For more information, please see full course syllabus of Statistics

For more information, please see full course syllabus of Statistics

### Frequency Distributions in Excel

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

- Intro 0:00
- Roadmap 0:08
- Data in Excel and Frequency Distributions
- Raw Data to Frequency Tables 0:42
- Raw Data to Frequency Tables
- Frequency Tables: Using Formulas and Pivot Tables
- Example 1: Number of Births 7:17
- Example 2: Age Distribution 20:41
- Example 3: Height Distribution 27:45
- Example 4: Height Distribution of Males 32:19

### General Statistics Online Course

### Transcription: Frequency Distributions in Excel

*Hi welcome to www.educator.com.*0000

*We are going to be talking about how to create frequency distributions in Excel from raw data.*0003

*We are just going to overview when sample data set in Excel already, you can download it from one of the links below.*0012

*When we are going to talk about how to create frequency distributions from that data *0022

*but in order to create these distributions visualize a bowl of seeable distributions.*0027

*We need to go first from the data to frequency tables, then from the tables we will go to the visualizations.*0034

*First, going from raw data to frequency tables.*0046

*The reason we want to do this is oftentimes when we look at raw data it is really hard to make sense of.*0050

*It is just rows and rows and rows of data.*0055

*It would be nice if somebody could summarize that data for us so that we can visualize it.*0059

*When we summarize and visualize that data we get a sense of what the data looks like.*0066

*We are going to be talking later about actual shapes of distributions.*0071

*There are two ways to go and do frequency tables in Excel.*0076

*One is by using formulas.*0080

*Here we are going to be using the formula count F and the other way is to use pivot tables.*0083

*I’m going to show you one example of using pivot tables but we are going to be using mostly the formulas.*0090

*If you want to open up your Excel file that has all of our data in it, this is a sample data set of 100 friends from www.facebook.com.*0100

*Notice that they all have this CID which is their case ID and each column shows some sort of characteristic or variable.*0110

*Each cell for each person has a value for that variable.*0124

*Let us look at example 1, CID 1, case number1.*0131

*For this person they have 4 tagged photos, not a lot of tagged photos.*0137

*They have to seem 0 mobile uploads, again not a lot of mobile uploads, maybe they do Not have a smart phone right?*0143

*If we go down the line we could see that there are lots and lots and lots of variables here.*0150

*There are tagged photos, mobile photos, uploaded photos, profile pictures, then number of friends, number of siblings, relationship status right?*0154

*There is a whole bunch of these.*0167

*Here is one that we are going to be focusing on today, birth month.*0169

*Birth month is going to be important for us today.*0172

*We are going to be looking at age and height.*0176

*If I asked you if you see these 100 people and I will show them to you all at once so you could see them.*0184

*Here is this 100 people what can you tell me about their age.*0193

*What can you tell me about their height?*0197

*It will be hard to do because it is just lines and lines and lines of data.*0199

*It will be nice if there was one way where we could just easily see all the data at once in a way where it was a little more tangible to us.*0204

*That is where we are going to be talking about how to visualize these and how to create frequency tables.*0216

*In the files that I provided for you, I put in little tabs already.*0219

*One of the sheets has all of our data in it and one of the sheets talks about the variables.*0225

*Here we have a whole bunch of different variable names like the case ID number, the tagged photos, *0235

*how many photos they are tagged in, mobile uploads, how many mobile photos uploaded, relationship status, birth month, birth year, gender.*0239

*These are a whole bunch of different variables that are already in this data set.*0249

*I also have a column that tells you what kind of measure it is.*0254

*Is it a nominal measure where it is just a number but it really stands for a name?*0259

*Relationship status is one of those where there is a number there like 1, 2, 3 or 4 but it does not mean *0264

*that the relationship status is literally like the number 1, it actually means if you scroll over, if they have a zero it means that their 0440.9 relationship status is blank.*0271

*If they have a 1 it means that their single.*0283

*If they have 2, that means there in a relationship.*0286

*If it is 3, they are engaged.*0289

*If it is a 4, they are married and if it is a 5, it is complicated.*0291

*And 6 if it is other right?*0295

*That is an example of what we call a nominal type of measure.*0297

*Just so you can see all of these things at the same time, if you look down here there is this two little blue rectangles.*0302

*If you drag that over then you could sort of keep this column just static and locked while you move these columns.*0311

*We can also see that birth month is what we call an interval, it can also be seen as ordinal.*0324

*It is not quite interval because it is technically like 30 or 31 days, it is not exactly the same interval but you could sometimes call it interval.*0332

