For more information, please see full course syllabus of Physical Chemistry

For more information, please see full course syllabus of Physical Chemistry

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### The Ideal Gas Law

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

- Intro 0:00
- Course Overview 0:16
- Thermodynamics & Classical Thermodynamics
- Structure of the Course
- The Ideal Gas Law 3:06
- Ideal Gas Law: PV=nRT
- Units of Pressure
- Manipulating Units
- Atmosphere : atm
- Millimeter of Mercury: mm Hg
- SI Unit of Volume
- SI Unit of Temperature
- Value of R (Gas Constant): Pv = nRT
- Extensive and Intensive Variables (Properties) 15:23
- Intensive Property
- Extensive Property
- Example: Extensive and Intensive Variables
- Ideal Gas Law 19:24
- Ideal Gas Law with Intensive Variables
- Graphing Equations 23:51
- Hold T Constant & Graph P vs. V
- Hold P Constant & Graph V vs. T
- Hold V Constant & Graph P vs. T
- Isochores or Isometrics
- More on the V vs. T Graph
- More on the P vs. V Graph
- Ideal Gas Law at Low Pressure & High Temperature
- Ideal Gas Law at High Pressure & Low Temperature

### Physical Chemistry Online Course

### Transcription: The Ideal Gas Law

*Hello and welcome to www.educator.com.*0000

*Welcome to the first lesson of Physical Chemistry.*0002

*Before I actually launch into the Physical Chemistry, I want to talk a little bit about the course as a whole so *0006

*that you have an idea of what is that you are in for and what is there to expect.*0011

*Physical chemistry is taught in two ways.*0018

*We teach classical thermodynamics first and then we could quantum mechanics and then we go back and teach statistical thermodynamics.*0023

*In other words, we go back and we use quantum mechanics to explain what we learned in thermodynamics.*0032

*The other way that is taught, it seems to be becoming more and more popular these days, its quantum mechanics first *0039

*and then statistical and classical thermodynamics are done simultaneously.*0046

*This particular course does classical thermodynamics first, so I go with the first method.*0052

*Classical thermodynamics first then it goes on to quantum mechanics, spectroscopy next, and then finally, statistical thermodynamics.*0057

*Many choices have to be made in AP Chemical course about which topics to cover.*0067

*The more topics one covers, the less time one has to cultivate it for understanding of the fundamentals.*0072

*In other words, time is finite if I spend more time on this, it is more topics, but it gives me less time to assimilate what it is that I have learned before.*0079

*I have always been one who believes that it is more fruitful to read three novels closely and deeply than to have read 20 novels, *0091

*and for the sake of impressing be able to enumerate 20 novels.*0098

*You get a lot more out of doing less but doing it very well, that is always the case.*0102

*If you ever run across a situation where you have to make a choice, I promise you, if you make the choice of doing fewer things *0109

*but doing them well and deeply, it will be a lot better than having done multiple things.*0115

*It is just the way the mind works, it is just the way discipline works, is just a way to true deep learning which actually works.*0121

*I have chosen what I consider to be the most important topics for a strong foundation.*0129

*If, after further reflection, I feel that what I have left out deserves to be covered or if there is a clear demand for topic that I have left out, *0134

*I will absolutely be happy to add that topic of the course, however many topics that might be.*0142

*If what I have presented in the course is understood to a reasonable degree then any topic that I have left out, *0148

*but your particular course does cover, it should be reasonably easy to follow.*0155

*That should be very easy to follow.*0159

*I have presented as a solid, good, foundational course.*0161

*This course is a very important part of your scientific literacy.*0168

*It is a first exposure to pulling back the curtain and exposing what is actually going on.*0171

*I hope that you find it as beautiful as I do.*0178

*Best wishes and let us jump right on in.*0180

*We are going to start with the ideal gas law.*0186

*Mostly, what we will be talking about is gases.*0191

*We will talk about liquid and solids and we will see a couple of them in the problems but gas is going to be what we are most concerned with.*0195

*Let us begin with the ideal gas law.*0203

*The ideal gas law, you know it as PV = NRT, the pressure given a gas, the pressure × volume = the number of mol × the gas constant × the temperature in Kelvin.*0207

