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Before a song becomes a chart-topping hit, it needs to be written and composed. Eliot Popkin is an award-winning songwriter, singer, and songwriting coach and will teach you how to take your song ideas to the big leagues. In Educator’s Songwriting & Composition Course, Professor Popkin begins with an overview of Harmony, Melody, and Rhythm, before moving in to songwriting exercises involving Object Writes and Rhyming Tools. The series ends with Professor Popkin covering different types of genres as well as tips on the Business of Songwriting such as protecting your music and meeting producers. Professor Popkin has over 10+ years of experience in the music industry and since graduating from the Berklee College of Music. He has also released three full albums and was the first artist to have three top 10 videos shown on MTV Logo.

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I. Songwriting
  Introduction to Songwriting 6:17
   Intro 0:00 
   Three Main Components 0:17 
    Melody, Lyrics, Harmony 0:21 
    Rhythm 0:24 
    Golden Guidelines 1:37 
   Object Write: Ocean 3:09 
    Object Write 3:21 
    Eliot's List on Ocean 4:00 
   Melody Ideas 4:47 
    Four Notes 4:58 
    Up One Step 5:11 
    Ascending 5:71 
  Melody & Harmony 8:06
   Intro 0:00 
   Melody Lesson 1:59 
    3 Most Stable Keys 2:47 
    Unstable Notes 3:00 
    Example: Stable Note 4:58 
   Harmony Grooves 5:47 
    Groove 6:10 
    Example: Own Harmonic Groove 6:53 
  Object Write & Melody 7:32
   Intro 0:00 
   Object Write: Orange 0:24 
    Homework review 0:33 
    Homework assignment for next lesson 2:50 
   Melody Lesson 3:18 
    Stable & Unstable Tone Review 3:22 
    Example: Tones Falling 4:45 
    Example: Pick the next tone 5:30 
    Groove review 7:06 
  Rhyming, Melody, Harmony, Part 1 7:58
   Intro 0:00 
   Object Write: Ocean 0:09 
    Object Write Review 0:25 
   Rhyming Lesson 3:06 
    Rhyme Scheme 3:11 
    Example: Amazing Grace 3:41 
    Example: Beyonce- Irreplacable 4:08 
   Melody and Harmony 5:57 
    Audio Example: Combining Melody & Harmony 6:45 
    Possible Ending Note 7:33 
  Object Write to Verse 10:13
   Intro 0:00 
   Rhyming Lesson 0:19 
    Example: 'If I Die Young' 0:40 
   Rhyming Lesson, cont. 3:00 
    Words Don't Rhyme, But It Works 3:26 
   Object Write: Orange 4:28 
    Turn Object Write Into Verse 4:30 
   Object Write to a Verse 6:55 
    Finding the Rhyme Scheme 7:15 
    Changing to Not Rhyming Lyrics 8:02 
   Melody and Harmony 9:02 
    Stable Unstable Tone Placement 9:20 
    One-Bar Idea 9:52 
  Introduction to Lyrics 8:40
   Intro 0:00 
   Object Write: Ocean 1:03 
    Example: Key Phrases to Use 1:46 
   Object Write to a Verse 1:49 
    The Rhyme Schme 2:21 
    Different Rhyme Scheme 2:53 
    Example: Why Words Rhymes 4:07 
   Melody Ideas 4:16 
    Create Many Melodies With 1 Simple Phrase 4:35 
   Harmony for Verse and Chorus 6:15 
    Define Harmony 6:20 
    Example: Add 1 New Chord 6:46 
    Audio Example 7:30 
  Metaphor 5:18
   Intro 0:00 
   Lyric Writing 0:25 
    What is a Metaphor? 0:33 
    Examples: Metaphors 0:40 
   Melody Ideas 2:24 
    Arches 2:42 
    Examples: Small and Big Arches 3:14 
   Harmony Major vs Minor 3:55 
    Groove 4:08 
    Introduce Minor Chord to Mix 4:14 
  Repetition 7:23
   Intro 0:00 
   Lyric Writing 0:12 
    Example: Use Repetition to Strengthen 0:23 
    Example 2: Use Repetition to Strengthen 0:59 
   Melody Ideas 1:50 
    Truncation 2:22 
   Rhythm Lesson 3:27 
    Whole Note 3:52 
    Half Note 4:03 
    Quarter Note 4:06 
    Example 4:46 
  Imagery 9:28
   Intro 0:00 
   Lyric Writing 0:13 
    Use 5 Senses As Descriptions 0:16 
    Example: Senses As Descriptions 0:28 
    Example 2: Senses As Descriptions 1:06 
   Melody Ideas 2:32 
    Ways to Develop Melody 2:49 
    Chord & Arpeggio 4:46 
   Rhythm Lesson 5:08 
    Dotted Note 5:27 
    Clap Out Example 6:12 
  Personification 9:10
   Intro 0:00 
   Lyric Writing 0:15 
    Define Personification 0:18 
    Examples: Personification 0:29 
   Melody Ideas 3:22 
    Permutation 3:39 
    Ornamentation 3:59 
    Thinning 4:24 
    Pitch Change 4:39 
    Example 4:57 
   Song Sections 6:19 
    Different Sections of a Song 6:40 
    Pre-Course, Bridge, Breakdown, Instrumental Breaks 6:47 
  Exaggeration 14:19
   Intro 0:00 
   Lyric Writing 0:21 
    Define Exaggerate 0:23 
    Examples: Exaggeration 0:29 
   Collaboration 3:02 
    Consider When Collaborating 3:36 
   Business of Songwriting 8:12 
    Guidelines to Protect Your Song 8:33 
    Recording Demos 8:40 
    Studio Time 8:55 
    Submitting Material 9:35 
    Building Relationships 10:30 
    Getting a Mentor 11:24 
    Write Out Goals 11:44 
    Meet Other Songwriters/ Producers 12:01 
    Going to Network Events 12:19 
    Being a Professional 12:36 
    Being a Solo Artist or Starting Band 13:11 
    Performing 13:34 
  Genres 21:57
   Intro 0:00 
   Country 0:46 
    Audio Example: Keith Urban 1:02 
    Example: Rhyming Scheme 5:59 
    Stripping Instrumentation 7:42 
   Pop 8:11 
    Audio Example: Pink 8:33 
    Main Difference Between Country & Pop 13:03 
    Chorus Extension 13:33 
   R&B 14:14 
    Audio Example: John Legend 14:40 
    Reframe 20:44 