*Each of the numbers represent one of the months.*0344

*Birth year is also interval, there is an interval of exactly one year.*0350

*Gender is obviously nominal because even though there is a 1 or 2 it does not mean that their gender is 1 or 2.*0354

*It means that if they have a 1 they are male.*0362

*If they have a 2, they are female.*0364

*Some things like friends is really to understand though because friends is a ratio measure.*0366

*It is the count of how many friends they have so that is continuous type of variable and if they have a 0 means they have no friends.*0372

*That is very rare on www.facebook.com but it could happen.*0382

*I’m going to move this locked piece over.*0387

*The next tab you could see there it says birth month on it.*0391

*So far I have created a little set up so that we could begin our frequency table.*0397

*A frequency table is just a count of how many people are born in January.*0402

*How many people are born in February and so on and so forth. *0408

*Now if we have to do that by hand it would be hard.*0412

*We have to go to our data, click on data.*0414

*Go to birth month and we have to count up how many people have one, 1, 2.*0418

*But this is a very error prone process so we are going to use Excel to help us do that really efficiently.*0426

*First, let us go to our first example.*0436

*We have here a data set with data from 100 www.facebook.com friends.*0440

*More of these friends born in a particular month or is the number of births fairly uniform across the year.*0444

*Well is there reason to believe that one month is more popular for having babies than another month?*0452

*We are not sure but it is hard to see the answer to this question literally like see the answer to this question *0458

*by looking at the data because the data just look like this giant list.*0464

*That is why we are going to create frequency tables.*0470

*In order to create frequency tables we can start off with the formula.*0474

*In order to do a formula remember we always start off with the equal sign (=) to tell Excel “hey I’m doing a formula here”.*0479

*In order to count how many ones we have we could use the count formula.*0486

*It is a formula that is already prewritten in Excel.*0493

*Excel will just do it for us.*0496

*If we just stopped at the word count, it would just count how many things you have.*0498

*It would not count how many ones you have, right.*0504

*We want to use the formula count if, that is the function that we want to use*0508

*What is handy about Excel is that once you type in something then it will tell you what inputs you need.*0514

*Here it says you need the range.*0521

*The range of cells that you want Excel to look at as well as the criteria.*0523

*Here I’m going to tell Excel we will look over at my data.*0529

*I’m going to click on data and click from this one all the way down to the very very last row. *0535

*And if I go back to birth month then it should say date from row I2 all the way to I101 but it has it twice, I’m going to delete this part.*0547

*That is the data that I wanted to look at.*0567

*This little column right here is telling you the range.*0570

*It says go from I2 all the way to I101.*0574

*That is the criteria I want and before I put my criteria Excel tells me, it reminds me I need a little comma in between.*0579

*I’m going to put a little comma.*0589

*What is my criteria? I wanted to count it if it is a 1.*0591

*I’m going to say if is equal to whatever is in this cell.*0598

*Excel will automatically put in that this is part of the birth month sheet.*0602

*It actually does not need this one either but it will put it in automatically for you.*0611

*I’m going to delete that one just so you could see but you could have it there as well.*0616

*It does not matter.*0620

*Let me finish my little function and let us look at what it says.*0623

*It says count if the data in this range is basically equal to whatever is in a2, this one.*0626

*Let me hit enter and it should say 7.*0636

*7 people out of my 100 www.facebook.com friends are born in the month of January.*0639

*The great thing about Excel is that it is a relative program.*0645

*If I copy and paste this cell, one cell down it will take everything in my formula and sort of calibrate it one cell down, right.*0649

*Let me look at this, do I wanted to bring everything one row down?*0665

*That means my data would go from I3 to I102.*0671

*That is not what I want.*0677

*I want the data part to stay the same but I want this part to move and moved down.*0678

*So that then it will say count if this data is equal to 2.*0684

*Here is what I’m going to do, to tell Excel keep this part the same.*0691

*I’m going to tell I’m going to put in a dollar sign ($) right in front of the I and right in front of 2.*0695

*This says freeze the row and freeze the column.*0702

*I’m going to put that also in front of this one, as well as that one.*0706

*That means this data set will never move but this A2 will move.*0712

*Notice that doing that does not change anything from my first row but I’m going to take this and copy it.*0718

*I’m just hitting either command c if you are on a mac and control c if you are on a pc and then pasting it one cell underneath.*0724