*That is it, nothing more than that.*0218

*It is an equation state.*0232

*It is an equation state and you are going to hear that term a lot as an equation of state.*0235

*What that means is the four variables, pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of mol.*0241

*Describe completely the state of our gases in at a given moment.*0259

*Describe the state of the gas.*0265

*Let us talk about units, units are going to be very important in this course.*0275

*In fact, probably, the single most annoying thing that you would have when you do with your problems is remembering to deal with the units and covering the units.*0279

*It just makes all this crazy but there it is.*0289

*Let us talk about units, the SI unit of pressure is a Pascal, symbolized as Pa.*0294

*Pressure is defined as force per unit area.*0318

*When I have the amount of force, if I divide it by the particular area over which I’m applying the force, I get the pressure, pressure = f/a.*0325

*Even force is a Newton and the unit of area is a square meter so 1 Pa = 1 N/sq m.*0336

*From here, we can go ahead and manipulate the units to serve our purposes.*0353

*From here, we can manipulate units as necessary to move between equivalent unit expressions.*0363

*If you ever lose your way in the problem, I have to talk about this more while I actually do the problems.*0394

*If you ever lose your way to the problem.*0398

*Let us think about the units and that will help you solve the problem in many of the cases, particularly in classical thermodynamics.*0402

*It will let you move between equivalent unit expressions.*0409

*Let us go ahead and do not stick to the page here.*0414

*We have 1 N/ sq m, in Newton is a kg m/s² /m².*0417

*We have 1kg m² s, there we go.*0434

*1 N/ m², which is a Pascal, is equal to 1 kg m/s² /m².*0449

*If I multiply by m/ m, I end up with 1 kg m²/ s² / m³ and that is equal to 1 J/ m³.*0463

*1 N/ m² which is 1 Pa is also equal to 1 kg /ms² = 1 J / m³.*0482

*That is it, I’m just manipulating units.*0491

*I have 1 atmosphere of pressure is equal to 1.01325 × 10⁵ Pa, this exact.*0497

*I have 1 atmosphere is equal to 760 tors, that is also exact.*0519

*The mm of mercury Hg, is actually bigger than the tors by a factor of 14 parts or 10⁸ which is clearly insignificant.*0529

*We take 1 mm of mercury equal to 1 tors.*0560

*The SI unit of volume, as I have said is a unit of pressure, now we will do it as a unit of volume is actually the cubic meter not the cubic centimeter.*0574

*In practice, we use cubic centimeters and we use liters.*0589

*1 liter is 1 cubic decimeter = 1000 cubic centimeters = 10⁻³ cubic meters.*0604

*1 liter is 10⁻³ cubic meters, this is exact.*0619

*In the next page, the SI unit of temperature is the Kelvin.*0630

*The value of r, the gas constant, pv= nrt, r = pv/ nt, p0 v0/ n0 t0.*0654

*If I take the pressure to be 1 atmosphere.*0678

*Let us do it this way, I will just write out what does we still have here.*0689

*P0, if we take 1 atmosphere as our base which we said as 1.01325 × 10⁵ Pa.*0699

*If I take my initial volume or basic volume to be 22.41383 L, and if I take N to be 1 mol which is going to be 22.41383 × 10⁻³ m³/ mol.*0712

*We are trying to stick with SI units, temperature = 273.15 Kelvin.*0745

*Therefore, if I put all of these in values for p0 v0 n0 t0, sticking with m³/mol Pa, I end up with r= 8.31441 Pa m³/ mol Kelvin.*0754

*Recall that 1 Pa = 1 J/ m³, so 1 Pa m³ = 1 J.*0782

*Pa m is a Joules, therefore, r = 8.31441 Js/mol Kelvin.*0801

*That is where all that stuff comes from, J/ mol Kelvin.*0811

*If I wanted it in liters/ atmosphere/ mol Kelvin, I get 0.08206.*0817

*I will give the number here 0.058, that is liter atmosphere/ mol Kelvin.*0824

*If you want an equivalent expression for J at liter atmosphere, just use this conversion factor right here.*0835

*If you want an equivalent between J and liter atmosphere, and you will, then 8.31441 J/ mol Kelvin × 1 mol Kelvin is 0.08206 liter atmosphere mol Kelvin.*0844

