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Catherine Carpenter

Catherine Carpenter

Laboratory Testing & Visualization

Slide Duration:

Table of Contents

I.Introduction to Microbiology
History of Microbiology

40m 36s

Intro
0:00
Overview of Microbiology
0:35
What is Microbiology?
0:39
History of Microbiology
0:47
What is Microbiology?
3:11
Study of Biology of Pathogen
4:05
Study of Biology of Vector
4:13
Biology of Human Host
4:28
Microbiology
6:32
Study of Microorganisms
6:35
Includes Viruses, Small Macroscopic Organisms, and Parasites
7:48
Microorganisms are Responsible for Cycling the Chemical Elements Essential for Life
9:32
Produce More Energy Through Photosynthesis Than Plants
10:00
90% of Cells in Our Body are Microbes
11:20
Important Discoveries in Microbiology
11:29
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek
11:48
Invented of the Microscope
11:59
What Was Leeuwenhoek's World?
12:47
The First Smallpox Vaccination: Jenner 1796
13:25
Jenner Invented the First Vaccine
13:35
Protected from Smallpox
13:58
Edward Jenner and Vaccination
14:49
Cowpox Virus
15:25
Material Used for Vaccine Probably Contained Cowpox Virus
15:46
Inoculate James Phipps by Taking Pus from the Lesions on the Hands of a Diary Maid
16:20
Louis Pasteur and Theory of Spontaneous Generation
17:58
Pasteur's S-Shaped Flask Kept Microbes Out but Let Air In
18:04
Disproved Theory of Spontaneous Generation
18:20
Fermentation, Pasteurization, and Vaccination: Louis Pasteur
19:53
Fermentation
19:54
Pasteurizing
20:14
Vaccination
20:56
The Germ Theory of Disease: Robert Koch
21:13
Koch's Postulates
21:47
Koch's Postulates
23:13
Procedure to Determine Criteria to Establish Casual Relationship Between a Microbe and Disease
23:34
A Fortunate Accident: Antibiotics
25:40
Alexander Fleming Discovered the First Antibiotic
25:55
Summary of Important Discoveries
27:12
Ability to Visualize Microorganisms
27:49
Vaccination
28:59
Fermentation, Pasteurization and Vaccination from Rabies
29:21
Germ Theory of Disease
29:42
Antibiotics
30:08
Example 1
31:36
Example 2
32:02
Example 3
33:56
Example 4
37:53
Example 5
38:57
Laboratory Testing & Visualization

44m 19s

Intro
0:00
Laboratory Testing and Visualization
0:37
Serology
1:09
Visualization: Types of Microscopes
1:32
A Clinical Microbiology Lab Report Form
1:57
Generalized Tests for Microorganisms
2:36
Morphological Characteristics
2:44
Differential Staining
3:00
Biochemical Tests
3:45
A Clinical Microbiology Lab Report Form
4:19
Serology
6:38
Detect Levels of Antibodies
6:46
Blood Serum
7:43
Recent of Past Infection
7:59
Differentiate Different Strains
9:39
Example of Serology Testing for HBV
10:02
Direct Agglutination Testing
12:52
Visual Test
13:08
Positive Results
13:16
Antibodies Sufficient in Level
14:13
ELISA Test
15:56
Sandwich ELISA
16:39
Western Blot
18:56
Proteins are Positioned on the Filter so Antibodies Can Bind to the Antigens
19:09
Filter is Then Washed with Patient's Serum
19:27
Positive Test for Particular Microorganisms
20:04
Flow Cytometry
21:09
Used to Identify Bacteria Without Culturing the Bacteria
21:17
Moving Fluid Containing Bacteria is Forced Through Small Opening
22:03
Differences in Electrical Conductivity Between the Cells are Detected
22:17
Results Distinguishing Three Different Species of Microorganisms
22:56
Genetic Testing: DNA Fingerprinting
23:49
Way to Specify and Differentiate Bacteria
25:36
Some Produce Taxon
25:47
Used as a Proxy for Microbial Cell Abundance
26:13
Detailed Figure
26:43
Pattern Matching to Determine Bacterial Strain
27:22
Example
28:00
Picture of That
28:04
Instruments to Visualize Microorganisms
29:36
Light Microscope
30:22
Image
31:18
Darkfield Microscopy
31:44
An Illumination Technique Used to Enhance the Contrast in Unstained Samples
31:51
How It Works
32:01
Planaria in Pond Water
32:19
Electron Microscope
32:55
Uses Electron Beam to Illuminate a Specimen and Produce a Magnified Image
33:23
Electron Microscopy
33:34
Electron Microscope Image
34:23
Atomic Force Microscope
34:41
Manipulates Matter at the Nanoscale
35:09
Atomic Force Microscopy Image
35:37
Atomic Force Imaging
35:54
Instruments to Visualize Microorganisms
37:02
Light Microscopes
37:18
Example 1
37:28
Example 2
40:19
Example 3
40:57
Example 4
42:13
Example 5
42:35
Present Day Importance of Microbiology

43m 48s

Intro
0:00
Two Important Topic Area in Microbiology
0:41
Gut Microbiome
1:21
A Forgotten Organ
1:25
Colonization of the Gut Begins at Birth
2:34
Factors That Alter the Relationship
4:02
Pathologic Inflammation
7:05
Commensal Species
9:47
Pathobionts
10:28
Functional Comparison of the Gut Microbiome with Other Sequenced Microbiomes
10:38
Genes and Microbiome
11:34
Vitamin K Example
12:00
Escherichia Coli
13:07
Genomes of the Bacteria and Viruses of the Human Gut Encode 3.3 Million Genes
14:02
Link to Microbiome and Health
14:57
Antibiotic Resistance
15:42
Natural Selection, Survival of the Fittest, Adaptation
16:39
Theory of Evolution
17:07
Origin of Species
17:13
Darwin Came Up with Theory
17:50
Link to Theory of Evolution
18:01
Natural Selection
19:03
Natural Selection
19:09
Adaptive Trait
19:21
Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
19:49
Two Week Course of Antibiotics
20:10
Antibiotic Resistant Strains Found in Hospitals and Schools
21:21
Evolution of Resistant Bacteria
22:01
Evolution of Resistance
24:06
Natural Selection
24:08
Some Bacteria Transfers the Resistant Genes to Other Bacteria Who Don't Have It
24:24
It Reproduces and Soon Populates an Antibiotic Resistant Infection
25:06
Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
25:30
Acquired Resistance
25:31
Resistance Develops by Mutation of Resident or by Acquisition of New Genes
26:55
Flourish in Areas of High Antimicrobial Use
27:10
Spread of Antibiotic Resistance
27:19
Selection of Resistant Bacteria by Overuse and Misuse of Antibiotics
29:02
Multiple Antibiotics
29:46
Antibiotics Used Unnecessarily
30:35
Bacterial and Viral Pneumonia
31:13
Indiscriminant Use of Antibiotic
31:52
Unnecessary Antibiotics Can Promote Resistant Bacteria
32:25
Future Antibiotics May Lose Effectiveness
32:33
Ease of Obtaining Antibiotics
33:11
Over the Counter
33:13
Encourages Indiscriminant and Inappropriate Use of Antibiotics
33:25
Use in Animal Feed
34:26
Prevent Infections and Promote Growth
34:30
Animals Can Develop Resistance Also
35:03
Tutorial on Antibiotic Resistance
36:05
Example 1
36:32
Example 2
39:30
II. Cell Biology
Biology of the Prototype Cell

10m 2s

Intro
0:00
Cellular Organization
0:14
Prokaryotes
0:27
Eukaryotes
0:48
Three Domains of Life
0:51
Eubacteria
1:02
Archaebacteria
1:09
Eukaryotes
1:15
Evolution of Bacteria
1:21
Common Qualities
2:02
Nucleus
2:12
Plasma Membrane
2:47
Cytoplasm
3:09
Multicellularity
3:17
Multicellularity Evolved
3:28
Cells Gave Rise to Earth's First Lineage of Multicellular Organisms
3:57
Fossils of Bangiomorpha Pubescens are 1.2 Billion Years Old
4:18
Cells Differentiated for Attaching to a Substrate
4:37
Longitudinal Division Divides Disc-Shaped Cells Into Radially Arranged Wedge-Shaped Cells
4:54
According to Energy
5:08
Phototrophs
5:36
Chemotrophs
6:02
Introducing Prokaryotic Cells
6:46
Bacteria and Archaea
6:51
Smallest Form of Life
6:58
Similar in Appearance and Size
7:06
Aerobic
7:13
Anaerobic
7:19
Facultative
7:26
Example 1
7:37
Example 2
9:02
Structures in Common & Structures That Are Unique

8m 40s

Intro
0:00
Structures
0:22
Way to Remember Cell Structures
0:23
Membrane Similarities
0:34
Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Have Plasma Membrane
0:42
Replication Molecules
1:17
Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Have DNA and RNA
1:18
One Way Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes are Different
1:41
Genome Differences
1:49
Eukaryotes
1:52
Prokaryotes
2:12
Cell Division Differences
2:43
Prokaryotes
2:49
Eukaryotes
2:55
Organelle Differences
3:07
Eukaryotes
3:10
Prokaryotes
3:31
Energy Metabolism Differences
3:42
Eukaryotes
3:48
Prokaryotes
4:21
Cytoskeleton Differences
4:41
Eukaryotes
4:50
Prokaryotes
5:27
Example 1
5:46
Example 2
7:13
DNA & RNA