*Let us double click on this to see what it says.*0736

*It says count if data and my data states exactly the same from I2 to I101.*0739

*That is exactly what I wanted to do.*0745

*Notice that now my criteria has changed.*0747

*My criteria has moved one row down because I have copied and paste in my formula, one row down.*0750

*Excel it is relative.*0757

*It will move everything one row down.*0759

*Let us try it with the next one.*0762

*I’m just copying and pasting this one, one row down.*0764

*Let us double click on it to see what it says.*0769

*It says count if.*0771

*Data stays exactly the same from row 2 to 101 but now it is comparing it to whatever is in A4 which is March.*0774

*The nice thing about Excel is that if you look right at the corner here, there is this little box in the lower right hand corner.*0785

*If you put your mouse over that it will turn into a little cross.*0794

*If I drag that all the way down, it will copy and paste my formula again and again all the way down.*0800

*We could just check one of these down here once again my data set has stayed the same because I put those dollar signs ($) in there.*0807

*My criteria has moved down to A10 now.*0816

*I have my frequency table now.*0820

*Frequency tables are nice because they just give you the raw numbers in the month of January there are 7 people who have birthdays then.*0824

*In the month of July there are 10 people who have birthdays then.*0833

*We could look at our data.*0837

*We could stop here but I want to show you another way that we could create frequency tables.*0839

*I’m going to go back on my data and show you a second way.*0848

*The second way is less common but I still want to show it to you because we may use it once in a while.*0853

*We are going to use what is called pivot tables.*0857

*What I’m going to do is just put my cursor anywhere and open my Excel toolbar.*0862

*Unfortunately, you cannot see it on this screen.*0870

*Open my Excel toolbar.*0872

*There is a little tab called data.*0873

*Seldom used.*0877

*If you scroll down there should be something that says pivot table or pivot table report.*0880

*I’m going to click on that.*0888

*Once that comes up, you should have a little pivot table wizard that pops up and you will say “where is this data you want to analyze?”*0893

*It is on my Microsoft Excel data base.*0903

*Is this the data you want to use?*0907

*Yes, I want from A all the way to N and from A1 all the way to 101.*0908

*That is next.*0924

*I want to put my pivot table on a new sheet, just so I can show you.*0925

*I’m just going to hit finish.*0930

*A new sheet should pop up, it is probably be called sheet 1.*0934

*I’m just going to make this a little bigger for you.*0939

*A little pivot table should pop up.*0945

*You should also have a little pivot table tool bar that also pops up.*0949

*Let me drag it in for you.*0955

*Here we go.*0966

*This is the little pivot table tool bar that comes up.*0967

*This pivot table tool bar has all of my variables in it.*0970

*I could drag these variables into this pivot table down here.*0975

*It actually shows why it is called a pivot table.*0979

*I assume it is because you could move these variables from one corner to another and that is where we get the pivot.*0982

*What we want is a bunch of months on this side and then I want it to tell me how many people are born in that month.*0990

*I’m going to look for birth month and put it in my row fields because each row is going to be a birth month.*1000

*I’m going to take that birth month and drag it into my data as well.*1006

*What is does is it sums up how many of those birth months there are.*1012

*For January it sums up 1, seven times but for 2 I do not want it to sum up.*1018

*Instead I’m going to tell my pivot table count how many they are, do not sum them up.*1026

*Go to pivot table and go to field settings and I will hit count instead of sum.*1032

*Then hit Ok.*1039

*When that happens you can see we basically get the same numbers that we have when we use the formula.*1040

*In the month of January we have 7.*1045

*In the month of July we have 10.*1048

*This is another way that you could look for frequency tables.*1050

*Notice that this one is pretty fast.*1056

*Pivot tables do require a little bit of work but on the front in there is a little bit of learning curve.*1059

*Once you do understand that, they are really handy.*1066

*We maybe using them again in the future.*1068

*If you do not feel comfortable with them, feel free to also use the formulas.*1072

*I will be using the formulas for the rest of this lesson.*1076

*Let us go back to my birth month.*1079

*My birth month pivot table created just through Excel formulas by themselves.*1083

*I have this nice frequency table but it will be nice if I could visualize it.*1089

*Here I have to read each row and although for 12 months it is not so bad, they might be times when this is less helpful to us.*1097

*What I’m going to do is highlight the data that I want to visualize and then hit chart.*1105

*It should be one of the tabs up here or you could go get it through one of your Excel tabs.*1115