*It will cancel mol Kelvin and I’m left with 101.3 j/ liter atmosphere.*0894

*That is the conversion factor.*0905

*Keep a very close eye on units and conversions.*0913

*It is going to be very important in this course.*0915

*Let us talk about, I will go to the left here.*0920

*Let us talk about extensive and intensive variables.*0925

*Extensive and intensive variables or properties.*0931

*Let us start off with the ideal gas law, pv = nrt, intensive property.*0946

*The two intensive properties in this are pressure and temperature.*0958

*The reason they are intensive is that they do not depend on the amount of the substance present.*0965

*An intensive property and intensive variable is the one that does not depend on the amount of it present.*0984

*An extensive properties here are volume and the number of moles, they do depend on amount.*0991

*Let us see, mass is another extensive property because the amount of mass depends on how much you have.*1013

*You have 3g or 4g, it is going to make it a difference.*1026

*Mass is an extensive property.*1028

*If I take 1 mass of iron, if I take 1 g of iron and 10 g of iron both sitting on a table, the temperature is going to be the same.*1031

*If I measure the temperature of the 1 g or 10 g, it does not matter how much s there.*1039

*The temperature is intensive, it has nothing to do with how much iron is there but the mass does, volume does, number of moles does.*1044

*That is the difference between the two.*1053

*Let us see, this is very important now.*1057

*The ratio of 2 extensive variables always gives an intensive variable.*1065

*For example, our example is going to be, if I have mass which is an extensive variable and if I have volume which is an extensive variable, *1101

*if I take the ratio of the mass to the volume I get the density.*1118

*The density is an intensive variable.*1128

*1 g of iron, 10 g of iron, the density of iron stays.*1131

*1 g of iron has a certain volume, 10 g of iron has a certain volume, that is our extensive but if I take the ratio of 2 extensive, I will end up with intensive variable.*1138

*That is very deep, very profound, and very important, density intensive.*1148

*I repeat, the ratio of 2 extensive variables always gives an intensive variable.*1156

*We would often do that.*1160

*Let us go ahead and take a look at pv = nrt.*1165

*We have pv = nrt and we are going to divide both sides but n.*1170

*I end up with pv / n = rt.*1184

*I'm going to rewrite this as, basically what I am going to do is take this.*1188

*I’m going to take whatever volume, which is an extensive variable, I’m going to divided by n, which is also an extensive variable.*1193

*They are both extensive, the ratio of 2 extensive is an intensive.*1203

*I’m going to rewrite this as pv ̅ = rt, where V ̅ Is just equal to v/n.*1206

*I have taken the volume and divide it by n.*1216

*It is called the molar volume, volume per mol.*1220

*The ideal gas law written that way consists of all intensive variables.*1226

*We can discuss gases and their properties without worrying about whether there is 1 or 50 mol.*1261

*Now the amount does not matter.*1267

*When amounts do not matter, that is where we begin to uncover and elucidate underlying truths.*1270

*Now, we can discuss gases and their properties without worrying about whether we have 5 mol or 50 mol.*1277

*It is not going to make any difference.*1312

*Any fundamental property of the system should never depend on how much is there.*1315

*As I said, we wish to elucidate general truths in any specific case we might deal with the amount.*1348

*But when we talk about generalities, we never talk about the amount.*1368

*We should have to talk about the amount.*1370

*We should plot it in every situation across the board.*1372

*In general, volume is not the only thing that you will see with a line over it.*1382

*In general, any variable with a line over it is a molar quantity.*1388

*In other words, it is been divided by the number of moles that are present.*1403

*Molar quantity meaning it has been divided by n, the number of moles.*1407

*Let us talk about being able to graph equations.*1431

*Graphing equations, we will clearly graph an equation is just insanely important in science.*1435

*Let us go ahead and start with our pv= rt.*1448

*This is a relation among 3 variables, pressure, a molar volume, and temperature.*1457