11m 46s

Intro
0:00
Which Came First
0:31
RNA Came First
0:38
Short RNA Molecules
0:54
Stored Information
1:05
Early RNA
1:21
Synthesized Proteins and Carried Info
1:24
Information Carrying Role of RNA
1:36
Evolution of Double-Stranded DNA Enabled the Storage of More Complex Info
2:01
DNA Became a Better Mechanism for Information Storage of Complex Traits
2:13
Replicating Molecules
2:35
Replicating Molecules Evolved and Began to Undergo Natural Selection
2:51
Replication
3:05
Protein Synthesis
3:13
RNA Evolves Into DNA
3:24
DNA Contains Instruction
3:32
RNA Transcribes DNA
3:54
Proteins Are Made from the Instructions
3:59
DNA Structure
4:15
Chromosomal DNA
5:02
DNA Coiling
5:26
DNA - Nucleic Functions
5:51
Transcription
6:04
Replication
6:29
Function of DNA
7:10
DNA Replication
7:36
Complete Unzipping of DNA
7:38
Assembly of Complementary Nucleotides
7:47
Only Occurs in Cell Division
8:09
DNA Replication Diagram
8:18
DNA Transcription and Translation
8:41
Example 1
9:46
Example 2
10:27
Example 3
10:45
Motility

11m 24s

Intro
0:00
Motility is an Important Property
0:26
Flagella
0:37
Pili
0:55
Prokaryotic Cell
1:08
Pili
1:38
Fimbriae
1:45
Pili Connect a Bacterium to Others of the Same Species
1:57
Transferred Plasmids Can Bring a New Function to the Cell
2:37
Fimbriae
3:07
Distributed Over the Entire Surface of the Cell
3:08
Have a Tendency to Adhere to Surfaces and to One Another
3:17
Example: Neisseria Gonorrhea
3:40
An Electron Micrograph of E Coli
3:53
Bacterial Conjugation with Pilus
4:12
Prokaryotic Flagella
5:14
Eukaryotes
5:34
Prokaryotes
5:43
Underneath Inner Plasma Membrane in Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria
6:05
Different Types of Flagella
6:13
Flagella Organization
6:14
Bacteria Alters Speed and Direction of Rotation
7:11
Examples
8:07
Example 1
8:41
Example 2
10:05
Plasma Membrane

16m 11s

Intro
0:00
Plasma Membrane
0:22
Functions of Plasma Membrane
0:28
Physical Isolation
0:31
Regulation of Exchange with the Environment
1:05
Communication Between the Cell and Its Environment
1:46
Structural Support
2:28
Plasma Membrane Composition
2:46
Lipids
2:59
Proteins
3:17
Carbohydrates
3:43
Lipid Bi-Layer of Plasma Membrane
4:19
Micelle
4:28
Bilayer
5:11
Liposome
5:40
Cellular Evolution
5:59
Evoloution of Membranes Advantages
6:49
Encased Cells Out-Competed Naked Cells
7:37
Plasma Membrane Structure
7:57
Plasma Membrane Differences
10:59
Eukaryotic Cells Have Carbohydrates
11:11
Eukaryotic Plasma Membranes Contain Sterols
12:08
Prokaryotic Plasma Membranes Consist Mostly of Phospholipids and Proteins
12:26
Example 1
12:41
Example 2
13:30
Example 3
15:02
Antibody & Antigen Recognition

15m 50s

Intro
0:00
Finding and Cell Signaling
0:22
Ligand Binding
1:00
Ligand Binds
1:01
Binding Site is Complementary to the Ligand
1:30
Interaction Between Ligand and Binding Site is Specific
2:39
Induced Fit
3:24
Ligand Binding Illustration 1
3:44
Ligand Binding Illustration 2
4:21
Antibody Structure
4:44
Antigen-Antibody Specificity
5:40
Antigen-Antibody Reaction
6:27
Example 1
10:10
Example 2
11:54
Example 3
13:29
Microbial Metabolism

21m 44s

Intro
0:00
Organisms and Carbon
0:20
Autotrophs
0:40
Heterotrophs
1:12
Organisms and Energy
2:07
Metabolism
3:19
Metabolism
3:26
Catabolism
3:53
Anabolism
4:15
Cellular Respiration
4:56
Aerobic Respiration
5:47
Anaerobic Respiration
6:13
Glucose
6:41
Most Important Carbohydrate
6:42
Three Major Outcomes
7:14
Stored
7:21
Oxidized via Glycolysis
7:22
Oxidized via the Pentose Phosphate
7:50
Outcomes of Glucose I
8:37
Outcomes of Glucose II
10:21
Overview of Aerobic Metabolism
11:50
Glycolysis
12:01
Citric Acid Cycle
12:05
Oxidative Phosphorylation
12:13
Formula
12:17
Aerobic Metabolism
12:28
Respiration and Fermentation
13:52
Carbohydrate Catabolism
15:00
Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism
15:59
Energy in Glucose is Released Without the Presence of Oxygen
16:00
Lactic Acid
16:08
ATP Production Requirements
17:13
Energy Sources
17:22
Electron Carriers
17:41
Final Electron Acceptors
17:49
Example 1
18:09
Example 2
18:41
Example 3
20:13
Microbial Genetics

39m 49s

Intro
0:00
What is a Gene?
0:39
A Portion of the Chromosome That Determines or Affects a Single Character or Phenotype
0:51
Biochemical Definition of a Gene
0:57
Original Definition: One Gene-One Polypeptide
1:20
What is a Gene?
1:48
Regulatory Sequence
1:50
Genetic Code
2:44
Transcription and Replication
3:56
Replication of Bacterial DNA
5:05
Copy Both Sides of DNA Strand
5:20
DNA Transcription
5:53
DNA is Transcribed to Make RNA
6:18
RNA Polymerase Binds to the Promoter Sequence
6:24
Direction
6:29
Transcription Stops When It Reaches the Terminator Sequence
6:33
Bacterial Transcription
6:39
Transcription
6:46
No Nucleus
6:52
Translation
7:51
mRNA is Translated In Codons
8:11
Translation of mRNA Begins at the Start Codon
8:18
Translation Ends at Nonsense Codon
8:22
Gene Regulation
8:34
Constitutive Genes Are Expressed at a Fixed Rate
8:43
Other Genes Are Expressed Only as Needed
8:58
Regulation of Transcription
9:11
Repression
10:16
Induction
11:04
Germline Mutation
12:09
Evolutionary Biology
12:32
Molecular Biology
13:48
Mutations
14:34
Random and Rare
14:36
Can Be Beneficial or Neutral
14:46
Not All Mutations Matter
14:58
Somatic Mutations
15:20
Germline Mutations
16:30
Causes of Mutations
16:44
DNA Fails to Copy Accurately
16:48
External Influences Can Create Mutations
17:21
Types of Mutations
18:14
Substitution
18:18
Examples of Substitutions
18:29
Silent Mutations
19:56
Insertion
20:39
Deletion
20:51
Frame Shift
21:12
Bacterial Gene Recombination
22:16
Vertical Gene Transfer
22:57
Horizontal Gene Transfer
23:16
Genetic Recombination
23:46
Exchange of Genes Between Two DNA Molecules
23:47
Crossing Over Occurs When Two Chromosomes Break and Rejoin
23:52
Recipient Chromosome Contains New DNA
23:57
Bacterial Recombination
24:51
Bacterial Transformation
25:53
Conjugation in E. Coli
28:36
Transduction by a Bacteriophage
30:04
Plasmids
31:53
What are Plasmids?
32:00
F-Factor
32:14
Other Plasmids Encode for Proteins That Enhance the Pathogenicity of a Bacterium
32:39
Dissimilation Plasmids
33:24
R Factors
33:44
R-Factor, A Type of Plasmid
33:53
Transposons
35:04
Move From One Region of DNA to Another
35:29
Contain Insertion Sequences for Cutting and Resealing DNA (Tansposase)
35:34
Example 1
36:14
Example 2
37:34
Example 3
38:15
III. Virus Biology
Viral Structure, Genome, & Replication

16m 50s

Intro
0:00
Medical Virology
0:11
Viral Structure
1:37
Viral Genome
1:55
What is a Virus?
2:09
Smaller
2:15
DNA or RNA with no Nucleus
2:34
Classification of Viruses
3:03
Type and Confirmation of Genomic Nucleic Acid
3:07
Viral Morphology
3:19
Viral Structure
3:54
Virion
3:58
Envelope
4:29
Capsid
5:39
Nucleocapsid
5:55
Viral Genome - Composition
6:27
Viral Genome
6:31
DNA vs. RNA Structure
6:42
RNA
7:49
Pathogenicity & Virulence
7:42
DNA
8:06
Viral Genome - Shape
8:36
Segmented
8:40
Non-segmented
9:22
Changes in the Viral Genome
9:36
Genetic Recombination
9:56
Reassortment
10:26
Changes in the Viral Genome
11:16
Quasi-species
11:24
Ebola Virus
11:58
Example 1
12:33
Example 2
13:42
Example 3
15:13
Viral Entry Into a Cell & Transmission

12m 31s

Intro
0:00
Medical Virology
0:27
Viral Entry Into a Cell
0:30
Viral Transmission
0:39
Viral Entry into Cells
0:53
Attachment
0:58
Membrane Fusion
1:29
Pre Formation
1:56
Penetration
2:12
Transmission of Viruses
2:34
Aerosol
2:51
Contaminated Food
3:19
Arthropods
4:01
Sexual Contact
5:06
Organ and Tissue Transplant
5:22
Site of Virus Entry
6:17
Respiratory Tract
6:37
GI Tract
7:08
Urethra, Vagina, Anus
7:34
Skin
7:42
Conjunctiva
7:45
Type of Cell Best Suited for Virus
7:57
Example 1
9:23
Example 2
10:13
Medically Important Viruses

24m 41s

Intro
0:00
Medical Virology
0:41
Viruses We Will Study
1:00
How the Viruses Differs
1:10
Medically-Important Viruses
1:23
Selected Viruses of Medical Importance
2:55
Herpesviridae, Simplevirus
2:59
Herpes Virus
4:09
Papillomaviridae, Alphapapillomavirus
4:47
Papilloma Virus
5:27
Reoviridae, Rotavirus
6:57
Rotavirus
7:58
Paramyxovirinae, Morbilivirus
9:04
Measles Virus
10:19
Orthomyxoviridae (Influenza Virus)
10:58
Influenza Virus - Antigenic Drift
12:52
Influenza Virus - Antigenic Shift
15:19
Medically-Important Viruses
18:39
Avian Influenza
18:41
Example 1
20:19
Example 2
21:50
Example 3
23:01
IV. Classification of Microbes
Overall Classification of Microbes

