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For more information, please see full course syllabus of AP Physics B
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Lecture Comments (3)

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Post by Jamal Tischler on January 24, 2016

If you take into account the rotational and vibrational energy, there will apear a new term in the formula: E=(i/3)kT. Where i is the freedom degree ( i=3 for monoatomic, i=5 for diatomic, i=6 for poliatomic).

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Post by William Dawson on December 7, 2009

I understand that roatational and vibrational energy have to be accounted for as well but the premise still holds that a heavier molecule will not make the atmosphere hold more heat, as it will depend on photon radiation to get energy and it will travel slower, since the Sun's photons hit the N2 , O2 and CO2 the same. That's b/c of the Poynting vector which is not so specifically selective of what it hits.

all those details still only make the case further that the planet's warming is not due to minor increases in a particular molecular component in the atmosphere, and only increasing the overal density and thus specific heat capacity of the atmosphere would do anything to cause it to hold more heat.

sounds like the climate mafia was all hoping we wouldnt take classes like this one. shame on the scientists that have been bought and are not speaking honestly about the fact that he CO2 hypothesis violates basic energy conservation and gas laws.

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Post by William Dawson on December 6, 2009

So if the avg energy of oxygen is the same as Hydrogen in the atmosphere, then the avg energy of Nitrogen is about the same per molecule as well..... then the avg energy of carbon dioxide is the same as the average energy of molecular Nitrogen and molecular Oxygen , so the slight increase in the amount of one type of molecule does not effect overall kinetic energy, and temperature is a measure of avg molecular kinetic energy, and the entire global warming as a result of CO2 increase is a complete impossibility. If the planet is warming it must be due to the Sun, b/c basic gas laws prove that Al Gore et al are complete frauds!!

Kinetic Theory of Gases

  • Ideal gas law: PV = nRT, where P is the pressure, V is the volume, n is the number of moles, R = 8.314 J/(mole. K) is the universal gas constant, and T is the temperature in K.
  • The number of moles n = N/Na, where N is the number of atoms (or molecules), and Na is Avogadro’s number.
  • The root mean square speed of a molecule, Vrms, is equal to the square root of 3RT/M, where M is the molecular mass of the gas.
  • The translational kinetic energy of n moles of a gas is 3nRT/2.
  • In a gas at a given temperature, there is a distribution of speeds of the molecules. Some molecules move relatively slowly and others move relatively fast.

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Ideal Gas Law 0:08
    • Ideal Gas Definition
    • 1 Mole of Gas
    • Avogadro's Number
    • Gas in a Container, Pressure Increases with Temperature
    • Ideal Gas law
    • Boltzmann's Constant
  • Example 13:30
    • Conceptual Example
    • Shake and Open the Coke Bottle
    • Quantitative Example: Container with Gas
    • Heat the Gas to 127 Degrees
  • Kinetic Theory 24:06
    • Container in a Cube Shape
    • Molecules Travelling with Velocity v
    • Change in Momentum of Molecule Per Second
    • Newton's Third law
  • Example 45:40
    • 5 Moles of Helium in Container
    • Finding Number of Atoms
    • Calculating Pressure
  • Distribution of Molecules 49:45
    • Root Mean Square
  • Extra Example 1: Helium Gas in Balloon
  • Extra Example 2: Oxygen Molecules