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Matthew M.

Matthew M.

Writing to Files

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I. Advanced PHP with MySQL
Course Introduction

13m 36s

Intro
0:00
Advanced PHP w/ MySQL
0:13
Course Introduction
0:14
Course Content
0:59
Web Application: Educator Store
1:45
Web Application: Educator Store
1:46
Object-Oriented Programming
6:09
Object-Oriented Programming Overview
6:10
MySQL
6:50
MySQL Overview
6:51
Example: Command Prompt & MySQL
8:34
What You Will Learn
9:34
What You Will Learn
9:35
Course Prerequisites
11:52
Course Prerequisites
11:53
Advanced Course Development Environment

18m 46s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
Development Environment Setup
1:36
Firefox Web Browser, XAMPP, and PSPad Text Editor
1:37
Course Directory Structure
4:36
Course Directory Structure
4:37
phpDocumentor
7:23
phpDocumentor Overview
7:24
Parsing Source Code
7:44
docs Subdirectory
9:06
Asvanced PHP Course Documentation Example
10:21
Previous Educator PHP Students
14:14
Lib Directory Changes
14:38
Images Directory Changes
14:57
VERSION Constant
15:40
Comments Noting a Specific Version Number
17:04
Homework Challenge
17:30
Homework Challenge
17:31
Introduction to File I/O

35m 37s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
File I/O
1:34
File I/O Overview
1:35
Performing file I/O: 3 Steps
1:52
File Permissions
2:28
Read Permission & Write Permission
2:29
fopen()
4:47
fopen()
4:48
Two Required Parameters
5:01
Successful fopen(): File Handle and Resource
5:21
FALSE and E_WARNING Error
6:00
Example
6:39
File Paths
7:10
File Paths
7:11
File Access Modes
9:18
File Access Modes
9:19
Coding Example: fopen()
10:31
Using Relative and Absolute Path & Non-Existent File
10:32
File Pointers
15:55
File Pointers
15:56
Example File
16:11
Opening a File with fopen() Using 'r' as the Access Mode
16:22
fgets()
17:55
fgets() Overview
17:56
Coding Example: fgets() - Reading a Line at a Time
18:26
feof()
20:10
feof() Overview
20:09
Coding Example: feof()
20:50
fclose()
23:43
fclose() Overview
23:44
Coding Example: fclose()
25:02
Coding Example: Current Stock
26:10
Coding Example: Current Stock
26:11
trim ()
31:39
trim () Overview and Example
31:40
Homework Challenge
33:35
Homework Challenge
33:36
Web Application Development

36m 36s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
Version 1.0 Changelog
0:31
catalog.php
0:32
Function Library: fileLIB.php
5:00
Version 1.1 Changelog
27:12
createItemDataArray() and createDeptDataArray()
27:13
outputSimpleItemLink() and outputSimpleDeptLink()
32:06
HTTP & the POST Method

34m 36s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
HTTP Model
1:28
HTTP Model
1:29
Client-Server Model 2 Steps Process
2:00
HTTP Messages
2:23
HTTP Messages
2:24
HTTP Requests
3:09
HTTP Requests
3:10
Example: HTTP Request Header
3:17
Coding Example: HTTP Requests
4:29
HTTP Responses
7:15
HTTP Responses
7:16
Example: HTTP Response (Header & Body)
8:00
header()
11:47
header() Overview
11:48
Coding Example: header
14:02
Coding Example: header() Error
14:52
GET Method
18:55
GET Method
18:56
Coding Example: GET Method
20:13
POST Method
21:09
POST Method
21:10
Coding Example: Sample Form Using the POST Method
23:50
Accessing POST Data in PHP
26:38
Accessing POST Data in PHP
26:39
Coding Example: Accessing POST Data via $_POST
28:15
GET vs. POST
29:54
GET vs. POST
29:55
Example: Accessing POST Data via $_POST
31:20
Example: Accessing POST Data via $_POST
31:21
Homework Challenge
33:00
Homework Challenge
33:01
Web Application Development

14m 11s

Intro
0:00
Version 2.0 Changelog
0:09
Updating the Site's Current Form to Use the POST Method
0:10
Creating Admin Website
2:55
Dynamically Generated Department List
12:40
Writing to Files

17m 38s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Review of File I/O
0:40
Review of File I/O
0:41
fwrite()
1:38
fwrite()
1:39
fputs()
2:20
'r+'
2:31
Coding Example: fwrite()
2:59
fopen() Access Modes
8:41
'a' and 'a+'
8:42
'w' and 'w+'
11:34
Homework Challenge
14:47
Homework Challenge
14:48
Web Application Development

28m 14s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
Updated Open File Functions
0:19
openItemsDataFile ( ), openDeptsDataFile ( ), and openLastAddedFile ( )
0:20
insertItem()
6:25
insertItem() Overview
6:26
Functions: createItemDataString ( ) and updateLastItemAdded ( )
7:07
addItemToDepartment ()
16:03
addItemToDepartment () Overview
16:04
Functions: createDeptDataString ( ) and updateDepartment ( )
17:55
HTTP POST: File Uploads