15m 51s

Intro
0:00
What is Taxonomy?
0:18
Science of Classifying Organisms
0:21
Universal Names Used by All Countries
1:11
Reference for Identifying Organisms
1:19
Binomial Nomenclature
1:28
Systematics or Phylogeny
2:11
Phylogeny
2:12
Like Reading a Family Tree
2:28
Root of the Tree
2:33
Moving Forward in Time
2:49
Clade
3:01
Ancestors and Lineage
3:39
Taxonomic Hierarchy
4:17
Genus and Species
4:28
Classification Changes
4:38
History of Microbial Taxonomy
4:51
Discovery of Microscope
5:09
Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia
5:33
Smallpox Vaccine
5:42
Bacteria and Fungi
6:11
Kingdom Portista
6:24
Prokaryotes Introduced as a New Kingdom
6:57
Definition of Prokaryote
7:17
Kingdom Fungi
7:33
Kingdom Prokaryote
7:40
Two Types of Prokaryotic Cells
7:48
Using Molecular Techniques to Classify
7:58
Classify Microbes
8:24
Three Domain System of Classification
9:21
Classification Criteria
9:29
Physiology
9:58
Ecology
10:06
Behavior
10:27
Morphology
10:54
Molecular Evidence (RNA)
11:11
Three Domains of Life
11:39
Eukaryotes
11:46
Prokaryotes
11:48
Archaea
11:54
Example 1
12:13
Example 2
13:15
Prokaryotes: Bacteria & Archaea

12m 14s

Intro
0:00
Classification of Prokaryotes
0:45
Lack of Nucleus
0:51
Culture
1:05
Clone
1:19
Strain
1:37
Phylogenetic Relationship
2:02
Archaea
3:53
Two Distinct Groups: Archaea and Bacteria
4:05
Archaea Lived in High Temperatures
4:29
Habitats
4:51
Only Habitants to Live in Extreme Habitats
5:24
New Research Shoes Archaeans are Abundant in the Open Sea
5:40
Archaea Morphology
5:59
Basic Archaeal Structure: Cytoplasm, Cell Membrane, and Cell Wall
6:08
Archaeal Cell Membranes
6:13
Plasmid
7:11
Archaeal Ribosomes
7:29
Example 1
8:20
Example 2
11:01
V. The Immune System
The Immune System

20m 18s

Intro
0:00
Immune System Introduction
0:28
Body Defends Itself from Anything Foreign
0:49
What Immunity Constitutes
1:13
Immune Responses Can be Classified as Nonspecific or Specific
1:27
Nonspecific Immune Response
1:54
Specific Immune Response
2:22
Physiological Barriers
2:49
The Immune System
3:18
Innate Immune Response
3:20
Adaptive Immune Response
3:42
Immunity
4:47
Immunology
5:32
Immunity
5:39
Immune System
6:21
Barriers to Infection - Mechanical
6:41
Physical Barriers
6:54
Epithelial Surfaces
8:31
Mucosal Surfaces
9:54
Muco-ciliary Escalator
10:40
Barriers to Infection - Chemical
11:25
Enzymes
11:33
pH
12:29
Lung
13:48
Physiological Barriers
14:56
The Immune System
16:52
Example 1
17:15
The Complement System

16m 53s

Intro
0:00
What is Complement?
0:37
Proteins
0:40
Synthesized by Different Cell Types
1:01
Complement System
1:14
Destroy Pathogens Directly
1:51
Activate Other Components of the Immune Response
2:02
Collaborate with Other Components of the Immune Response
2:12
Classical Pathway
2:28
Lection Pathway
3:29
Alternative Pathway
3:52
Integral Protein Types That Function in Cell-Cell Interaction
4:08
Function of the Complement System
4:49
Complement is Activated Upon Infection
4:50
Complement Functions Like Enzymes
6:16
Enzyme Activation
6:37
Function of the Complement System
7:43
Complements the Ability of Antibodies and Phagocytic Cells to Identify and Remove Foreign Pathogens
7:49
Amplification
8:50
Activation of the Complement System
9:17
Cytolysis
9:27
Chemotaxis
9:39
Opsonization
10:41
Anaphylatoxins
11:16
Complement and Membrane Attack Complex
12:10
The Membrane Attached Complex
12:49
Pathways of Complement Activation
13:07
Classical
13:43
Lectin
13:54
Alternative
14:07
Example 1
14:33
Example 2
15:23
Example 3
16:11
Adaptive Immunity

31m 10s

Intro
0:00
What is Adaptive Immunity?
0:27
Primary Immune Response
0:41
Initiated by a Dendritic Cell That Ingested a Pathogen
1:24
Naïve B Cells are Stimulated to Proliferate and Differentiate in Specific Response to the Pathogen
1:49
Process of Adaptive Immunity
2:28
Humoral Immunity
3:03
Development of Acquired Immune Cells
3:41
The B Cell
4:50
Produced in the Bone Marrow
4:52
Outer Surface Contains a Specialized B Cell Receptor
5:01
Initial Activation
5:55
Secondary Activation
6:15
Hallmarks of Humoral Immunity
6:23
B Lymphocyte is the Central Cell
6:51
Antibody-mediated
6:58
Highly Complex
7:03
Step 1: Antigen Recognition
7:18
B Cells Recognize Extracellular Antigenics
7:22
Antigens on Pathogen Surfaces
7:54
Step 2: Clonal Expansion
10:43
B Cell Divides
10:48
Clone
11:46
Maturation of B Cells
12:33
Step 3: Differentiation
13:46
B Cells Differentiate Into Plasma Cells
13:49
Plasma Cell Produces and Secrets Antibodies Specific to the Origin Antigen
14:00
Produce and Secrete Abs Specific to the Original Antigen
15:38
Antigen Presenting Cells Show Protein Antigens to Helper T Cells
15:55
Step 4: Antigen Elimination
16:30
Newly-Manufactured Antibodies Attach to the Antigen
16:36
Termination of the Humoral Immune Response
17:30
Step 5: Immune Memory
18:32
Memory B Cells Reside in Bone Marrow
18:53
High-Affinity Immunoglobulins
19:15
Survive for Years
20:15
Respond Rapidly When the Antigen is Seen Again
20:39
Antibodies
22:34
Classes - IgM
22:41
Example 1
24:51
Example 2
26:54
Example 3
28:03
Antibody & Antigen Interactions

41m 22s

Intro
0:00
Antibody-Antigen
0:22
Where Do Antigens-Antibodies Belong?
0:57
What is an Antibody?
1:12
Immunoglobulin
1:17
Definition of Antibody
1:32
Each Antigen is Specific to an Antigen
1:58
Antigen Binds to an Antigen
2:44
Produced by Plasma Cells
3:18
Antibody Structure
3:55
Paratope
4:17
Hinge Region
4:53
Fragment Crystallizable
5:44
Antibody Function
6:21
Recognizes and Captures Foreign Proteins and Molecules
6:41
Activates Complement
6:52
Binds to Immune Cells to Activate Their Specific Functions
7:55
The Antibody Isotypes
9:25
IgM
9:37
IgG
12:36
IgD
14:01
IgA
14:27
IgE
14:45
What is an Antigen?
15:18
An Antigen is to Provoke an Immune Response
15:53
Exogenous
16:43
Endogenous
17:16
Autogenous
18:10
Antigen-Antibody Reaction
19:08
Affinity
19:33
Avidity
19:57
Specificity
21:02
Cross Reactivity
21:31
Foreignness
22:17
Size
24:32
What Determines Antigenicity?
25:04
Antigenicity Definition
25:13
Conformation
25:29
Composition
26:02
Bacterial Components
26:27
Antigenic Determinants: Innate Immunity
26:53
Example 1
30:41
Example 2
33:15
Example 3
36:37
Tumor Immunology

33m 16s

Intro
0:00
Antibodies Surrounding Tumor
0:40
Introduction to Tumor Immunology
1:22
Human Papilloma
1:41
Hepatitis B
2:26
Helicobacter Pylori
2:47
Immunology
4:05
Overview of Tumor Immunology
4:17
Immune Surveillance Theory
4:18
Malignant Transformation
4:34
Immune Reactivity to Tumors
4:37
Tumor Antigens
4:43
Tumor Immunotherapies
4:49
Inflammation and Cancer
4:53
Immune Surveillance Theory and Escape
4:59
Amount of Antigen Expressed is Too Low
5:51
Tumor Sheds Antigens That Block Antibodies and T-Cells from binding to the Tumor
6:01
Tumor Does Not Express Immunogenic Antigens
6:15
Tumor Does Not Express MHC Antigens
6:32
Tumor May Secrete Immunosuppressive
6:51
Hallmark of a Cancer Cell is Proliferation That is Dysregulated
7:12
Malignant Transformation
7:39
One Way to Cause Growth Regulations
8:24
Mutations Can Alter the Cellular Machinery Leading to Up Regulation of Oncogenes
8:45
Mutations Can Alter the Cellular Machinery Leading to Down Regulation of Tumor Suppressor Genes
9:15
Tumor Growth Over Time
9:42
Malignant Transformation
10:46
Benign
11:20
Malignant
11:37
Progression of Benign to Malignant
12:35
Micro-Induced Carcinogenesis
13:40
Initiation Promotion Progression Model
14:28
Examples of Malignant Transformation
14:53
Tumor Antigens
15:46
Tumor Must Express Antigens That the Immune System Recognizes as Foreign
16:16
Immune Reactivity to Tumors
16:40
Tumor Antigens
17:07
Tumor Immunotherapies
17:15
Tumorigenesis Secretes Chemical Signals That Change Gene Expression
17:25
Gene Expression Leads To The Following
17:30
Tumors in an Immunosuppressed Host
18:48
HIV and AIDS
19:13
Transplant Patients
19:55
Epstein-Barr Virus
20:19
Malaria
20:27
Tumor Immunotherapies
20:45
Active Therapy
21:01
Passive Therapy
22:02
Inflammation and Cancer
24:05
Chronic Inflammation
24:18
Inflammation as a Response to Cancer
25:23
Neoplastic Cells Induce an Inflammatory Immune System
25:34
Bacteria, Inflammation, and Cancer
25:59
Example 1
27:46
Example 2
29:21
Example 3
30:25
Example 4
31:28
Cell Mediated Immunity

