance14:40
- Total Flux16:55
- Motional EMF Revisited25:04
- Rod Moving in a Magnetic Field25:24
- Magnetic Force Pushes Electrons28:01
- Magnetic Field is Perpendicular to Area31:50
- Flux in Loop32:15
- Lenz's Law40:03
- Magnetic Field into Page40:30
- Current Induced by Increased Flux44:35
- Current Induced to Oppose Change in Flux49:28
- Flux is Increasing, Opposing Created Magnetic Field In Opposite Direction55:01
- Extra Example 1: Loop of Wire in Magnetic Field-1
- Extra Example 2: Coil in Square-2
- Extra Example 3: Decreasing Magnetic Field-3

V. Optics

Reflection of Light

1h 12m 22s

- Intro0:00
- Nature of Light0:22
- Aristotle: Light Illuminated from Eye0:58
- Light Rays15:50
- Light Source Eliminates Stream Of Light16:22
- Wave Fronts and Crests16:57
- Reflection18:50
- Sending Light on Surface19:01
- Light Reflects Parallel Out19:20
- Specular Reflection20:06
- Surface is Not Smooth20:16
- Reflected in Different Direction20:35
- Law of Reflection21:47
- Light Ray Hits the Plane Mirror22:08
- Drawing Normal Perpendicular to Surface of Mirror22:50
- Angle of Incidence23:15
- Angle of Reflection23:50
- Path of Least Time26:43
- Fermat's Principle30:14
- Light Takes Path of Shortest Time38:49
- Formation of Image by Plane Mirror40:11
- Plane Mirror and a Source40:20
- Looking at first Reflection42:30
- S is the Real Object48:05
- Real and Virtual Object and Image50:10
- Optical Instrument50:37
- If Rays are Divergent Object is Real51:42
- Rays are Convergent, Virtual Object52:54
- Extra Example 1: Object Between Two Mirrors-1
- Extra Example 2: Plane Mirror Polished Side Up-2

Spherical Mirror

1h 30m 39s

- Intro0:00
- Concave and Convex Mirror0:17
- Piece of Mirror From a Spherical Mirror1:00
- If Inner face is Polished, Concave Mirror2:00
- Principal Axix3:41
- Polished Outer Side, Convex Mirror4:15
- Focal Point5:21
- Consider a Concave Mirror6:03
- Sending a Ray of Parallel Light6:18
- Paraxial Rays9:36
- Ray Diagrams19:10
- Concave Mirror19:25
- Principal Axis19:40
- Rays Diverging Virtual Image29:14
- Image Formation in Concave Mirrors: Real Object30:20
- Real Object30:51
- Draw a Ray to Principal Axis31:05
- Put the Object beyond F38:13
- Image Formation in Concave Mirrors: Virtual Object46:44
- Rays Leaving the Image: Diverging48:00
- Summary of Concave Mirror56:17
- Real Object real Image56:52
- Real Object Virtual Image57:11
- Virtual Object Real Image57:24
- Virtual Object Virtual Image57:40
- Extra Example 1: Concave Mirror Image Location-1
- Extra Example 2: Concave Mirror Focal Length-2
- Extra Example 3: Concave Mirror Image Location-3

Convex Mirror

1h 6m 47s

- Intro0:00
- Image Formation: Real Object0:21
- Drawing ray Parallel to Principal Axis1:15
- Virtual Object Producing real Image17:41
- Image Formation: Virtual Objects18:21
- Ray Going through C and Reflects Back18:40
- Real Object Virtual Image26:20
- Virtual Object: Real Image26:30
- Virtual Object: Virtual Image27:00
- Summary35:30
- Size of Image Over Size of Object36:12
- Magnification41:47
- Example: Convex Mirror42:38
- Extra Example 1: Convex Mirror-1
- Extra Example 2: Convex or Concave-2