22m 51s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
POST Data Encoding
1:13
POST Data Encoding
1:14
When Data is Included in the Body of the HTTP POST Request and is of the Content Type
1:31
When Uploading Files Using HTTP POST
3:17
Uploading Files
6:22
Uploading Files
6:23
If Encoding Type is Not Set to Multipart/Formdata
9:27
$_FILES Superglobal
10:59
$_FILES Superglobal
11:00
Structure of $_FILES
12:15
Structure of $_FILES: Name, Type, tmp_name, Error, and Size
12:16
Coding Example: $_FILES Superglobal
13:34
Moving an Uploaded File
15:39
Introduction to Moving an Uploaded File
15:40
move_uploaded_file ( ): Definition and Example
16:40
Homework Challenge
21:19
Homework Challenge
21:20
Web Application Development

15m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Uploading Item Image File
1:22
Uploading Item Image File
1:23
Uploading Item Image File (cont.)
2:43
Altering insertItem ( )
2:44
Helpfer Functions: getFileExtension ( ) and moveUploadedFile ( )
4:30
isValidItem ( )
13:03
Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming

32m 44s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
Object-Oriented Programming
0:56
Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming
0:57
Associative Arrays
5:27
Associative Arrays
5:28
Classes
7:27
Classes Overview
7:28
Defining Classes
8:24
Defining Classes
8:25
Declaring Class Properties
9:25
Coding Example: Classes
10:11
Objects
12:18
Objects Overview
12:19
Classes vs. Objects
12:49
Classes vs. Objects
12:50
Instantiating Classes
14:58
Instantiating Classes
14:59
Coding Example: Instantiate an Item Object
16:30
Object Properties
19:21
Access and Set an Object's Property
19:22
Coding Example: Set & Access the Properties of an Item Object
24:23
Homework Challenge
30:22
Homework Challenge
30:23
Web Application Development

17m 47s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
Version 5.0 Overview
0:50
Version 5.0 Overview and Examples
0:51
Outputting Object Properties
12:38
Outputting Object Properties
12:39
Array Object Properties
14:18
Access and Set Array Value
14:19
Object Methods

39m 57s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Object Methods
0:52
Definition of Object Methods
0:53
Calling Object Methods
3:25
Calling Object Methods
3:26
Coding Example: Simple Object Methods
4:44
Object Methods and Return Values
7:02
$this Variable
10:06
$this Variable: Definition and Example
10:07
$this Variable (cont.)
15:51
$this Variable (cont.)
15:52
Getters & Setters
21:21
Getters & Setters Methods
21:22
Object Methods In Strings
25:46
Object Methods In Strings
25:47
Coding Example: Outputting Method Return Values in Strings
27:41
Using $this to Call Other Methods
28:49
Using $this to Call Other Methods
28:50
Homework Challenge
34:18
Homework Challenge: 1-3
34:19
Homework Challenge (cont.)
36:20
Homework Challenge: 4-6
36:21
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:52
Homework Challenge: 7-10
37:53
Web Application Development

17m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
Version 6.0 Overview
0:40
Version 6.0 Changes & Examples
0:41
Item Methods
0:53
Item Class Definition: getImageFilename()
0:54
Coding Example: getImageFilename()
1:58
Department Methods
7:33
addItem(), removeItem(), and isItemInDept() Method
7:34
addItemtToDepartment() & buildDeptObject() Functions
11:46
A Default Value Needed to Be Set for $items
16:26
Object Constructors

22m 20s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
Object Constructors
0:32
Introduction to Object Constructors
0:33
Coding Example: Object Constructors
1:43
Defining Constructors
3:26
Defining Constructors
3:27
Coding Example: Constructors with No Arguments
4:24
Constructor Arguments
8:09
Constructor Arguments
8:10
Coding Example: Constructor Arguments
9:49
Important Notes
16:13
Important Notes
16:14
Homework Challenge
17:35
Homework Challenge: 1 - 4
17:36
Homework Challenge (cont.)
19:13
Homework Challenge: 5 - 9
19:14
Homework Challenge (cont.)
21:40
Homework Challenge: 10 and 11
21:41
Web Application Development

16m 19s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
Version 7.0 Overview
0:39
Version 7.0 Overview
0:40
Item Constructor
2:19
Item Constructor
2:20
Department Constructor
7:47
Department Constructor
7:48
Customer Constructor
12:23
Customer Constructor
12:24
More Magic Methods

53m 37s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
Magic Methods
1:12
Magic Methods
1:13
Destructors
2:45
Destructors Overview
2:46
Coding Example: Calling Destructors
4:30
Coding Example: Object Destructor
9:19
_to String ()
16:12
_to String () Overview
16:13
Coding Example: _to String () Magic Method
18:10
Access Modifiers
21:23
Introduction to Access Modifiers
21:24
Access Modifiers: Public
21:39
Access Modifiers: Private
22:18
Access Modifiers: Protected
22:41
Object Properties and Methods
23:06
Coding Example: Public Access Modifiers
26:48
Coding Example: Private Access Modifiers
28:30
_get()
31:37
_get() Overview
31:38
Coding Example: _get () Magic Method
33:30
_set ()
36:23
_set () & the Magic Method
36:24
Using Getters & Setters
44:37
Coding Example: Using Getters & Setters
44:38
Homework Challenge
50:33
Homework Challenge: 1 - 6
50:34
Homework Challenge (cont.)
51:41
Homework Challenge: 7 - 12
51:42
Web Application Development

31m 12s

Intro
0:00
Version 8.0 Review
0:12
Version 8.0 Review
0:13
private Object Properties
1:15
private Object Properties
1:16
Coding Example
2:54
_toString() Methods
6:51
_toString() Methods
6:52
Coding Example
8:09
DataFile Class
13:27
DataFile Class & I/O Operations
13:28
Using DataFile Class: Instantiate a DataFile, DataFile open () Method, and DataFile close () Method
18:09
Homework Challenge
29:35
Homework Challenge
29:36
Classes vs. Objects