*It is a relation among 3 variables.*1468

*If any 2 or none, the 3rd is automatically known. *1477

*Let us solve for each variable separately.*1499

*We are going to solve for p, v, and we are going to solve for t.*1501

*Let us start by solving for p.*1506

*P= rt/( v) ̅ , I’m going to write it as rt × 1 / V ̅.*1509

*This is 1/V ̅, these are hyperbolas.*1521

*I’m going to hold temperature constant and I’m going to graph pressure vs. Volume.*1529

*Holding t constant is very important.*1539

*We will graph p vs. V ̅, in other words, p is on the y axis and V ̅ Is the x axis.*1549

*As the molar volume changes, it gets bigger.*1569

*What happens to the pressure or as the pressure gets bigger, what happens to the volume?*1573

*Here is what we get.*1579

*This is the pressure, it is going to be at atmospheres, the axis is going to be molar volume, it is going to be deci³/ mol.*1588

*Molar volume what you get when you graph this equation by holding t constant, you have to put this.*1602

*You will end up with hyperbolas.*1619

*This is the one for 100 Kelvin, this is one for 200 Kelvin, again, I get different graphs, lines, curves, one for each temperature that I’m holding constant.*1623

*I am holding temperature constant and I’m changing v and let us see what happens to p.*1641

*This might be 400 Kelvin.*1647

*Clearly, the whole thing, there is an infinite number of these.*1650

*For a given v or volume, higher temperature means a higher pressure.*1662

*You already know this from General Chemistry that a higher t means a higher p, that is it what is going on.*1691

*Let us go forward again.*1701

*Every point of the PD graph or the PD plane, every single point of that two dimensional plane represents a particular state of the gas.*1710

*In other words, it represents a particular pressure, a particular volume, and a particular temperature.*1735

*It represents a particular state of the gas by holding the temperature constant, by holding the t constant.*1742

*I can strain the states to follow the curve.*1773

*Here is my p, here is my v, and I have a bunch of different temperatures.*1788

*Now as I change pressure, as I change volume, the change is going to follow that curve.*1795

*It is just going to bounce around, it is going to follow that curve for different temperatures.*1805

*It is going to be another curve for another temperature.*1809

*When I make changes, it goes up and down along the curve.*1813

*These curves for this particular graph holding temperature constant, these curves are called isotherms.*1819

*Isotherms just mean equal heat.*1830

*That is all it means, equal heat or in other words, holding temperature constant.*1837

*In thermodynamics, when you hear the term isothermal that means I'm keeping the temperature constant, that is all it means.*1842

*These curves are called isotherms when t is held constant.*1848

*Let us start again with pv = rt, this time let us go ahead and solve for volume.*1868

*V is equal to rt/p, I can write this as r/p × t.*1877

*That is interesting, this is linear.*1890

*I’m going to hold pressure constant.*1894

*Now let us hold pressure constant, this is constant and r is already a constant.*1900

*I’m going to graph v vs. T and express v as a function of t.*1910

*Here is the graph that I get.*1929

*This is my volume, this is my temperature in Kelvin, and this is linear.*1934

*And I hold p as a constant at different pressures, this is what looks like.*1941

*This one might be 3 atmospheres, let us say this one is 2 of atmospheres, let us say this one is 1 atmosphere.*1952

*What I have done is I have expressed this pv= nrt, now I have graphed the volume vs. Temperature.*1965

*At different pressures that I choose, the hold constant, I have these lines.*1974

*When I hold pressure constant, these lines are called isobars.*1982

*If I pick it as pressure 3 atmospheres, if I raise the temperature, the volume is going to travel along this line.*1986

*This is going to be everywhere.*1994

*At 2 atmospheres, if I change the volume, if I change the temperature the volume is going to travel along that line.*1996

*It will go backwards.*2000

*If at 1 atmosphere, it is going to travel along this line.*2003

*This is a state and a state for a given volume, for a given temperature, and for a given pressure.*2006

*These lines are called isobars.*2016

*When pressure is held constant, the lines that you get are called isobars.*2023

*When pressure is held constant and you have volume vs. Temperature those are called isobars.*2027

*As pressure rise, of course r with p, the slope decreases.*2047

*That is why from your perspective, as the pressure rises, the line gets closer.*2063