Refraction of Light, Part 1

1h 30m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Index of Refraction0:31
- Speed of Light1:15
- Speed of Light in Medium3:02
- Index of Refraction of Medium3:33
- Index of Refraction of Water4:52
- Index of Refraction of Glass5:13
- Snell's Law8:09
- Light is Incident from One Medium to Another9:05
- Light Bends Toward the Normal10:49
- Example: Air/Water12:32
- Light is Incident at Angle of 53 Degrees13:09
- Water is more Optically Dense Than Air17:20
- Apparent Depth18:19
- Container of Water19:01
- Penny at the Bottom19:17
- Light Ray is Perpendicular to the Surface19:35
- From Snell's Law29:39
- Derivation of Snell's Law32:38
- Idea of Wave Fronts33:05
- Second Derivation of Snell's Law48:17
- Same as Fermat's Principal48:38
- Air and Water49:10
- Extra Example 1: Light Hits Glass-1
- Extra Example 2: Find Theta-2
- Extra Example 3: Index of Refraction-3

Refraction of Light, Part 2

1h 21m 37s

- Intro0:00
- Prism and the Rainbow0:13
- Monochromatic Light Through Prism1:09
- Sending White Light Through Prism7:08
- Violet Bends More Than Red Light8:12
- Angle Between Incident Light and Red13:25
- Water Drops in the Atmosphere14:10
- Total Internal Reflection18:13
- Surface has Air and Water18:30
- Increase Angle19:33
- Light Traveling in a Larger Index and Meets Lower Index29:30
- Water and Air Angle of Refraction is 90 Degree29:57
- Optical Fibers32:22
- Long Coaxial Cable32:40
- Choose Angle for No Light Leakage35:03
- Thin Lenses45:13
- Two Pieces of Transparent Glass45:58
- Plano Convex47:32
- Bi-Concave47:50
- Plano Concave48:05
- Lens Maker Formula51:59
- Ray Diagrams53:44
- Ray Through the Center53:06
- Extra Example 1: Angle of Incidence-1
- Extra Example 2: Block Underwater-2

Images Formed by Lenses

1h 25m 20s

- Intro0:00
- Converging Lenses: Real Objects0:25
- Ray Going Through Center1:50
- Converging Lens: Virtual Objects18:30
- Reverse Path20:40
- Virtual Object Real Image22:47
- Diverging Lens24:59
- Lens Summary33:40
- Object, Lens, Image34:52
- Object Distance to Lens35:21
- Image Distance to Lens36:01
- Focal Length36:12
- Magnification37:21
- Example: Converging Lens38:07
- Q=50 cm Real Image41:52
- Move Object 10 cm From the Lens42:30
- Diverging Lens45:20
- Extra Example 1: Converging Lens-1
- Extra Example 2: Diverging Lens-2
- Extra Example 3: Two Thing Converging Lenses-3
- Extra Example 4: Diverging Lens Final Image-4

Interference of Light Waves

1h 27m 2s

- Intro0:00
- Condition for Interference0:24
- Two Light Sources S1, S20:49
- Source are Incoherent1:36
- Uniform Intensity on Screen6:10
- Source Should be Coherent6:31
- Source with Single Wavelength7:30
- Two Slits with One Source8:37
- Young's Double Slit Experiment13:33
- Wave Front Looks Planer14:15
- Light Propagates Like Waves17:58
- Constructive and Destructive Interference22:39
- Two Slits Separated by d23:01
- Consider a Point at Center of Screen24:33
- Path Difference34:46
- Constructive Interference35:59
- Destructive Interference36:05
- Example43:52
- Two Slits Separated44:09
- Screen is 2 ms Away44:30
- Second Order Maximum45:06
- First Maximum48:48
- Extra Example 1: Double Slit Wavelength-1
- Extra Example 2: Two Radio Antennas-2
- Extra Example 3: Double Slit Thickness-3