57m 13s

Intro
0:00
Adaptive Immunity
0:43
Cell-Mediated Immunity
1:47
Lymphocyte T Cell
1:56
Antigen-Presenting Cells
2:15
Subset of T Cells
2:22
Immune Tolerance
2:31
Hallmarks of Cell-Mediated Immunity
3:02
Primary Actor is the T Lymphocyte
3:06
Directed at Pathogens That Survive in Phagocytes
3:12
Based on Activation
3:23
Induce Apoptosis in Cells Displaying Epitopes of Foreign Antigens
4:25
Activates Macrophages and Natural Killer Cells
6:34
Stimulates Cells to Secrete Cytokines That Signal Other Cells of the Humoral and Innate Immune Response
6:47
Responds to Intracellular Antigens
7:16
Requires Direct, Cell-to-Cell Contact
7:24
The T-Cell
7:51
Mature in the Thymus
7:58
Presence of the T-Cell Receptor
8:04
Important Components
8:35
Antigen-Presenting Cell
9:36
Type of Leukocyte
11:17
Responsible for the Immune Responses That Lead to the Following
11:25
T-Cell Maturation
13:34
Thymocyte
13:42
Thymopoiesis
13:59
Thymus Conducts a Testing Process of Positive and Negative Selection
14:15
Somatic Gene Rearrangement
15:49
Infinite Number of Configurations That Create TCRs
17:00
Cluster of Differentiation (CD)
17:27
Function
18:23
Immuno-Phenotyping
19:18
Cluster of Differentiation (CD)
19:34
Nomenclature
19:40
Example
20:01
Antigen-Presenting Cells
20:50
Antigen Presentation
21:24
Antigen-Presenting Cells
21:32
Direct Presentation
21:52
Cross-Presentation
22:37
Cross-Dressing
23:04
Professional
23:24
Others
23:55
Contact Between an APC and TCR Stimulates Important Signaling Events
25:20
T-Cell Subset: T-Helper Cells
25:51
Th1
27:05
Th2
28:48
Th17
29:43
T-Cell Subset: Cytotoxic (Killer) T-Cells
31:26
CD8+ Cells
31:28
Target Cells with Antigen
31:50
T-Cell Subset: Cytotoxic (Killer) T-Cells
32:55
Perforin
33:30
Granzyme
34:07
Pharmaceuticals are Designed to Alter T-Cell Responses
35:00
T-Cell Subset: Regulatory T-Cells
37:01
Suppress Activation of the Immune System
37:40
Functions
38:36
T-Cell Subset: Regulatory T-Cells
39:45
Commensal Bacteria
39:51
Graft/ Transplant
41:02
Pregnancy
41:41
Tumors
41:47
Cytokines
42:46
Types of Cytokines
42:57
Chemical Messengers
43:19
Functional Classes of Cytokines
43:38
Chemokines
47:17
Chemotaxis
47:20
Inflammation
48:54
Homeostatic
49:10
Antiviral Response
49:23
Designation
49:27
Pulling It All Together
49:40
Example 1
51:40
Example 2
52:51
Example 3
54:56
VI. The Bacteria
Bacterial Cell Wall

18m 38s

Intro
0:00
Overview
0:45
Gram Negative and Positive Bacteria
1:17
Bacteria Without Cell Walls
1:38
Recall the Prototype Cell
1:52
Plasma Membrane
2:15
Cytoplasm
2:21
Nucleus
2:26
Cell Wall Principles
2:41
Protects Bacteria
2:50
Survive in Fluid Environments
3:08
Attack by Antibiotics
4:26
Source of Identification
4:40
Peptidoglycan
4:47
Murein
5:10
Protects the Plasma Membrane
5:18
Gram Staining
5:42
Gram Positive and Gram Negative
5:55
Gram Positive Bacterial Cell Wall
8:26
Thick Structure
8:45
Gram Staining
8:52
Teichoic Acids in Cell Wall
9:06
Gram Positive Streptococci
9:21
Gram Negative Bacterial Cell Wall
9:57
Allows More Complexity
10:15
Outer Membrane Provides Barrier to Certain Antibiotics
11:00
Outer Membrane Contains Lipid A
11:34
The Gram Stain
12:36
Hans Christian Gram Invented a Stain to Visualize Bacteria
12:52
Gram Positive Bacteria
13:51
Gram Negative Bacteria
14:27
Example 1
14:55
Example 2
15:49
Bacterial Morphology & Shape

15m 4s

Intro
0:00
Bacteria Morphology and Shape
0:28
Classification of Bacteria
0:50
Based on Several Major Properties
0:53
Taxonomy Principles Do Not Quite Fit for Bacteria
1:21
Variation in Shape and Distribution
3:00
Cocci
3:14
Bacilli
4:00
Budding and Appendaged Bacteria
4:27
Others
4:35
Bacterial Distribution
4:51
Shapes of Bacteria
5:45
Bacterial Shapes
6:40
Three Basic Shapes
6:41
Variation in Shapes
7:12
Clusters
7:31
Clusters Example
7:50
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
8:18
Bacterial Shapes
8:56
Streptococci
9:00
Staphylococci
9:12
Comma Shaped
10:28
Vibrios
10:37
Spirilla
11:04
Spirochetes
11:25
Example 1
11:38
Example 2
12:39
Example 3
13:24
Bacterial Metabolic Behavior

23m 50s

Intro
0:00
Energy Metabolism
0:40
Classification of Bacteria
1:48
Metabolic Behavior
1:51
Some Organisms are Anaerobic
1:57
Organisms and Carbon
2:07
Autotrophs
2:10
Heterotrophs
2:43
Organisms and Energy
3:28
Metabolism
4:13
Metabolism
4:14
Catabolism
4:50
Anabolism
5:04
Cellular Respiration
5:49
Aerobic Respiration
6:55
Anaerobic Respiration
7:13
Glucose
7:41
Energy-Currency Molecule for Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
7:42
Three Major Outcomes
7:56
Outcomes of Glucose
8:18
Outcomes of Glucose and Pyruvate
9:07
Overview of Aerobic Metabolism
11:19
Glycolysis
11:25
Citric Acid Cycle
11:28
Oxidative Phosphorylation
11:30
Aerobic Metabolism
11:51
Respiration and Fermentation
13:18
Carbohydrate Catabolism
14:35
Overview of Anaerobic Metabolism
15:37
Energy in Glucose is Released Without the Presence of Oxygen
15:48
Lactic Acid
15:46
Types of Fermentation
16:16
Lactic Acid Fermentation
16:20
Alcohol Fermentation
16:27
Alcohol Fermentation
16:57
Any Spoilage of Food by Microorganisms
17:08
Any Process that Produces Alcoholic Beverages
17:14
Any Large-Scale Microbial Process Occurring With or Without Air
17:25
Yeast and Other Microorganisms Ferment Glucose to Ethanol
17:39
Two Step Process
18:07
Lactic Acid Fermentation
18:34
Classic Anaerobic Metabolism
18:35
Releases Energy from Oxidation of Organic Molecules
18:44
End Products of Fermentation
19:05
Ethanol, Acetic Acid, Lactic Acid
19:22
Propionin Acid and Carbon Dioxide, Acetone, Glycerol, Citric Acid, Sorbose
20:02
Example 1
20:29
Example 2
21:43
Example 3
22:55
Bacterial Infection Patterns