*It becomes more flat closer to the x axis.*2069

*Let us start again with pv ×rt, this time let us go ahead.*2083

*Let us try this, let us go p = r/ vt.*2102

*Let me shift one thing and make sure that.*2124

*P = rt, pressure = rt/ v.*2133

*What we did is we took our t and we held temperature constant.*2143

*I’m going to take r/ v × t, I’m going to take r/ v separate × t.*2152

*Again, we get a linear graph and now I’m going to graph pressure vs. Temperature but I'm going to hold the volume constant.*2159

*And what I get here is this a linear graph.*2170

*Pressure, temperature, different volumes, so again, we get something linear*2178

*This one might be 30 deci³/ mol, this one might be 20 deci³/ mol, this one might be 10 deci³/ mol.*2191

*Again, we are talking about molar volume.*2210

*Whenever I have these, whenever I have a pressure, temperature, graph for a particular volume, *2215

*if I change the temperature my pressure is going to move along this line.*2221

*These lines are called isochors or isometrics.*2226

*For a constant volume, for constant molar volume, we get things called isochors or isometrics.*2234

*Lines of constant volume, that is it. *2257

*Let us go ahead and draw this all out here.*2262

*I have got p = rt / V ̅.*2265

*I have got p and v = r/ p × t and I got p = r/ v × t.*2280

*This graph I ended up with hyperbolas.*2302

*This t was held constant and these were called isotherms.*2307

*Here we have v along this axis, this is p along that axis and this is going to be v along that axis.*2321

*This is v along this is axis and this is t along this axis.*2335

*I ended up getting these things, these were called isobars.*2337

*In this case, I held p as a constant.*2343

*Basically, the thing that you are taking with the gas constant here are t/ v, these are the variables, hold that thing called constant.*2348

*V and t are variables, hold the other variable constant.*2355

*Here it is p and t, we will hold the other variable constant.*2358

*We are going to hold this constant and again here we have pressure, here we have temperature, and we ended up with a bunch of v and this are called isochors.*2361

*Let me take a look at this one right here, this was molar volume vs. Temperature.*2376

*This equation here which was molar volume= r/ p × t.*2399

*This equation, when I look at these pictures, this equation and graph is easier to see, as temperature drops to 0 it is telling me that the volume is going to drop to 0.*2409

*This equation and graph, they imply that at t = 0, the molar volume = 0.*2433

*OK this does not happen to real gases and here is why.*2447

*Gases as t decreases, at some value of t the gas actually liquefies, it turns into liquid.*2466

*The gas liquefies so a further drop in temperature does not change the volume.*2485

*When something is liquid, the temperature in that stays at that volume.*2499

*A further drop in t does not change the volume.*2505

*It does not increase the volume.*2511

*In other words, this is an ideal gas would behave this way that real gases liquefy at low temperatures.*2514

*Therefore, the graph itself real gases, they do not go to 0.*2519

*OK now first equation that we did was this one where we have pressure and where we had the molar volume.*2529

*This equation and this graph which was p = rt/ v.*2543

*1/v or v was the x axis, these imply that as pressure increases, as I go up in pressure it implies that the volume actually go down to 0.*2553

*As p increases, the volume goes to 0 but again, that does not happen.*2579

*At a certain pressure, at a certain p, the gas liquefies.*2589

*Let us say you are just squeezing all the gas particles at some point they will just turn into liquid.*2598

*The gas liquefies. *2603

*No further increase in p reduces the molar volume.*2606

*This is called isothermal compression.*2635

*It is isothermal because you are moving along isotherm.*2636

*These are called isotherms because you are compressing it.*2639

*In other words, you will be increasing the pressure.*2641

*As you increasing the pressure, what is going to end up happening is the volume is going to get closer and closer to 0.*2644

*But at some point, it is going to liquefy and it is not going to go any further.*2652

*Hence, the ideal gas that is why it is called the ideal gas law.*2656

*It is never a real gas law, hence, an ideal gas. *2660

*At low pressures and high temperatures, the ideal gas law is actually very accurate.*2670

*The ideal gas law is quite accurate at describing gases behavior.*2691

*Deviations from ideal behavior occur at high pressures and or low temperatures.*2721

*In other words, as the molecules starts to get really close to each other.*2750

*We will talk about that more in subsequent sections.*2755

*Thank you for joining us here at www.educator.com, we will see you next time for our continuation of classical thermodynamics. *2758

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sat Sep 10, 2016 2:30 AM

Post by Saeed Alshahrani on September 4 at 09:11:54 PM

Hello Professor Hovasapian,

Here is my chemistry thermodynamics course table of contents.