*I’m going to say give it to me in columns or you could use borrow as well.*1122

*In Excel it just means it is on this side.*1133

*I’m going to use columns for now.*1135

*I will just pick the first one.*1138

*It seems the simplest.*1140

*I’m just going to delete that legend, it is redundant.*1144

*Here is my frequency table and we could literally see our data.*1149

*It is also tells me what each of these bars stand for.*1157

*It stands for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.*1162

*What Excel will do is it will automatically seed your X axis with just those numbers starting from 1 and it will go up.*1166

*With months, handle it but is the same thing that Excel is doing.*1174

*In another example we will need to put in our own X axis.*1179

*Notice that here these are not means, they are not averages, these are frequencies.*1185

*This means that 7 people were born in January, 10 people are born in July and 7 people are born in December.*1191

*And so that is what our birth month frequency visualization looks like.*1205

*This is our frequency distribution for birth month.*1210

*Let me minimize this.*1215

*If the number of friends born in a particular, is one month particularly popular for one of our friends are born.*1217

*It does not seem to be the case, the months all tend to be from something like 7 – 10 people per month.*1225

*It seems that the numbers are fairly uniform.*1233

*Let us go into our second example.*1241

*Here is another example and now let us take our same data, the data from 100 www.facebook.com friends *1243

*and we are going to look at what is the age distribution in this sample.*1249

*Here is my Excel data I'm just going to click on the data sheet and here when we go up and look for age we could see here is a whole bunch of ages.*1255

*It seems like there is a lot of people in their 20’s.*1268

*A few people in their late teens but here we see some people who are 0 years old.*1274

*In this data set, if they have 0 it means that they do not list their year of birth or do they do not list their age.*1281

*Maybe they are embarrassed, maybe they are too young.*1289

*I do not know.*1291

*We do not learn a lot by just scrolling up and down on this data.*1296

*That is why it will be nice if we could look at a frequency table or look at a distribution visually.*1300

*I'm going to click on my age sheets and here I have already made set it up so that we could just *1306

*do our frequency table really easily from the lowest age in our sample which is 17 I have ignored the 0 obviously *1314

*to the oldest age in our sample which is 38 and there is all the ages in between.*1323

*Let us go ahead and put in our formula to find out how many people in our sample are 17 years old.*1329

*To start a formula we start with the equal sign (=).*1335

*We use count if because we do not want to count everybody, we just want to count the people who are 17.*1338

*Let us tell Excel where it should find our data, what is the range of data.*1346

*I’m going to click on data and click from this cell all the way down to row 101.*1352

*I know I need a comma after that.*1364

*I’m going to delete that part.*1371

*Here is our data range and I wanted to count it if this person is 17.*1373

*My inputs are there. Remember we want this data to stay the same all the time.*1385

*We do not want it to move because Excel will move it if it has the chance to.*1389

*I’m going to put dollar sign ($) in front of the L and the 2 and in front of the column indicator *1394

*and the row indicator to tell it to lock this data in place.*1400

*Always use this data, do not change.*1404

*Once I have that formula, I'm just going to drag it all the way down so that it counts at the frequencies for 18, 19, 20 year olds.*1409

*Let us back check. Let us look at 21 year olds.*1424

*It says count if our data set has stayed the same because we have locked it in with our dollar sign ($).*1426

*Now it is saying I will count these people if they are 21 years old, that is our criteria.*1433

*It looks like our formula has copied and pasted quite well.*1438

*Notice that for some of these some of ages, the frequency is 0.*1443

*There are 0 people who are 26 years old in our sample.*1449

*Now why do I want to keep that 26 in there?*1454

*If we skipped down on 26 and 28, 29, 30, 31, 32 and we looked and there is 127 year old in 133 year old, *1457

*we might mistakenly assume that from 27 to 33 there is equal chance of having *1471

*at least one person from our sample being sort of in that range.*1478

*You could see that is actually not true.*1483

*In between there, there is like a big desert of nobody and we want our distribution to reflect that.*1486

*Age is a continuous variable and so we do not want to skip any ages.*1494

*We want to show how the distribution looks as we look at age continuously.*1500

*This is nice because we can already see that the ages are clamped or clustered around age maybe 20 – 22, early 20’s.*1507

*It will be nice if we could really look at this.*1518

*One thing you might want to do is click on select both age and frequency.*1520

*Go to charts and we are going to do an X, Y scatter.*1530

*For those of you who have Microsoft Excel later than 2008, like 2009 and later you can go directly to column *1538