41m 12s

Intro
0:00
'Hunting the Nightmare Bacteria'
0:42
Classification of Bacteria
2:13
Bacterial Pathogenesis
2:31
First Type of Immunity: Innate Immune System
2:49
Complement System
3:00
Innate Immune Cells: Phagocytosis
3:10
Cytokine Production and Epitopes
3:29
Location of Bacteria Infections
4:05
Steps of Bacterial Infection
5:25
Entry Into Host
5:30
Adherence to Host Tissue
5:53
Colonization
5:58
Overcome a Host's Defense
6:02
Hosts' Immune Response
6:10
Damage the Host Tissues
6:17
Progression or Recovery
6:25
Portals of Entry
6:35
The Skin
7:18
Viral and Bacterial Infection of Respiratory
7:46
Bacteria Entry
8:00
Some Bacteria Produce Toxins and Enzymes
8:28
Immune Response is Disease Causing Part of Bacterial Infection
8:46
Infection of Intestinal Epithelium
8:59
Shigella
9:00
Salmonella
10:16
Numbers of Invading Bacteria
11:05
Virulence
11:30
Potency
12:07
Virulence of Bacillus Anthracis
12:33
Adherence of Bacteria to Host Tissue
13:49
Adhesins or Ligands
14:10
Glycocalyx
14:26
Fimbriae
14:32
M Protein
14:53
Adherence
15:07
Adhesins or Ligands
15:10
E. coli Bacteria
15:53
Bacteria Adhering to Human Skin
16:17
Group A Beta-Hemolytic Streptococci
16:28
Bacterial Penetration of Host Defenses
16:42
Capsules
16:57
Cell Wall Components
17:03
Enzymes
17:18
Antigenic Variation
17:27
Penetration into Host Cell Cytoskeleton
17:57
Capsules
18:06
Capsule
18:07
Glycocalyx
18:19
Functions to Impair Phagocytosis
18:58
Host Can However Develop Antibodies Against the Capsule
19:07
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
19:28
Cell Wall Components
20:06
M Protein
20:18
Neisseria Gonorrhea
20:49
Fimbriae
20:57
Bacterial Enzymes
21:23
Coagulase
22:08
Hyalurpnidase
22:09
Collagenase
22:13
IgA Proteases
22:19
Penetration
22:44
Invasins
22:59
Invasins Cause Host Cell Membrane to Ruffle
23:12
Shigella and Listeria
23:32
Bacterial Damage to Host Cells
23:50
Production of Toxins
24:11
Types of Toxins
24:56
Production of Toxins
25:00
Toxin
25:08
Toxigenicity
25:21
Toxemia
25:25
Toxoid
25:30
Antitoxin
25:38
Exotoxin
25:44
Produced Inside Some Bacteria
25:55
Released When Bacteria Undergoes Lysis
26:06
Proteins and Enzymes That Catalyze Certain Biochemical Reactions
26:39
Bacteria That Produce Exotoxins Can be Gram + or Gram -
26:53
Exotoxins Are Soluble in Body Fluids
27:04
Some Diseases Caused by Their Exotoxins
27:13
Exotoxin Examples
27:35
Action of A-B Exotoxin
28:11
Endotoxin
29:12
Endotoxin Differ from Extoxin in Several Ways
29:21
Endotoxins are Released When Gram - is Liberated
30:24
Antibiotics Used to Treat Gem
30:32
Endotoxins Stimulate Macrophages to Release High Concentrations of Cytokines
30:59
Endotoxins and the Pyrogenic Response
31:17
Example Endotoxins
32:08
Salmonella Typhi
32:15
Neisseria Meningitidis
32:22
Proteus Spp
32:35
Steps of Bacterial Infection
32:42
Bacterial Penetration of Host Defenses
33:59
Example 1
34:41
Example 2
37:25
Example 3
39:39
Bacterial Adaptation to Environment

20m 50s

Intro
0:00
Bacterial Adaptation
0:13
Varied Tissues Within Human Host
0:36
Variable Levels of Oxygenation Both Inside and Outside of Host
0:54
Variable Levels of Moisture Both Inside and Outside Host
1:10
Survive Various Antibiotic and Other Types of Treatment
1:23
Variable Oxygen Environments
1:58
Bacterial Endospores
3:33
Clostridium Botulinum
4:40
Bacillus Anthracis
4:48
Clostridium Tetani
4:50
Botulism: Neurotoxin
5:10
Clostridium Botulinum
6:29
Gram Positive Rod-Shaped Bacteria That are Strictly Anaerobic
6:58
Produce Spores
7:10
Produces Paralysis
7:49
Toxin Can be Destroyed by Heating Food to 80 Degrees Celsius
7:55
Bacillus Anthracis
8:47
Produce Spores
9:08
Anthrax is Mostly a Disease of Herbivores
9:20
Weaponized Anthrax is Primarily Inhalation Form
10:11
Clostridium Tetani
11:50
Spores are Located in Solid and Can Colonize Gastrointestinal Tracts
12:14
Disease Uncommon
12:27
Toxin Produced During Growth Phase of Bacteria When Cell is Lysed
13:14
Toxin Blocks Release of GABA
13:56
Results in Paralysis
14:09
Example 1
15:38
Example 2
16:45
Example 3
18:01
Antigenic Composition of Bacteria

33m 8s

Intro
0:00
Bacteria as Antigens
1:04
Antigen-antibody Interaction
1:12
Bacterial Adaptations as Antigens
1:31
Cell Wall Components
1:44
Capsules as Antigens
1:50
Flagella as Antigens
1:58
Antigenic Variation
2:00
Bacterial Antigenicity and Vaccines
2:13
Antigen-Antibody Interaction
2:20
What are Antigens
2:25
Examples of Antigens
3:09
Bacteria as Antigens
4:33
Adaptation to the Human Host Environment
5:09
Pathogenic Agent
5:30
Criteria for Effective Antigenicity
6:02
Bacterial Adaptations That are Antigenic
7:36
Pila
7:45
Flagella as Antigens
7:57
Fimbriae
7:59
Capsules as Antigens
8:22
Peptidoglycan
8:33
S Proteins
8:45
M Protein and Lipid A
9:09
Cell Wall Components
9:47
Neisseria Gonorrhea
9:52
Fimbriae and Opa
10:03
After Attachment, Host Cell Takes Bacteria
10:22
Secretory Antibodies
10:38
Circulating Antibodies
10:58
Capsule
11:33
Neutralize the Virulence
12:39
Bacterial Capsules as Antigens
13:20
S. Pneumoniae
13:55
B. Anthracis
14:09
S. Pyogenes
14:38
Bacterial Antigenicity
15:30
Motility and Vibrio Cholerae
16:11
Flagella are Antigenic
16:20
Agglutinate or Immobilize Bacterial Cells
17:00
Antigenic Variation
17:49
Antigenic Variation Over Time
18:54
Antigenic Variation by Space and Time
22:12
Bacterial Antigenicity and Vaccines
24:02
Example 1
27:36
Example 2
31:24
VII. Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases
Epidemiology of Infectious Disease

15m 43s

Intro
0:00
Infectious Diseases: Extent of Problem
0:43
26% of Deaths Worldwide
1:21
Ebola Outbreak in Africa
1:50
Cholera in Haiti and South America
2:22
West Nile Virus Infections in U.S.
2:39
Worldwide Cholera Occurrence
3:03
Extent of Research
4:38
Importance to National Security
5:42
Bioterrorism Key Achievements
7:00
Smallpox
7:06
Anthrax
7:22
Botulinum
7:28
Ebola
7:52
Importance of Epidemiology
8:38
Scientific Study of Causes and Determinants of Disease
8:44
Study of Vector and Animal Host Biology
8:56
Patterns of Disease Transmission
9:39
Determine Disease Causation
10:31
Development of Vaccines
11:04
Development and Evaluation of Effective Treatments
11:55
Example 1
12:28
Human Host & Disease Transmission

56m 19s

Intro
0:00
Human Host and Disease Transmission
0:19
Discuss the Basis of Human Disease
0:27
Non-random Distribution of Disease
0:34
Ways Disease are Transmitted
0:44
Occurrence of Disease
1:09
Measures of Disease Transmission
1:19
Disease Outbreaks
1:23
Basis of Human Disease
1:39
How Human Disease Arise
1:43
Host Must be Susceptible
2:08
Capacity to Infect
2:32
Environment
2:53
Non-Random Distribution of Disease
3:27
Genetic Predisposition
3:34
Nutrition
4:16
Immune Status
4:24
Socio-Economic Status
4:40
Modes of Disease Transmission
5:46
Direct Transmission
5:54
Indirect Transmission
6:50
Example of Disease Transmission
8:30
HIV/ AIDS
8:34
Hepatitis A,B,C
10:10
Clinical and Subclinical Disease
12:42
Clinical Disease
12:49
Subclinical Disease
13:10
Non Clinical Disease
15:36
Carrier Status
17:48
Carrier Status Example: Typhoid Mary
18:33
Occurrence of Disease
20:18
Endemic
20:27
Epidemic
21:30
Pandemic
21:45
Epidemic of Obesity
22:22
Measures of Infectious Disease Transmission
23:45
Incubation Period
24:23
Epidemic Curve
27:44
Disease Outbreaks
28:37
One Exposure, Common Vehicle
28:43
Outbreak Analysis
32:14
Food Borne Illness
34:06
76 Million Cases of Food Borne Illness Per Year
34:07
Known Pathogens
35:08
62 Million Cases from Unknown Agents
35:23
Example of Food Outbreak: Salmonella Saintpaul, 2008
35:34
Distribution of Outbreak Strain of Salmonella Found on Tomatoes and/or Jalapeno Peppers
36:21
Number of Persons Infected with Salmonella Saintpaul
38:10
Clinical Features of Salmonella Infection
40:47
Diarrhea
41:06
Abdominal Cramps
41:11
Identified by Stool Sample Culture
41:19
Severe Infection
41:50
Case-Control Studies of Salmonella Saintpaul Infection
42:26
Description of Outbreak Source Investigation
45:02
Example 1
46:25
Example 2
50:43
Example 3
53:13
Difference Measures of Disease

39m 23s

Intro
0:00
Introduction
0:16
What is the Extent of Disease?
1:00
Who is at Risk for the Disease?
1:07
How is Disease Transmitted?
1:36
How is Disease Defined?
1:52
Counts
2:17
Assessment
2:32
Example of Tuberculosis Count
3:04
Counts of Influenza Positive Tests
4:02
Counts of AIDS Cases
5:58
Example of a Food Outbreak Investigation
8:01
Steps Public Health Investigators Follow to Determine Cause of Illness
8:24
Identifying the Source
8:39
Example
9:04
Potential Sources of Contamination
9:44
Production
9:55
Farms
10:14
Distribution
10:31
Retail Establishments
10:39
Restaurant Example
10:56
Food Borne Outbreak Investigation Steps
11:43
Determining if an Outbreak is Occurring
11:57
Defining Signs and Symptoms
12:07
Hypothesis
12:14
Collect Data and Test Hypothesis
12:38
Not Finding Associations
13:09
After Finding Pathogen, You Can Conduct Intervention to Remove Contaminated Food
13:45
Determine the Source
14:09
Clear Outbreak When All Contamination is Gone
14:30
Case Study: Norovirus Outbreak Michigan Jan-Feb, 2006
14:34
Norovirus
16:14
Infects All Ages
16:40
Cause Infection Throughout the Year But There's a Peak in Time
16:44
Recognizing Outbreaks of Norovisur Infection
16:51
Cases of Norovirus Over Time
18:42
Attack Rate
19:24
Definition
19:37
Restaurant Example
21:11
Attack Rate by 3 Hour Time Intervals
22:52
Patrons Who Became Ill
23:35
Case Control Analysis to Determine Food Source
24:21
Attack Rate
25:58
Food Outbreak Measures
26:16
Compute the Denominator
27:06
Compute Attack Rate During Certain Time Period
27:28
Construct Possible Hypotheses
28:14
Conduct Case-Control Analysis with Odds Ratio
29:37
Example 1
29:47
Example 2
34:55
Example 3
36:51
VIII. Eukaryotes-structure, Function, Diversity, and Environmental Niche
Eukaryotic Microbes