Are all the material in the table covered in your course? If not, what's your advice for the material that you didn't cover.

Thanks in advance, and sorry for the long massage.

Week 1

B. Ideal Gas and the Equation of State

Things to know and do

Equilibrium and Temperature

The Equation of State

Units

Canceling Units

Boyles Law

Gay-Lussac’s Law

The Gas Constant and the Mole

Avagadro’s hypothesis

Avagadro’s number

Daltons Law of Partial Pressure

Graham’s Law of Effusion

C. Kinetic Theory of Gases

The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Boyle’s Law (from first principles)

Kinetic energy

Equate the Empirical and the Derived

Implications

The Boltzmann Constant

Molecular Speeds

Root Mean Square

D. Collision Frequency

Molecular Collisions

Collision Frequency

Collision Density

Refinement

Mean Free Path

Viscosity of Gases

The Coefficient of Viscosity

Real Gases

E. Viscosity

Viscosity of Gases

The Coefficient of Viscosity

Real Gases

Compressibility Factor

Equations of State for Real Gases

Attractive Forces

Molecular Size

Topics. CH3510 Fall 2015

Week 2

F. Real Gases

van der Waals Equation

The Critical Point

van der Waals Isotherms

vdW and the Critical Point

The Constants

The Law of corresponding states

G. Thermodynamics

Systems

Definitions

Boundaries and Processes

Zeroth Law

First Law of Thermodynamics

The Sign Convention

State Functions

Work

H. Heat Capacity

Reversibility

Special Cases; Constant Volume

Special Cases: Constant Pressure

Enthalpy

Enthalpy and Internal Energy

Heat Capacity

I. CP and CV

Heat Capacity CV

Heat Capacity CP

How CP and CV are related

Equipartition of Energy

J. Isothermal and Adiabatic Expansion

Equipartition of Energy

Special cases – Isothermal Expansion

Reversible Isothermal Expansion

Irreversible Isothermal Expansion

Adiabatic Expansion

Reversible Adiabatic Expansion

Irreversible Adiabatic Expansion …

Thermochemistry

Stoichiometry

Topics CH3510 Fall 2016

Week 3

K. Hess’s Law and Calorimetry

Extent of Reaction

Bomb Calorimeter Experiment

Hess’s Law

L. Joule Thompson Experiment

Relationship between ?U and ?H

Enthalpies of Formation

Standard States

Enthalpies for Solutions

Enthalpy of Neutralization

The Joule- Thomson Experiment

µ the Joule – Thomson Coefficient

M. The Second Law and the Carnot Cycle

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

Heat and Work

The Carnot Cycle

Overall ?U

Overall q

Overall w

Interpretation

Efficiency

N. Entropy

Efficiency

Work done by the System

Work done on the System

Net Work

Efficiency in Terms of Heat

Entropy

Entropy and Internal Energy

Entropy Changes

Changes of State

Topics. CH3510 Fall 2015

Week 4

O. Practical Entropy

Ice Calorimeter

Irreversible Changes

Supercooling and Superheating

Entropy and Ideal gases

Entropy as a Function of T and P

P. Entropy of Mixing

Entropy of Mixing

Trouton’s Rule

The Third Law

Reaction Entropy

The Magnitude of Entropy

Q. Gibbs Free Energy

Conditions for Equilibrium

Entropy of Equilibrium

The Gibbs (Free) Energy

Gibbs Energy of Formation

R. Maxwell’s Demon

Free Energy of Reaction

Gibbs Energy of Formation

Gibbs Energy and Work

Gibbs and Non PV Work

The Helmholtz Energy

Helmholtz Energy – the Work Function

Spontaneity and Equilibrium

Properties of a System

Fundamental Equations

Week 5

S. Gibbs – Helmholtz Equation

Fundamental Equations

Maxwell’s Relations

Gibbs Helmholtz Equation

The Effect of Pressure on G

Fugacity and Chemical Potential

Topics CH3510 Fall 2016

T. Chemical Potential

Fugacity and Chemical Potential

Fugacity

Activity

Chemical Potential

Implications of µ

Chemical Equilibria

Law of Mass Action

U. Thermodynamic Equilibria

Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constant

Equilibrium

In terms of Concentration

Characteristics

Condensed Phases

Le Chatelier’s Principle

V. Equilibria Composition

Equilibrium Composition

A Very Unpleasant Problem

The Behavior of G as Function of ?