*but here we are going to start with 2008 Excel.*1549

*We are going to need to do a little fix.*1555

*First I’m going to click on a scatter.*1557

*A scatter is nice because it shows you both the age.*1560

*This is age 17 and the frequency.*1566

*Once we have that then I'm going to go to column and then it will show me 17 through 38.*1572

*If I had gone directly to column, here is what will happen.*1584

*If I did not go through scatter first, here is what will happen.*1589

*Let us say I just wanted the frequency, they will go directly to column it will not give me the proper ages on my X axis, *1595

*it will only give me Excel’s default setting for the X axis which is just labeling it from 1 all the way to 22.*1604

*However many there are that is not what we want.*1614

*Instead we would rather have Excel label the correct ages for us.*1618

*Just so that we will know that this is a frequency distribution of ages later.*1625

*We should go and label are horizontal X axis, we can label that age.*1632

*In that way we will know it is a frequency table but it is a frequency table of ages that is what the 17 stands for.*1641

*What is the age distribution in the sample is largely young.*1654

*They are mostly on the young side with a few people sort of in their 30’s.*1658

*Example 3, again from our same www.facebook.com data, what is the height distribution in this data?*1666

*What did their heights looked like.*1673

*Let us see.*1675

*If we click on data and we look at their heights, their heights are listed in inches.*1679

*Remember that 5 × 12 is 60, 60 inches is about 5 feet tall and then 68 is 5’8.*1685

*It is a quick way to think of it.*1696

*72 is 6 feet tall, that person is pretty taller.*1698

*Once again if we just look at these row by row, it is a just bunch of numbers.*1703

*We do not need that, we would rather have a nice frequency table.*1709

*Let us go to height.*1713

*I have already seated it for you with the height that is the minimum height in our data set as well as the maximum height in our data set.*1716

*The minimum height happens to be a little bit just shy of 5 feet, 4’10.*1724

*This one is a little bit more than 6 feet tall, 6’3.*1734

*Let us put in our frequency function.*1740

*Count if and let us go ahead and select the data that we want to use.*1746

*Now that we know we basically need to lock it in place, let us do that right here.*1759

*Let us lock it in place.*1766

*We already locked our data in and what is our criteria?*1774

*I want you to count it if they are 58 inches tall.*1779

*It seems that there is only one person in our data set of 100 that has that height.*1787

*I’m just going to copy and paste that all the way down.*1792

*Once again I'm just going to spot check, 69 inches tall count if this is the correct data.*1796

*It is locked in and this is the correct criteria that I wanted to use for that row.*1806

*Good.*1811

*When we look at this, it seems that it is not that there is one cluster.*1814

*It seems like there is this sort of giant spread out cluster.*1818

*It will be nice if we can look at this visually.*1825

*Let us go ahead and select both columns.*1829

*Go to chart and go ahead and select XY scatter.*1833

*This is going to give us both, it is going to use the height as the x coordinate and the frequency as the y coordinate.*1839

*Here we see that all our frequencies are up here because all of our heights are from 58 to 75 inches.*1850

*Let us change that into a column chart.*1862

*Here is how our distribution looks like.*1870

*Just in case we come back to this later it will be nice to know what these numbers down here represent.*1874

*I'm going to go to my formatting palette, I’m going to close that.*1879

*I’m going to go to my formatting palette and tell my horizontal axis that it should be labeled height in inches.*1884

*That is what our distribution of heights looks like.*1902

*It looks like these over here, this one seems pretty popular and these seem sort of popular.*1907

*These are less likely and this one a little bit less likely.*1915

*This is a sort of what our shape looks like and it is nice and it is really easy to see when we see it in a visualization.*1921

*It is harder to see when we just look at the list of numbers.*1928

*Let us move on to our next example.*1934

*Example 4, now that is the height distribution of everybody in our 100 person www.facebook.com example.*1940

*But it is a mix of males and females.*1948

*What if we just wanted the height distribution of males?*1951

*After all males tend to be taller than females.*1954

*Their distributions might look different.*1956

*Let us look at the height distribution only of males.*1958

*We could also look at only the height distribution of females.*1962

*Feel free to do that if you want.*1965

*Here I'm going to use my height by gender and there is a male frequency column and a female frequency column.*1970

*Once again here are my heights but we will have to figure out in our data set which rows belong to males and which rows belongs to females.*1982

*Let us go back to our data set.*1993

*Here is my column for gender, my variable of gender.*1998

*Some people are gender number 2 and some people are gender number 1.*2003

*If we look at our variables we could see that gender has been dummy coded because it is a nominal measure.*2008