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
Class vs. Object Review
0:58
Class vs. Object Review
0:59
Static Properties
2:42
Static Properties
2:43
Scope Resolution Operator (::)
5:26
Scope Resolution Operator (::) & Static Property
5:27
Coding Example: Accessing a Static Property Using the Scope Resolution Operator
7:57
Coding Example: Accessing a Static Property in a Class Definition
10:33
Coding Example: Using a Static Property as an Instance Counter
14:18
Static Methods
18:51
Static Methods Overview
18:52
Coding Example: Static Methods
21:39
Classes vs. Objects
26:28
Classes vs. Objects: Diagrams
26:29
Class Constants
30:24
Class Constants Definition
30:25
Coding Example: Using Class Constants
31:55
Homework Challenge
34:01
Homework Challenge: 1 - 5
34:02
Homework Challenge (cont.)
35:25
Homework Challenge: 6 - 10
35:26
Web Application Development

21m 7s

Intro
0:00
Version 9.0 Overview
0:12
Version 9.0 Changes & Examples
0:13
Output Class
1:08
Output Class & Static Methods
1:09
outputHtmlSelector ( ) Method
2:43
outputItemSelector ( ) Method
4:53
outputDeptSelector ( ) Method
6:42
buildObject() Methods
11:54
buildObject() Methods & Examples
11:55
Exceptions

22m 43s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
try Blocks
0:44
try Blocks Definition
0:45
catch Blocks
2:03
catch Blocks: Definition and Syntax
2:04
Coding Example: try/catch Blocks
3:48
When an Exception Object is Caught & Error Handling
5:59
Exception Class
7:02
Exception Class
7:03
Coding Example: Using try/catch to Catch an Exception Thrown from a Method
8:04
Re-Throwing Exceptions
16:39
Re-Throwing Exceptions
16:40
Coding Example: Re-throwing an Exception
17:21
Homework Challenge
20:40
Homework Challenge: 1 - 5
20:41
Homework Challenge (cont.)
22:17
Homework Challenge: 6
22:18
Web Application Development

22m

Intro
0:00
Version 10.0 Overview
0:11
Updating addItem.php, addItemToDept.php, and error.php
0:12
Updating DataFile Class: open ( ) Method & try/catch blocks
7:45
Version 10.1 Overview
13:37
Version 10.1 Changes & Examples
13:38
Updating DataFile Class: close ( ) Method & logWarning ( )
20:17
Cookies

39m 47s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:09
Lesson Overview
0:10
What is a Cookie?
1:15
Definition of Cookie
1:16
HTTP - A Stateless Protocol
2:17
HTTP - A Stateless Protocol
2:18
Purpose of Cookies
4:10
Set - Cookie Header
6:21
Introduction to Set - Cookie Header
6:22
Coding Example: Set - Cookie Header
7:38
Cookie Header
9:45
Introduction to Cookie Header
9:46
Example: Cookie Header
10:27
setcookie()
12:33
Introduction to setcookie()
12:34
Example: Using setcookie
13:54
Cookies Attributes
15:48
Cookies Attributes Overview
15:49
Common Cookies Attributes: Domain
16:24
Common Cookies Attributes: Path
17:04
Common Cookies Attributes: Expires
19:34
Coding Example: Setting Cookie Attributes
20:58
$_COOKIE Superglobal
27:03
$_COOKIE Superglobal
27:04
Coding Example: Accessing Cookies from PHP Using $_COOKIE
29:45
Security Implications
34:44
Security Implications
34:45
Homework Challenge
36:10
Homework Challenge: 1 - 4
36:11
Homework Challenge (cont.)
37:47
Homework Challenge: 5 - 7
37:48
Web Application Development

39m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:17
Lesson Overview
0:18
instanceof Operator
1:34
instanceof Operator
1:35
Objects with Object Properties
2:53
Objects with Object Properties
2:54
Version 11.0 Overview
6:41
Version 11.0 Changes: Cart and CartItem Classes
6:42
Version 11.0 Coding Example
10:40
Version 11.1 Overview
31:03
Version 11.1 Changes & Examples
31:04
Introduction to Sessions

46m 8s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
What is a Session?
0:53
What is a Session?
0:54
Client-Side Sessions
3:51
Client-Side Sessions
3:52
Server-Side Sessions
5:04
Server-Side Sessions
5:05
Session IDs
6:26
Session IDs
6:27
The SID is Used by the Server to:
7:08
A Client Passes an SID to the Server with Each HTTP Request Via:
8:15
Sessions in PHP
12:19
Sessions in PHP
12:20
session_start()
14:40
session_start() Overview
14:41
Coding Example: Using session_start () to Continue a Session
18:03
$_SESSION Superglobal
22:06
$_SESSION Superglobal Overview
22:07
Coding Example: Setting a Session Variable via $_SESSION
25:22
Accessing Session Data
28:08
Accessing Session Data
28:09
Deleting Session Data
31:43
Deleting Session Data
31:44
Coding Example: Deleting Session Data
32:16
Configuring PHP Sessions
36:14
session.cookie_lifetime, session.cookie_domain, and session.cookie_path
36:15
Coding Example: Configuring PHP Sessions
37:28
Configuring PHP Sessions (cont.)
40:56
session.use_cookies, session.use_trans_sid, and session.use_only_cookies
40:57
Coding Example: Configuring PHP Sessions
42:25
Homework Challenge
42:55
Homework Challenge: 1 - 5
42:56
Homework Challenge (cont.)
44:10
Homework Challenge: 6 - 10
44:11
Homework Challenge (cont.)
45:27
Homework Challenge: 11 - 13
45:28
Web Application Development