Hello and welcome to educator.com. My name is Elliott and I am your songwriting teacher.0000

This course is introduction to songwriting. This is our first lessons.0006

So, I am just going to give you quite an overview in regards to all the amazing things that we are going to study here.0011

So, what the course is going to be about. 0016

There is 3 main components to a song. You have the melody, the lyrics and the harmony.0019

And also a 4th component that we are going to be looking at is rhythm.0025

And really what you can do with all those components melody, lyrics, harmony and rhythm.0029

And change them, edit them, add to them. That is really the combination of all.0036

That is what is going to keep your listener, your audience very interested.0041

And most importantly to be able to sing that song back after they have heard it.0045

That is when you know that it is a really good song.0048

So, what to expect in this course? Oh, it is going to be hard and painful.0051

No, purposely I want you to really enjoy this process.0056

So, the lessons that I am going to give you are all timed for a very short amount of time.0060

Most of them you are going to find out are just going to be 5 minutes long.0066

I do not want you going through one of these exercises and trying for 6 hours.0070

And just frustrated never wanting to study songwriting again. No. 0075

The purpose of why such a short amount of time for these lessons is.0080

I want you to practice figuring out what it is that you want to say.0084

And really tapping into creatively what it is that you want to say in a very quick fashion, 5-10 minutes.0089

So, there are some golden guidelines that I want to discuss in regards to songwriting.0096

Number 1. Do not judge. Be judgment free.0102

And why do I say that? you know there is going to be a time.0107

Once you have written a song to go back, look at it all and edit it.0113

Figure out what works. What is really cool that it just does not work within the context of this song.0118

That is when we edit but as you are developing what it is creatively that you want to say.0122