*We will get 0 if gender is blank or unavailable.*2019

*They got 1 if their gender was male and 2 if their gender was female.*2024

*Here is what we will do, we will take all of our data and sort it by gender *2030

*so that all the 1 are clumped together and all the 2 are clumped together.*2035

*I'm going to use sort.*2041

*Sorry about that.*2054

*I think I did it and ended it, alright.*2059

*I’m going to use gender and I’m just going to sort it by clicking in this column.*2060

*I just want to make sure that these guys all moved with each other.*2070

*Now it is sorted so that all of my data for males is up on top and then all of my data for females is at the bottom.*2077

*Just to keep it straight for myself, I’m going to just color all the heights of males, all the values for height of males,*2088

*I'm going to color that with the blue font color.*2098

*Just to help myself keep it straight I’m going to color all the females height values with the sort of pinkish font color.*2106

*What does my distribution of only males look like?*2119

*We need to start off with the frequency table again.*2123

*Let us go to height by gender and here I will put in count if.*2126

*And let us put in my range.*2136

*Now my range is only going to be those that I have already colored blue *2138

*because they only want my range to be those that are already identified as males.*2143

*Here I’m going to select all these blue guys and put a comma.*2150

*And then tell if a male is 58 inches tall then I definitely want you to count him.*2164

*It turns out there are 0 males that are that tall or that short for that matter.*2178

*We want to lock that data set in place because we know that this is not going to need to move for this column at least.*2184

*I’m going to go ahead and copy and paste that all the way down and we see that *2195

*from the males the heights are sort of clustered up here rather than down here.*2200

* I wonder if that is the same for females.*2208

*Even though our question was really about males why do not we females too just to see.*2210

*I’m going to start with my count if.*2217

*The range for females needs to be all the data that has been already identified as females.*2221

* Here are these pink women and I’m going to go ahead and put in a comma because I know I will need one.*2227

*Go back here and I will say check if the female is that height.*2235

*Once again I want to lock in my data.*2243

*I do not want that to move when I copy and paste.*2248

*And then it turns out that our one person who is 58 inches tall before happened to be female and I’m going to drag that all the way down.*2253

*We see something different in females than we saw in males.*2263

*Females tend to be clustered around here and the most frequent height being about 64 inches.*2267

*For males, the heights are sort of clustered up here with the most frequent height being 69 inches.*2275

*Let us look at this now and visualization.*2283

*I’m just going to look at the heights of males for now.*2288

*Hit chart and go to XY scatter because I want to know both the height and the frequency of that height.*2293

*We see that males are clustered up here.*2305

*Let me change that into a column and what do we see?*2309

*We see that it is like a pile.*2318

*The males are sort of piled up around 68 – 70 and it falls off closer to 5 feet tall.*2321

*There is not as many people who are way taller than 6 feet.*2330

*That is the chart for males.*2337

*Feel free to go ahead and do the chart for females.*2340

*That is the end of our examples today.*2346

*Thanks for using www.educator.com.*2348

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Post by Joseph Berk on January 10 at 10:07:27 AM

The variable "friends" should have a "discrete" variable type not a "continuous". The reason is that you can't use all real numbers to represent the number of friends, but only integer values. For example - you can't have 1.5 friends so the data is "discontinuous" between the values of 1 & 2.

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Post by Michael Onizak on March 10, 2014

Just a heads up; those using MS Excel 2007 the pivot table button is located under the "Insert" tab not the "Data" tab. Also, as you saw the Apple version having three separate windows to create the pivot table where as the MS 2007 will be in one window. Hope this helps

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Post by steven bain on December 2, 2013

The files appear to the wrong files for this lesson waste of time!

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Post by Christopher Hu on November 17, 2013

hi Dr. do you cover p-value? thanks

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Post by Patrick Manuel on June 28, 2013

Where are the exercise files? I can't find them. Please post the exercise files. Thanks.

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Post by Monica Ballard on February 12, 2013

For the first expercise, my formula appears right in excel but I keep getting the answer of 0 rather than 7

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Post by Monica Ballard on February 12, 2013

For the first expercise, my formula appears right in excel but I keep getting the answer of 0 rather than 7

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Post by Brijesh Bolar on August 12, 2012

Very nice sessions. It is a pleasant surprise to learn excel as a part of stats course. I always wanted to learn excel for stats and this fulfills my wish.

2 answers

Last reply by: Jorge Delgado

Fri Nov 2, 2012 10:21 AM

Post by Robert Hsiao on January 27, 2012

I would like to download this data file, so it is easier to follow the lesson.