There are two kinds of configurations for circuits: series and parallel, and these two types can be combined in many different ways in a full circuit. The mathematical properties of each element in Ohms law differ depending on the kind of circuit, but the laws (Ohms and Kirchhoffs Rules) remain true for both. Be sure to become familiar with the symbols used when diagramming circuits as it will be impossible to read a circuit without knowing even one symbol. In addition to the symbols, there are different properties of current, voltage, and resistance in series and parallel circuits that you must know. For example, in a series circuit if one element is removed, the whole circuit is broken. In the next video (parallel circuits) youll see how parallel circuits differ greatly from series circuits.
Ohm’s Law is an empirical law which states that the potential drop across a resistor is equal to the product of the current through the resistor and the resistance.
Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is transformed into other types of energy.
Conventional current flows from high potential to low potential in a circuit. Electron current flows in the opposite direction.
Current only flows in complete paths.
Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law states that the sum of all potential drops around a close loop must be zero. This is a restatement of the law of conservation of energy.
Kirchhoff’s Current Law states that the sum of all current entering any point in a circuit must equal the sum of all current leaving that point. This is a restatement of the law of conservation of charge.
Voltmeters are connected in parallel with the element to be measured. They have a very high resistance.
Ammeters are connected in series with the element to be measured. They have a very low resistance.
Real batteries have some amount of inherent resistance, known as the internal resistance of the battery. The terminal voltage is slightly lower than the battery’s emf due to the potential drop across the internal resistance of the battery in an operating circuit.
Circuits I: Series Circuits
Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.
This book includes a comprehensive review of the key AP Physics C concepts and targeted strategies for acing every section of the exam. Additionally, the book includes two full length practice tests with full answer explanations.
The book offers a complete review of your AP course, strategies to give you the edge on test day, and plenty of practice with AP-style test questions. It includes 2 full length practice exams modeled on the real test, 3 separate plans to fit your study stle, review material updated to the most recent tests, and all the terms and concepts you need to know.