Thin Film Interference

1h 4m 58s

- Intro0:00
- Change of Phase Due to Reflection0:37
- Plane Mirror1:28
- Object Produces Virtual Image1:48
- Consider a Screen and Point2:04
- Path Difference3:40
- Constructive Interferences5:09
- Destructive Interference5:26
- Two Media N1, N215:25
- N2>N1 Changes in Phase 180 Degrees15:40
- Thin Film Interference18:50
- Air and Film and Air Film of Thickness19:12
- Angle of Incident is Very Small19:40
- Two Waves are Destructive22:14
- Path Difference22:30
- If Delta=1, 2, 3 No Change in Phase27:44
- Destructive Interference29:12
- Constructive Interferences32:45
- Example: Soap Bubbles33:34
- Air, Soap, Air33:55
- Thickness Results in Constructive Interference35:58
- Example: Non-Reflective Coating For Solar Cells38:05
- Sending Light41:50
- Destructive Interference44:08
- Extra Example 1: Spaced Plates Separation-1
- Extra Example 2: Oil Film-2

Diffraction

1h 18m 22s

- Intro0:00
- Diffraction of Waves0:18
- Source of Sound Waves0:31
- Huygens' Principle1:14
- Diffraction of Light from Narrow Slit10:57
- Light From a Distant Source11:48
- Pick Any Point13:55
- Source of Wave Front14:36
- Waves Traveling Parallel to Each Other15:27
- Franhofer Diffraction19:38
- Drawing Perpendicular20:12
- First Maximum23:12
- Every Wave Has Interference and Diffraction27:44
- Width of Central Maximum32:49
- Width of Slit is 0.2 mm33:13
- Monochromatic Light33:40
- If Angle is << 136:39
- If W= 2cms41:15
- Intensity of Diffraction Patterns44:21
- Plotting Intensity Versus Light44:59
- Resolution45:35
- Considering Two Source45:55
- Two Objects Resolved46:41
- Rayleigh Principle47:44
- Diffraction Grating51:18
- First Order Max58:00
- Intensity Shown in Figure58:21
- Extra Example 1: Slit Diffraction-1
- Extra Example 2: Minima in Diffraction Pattern-2
- Extra Example 3: Diffraction Grating-3

VI. Modern Physics

Dual Nature of Light

1h 19m 2s

- Intro0:00
- Photoelectric Effect0:13
- Shine Light on Metal Surface2:39
- Another Metal Surface Both Enclosed and Connected to Battery3:02
- Connecting Ammeter to Read Current3:50
- Connecting a Variable Voltage4:20
- Negative Voltage Has Stopping Potential10:20
- Features of Photoelectric Effect20:44
- Dependence on Intensity21:01
- Energy Carried By Wave Proportional to Intensity21:11
- Kinetic Energy23:21
- Dependence of Photoemission on Time23:40
- Dependence on Frequency26:54
- Measuring Maximum Kinetic Energy31:11
- Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect31:21
- Stream of Quantum Particles33:00
- Dim Blue Light, Few Photons36:42
- Bright Red Light, Many Photons37:31
- Electron is Bound to Surface of Metal39:33
- Example44:20
- Incident Light 200 nm45:20
- Compton Scattering50:22
- Shooting X-Rays at Targets50:45
- Photons Colliding with Electrons55:48
- Compton Wavelength of Electron56:05
- Example57:25
- Lambda=0.1nm57:30
- Extra Example 1: Photoelectric Effect-1
- Extra Example 2: Different Frequency Radiation-2