20m 53s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Eukaryotic Microbes
0:38
Helminths
0:57
Why are They Called Microorganisms
1:01
Parasites
1:25
Introduction to Cell Theory
2:03
Evolution of Multi-Cellularity
3:30
Prokaryotes Can Form into Colonies and Biofilms
3:42
Eukaryotic Cells Can Arrange Themselves Into Tissue
3:58
Multicellularity Evolved
5:03
Fossils of Bangiomorpha Pubescens
5:45
Timeline
6:45
Endosymbiosis
8:00
Ancestral Anaerobic Eukaryote
8:05
Aerobic Eukaryote
8:38
Photosynthetic Cyanobacterium
8:54
Photosynthetic Eukaryote
8:58
Phylogeny
9:24
Prokaryotes
9:34
Eukaryotes
9:39
Organization of Eukaryotic Cell
9:50
Level 1: Monomeric Units
10:13
Level 2: Macromolecules
10:16
Level 3: Supramolecular Complexes
10:37
Level 4: The Cell and Its Organelles
10:40
Eukaryotic Animal Cell
11:01
Nuclear Envelope
11:53
Plasma Membrane
11:58
Mitochondrion
12:15
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
12:23
Ribosomes
12:51
Peroxisomes
13:00
Cytoskeleton
13:05
Lysosome
13:23
Golgi Complex Processes
13:27
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
13:40
Eukaryotic Plant Cell
14:01
Cell Wall
14:29
Chloroplast
14:49
Starch Granule
15:06
Thylakoids
15:17
Golgi Complex, Cytoskeleton, Ribosomes
15:25
Nucleus, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleolus
15:33
Mitochondrion
15:39
Example 1
15:56
Example 2
18:44
Eukaryotes: Fungi, Part I

19m 45s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:15
1.5 Million Different Species on Earth
0:17
Fungal Diseases
1:10
Fungi Live Outdoors and Indoors
1:17
Most Fungi Are Not Dangerous
1:30
Medically Important Fungi
1:38
Contagious Diseases
1:40
Commensal Organisms
2:39
Fungal Growth
3:14
Vegetative Growth
3:36
Septate Hypha
3:43
Continuous Hyphae
3:52
Spore
3:58
Fungal Dimorphism
4:06
Fungi Life Cycle
4:44
Filamentous Fungi
4:49
Fungal Spores
5:21
Fungal Fragmentation
6:05
Fungal Spore Formation
6:29
Fungi Sexual Reproduction
6:57
Plasmogamy
7:06
Karyogamy
7:10
Meiosis
7:11
Sexual Spores
7:45
Ascospore
8:11
Life Cycle of Ascomycete
8:21
Histoplasmosis Capsulatum (Ascomycete)
9:18
Histoplasmosis Distribution
10:54
Histoplasmosis Lifecycle
11:28
Fungal Diseases
13:06
Mycosis
13:08
Chronic and Long Term
13:16
Five Groups
13:21
Systemic
13:30
Subcutaneous
13:37
Cutaneous
13:40
Superficial
13:42
Opportunistic
13:45
Example 1
14:18
Example 2
17:40
Eukaryotes: Fungi, Part II

31m 55s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Fungi
0:19
Recap of Fungi Part One
0:20
1.5 Million Species
0:28
Focus on Fungi That Cause Human Disease
0:59
Medically Important Fungi
1:42
Contagious Diseases?
1:44
Dermatophytosis Example
2:02
Pneumocystis Example
2:22
Commensal Organisms: Candida Albicans
2:36
Fungal Diseases
3:02
Mycosis
3:06
Fungal Mycoses
3:12
Five Groups
3:22
Superficial Fungal Diseases
4:10
Fungi That are Localized in Hair Shafts and on Skin Surface
4:20
Prevalent in Tropical Climate
4:31
Benign
4:38
Figures Explanation
4:44
Cutaneous Fungal Disease
5:04
Infect the Epidermis
5:05
Dermatomycoses
5:21
Dermatophytes
5:31
Dermatophytes Secrete Keratinase
6:04
Examples
6:31
Subcutaneous Fungal Diseases
6:39
Fungal Infections Beneath the Skin
6:42
Occur After a Puncture Wound
6:58
Infections Occur Among Farmers
8:15
Example: Sporotrichosis
8:26
Candidiasis Albicans
8:57
Most Common in Yeast Infections
8:58
Resides on Skin Surfaces
9:16
Resistant to Phagocytosis
9:46
Opportunistic Fungal Disease
12:25
Host is Debilitated or Traumatized
12:52
Under Treatment with Broad Spectrum Antibiotics
13:20
Immune System is Suppressed by Drugs
14:03
Has an Immune Disorder or Lung Disease
14:19
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
14:47
Caused by Pneumocystis Jirovecii
14:56
Most Frequent and Severe Opportunistic Infection
15:05
Immunocompetent Adults Have Few or No Symptoms
15:59
Example: Pneumocystis Cysts in Lung of Patient with AIDS
16:58
Life Cycle of Pheumocystis Jirovecii
17:34
Early Incidence of Pneumocystis
18:49
Systemic Fungal Disease
21:21
Fungal Infections Deep Within the Body
21:24
Caused by Fungi Living in the Soil
21:44
Infections Begin in Lungs and Spread to Other Tissue
22:13
Example: Coccidiodomycosis Infection of Lung Tissue
22:21
Life Cycle of Coccidiodes Immitis
23:12
Number of Coccidiomycosis Cases
24:10
Distribution of Coccidiomycosis Cases
26:06
Example 1
27:20
Example 2
30:08
Parasites

20m 1s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Parasites
0:48
Live in Human Hosts
1:00
Example of Parasites
1:29
Extent of Parasitic Diseases
1:47
Parasitic Infections Cause a Tremendous Burden of Disease
1:54
Malaria Example
2:12
Neglected Tropical Diseases
2:38
Extent of Malaria
3:22
Relationships Between Species
6:51
Symbiosis Between Pathogen and Host
7:11
Symbiosis
7:29
Mutualism
7:58
Commensalism
8:05
Parasitism
9:10
Parasite Definitions
9:28
Parasite Definition
9:32
Three Major Classes
9:54
Ectoparasites
10:15
Locations of Parasitic Infection
10:48
Parasite Hosts and Vectors
12:21
Vectors Convey a Parasite from Host to Host
12:27
Anopheles Mosquito and Malaria
12:43
Example 1
13:04
Example 2
15:34
Eukaryotes: Protozoa

24m 59s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Protozoa
0:13
Protozoa Definition
0:14
Intestinal Protozoa
1:19
Insect Vectors
1:47
Transmission of Enteric Protozoa
2:02
Transmission of Blood Borne Protozoa: Leishmaniasis
4:50
Leishmaniasis Transmission Chart
5:33
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis
7:15
Visceral Leishmaniasis
7:37
Medically Important Protozoa
8:07
Four Classes
8:24
Described by the Systems They Infect
8:54
Flagellates
9:10
Intestinal and Genito-Urinary Flagellates
9:32
Blood and Tissue Flagellates
9:42
Ambae
10:45
Typically Amoeboid
10:49
Represented by Entamoeba, Negleria, and Acanthamoeba
11:27
Sporozoa
12:38
Alternating Sexual and Asexual Reproductive Phases
12:56
Cyclospora Life Stage
13:13
Lifecycle of Sporozoa: Cryptosporidium
16:16
Ciliates
17:20
Complex Protozoa Bearing Cilia Distributed in Rows or Patches with Two Kinds of Nuclei in Each Cell
17:24
Balantidium Coli
17:54
Example 1
20:06
Example 2
22:52
Eukaryotes: Helminths

32m 53s

Intro
0:00
Introduction to Helminths
0:30
Definition of Helminths
0:31
Three Types of Helminths
0:54
Biological Properties of Helminths
1:38
Biological Life Cycle of Helminths
1:42
Adult Helminths May Be Dioecious
3:25
Monoecious Helminths
3:58
Characteristics of Helminths
4:12
May Lack a Digestive System
4:16
Nervous System is Reduced
4:41
Incidence of Helminth Infections Worldwide
5:50
Intestinal Helminths
6:29
Soil Transmitted Helminths
8:15
Wuchereria Bancrofti
8:35
Wuchereria Bancrofti Causes Lymphatic Filariasis
9:01
Nematode or Roundword That Inhibits Lymphatic Vessels
9:18
Life Cycle
9:43
Lifecycle of Wuchereria Bancrofti
10:11
Symptoms of Wuchereria Bancrofti
11:41
Elephantiasis
11:59
People Who Develop Lymphedema
12:39
Types of Chronic Tissue Helminth Infection
14:53
Distribution of Lymphatic Filariasis in India
18:08
Taenia Saginata or Solium
19:19
Human Tapeworms
19:20
Cestode That Inhabits Intestinal Tracts of Human Hosts
19:36
Taenia
20:01
Scolex
20:53
Tania or Tapeworms
21:39
Life Cycle of Taenia Saginata or Solium
22:15
Urban Myth of Reality
24:35
Example 1
25:41
Example 2
28:38
Helminths & Immunity