11m

Intro
0:00
Version 12.0 Overview
0:12
Version 12.0 Changes Part I: Updating 'viewCart.php' & 'checkout.php'
0:13
Version 12.0 Changes Part II
5:03
Destroying Sessions

29m 59s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Destroying Sessions
1:02
Destroying Sessions
1:03
session_destroy()
2:10
session_destroy() Overview
2:11
Coding Example: Setting a Session Variable and Destroying a Session
3:18
Deleting Session Cookies
8:38
Deleting Session Cookies
8:39
Coding example: Deleting Session Cookies
9:17
Review of Steps
21:07
Review of Steps
21:08
Garbage Collection
21:50
Garbage Collection Overview
21:51
Coding Example: Garbage Collection
24:30
Homework Challenge
26:28
Homework Challenge: 1 - 4
26:29
Homework Challenge (cont.)
28:16
Homework Challenge: 5 - 9
28:17
Web Application Development

19m 14s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:13
Lesson Overview
0:14
_autoload()
0:46
Introduction to _autoload ()
0:47
Version 13.0 Overview
4:06
_autoload () and SessionManager Class
4:07
Updating 'viewCart.php' & 'checkout.php'
11:16
Introduction to Databases

21m 24s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
Flat Files
1:09
Flat Files: Definition and Example
1:10
Problems Associated with Using Flat Files as a Database
2:15
Relational Databases
3:29
Relational Databases
3:30
Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)
3:50
Tables
7:43
Tables
7:44
Columns
9:24
Columns
9:25
What is SQL?
10:45
Introduction to Structured Query Language
10:46
Standard Data Types of SQL
12:23
Primary Keys
13:19
Primary Keys
13:20
Primary Key Examples
16:36
Primary Key Examples
16:37
Introduction to MySQL

28m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
What is MySQL?
1:33
MySQL
1:34
MySQL Monitor
5:16
MySQL Monitor Overview
5:17
XAMPP & MySQL
5:58
In the MySQL Command: hostname, username and -p
7:05
Connecting to a MySQl Server
9:52
Connecting to a MySQl Server
9:53
Using MySQl Monitor
13:48
Using MySQl Monitor
13:49
GRANT Command
15:10
GRANT SQL Command
15:11
Privileges & Objects
18:18
Username, Hostname, and Password
19:37
Specifying Objects
20:05
Creating a PHP User Account
21:41
Creating a PHP User Account Overview
21:42
Meaning of all & *.*
23:35
Example: Creating a PHP User Account
23:48
Required Homework
26:27
Required Homework: 1 - 5
26:28
Required Homework (cont.)
27:28
Required Homework: 6
27:29
Creating Databases & Tables

23m 1s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:08
Lesson Overview
0:09
Creating a Database
1:40
Introduction to Creating a Database
1:41
Example: Creating a Database
3:33
CREATE TABLE Command
6:43
CREATE TABLE Command
6:44
Data Types
7:39
Numeric Data Types: INT, INT UNSIGNED, and DECIMAL
7:40
String Data Types: CHAR (M), VARCHAR (M), and TEXT
9:23
Colum Attributes
11:00
PRIMARY KEY Attribute
11:01
AUTO INCREMENT Attribute
11:35
Items Table
13:07
Items Table
13:08
Useful Commands
17:04
SHOW TABLES Command & DESCRIBE Utility Statement
17:05
Example: Creating an Items Table
17:58
Required Homework
20:51
Required Homework: 1 - 6
20:52
Required Homework (cont.)
21:55
Required Homework: 7 - 9
21:56
SQL Command: INSERT

27m 11s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
INSERT Command
1:20
SQL INSERT Command
1:21
Specifying Values
3:16
Columns with Numeric Data Types
3:17
Columns with String Data Types
3:34
Columns with AUTO INCREMENT
4:07
Inserting Items
5:21
Inserting Items
5:22
Example: Inserting Items
7:03
SQL Text Files
14:04
SQL Monitor Client
14:05
MySQL Monitor & the < Operator
15:15
Example
17:35
Required Homework
22:32
Required Homework: 1 - 6
22:33
Required Homework (cont.)
24:19
Required Homework: 7 - 10
24:20
SQL Command: SELECT

24m 57s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
SELECT Command
0:42
SELECT Command: Definition and Syntax
0:43
Results of a SELECT Query
1:53
To Specify the Retrieval of All Columns from a Table
3:06
Example: SELECT Command
4:18
WHERE Clause
7:11
WHERE Clause
7:12
A SELECT Query with WHERE Clause has the Following Syntax
8:10
A Where Condition can Contain both Logical and Comparison Operators
9:44
Literal Values
13:24
Literal Values
13:25
Example: Literal Values
14:18
ORDER BY Clause
15:31
ORDER BY Clause & SELECT Query
15:32
Ascending and Descending Order
17:30
An ORDER BY Clause can Specify Multiple Columns to Order the Rows by
18:01
Example: SELECT Query with WHERE and ORDER BY Clause
20:32
Homework Challenge
21:59
Homework Challenge
22:00
Homework Challenge (cont.)
23:54
Homework Challenge
23:55
Using PHP from MySQL