Matter Waves

1h 30m 10s

- Intro0:00
- De Broglie Wavelength1:42
- Photon of light E=hf4:23
- For particles Lambda=hp12:20
- Davisson and Germer, Electron Diffraction14:06
- Double Slit, Instead of Light Shooting Electrons18:25
- Detecting Electrons on Flourescent Screen18:55
- Bright Fringes21:37
- Example26:03
- Electron Moves26:18
- Kinetic Energy of Electron32:20
- Wavelength of Baseball33:59
- Refraction Pattern40:00
- Uncertainty Principle41:44
- Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle42:05
- Sending an Electron Through a Hole47:54
- In Y Direction the Position is Uncertain51:54
- Example57:00
- Speed of Electron57:09
- Position of Electron1:00:38
- Extra Example 1: Kinetic Energy of Electrons-1
- Extra Example 2: Uncertainty Principle-2
- Extra Example 3: Wavelength of Electron and Photon-3

Hydrogen Atom

1h 25m 50s

- Intro0:00
- Nuclear Model0:12
- J.J. Thomson Discovered Electrons1:40
- Rutherford Experiment2:52
- Example: Solar System13:39
- Planetary Model14:40
- Centripetal Acceleration16:48
- Line Spectra18:48
- Low Pressure Gas Connecting to High Voltage19:37
- Group of Wavelength21:06
- Emission Spectra21:28
- Lyman22:38
- Balmer Series22:52
- Pascen Series23:04
- Bohr's Model27:14
- Electron in Circular Orbit27:30
- Stationary Orbits28:34
- Radiation is Emitted When Electron Makes Transition29:37
- For Each Orbit Mass, Speed, Radius33:55
- Quantized Energy of the Bohr Model35:58
- Electron in Circular Orbit36:24
- Total Energy45:18
- Line Spectra Intercepted46:12
- Energy of Orbit46:30
- Balmer Series53:36
- Paschen Series53:56
- Example54:57
- N=1 and N=255:01
- Extra Example 1: Balmer Series for Hydrogen-1
- Extra Example 2: Minimum n for Hydrogen-2
- Extra Example 3: Energy to Transition Electron-3

Nuclear Physics

1h 30m 30s

- Intro0:00
- Nucleus0:33
- Positively Charged Particles0:53
- Z=Atomic Mass Number2:08
- Example of Carbon, 6 Protons and 6 Neutrons5:34
- Nucleus with 27 Protons10:48
- Binding Energy18:56
- Intro19:10
- Helium Nucleus19:51
- Binding Energy24:28
- Alpha Decay29:08
- Energy of Uranium38:04
- Beta Decay43:03
- Nuclei Emits Negative Particles45:00
- Beta Particles are Electrons45:24
- Gamma Decay57:01
- Gamma Ray is Photon of High Energy57:13
- Nucleus Emits a Photon59:02
- Extra Example 1: Radium Alpha Decay-1
- Extra Example 2: Binding Energy of Iron-2
- Extra Example 3: Missing Particle-3

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0 answers

Post by NGAWANG TSERING on March 17, 2013

1 as the slit width increased for single slit experiment which one is right answer:

a. the spacing between the central maximum to first minimum increased

b. spacing between the central maximum to first maximum decreased

c, spacing between maxima stayed the same

2 As the wavelength shorten the

a spacing between the central maximum to first minimum increases

b spacing between the central maximum to first minimum decreases

c spacing between the maximum stayed the same

3. As the slit to screen distance L gets bigger the

a spacing between the central maximum to first minimum increases

b spacing between the central maximum to first minimum decreases

c spacing between the maximum stayed the same

For double slit experiment

4 As the slit separation increased the

a spacing between maxima increased

b spacing between maxima decreased

c spacing between maxima stayed same

d the number of maxima in the central region defined by single slit pattern increased

e the number of maxima in the central region of the single slit pattern decreased

5 As the width of individual slits increased the

a spacing between maxima increased

b spacing between maxima decreased

c spacing between maxima stayed same

d the number of maxima in the central region defined by single slit pattern increased

e the number of maxima in the central region of the single slit pattern decreased

6 What happened if blue light is used instead of red light

7 what happened when the light source is moved closer to the double slits

8. what happened when screen is moved farther away

9 the slits are made narrower

please answer if possible