32m 50s

Intro
0:00
The Immune System
0:45
Innate Immune Response
1:04
Adaptive Immune Response
1:15
Autoimmunity and Helminth Infection
2:20
Endemic Type 1 Diabetes
2:26
Endemic Helminth Infections
2:47
Coevolution of Helminths and Immunity
4:43
Helminth Infections are a Driving Force in Shaping
5:53
Helminths Do Not Replicate in Human Host
6:37
Helminths are Able to Maintain a Co-existence With Immune System
7:18
Innate Immunity
7:46
Adaptive Immunity
7:52
Localized Impact of Helminth Infection
9:05
Immune Modulation of Helminth Infection
14:07
Helminths and Immune Response
15:55
Other Ways Helminths Facilitate Immune Response
17:45
Helminth Influence on Immunity
19:07
Types of Chronic Tissue Helminth Infection
22:04
Infected, Low Pathology - Develop Tolerance
22:35
Chronic Pathology
22:50
Pathogen Co-Existence and Immunity
23:29
Helminths and Autoimmunity in Mice
25:31
Summary of Helminths and Immunity
26:39
Hygiene Hypothesis
26:42
Driving Force in Shaping
27:27
Absence of Helminths and the Immune Tolerances
27:46
Example 1
28:10
Example 2
30:23
IX. Survey of Important Bacteria
Gram Positive Bacteria

46m 35s

Intro
0:00
Introduction
1:01
External Peptidoglycan
1:07
Stain Purple
1:16
Reasons How External Peptidoglycan is Important
1:30
Properties of Gram Positive Bacteria
1:51
Immune Attack of Gram Positive Bacteria
3:21
Process of Opsonization
3:29
What is Opsonization
3:39
Complement Forms Membrane Attack Complexes
4:38
Ways Bacteria Gets Recognized by the System
5:14
Properties of Gram Positive Bacteria
6:55
Metabolism
7:00
Survival Mechanisms
7:11
Shapes
7:23
Environments
7:39
Examples of Gram Positive Bacteria
7:59
Shapes of Gram Positive Bacteria
9:13
Streptococci vs. Staphylococci
9:26
Staphylococci Shape
9:38
Streptococci Shape
9:52
Staphylococcus Bacteria
10:04
Staphylococcus
10:20
Salt-Tolerant
11:36
Two Main Species
12:24
Pathogenicity
12:38
Enzymes and Toxins
13:38
Staphylococcus Aureus
14:57
Food Borne Infection
15:04
Skin Infections
15:29
Systemic Disease
16:14
Staphylococcus Bacteria
17:36
Categorized According to Antigens
18:00
Streptococcus Group A
18:09
Streptococcus Pyogenes
19:09
Pathogenicity
19:37
Rheumatic Fever
20:00
Necrotizing Fasciatis
20:39
Glomerulonephritis
21:30
Surface M Protein
21:50
Hyaluronic Acid Capsule
22:25
Enzymes
22:47
Pyrogenic Toxins
22:57
Bacillus
23:34
Has Endospore Stage and Produces Toxins
23:59
Bacillus Anthracis
24:16
Spores Activated
25:12
Toxins Cause Disease
25:40
Clostridium Bacteria
26:02
Gram Positive, Anaerobic, and Endospore Producing
26:30
Different Clostridium Bacteria
26:56
Clostridium Difficile
27:34
Commonly Found Among the Intestinal Microbiota
27:38
Opportunistic Pathogen
27:57
Common in Hospital
28:30
Age-Adjusted Death Rate for Enterocolitis Due to C. Difficile
29:16
Listeria Bacteria
29:54
Avoidance of Immune Reaction by Listeria
31:23
Multi-State Listeriosis Outbreak from Whole Cantaloupes Grown by Jensen Farms, Colorado
33:04
Example 1
36:17
Example 2
39:05
Example 3
43:47
Gram Negative Bacteria

44m 38s

Intro
0:00
Introduction
0:29
Internal Cell Wall
0:45
Characteristic Properties
0:54
Gram Negative Bacterial Cell Wall
2:01
Outer Membrane Provides a Barrier
3:05
Outer Membrane Contains Lipid A
3:16
Properties of Gram Negative Bacteria
3:20
Lipid A Molecule
3:26
Lipopolysaccharides
3:40
Most Gram Negative Bacteria Do Not Form Spores
3:54
Gram Negative Laboratory Algorithm
4:05
Properties of Gram Negative Bacteria
6:45
Outer Membrane
6:50
Genetic Exchange
6:53
Immune Reaction to Gram Negative Bacteria
7:49
Examples of Gram Negative Bacteria
12:12
Endotoxin
12:52
Differ from Exotoxin in Several Ways
13:05
Released When Gram Negative Bacteria Undergo Lysis and Endotoxin is Liberated
13:50
Stimulate Macrophages to Release High Concentrations of Cytokines
14:36
E. Coli Bacteria
15:03
Escherichia Coli
15:06
Pathogenic Strains of E. Coli
15:28
Shiga-Toxin E. Coli Outbreak, Germany 2011
16:24
Salmonella Bacteria
18:29
Pathogenicity
18:36
Infection by Salmonella
20:36
Another Image of Infection by Salmonella
21:41
Bacterial Infections, 2013
23:44
Vibrio Bacteria
25:12
Vibrio Genus
25:37
Most Virulent Species is Vibrio Cholerae
25:50
Cholera Life Cycle
26:59
Worldwide Cholera Cases
29:44
New Cases of Cholera in Haiti During a 2 Year Period
30:24
Preventing Cholera Infection with Gut Flora
31:10
Bordetella Pertussis
32:55
Aerobic Coccobacillus
33:24
Tracheal Toxin
33:40
Pertussis Toxin
33:50
Pertussis Infection Timeline
34:25
Pertussis Symptom Timeline
36:10
Reported Pertussis Cases in US 1922-2003
37:31
Example 1
38:09
Example 2
39:36
Example 3
41:16
Bacteria with Other Cell Walls

24m 6s

Intro
0:00
Bacteria Classification by Cell Wall
0:21
Gram Positive vs. Gram Negative
1:01
Gram Stain
1:18
Shape
1:24
Bacteria Undetectable with Gram Stain
3:07
Mycobacteria
3:23
Mycoplasma Pneumonia
4:02
Chlamydia
4:11
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Bacteria
4:23
Atypical Small Bacterium Without A Cell Wall
4:30
Lacks Rigid Cell Wall
5:02
Extracellular in Respiratory Tract
7:02
Acid-Fast Bacteria
7:38
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
8:36
Infectious Process
10:31
Tuberculosis Incidence in 2005
12:45
Chlamydia Trachomatis Bacteria
15:11
Obligate Intracellular Human Parasite
15:39
Gram Negative
16:01
Three Human Biovars
16:15
Life Cycle of Chlamydia
17:33
Example 1
19:42
Example 2
21:01
X. Microbes and Human Disease
Tuberculosis

28m

Intro
0:00
Tuberculosis Introduction
0:47
Malaria
0:51
Acid-Fast Staining
1:04
Tuberculosis Disease
1:42
Latent and Active Disease
1:51
Strong Man Image Example
2:22
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
2:39
Cell Wall
2:48
Tuberculosis Incidence in 2012
3:21
Worldwide Tuberculosis Incidence
4:19
TB Research Center, Chennai, India
5:00
Tuberculosis in United States
5:47
Estimated HIV Co-Infection Among Individuals Diagnosed with TB in U.S.
6:28
Tuberculosis Pathogenesis
7:40
Infection
7:50
How It's Spread
8:09
What Determines Whether or Not an Individual Will be Exposed
8:49
Bacilli can Multiply Once Reaching the Alveoli
9:21
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
10:18
Inactive Form of TB
10:34
Active vs. Inactive Form of TB Depends on If Bacilli Stay in Tissue or Break Out
10:44
Tuberculosis Pathogenesis
11:20
Bacilli That Reach Alveoli
11:32
Those Bacilli are Ingested by Macrophages
12:28
No Symptoms of Disease
13:20
More Advanced Stage
13:25
Multiply in Macrophages
13:45
Inflammation
14:24
After a Few Weeks Disease Symptoms Appear
15:00
Caseous Center
15:30
Aerobic Bacilli Do Not Grow Well in the Center
16:18
Granuloma Can Reactivate Later
16:46
Active Disease: The Granuloma Can Rupture with Liquefaction
17:25
Active TB
18:04
Tuberculosis Staging
18:12
Stage 3 Important Stage
18:40
Stage 5 You Have TB
18:55
Tuberculosis Testing
19:31
Tuberculin Skin Test
19:32
Positive Skin Reaction Image Example
20:14
Tuberculosis Vaccination
20:32
BCG Vaccination in Other Areas Around the World
20:48
BCG Protects from the Active Form of Tuberculosis
21:06
BCG Does Not Confer Lifelong Protection
22:34
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
22:51
Target Different Parts
23:09
Regiment
23:32
Example 1
24:34
Example 2
26:40
Malaria, a Protozoan Disease

29m 59s

Intro
0:00
Protozoa Introduction
1:13
One-Celled Organisms
1:14
Free Living or Parasitic
1:19
Can Multiply in Humans
1:27
How Does a Pathogen Get to the Digestive Tract
1:44
Worldwide Cases of Malaria
3:06
Found Where There a Lot of Mosquitoes
3:14
Malaria Introduction
4:00
Protozoa
4:03
Lives Partially in Human Host, Partially in Mosquito
4:06
Four Major Species
4:29
Carried by Anopheles Mosquitoes
4:49
Lifecycle of Malaria
5:08
Two Stages in Human Host and One Stage in Mosquito
5:30
Mosquito Bites and Injects Sporozoites
5:49
Parasite Goes Into Liver
7:14
Blood Supply
7:33
Diagnostic Stage
7:55
Erythrocytes
8:11
Gametocytes
9:04
Final Stage: Release of Sporozoites
9:39
Sickle Cell Anemia and Moleria
10:16
Sickle Cell Anemia is a Genetic Mutation Disease
10:34
Function
11:05
Hemoglobin Shape and Oxygen Capacity are Slightly Different
11:16
Selective Advantages and Disadvantages
12:04
Effects at a Cellular Level
12:06
Effects at the Organismal Level
12:39
Effects at the Population Level
12:54
Evolution of Human Malaria
13:31
Plasmodium Parasite Has Evolved
13:40
Plasmodium Reichenowi
13:56
What's Going on in India
14:43
Malaria Pathogenicity
15:40
Incubation Period
15:41
Symptoms
16:05
P. vivax and P. ovale
16:41
Dormant Liver Stage
16:57
Diagnosis
18:33
Malaria Treatment
19:30
Depends on Many Factors
19:32
Medications
20:32
Example 1
22:28
Example 2
27:38
HIV/AIDS