32m 43s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
PHP/MySQL Architecture
0:56
PHP/MySQL Architecture
0:57
MySQLi Extension
3:05
MySQLi Extension
3:06
Steps to Using MySQL from PHP
5:53
Four Steps to Using MySQL from PHP
5:54
Step # 3
7:18
Connecting to a Database
8:12
To Connect to a MySQL Database
8:13
To Test for Connection Errors
10:20
Running an SQL Statement
11:54
Running an SQL Statement
11:55
Example
13:30
Processing the Results
15:58
For non-SELECT Queries
15:59
MySQLi Object Property: affected_rows
16:19
For INSERT Statements on Tables with an AUTO_INCREMENT Column
18:07
Closing the Connection
19:45
Closing the Connection
19:46
Coding Example
21:24
Coding Example: Using MySQL from PHP
21:25
Homework Challenge
29:00
Homework Challenge: 1 - 4
29:01
Homework Challenge (cont.)
31:10
Homework Challenge: 5 - 9
31:11
Web Application Development

30m 30s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:14
Lesson Overview
0:15
sprintf()
1:28
sprintf() Overview
1:29
Example
1:56
INSERT Statements with sprintf()
5:15
INSERT Statements with sprintf()
5:16
Version 14.0 Overview
10:00
Version 14.0 Changes & Examples Part 1
10:01
Version 14.0 Changes & Examples Part 2
21:58
SELECT QUERIES from PHP

24m 22s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:14
Lesson Overview
0:15
SELECT Queries
1:21
SELECT Queries
1:22
MySQLi_Result Class
3:17
MySQLi_Result Class: num_rows
3:18
MySQLi_Result Class: fetch_assoc ( ) and fetch_object ( )
3:59
fetch_assoc()
5:17
fetch_assoc() Overview
5:18
Coding Example: Using fetch_assoc()
9:00
stdClass Objects
12:46
stdClass Objects
12:47
fetch_object()
14:19
fetch_object() Overview
14:20
Coding Example: Using fetch_object()
16:45
Freeing Result Set Memory
18:42
Freeing Result Set Memory
18:43
Coding Example: Using free ( )
20:01
Homework Challenge
22:07
Homework Challenge: 1 - 5
22:08
Web Application Development

17m 6s

Intro
0:00
Version 15.0 Overview
0:13
Version 15.0 Changes & Examples Part 1
0:14
Version 15.0 Changes & Examples Part 2
8:43
Linking Tables

24m 32s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:16
Lesson Overview
0:17
A Departments Table
1:08
Departments Table
1:09
How Could We Model This in a Table: Option 1
1:26
How Could We Model This in a Table: Option 2
3:12
Database Normalization
4:37
Database Normalization
4:38
Foreign Keys
8:47
Foreign Keys
8:48
Linking Table
11:26
Linking Table
11:27
Multiple Column Primary Keys
15:30
Multiple Column Primary Keys
15:31
Example
18:51
Required Homework
22:34
Required Homework: 1 - 3
22:35
Required Homework (cont.)
24:10
Required Homework: 4
24:11
Web Application Development

24m

Intro
0:00
Version 16.0 Overview
0:11
Version 16.0 Changes
0:12
Version 16.0 Coding Examples
4:12
Version 16.0 (cont.)
18:30
Version 16.0 Changes & Examples Part 2
18:31
SQL Command: DELETE

10m 33s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
DELETE Statement
0:30
DELETE Statement & Its WHERE Clause
0:31
Delete All Rows From a Table
2:57
Using DELETE from PHP
4:04
Using DELETE from PHP Overview
4:05
Coding Example: Using DELETE from PHP
6:37
Homework Challenge
8:53
Homework Challenge: 1 - 4
8:54
Web Application Development

16m 2s

Intro
0:00
Version 17.0 Overview
0:11
Version 17.0 Changes
0:12
Version 17.0 Coding Example
2:51
Transactions
12:50
Database Transaction
12:51
Steps in Using Transactions
14:00
SQL Command: UPDATE

32m 14s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
UPDATE Statement
0:54
UPDATE Statement & Its WHERE Clause
0:55
Example: UPDATE Statement
3:32
Using UPDATE from PHP
5:21
Using UPDATE from PHP Overview
5:22
Coding Example: Using UPDATE from PHP
6:53
htmlspecialchars()
9:04
htmlspecialchars()
9:05
Encoding Special Characters
9:23
Coding Example: htmlspecialchars()
13:41
addslashes()
20:40
addslashes()
20:41
Coding Example: addslashes()
22:52
Homework Challenge
27:55
Homework Challenge: 1 - 2
27:56
Homework Challenge (cont.)
30:14
Homework Challenge: 3 - 5
30:15
Homework Challenge (cont.)
30:41
Homework Challenge: 6 - 9
30:42
Web Application Development

12m 33s

Intro
0:00
Version 18.0 Overview
0:12
Version 18.0 Changes
0:13
Version 18.0 Coding Example
1:24
SQL: Joins