Week 6

W. Why do Equilibria Happen?

Phases and Solutions

Phase Diagram of Water

The Clapeyron Equation

The Clausius Clapeyron Equation

Phase Transitions

Phase Diagram of Water

Triple Point

Phase Diagram of CO2

X. Phases and Solutions

A Note on Equilibria Units

Mixtures and Solutions

Partial Molar Properties

Molar Volumes

Free Energy of Mixing

Entropy of mixing

Enthalpy of Mixing

Y. Raoults Law

Raoult’s Law

Liquid Vapor Composition

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sat Apr 23, 2016 7:33 PM

Post by Bernhard Retzl on April 21 at 12:02:56 PM

Is there a possibility to reduce the Buffering of the videos?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Fri Mar 25, 2016 10:53 PM

Post by Jupil Youn on March 12 at 10:27:40 PM

During the lecture, you explained that any fundamental property of a system should never depend on how much is there. It applies to nano-scale system?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Wed Nov 11, 2015 4:18 AM

Post by Jeffrey Tao on November 9, 2015

I just looked through the table of contents, and it seems that this course requires multivariable calculus (partial derivatives). Would you say that I should take your course in multivariable calculus first before starting this one (I've already taken AP Calculus BC)?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Fri Feb 27, 2015 1:44 AM

Post by David LÃ¶fqvist on February 25, 2015

How long time would you recommend for this course?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Wed Nov 19, 2014 5:48 AM

Post by Scott Beck on November 17, 2014

Hi you are a very excellent teacher and I love your use of words. Do you have an estimate to when your AP Calculus AB course will be released?

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:46 PM

Post by Okwudili Ezeh on October 12, 2014

Please could you post the transcription for all your lectures.

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Mon Oct 13, 2014 5:43 PM

Post by manu vats singh on October 11, 2014

which textbook would you recommend for this course

2 answers

Last reply by: Noah Jakson

Fri Oct 10, 2014 4:00 PM

Post by Noah Jakson on October 9, 2014

Thank you for the quick and informative response. We are doing Classical Thermodynamics in the fall and in the spring we will be doing QM. So Thermo now, QM later.

The syllabus is a bit screwy, I just realized because there are titles that are the same, so I apologize for the error of listing McQuarrie twice.

Our official book is #3, however, many students and faculty are not very fond of it, including myself, and we are still sampling many texts to find one that is a good fit, which is why the syllabus states "other books that could be used for this class."

I have heard many good things about McQuarrie, so I will have to borrow it and see.

Thank you very much Professor Hovasapian.

3 answers

Last reply by: Noah Jakson

Thu Oct 9, 2014 3:45 PM

Post by Noah Jakson on October 8, 2014

Hello Professor Hovasapian,

I was wondering if you could recommend a physical chemistry text. My syllabus has seven books, but the professor told us to pick one, and I am not sure which one would be best.

The choices:

Physical Chemistry, Atkins/DePaula

Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach: D. A. McQuarrie & J. D. Simon

Physical Chemistry, Engel & Reid

Physical Chemistry: Berry, Rice & Ross

Molecular Thermodynamics: R. E. Dickerson

Statistical Thermodynamics: D. A. McQuarrie

Rates & Mechanism of Reactions: W. G. Cardiff

Kinetics & Mechanism: J. W. Moore & R. G. Pearson

Physical Chemistry: A Molecular Approach: D. A. McQuarrie & J. D. Simon

1 answer

Last reply by: Professor Hovasapian

Sat Sep 6, 2014 9:32 PM

Post by Tom Glow on September 6, 2014

Amazing! Thank you Professor, I have been excited about this course since it was announced!