38m 7s

Intro
0:00
What is HIV / AIDS?
0:31
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
0:32
Once Infected, the Virus Will Always Be There
1:28
Exception
1:45
Transmitted Through Body Fluids
2:10
Virus
2:15
HIV Can be Transmitted Through
3:13
Sexual Contact, Injection Drug Use, Occupational Exposure, Pregnancy, Blood Transfusion
3:14
Blood Transfusion Used to be Significant for Disease Transmission
3:31
Adult HIV Prevalence, 2012
4:30
Africa is Highest
4:40
North and South America are Also High Prevalence
4:44
India
5:02
Counts of AIDS Cases
5:22
Example of Disease Transmission
7:19
Males
7:31
Females
7:42
HIV/ AIDS Methods of Transmission
8:33
HIV Retrovirus
9:10
Retrovirus
9:21
Replicate the Virus
10:13
Life Cycle of HIV Virus
10:55
Genome
11:10
Reverse Transcription
11:16
Host DNA Produces Goes Through Transcription and Translation
11:26
Produce Viral RNA
11:36
Importance of Figure
12:00
Viral Load and Immune Cell
12:45
Individual Infected
12:52
Plasma Virus Load Increases then Rapidly Declines
12:58
CD4+ T Cell
13:34
Immune System is Suppressed Enough That AIDs Develops
14:20
Evolution of HIV/ AIDS
15:31
Immunodeficiency and Development of Opportunistic Infections
17:40
Herpes Simplex Virus
18:00
Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus
18:10
Kaposi Sarcoma and Many More
18:22
Disease Emerge at Different Time Depending on Degree of Suppression
18:40
Opportunistic Infections with HIV
18:52
Early 1900s
19:04
Pneumocystis
19:21
Opportunistic Fungal Disease
20:15
Harmless, Opportunistic Fungi
20:31
Can Happen to Individuals Who are Taking Drugs to Suppress Immune System
20:44
Pneumocystis Pneumonia
21:13
Pathogen
21:32
Immunodeficient Adults
21:41
Estimated HIV Co-Infection Among Individuals Diagnosed with TB in U.S.
22:00
Kaposi Sarcoma
22:42
Rare Cancer
22:49
Skin Neoplasm
23:14
Subtypes All Have Human Herpesvirus-8
23:31
How It Looks
23:57
Kaposi Sarcoma Spindle Cells
24:29
How to Treat Kaposi Sarcoma
25:17
HIV Prevalence Among Young Adult Women in India
26:02
Example 1
31:24
Example 2
33:32
Ebola

43m 9s

Intro
0:00
Ebola Virus Overview
0:22
Ebola Virus Outbreak Distribution
0:59
1976 Ebola Outbreak First Identified
1:00
Recent Outbreak in Zaire
2:15
Three Countries Most Affected Today
2:39
Amount of Hospitals in Those Countries
3:40
Ebola Virus Ecology
4:14
Thought to Just Infect Warm Blooded Animals
4:24
Epidemic Starts When Virus Infects Humans
4:45
Ebola Virus Infection
5:55
Virus Comes From Animal and Infects Human
5:57
Infected Cells
6:10
Endothelial Cell Gaps Causes Leakage of Blood and Virus
6:35
Ebola Virus Symptoms
7:37
Fever
7:43
Early Signs
7:54
Big Sign of Being Infected: Travel History
8:18
Key About the Symptom Emerging
9:40
Timeline of Ebola Virus Symptoms
11:21
Day 2: First Symptoms
11:36
Day 10: High Fever and Vomiting
12:29
Day 11: Brain Damage and Bleeding
13:13
Day 12: Loss of Consciousness
13:44
Ebola Virus Characteristics
14:14
Filovirus
14:27
Enveloped, Helical Viruses
14:31
Ebola and Marburg Viruses
14:36
Morphology of Helical Ebola Virus
14:52
Capsid
14:56
Nucleic Acid
15:04
Ebola Virus Structure
15:38
Outside of the Structure
15:42
Inside the Envelope
15:56
Virus Can Recreate Itself in the Cytoplasm
16:54
RNA Viral Replication
18:04
Negative and Positive Strand
18:32
Ebola Virus Entry
20:26
Cell the Virus Penetrates
21:18
Inflammatory Reaction
21:45
Viruses Released Into Individuals Body
22:23
Ebola Virus: Immune Reaction
23:08
Survivors
23:20
Individuals Who Die From Ebola
23:33
Effective Dose
24:03
Host Immune Response to Ebola
24:36
Monocyte
24:44
Cytokines Storm
25:01
Ebola Virus Pathogenisis
25:40
Infection
25:46
Neutrophil
25:56
Depletion of Natural Killer Cells
26:06
Ebola Virus Can Serve to Surpress the Immune Reaction
26:37
How Contagious is Ebola?
27:49
Not Very Contagious, But Very Infectious
27:58
In Relation to Other Diseases
28:43
Ebola Transmission
29:24
Patient Zero Thought to be Infected by Animal
29:28
Eating Bushmeat In West Africa
29:46
Ebola Spreads by Direct Contact
30:16
Ebola in Healthcare Settings
31:13
Healthcare Workers at Higher Risk Because They Handle Body Fluids
31:22
Precautions
32:07
Treatment of Ebola
34:13
No Vaccine, but There Are Experimental Treatments (ZMAPP)
34:18
Basic Interventions When Done Early, Can Improve Chances of Survival
36:27
Example 1
37:41
Example 2
39:18
Example 3
41:05
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For more information, please see full course syllabus of Microbiology
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Laboratory Testing & Visualization

  • Laboratory Testing with Focus on Bacteria
    • Serology
    • Agglutination, ELISA, Western Blot
    • Flow cytometry
    • Genetics
  • Visualization
    • Microscopes and degree of magnification
    • Light microscopy
    • Electron microscopy
    • Atomic Power microscopy

Laboratory Testing & Visualization

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

  1. Intro
    • Laboratory Testing and Visualization
    • A Clinical Microbiology Lab Report Form
      • Generalized Tests for Microorganisms
      • A Clinical Microbiology Lab Report Form
        • Serology
        • Example of Serology Testing for HBV
          • Direct Agglutination Testing
          • ELISA Test
          • Western Blot
          • Flow Cytometry
          • Genetic Testing: DNA Fingerprinting
          • Pattern Matching to Determine Bacterial Strain
          • Instruments to Visualize Microorganisms
            • Light Microscope
            • Darkfield Microscopy
            • Planaria in Pond Water
              • Electron Microscope
              • Atomic Force Microscope
              • Atomic Force Imaging
                • Instruments to Visualize Microorganisms
                • Example 1
                  • Example 2
                    • Example 3
                      • Example 4
                        • Example 5
                          • Intro 0:00
                          • Laboratory Testing and Visualization 0:37
                            • Serology
                            • Visualization: Types of Microscopes
                          • A Clinical Microbiology Lab Report Form 1:57
                          • Generalized Tests for Microorganisms 2:36
                            • Morphological Characteristics
                            • Differential Staining
                            • Biochemical Tests
                          • A Clinical Microbiology Lab Report Form 4:19
                          • Serology 6:38
                            • Detect Levels of Antibodies
                            • Blood Serum
                            • Recent of Past Infection
                            • Differentiate Different Strains
                          • Example of Serology Testing for HBV 10:02
                          • Direct Agglutination Testing 12:52
                            • Visual Test
                            • Positive Results
                            • Antibodies Sufficient in Level
                          • ELISA Test 15:56
                            • Sandwich ELISA
                          • Western Blot 18:56
                            • Proteins are Positioned on the Filter so Antibodies Can Bind to the Antigens
                            • Filter is Then Washed with Patient's Serum
                            • Positive Test for Particular Microorganisms
                          • Flow Cytometry 21:09
                            • Used to Identify Bacteria Without Culturing the Bacteria
                            • Moving Fluid Containing Bacteria is Forced Through Small Opening
                            • Differences in Electrical Conductivity Between the Cells are Detected
                            • Results Distinguishing Three Different Species of Microorganisms
                          • Genetic Testing: DNA Fingerprinting 23:49
                            • Way to Specify and Differentiate Bacteria
                            • Some Produce Taxon
                            • Used as a Proxy for Microbial Cell Abundance
                            • Detailed Figure
                          • Pattern Matching to Determine Bacterial Strain 27:22
                            • Example
                            • Picture of That
                          • Instruments to Visualize Microorganisms 29:36
                          • Light Microscope 30:22
                            • Image
                          • Darkfield Microscopy 31:44
                            • An Illumination Technique Used to Enhance the Contrast in Unstained Samples
                            • How It Works
                          • Planaria in Pond Water 32:19
                          • Electron Microscope 32:55
                            • Uses Electron Beam to Illuminate a Specimen and Produce a Magnified Image
                            • Electron Microscopy
                            • Electron Microscope Image
                          • Atomic Force Microscope 34:41
                            • Manipulates Matter at the Nanoscale
                            • Atomic Force Microscopy Image
                          • Atomic Force Imaging 35:54
                          • Instruments to Visualize Microorganisms 37:02
                            • Light Microscopes
                          • Example 1 37:28
                          • Example 2 40:19
                          • Example 3 40:57
                          • Example 4 42:13
                          • Example 5 42:35
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