42m 16s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:11
Lesson Overview
0:12
DATETIME Data Type
1:52
DATETIME Data Type
1:53
Modeling Orders
5:12
Modeling Orders
5:13
Customers Table
10:46
Customers Table
10:47
Example
16:18
Example: Order Table in MySQL
16:19
Joins
22:26
Joins Overview
22:27
Inner Join
23:09
Example: Joins
24:11
Join Conditions
28:14
Join Conditions
28:15
Example
28:32
Join Queries
30:00
Example: Join Conditions in MySQL
30:36
Implicit Joins
34:42
Implicit Joins
34:43
Example: Implicit Joins
35:57
Aliases
37:28
Introduction to Aliases
37:29
Example: Aliases
38:55
Required Homework
40:32
Problem 1
40:33
Problem 2
41:01
Problem 3
41:17
Web Application Development

29m 34s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:12
Lesson Overview
0:13
Inserting Orders
0:44
Inserting Orders
0:45
Version 19.0 Overview
3:45
Version 19.0 Changes & Example Part 1
3:46
Version 19.0 Changes & Example Part 2
13:18
Version 19.1 Overview
21:10
Version 19.1 Changes
21:11
Version 19.1 Coding Example
22:18
User Authentication

26m 13s

Intro
0:00
Lesson Overview
0:10
Lesson Overview
0:11
User Authentication
1:31
User Authentication
1:32
Authentication with Sessions
2:34
Authentication with Sessions
2:35
Four Steps in Authentication via Sessions
2:50
Using Sessions to Restrict Access
3:58
Using Sessions to Restrict Access
3:59
Coding Example: Restricted Access Area
4:47
Authentication Methods
5:54
Authentication Methods Overview
5:55
Coding Example: Authentication Methods
7:31
Logging Out
9:57
Logging Out
9:58
Coding Example: Log Out
10:47
Users Table
13:50
Users Table
13:51
Example: Creating a Users Table
15:08
Password Hashing
17:30
Password Hashing
17:31
PHP and MySQL Built-in Hash Functions: sha1 ( ) and md5 ( )
18:43
Coding Example: Password Hashing
19:27
Required Homework
24:41
Required Homework: 1 - 4
24:42
Web Application Development

14m 36s

Intro
0:00
Version 20.0 Overview
0:13
Version 20.0 Changes & Examples Part 1
0:14
Version 20.0 Changes & Examples Part 2
5:05
Version 20.0 Changes & Examples Part 3
7:29
Version 20.0 (cont.)
8:31
Version 20.0 Changes & Examples Part 4
8:32
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Writing to Files

  • fwrite() is used to write the contents of a string to a file that has been opened for writing. It has an alias: fputs().
  • In order to write to a file with fwrite(), an access mode specifier allowing writing must be provided to fopen() when opening the file to be written to.
  • Two commonly used write access mode specifiers are:
    • 'a' (append) - open for writing only; place file pointer at the end of the file; attempt to create file if it does not exist
    • ‘w’ (overwrite) – open for writing only; delete file contents; place file pointer at beginning of file; attempt to create file if it does not exist
  • Additional Resources:

Writing to Files

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  • Intro 0:00
  • Lesson Overview 0:09
    • Lesson Overview
  • Review of File I/O 0:40
    • Review of File I/O
  • fwrite() 1:38
    • fwrite()
    • fputs()
    • 'r+'
    • Coding Example: fwrite()
  • fopen() Access Modes 8:41
    • 'a' and 'a+'
    • 'w' and 'w+'
  • Homework Challenge 14:47
    • Homework Challenge

Transcription: Writing to Files

Hello again, and welcome back to Educator.com's Advanced PHP with MySQL course.0000

In today's lesson, we are going to be covering the topic of writing to files.0005

Our lesson is going to start with a review of how file I/O works, and the steps that are involved in that.0011

And we had gone over that previously, in our lesson that introduced us to reading from files.0016

We are going to go over a key method called fwrite, which is a method that is built into PHP that allows us to write data to files.0021

And then, we are going to talk about different access modes that you can use0028

with the fopen function to open a file for writing in different ways; and we are going to learn about that.0032

We learned in our lecture on reading from files that, when you perform I/O on a file, it has three steps.0042

You open the file; you perform your read or write operations; and then you close the file.0050

For writing the files, our steps are: we are going to open the file, and then0055

we are going to perform write operations on it, and then we are going to close the file.0060

This step is obviously going to differ, because now, instead of reading, we are going to be writing to the file.0065

The third step is still going to be the same, though: it is just going to be using the fclose method to close an open file.0070

Step 1 will be a little different, and that is because we are going to have to pass0077

a different access mode parameter to the fopen method in order to be able to write to the files.0079

In order to open a file for writing, it requires a different access mode specifier0088

than what we had used in our reading examples, which was just the lowercase r letter.0092

Before I talk more about the access modes, I want to talk about the fwrite function.0100

The fwrite function is used to write the contents of a string to an open file,0105

in a file that is opened with an access mode that allows it to be written to.0111

It takes a file handle to an open file as one of its parameters.0116

And then, as a second parameter, it takes a string; and wherever the file pointer is for that currently-open file,0121

it is going to write the contents of that string wherever that file pointer is currently located at.0131

If it is successful, it returns the number of bytes that it was able to write; and if an error occurs, it returns false.0135

One thing to note is that you may also see the function fputs used.0141

That is an alias of fwrite that does the same exact thing; in this course, we are just going to use the fwrite method.0145

And so, we have a slide where we are going to talk about the access modes; but just to get us started with using fwrite:0153

to open an existing file for reading or writing (and this is going to open the file), we use the r+ access mode specifier.0160

What that is going to do is allow us to open a file for reading and writing, which is where the + sign comes from.0171

And it is going to place the file pointer at the beginning of the file.0176

If we go and take a look for a script that we have written for this lecture, called fwrite.php,0180

What we have done is: we define a string to a data text file that we want to write to.0185

In this case, it is located in the data subdirectory of where this script is located, and it is going to be called data.txt.0192

And then, we are going to create a string that we want to write to the file.0200

In this case, we are going to be creating a string that says, "File is written to at" and it is going to0204

use the date function to just dynamically generate a date, and then output a new line character.0208

So, what is going to happen is: when we write this string to the file, it is going to output "File written to at" with the date.0215

And then, it is going to add a new line; so it is going to put the file pointer at the beginning of the next line.0220

And the reason I have gone ahead and used that date function is so that, rather than using a static value,0227

we can see that, each time we write, it is going to write a different value.0233

So then, what we do is use our fopen method, as we had before, for reading a file, except now we are using this r+ modifier,0238

which, again, opens the file for reading or writing; and it places the file pointer at the beginning of the file.0245

And then, we simply use the fwrite method that we just learned about.0252

We pass it the file handle to this open file, and then we pass it this string variable,0255

which has this date string up here; and we check the result written.0259

And if it was successful, written is going to contain the number of bytes that were written.0264

If it is unsuccessful, it is going to return false.0269

And so, we have a little error checking down here that will output the number of bytes written if it was successful.0272

Otherwise, it will say, "There was an error writing to the file."0277

And then, down here, you can see, we have our fclose method, which is what we use to close a file.0280

And that is the same function call we had used before.0284

Let's go take a look at trying to load this file.0289

Here, if we load fwrite.php...0294

And we can see, also (just so you know), that if we have a blank file called data.txt that is in0297

this data directory of the lecture 7 directory (so it is a subdirectory of where the fwrite.php file is),0302

right now it is a blank file, and if we go ahead and run the script fwrite.php, it is going to say, "41 bytes were successfully written to the file."0310

And it has a link that we created down here to view the text file.0324

And when we view data.txt, we can see, "The file was written to at 4:26 and one second on August 5, 2011."0328

You can see how we were able to open up the file and write to it; and we wrote from the beginning of the file.0338

Now, as mentioned, one thing that you can use--one alternative to using fwrite that you might see--is fputs.0344

So, we can use the fputs method as well, and it is going to do the same thing.0353

If we note the time of the file (4:26:01) and we go ahead and refresh this page (which is going to write again to that file),0358

and we view the text file again, now it is 4:26 and 48 seconds.0367

So, it has gone ahead and updated it; fputs worked the same way.0371

And one thing to note, as you can see, is that this file only has one line,0375

even though we have written to it twice--we have written to the same file--0379

because what happens is: the fwrite function writes its output to wherever the current file pointer is on the file handle that you pass to it.0382

In this case...when we open the file using the r+ access modifier, the file pointer is always at the beginning.0391

So, in this case, we are always going to output our date string at the very beginning of the file.0397

And in this case, it is just going to overwrite the last one.0403

And one of the ways you can see that is if we go ahead and change our string.0405

So, right now, our data text file has this line here: File written to at 4:26 and 48 seconds.0413

Now, if we change our string that we are going to write, and just have some static string (for example, 1234--a 4-character string),0422

we are going to see how the fwrite just overwrites whatever characters are at the current position of the file pointer.0432

For example, when we call this, after we open the file, our r+ access modifier is going to put the file pointer at the beginning of the file.0443

When we call fputs or fwrite to write this 4-character string, it is just going to overwrite the first four characters in that file.0452

For example, if we go ahead and reload this page again, now it is going to say0459

"4 bytes were written to the file," meaning that this string was only length 4.0464

And if we view our data file, we can see that what it did was overwrite the first four letters of the text file previously there: 1234.0467

That is something just to note about the way fwrite and fputs work.0477

One other thing to notice is that, with the r+ modifier, you are going to get an error if you try to open a file that doesn't exist.0482

For example, this file data1.txt doesn't exist.0494

So, when we try to write to it, if we reload the script, we are going to get an error saying "You are trying to open a file that doesn't exist."0497

And so, when you use the r+ access modifier, it won't create a file automatically.0508

We are going to see in a minute that using other access modifiers will allow a file to be created automatically,0513

if it is not available when you try to open it.0517

Let's take a look at the different access modes available to fopen.0523

A subset of the different access mode modifiers (and these are the ones0528

that we are going to use in this course), primarily, is the a access modifier.0532

And that is a modifier that opens the file in append mode.0537

What it does is open the file for writing only, and you place the file pointer at the end of the file.0542

If you have a file that already contains information in it, whatever the next fwrite is0549

that you perform on that file, it is going to add it to the end of the file.0555

One thing to note about this method is that it will attempt to create the file if that file does not exist.0558

An alternate version of the append one is a+, and that allows you to read or write from a file.0565

But as far as opening the file, it does the same thing: it places the file pointer at the end of the file, and it will attempt to create the file.0571

We have a script called appendMode.php; it is going to attempt to open a new data file called dataAppend.txt.0578

It is going to write the same string to it as we had done before; it is this this dynamically-generated date string.0589

The difference here is that, when we call fopen, we specify that a access mode,0596

which is going to say, "Put the file pointer at the end of the file."0603

And then, when we go ahead and write our string, it is going to write at the current location of the file pointer,0610

which, when we first open it, is at the end of the file.0614

So, if we were to call the script multiple times, every time we call it, the file pointer is going to be moved to the end,0617

and it is going to write out this string up here.0622

So, we are actually going to get multiple lines in the file.0626

And down here, this is the same sort of output message that we had before.0628

If we look at our data directory, we can see that there is no dataAppend.txt file.0633

If we go ahead and run this script, appendMode.php, we are going to say that 41 bytes were successfully written in the file.0639

And if we look back at data, we can see that it created the file, which we had mentioned (the append mode will do that).0647

And if we go and open this file, we can see (well, you can do it in the web browser--if we view it) that the file was written to at 4:31 and 27 seconds.0655

Now, because it opens in append mode, it sets the file pointer at the beginning.0669

If we run this script again, it is going to add a new line that contains a new date.0672

So, if we go ahead and refresh the page (and actually, I am going to do it a couple of times),0678

on each refresh, it is going to open the file and write a string to it.0682

Now, if we click View dataAppend.txt again, you can see that multiple lines were added to it, because they have appended it to the end of the file.0685

An alternative to writing a file is what is known as the overwrite access mode, which is specified by w.0695

The w access mode says, "Open the file for writing only; put the file pointer at the beginning of the file; and erase all of the contents of the file."0701

And it will also attempt to create a file if it doesn't exist.0709

There is also the w+ access mode specifier, which does the same thing as w, except it also allows you to read from that file.0713

If we go and look at a script called overwriteMode.php, we can see that we are going to try to open a file called dataOverwrite.txt.0725

And again, using the w access mode will create the file if it doesn't exist.0736

And if we look at our data folder, we can see that that data file does not exist.0741

We are going to try to write this same dynamic string to the file.0746

Here, when we call fopen, we use the w access mode, which says "Open in overwrite mode and write only."0749

So, what it is going to do is: any contents that are in the file, it is going to truncate or get rid of.0756

And then, it is going to place the file pointer at the beginning.0761

So, when we call this fwrite method to write our date string on this file opened using the w mode,0764

it is just going to write it at the first line of the file, because it is going to delete all the contents.0771

If we go and run this script, overwriteMode.php, it is going to say, "41 bytes were successfully written."0775

And we can see that dataOverwrite.txt exists, because it created it.0784

And we can see that, for example, in this case, this date string was created at 4 hours, 33 minutes, and 44 seconds.0790

So, 4:33:44--let's remember that.0799

Now, if we go ahead and refresh the page again and view dataOverwrite.txt, it has advanced.0802

It was 4:33:44, I think, before; now, it has been advanced.0808

And what you can see is that, instead of appending this to the end of the file, like we did when we opened the file in append mode,0811

it overwrote the whole file, and just wrote out that one particular new date string.0816

So, every time, in this case, that we run this, it is going to overwrite the whole file and add a new date string.0823

So, if we were to do it again and refresh it, we would get a new date and time string.0828

Now, one thing to note about all of these methods that will create a file for you, if it doesn't exist,0835

is that it is required that, if you try to create a file, the directory you are trying to create the file in actually exists.0842

That is one requirement: the file doesn't have to exist, but the directory does.0849

For example, let's say, in our overwriteMode.php file, instead of creating dataOverwrite.txt0853

in the data directory, we are going to create it in the data1 directory.0864

What is going to happen is: when we load the script now, we are going to get an error saying0868

that it couldn't create that file, because that directory does not exist.0873

So, that is something that you should pay attention to.0879

And it is just something you have to watch out for, with those methods that allow you to create files.0882

For the homework challenge for this lesson, I want you to create a script that is going to open a file called data.txt.0888

And I want you to open the file using fopen with the a access mode.0896

So, as we just learned, that means that the file doesn't actually have to already be created.0900

And then, actually, I would like you to set it up so that it is not already created.0903

And then, I want you to write any random 10-character string to the file, followed by a new line.0907

Open the file; write a 10-character string to it; close the file.0915

Now, run this script several times; and because this is in append mode, that string is going to be written multiple times to that particular file.0919

If you run it a few times, you will have a couple of lines, all with that 10-character string.0928

Now, I want you to alter the script, so that, when it opens the file, it uses the w access mode, and run the script again.0932

Now, when you run it, it is going to delete all the contents of the file and rewrite that one string.0939

And even if you refresh the page over and over, it is still just going to write that one string,0945

because every time that script is run, it deletes all the contents of that file.0949

Then, I want you to modify the script so that the string you are going to be writing is only 5 characters long.0955

It is still going to open that data.txt file that we have been using.0961

Don't append a new line to it, as we have in the string up here.0967

And then, open the file in r+ access mode; and again, that is going to open the file for reading and writing at the beginning of the file.0973

And then, go ahead and write this 5-character string to the file; close the file; and run the script.0981

And when you run the script and look at the contents of the file, you should see that all it has done is overwritten the first 5 characters in the file.0991

Because in step 3 and 4, we overwrote the file to delete it, and we just added one line to it,0999

a 10-character string, as we learned in this lesson, the fwrite method just overwrites1009

whatever characters it needs to, wherever the current file pointer is.1016

And because the r+ access mode opens the file and places the file pointer at the beginning, it is going to overwrite the first five characters.1021

For example, if you had the numbers 0 through 9, and that was your 10-character string,1030

and then you wanted to overwrite the first five with just 5 x's, for example,1038

if you did that here, you would end up with 5 x's, followed by the digits 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.1043

And so, that will give you practice with some of the different file modes used for writing to files.1048

That ends today's lesson; thank you for watching Educator.com, and I look forward to seeing you next time.1053

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