Allow yourself to write down and think of everything that you want to think of.0129

You will later learn the process of editing your lyrics.0133

But for the purposes of these exercises I want you have fun and I want you to just feel very free.0138

And open and write down whatever it is that comes up in that head of yours.0144

OK, so number 2. Have fun, please enjoy these exercises.0147

There is probably a few other courses that are going to be more stressful than this one.0152

I really want you to enjoy each lesson and exercise.0157

Number 3. Onor the workspace. This is one that I probably did not think I was going to come up with.0162

But I want you to have a nice quiet place to write your ideas and your melodies and your lyrics.0167

If you are constantly surrounded by a lot of noise and such.0174

I do not think that you are going to be able to concentrate.0177

And I do not know how comfortable you are going to be tapping into creatively what it is that you really want to say.0179

So, this is equally as important as number 1 and number 2.0185

So, let me give you an example of one of the exercises that we are going to do.0188

To figure out lyrically what you want to say one of the best exercises I can teach you is called an object write.0194

All you do for 5 minutes is write down as much as you can on a particular subject.0201

In this example I did an object write and I am going to make you do one too on the word ocean.0207

You do not have to feel pressure to come up with a paragraph with sentences and punctuation. 0214

Or lyrics that they are all going to rhyme. No, no, no.0219

This is just to give you an idea for 5 minutes about what it is that you want to say about this subject.0222

If someone approaches you and says you know we really need a song about an ocean for upcoming movie.0229

I would tell you take 5 minutes and do an object write on the word ocean.0236

This is out of the list that I came up with and whatever on this list speaks to you and kind of get your interest.0239

That is what you want to think about working with.0247

I know for me I love the idea of children splashing in the waves.0249

That kind of stands on its own just as one line of children splashing in the waves.0253

I could see that working in a song somewhere.0258

Ships passing. That is really cool.0263

Sand castles and then I take these ideas.0266

And then I will teach you another set of exercises and how to develop them into.0270

I could just from one object write develop an entire verse from 5 minutes of work. Pretty good, ih?!0273

Alright, so that is an example of what we are going to study lyrically.0282

And then here is an example of how we are going to develop our melodies.0286

If we look at here is a melody example. It is a pretty standard just 4 quarter notes of music CD, ED.0289

And then with just one measure of music just 4 notes I am going to teach you.0297

And take you through a variety of exercises of how you can take that one idea and develop it over and over again.0302

So, we are going to look at examples of if you take the same 4 quarter notes and just move it up one step.0308

Now it is DEFE or what if you use the same rhythm for quarter notes.0313

And you just have the notes go up ascending like this.0320

So, then you have CDEF. Let us listen to that and see how it is.0324

OK, so that is our example and here is up one step.0338

Here is the same rhythm with ascending notes.0343

So, there you have it. All it is in one simple measure of an idea for melody.0350

And you can really take that and just run with it and create aversive melody pretty easily.0354

So, I just wanted to give you an introduction to some of the things that we are going to study here.0360

An intro to songwriting, and I cannot wait to take you through a variety of more exercises.0364

And really help you build what it is that you as a songwriter want to say.0368

So, thank you for tuning into educator.com.0373

My name is Elliott, your songwriting teacher, and I will see you soon.0375

Hello and welcome back to Educator.com.0000

My name is Eliot, and this is Introduction to Songwriting, so let's get right to today's lessons.0003

We have been talking a lot about developing your lyrics and your melodies.0010

And today, we are going to talk about something called personification,0014

which means giving something that is not living human traits and qualities like something having emotions or desires or actions.0018

And let's look at a few examples of that. The first one is a song that we looked at its lyric a few lessons ago: Christina Perri, Jar of Hearts.0026

And here is the lyric: you're gonna catch a cold from the ice inside your soul.0035

Ouch! So, the idea that you have ice inside your soul is a wonderful example of personification.0041

We do not know.0049

We could get into a discussion about this, but if a soul has ice or not, so to describe it as having ice is a strong lyric and a really nice example of this.0051

So, let's look at our second example. This is Adele song that I am sure most of you know: Rolling in the Deep.0060

And the lyric is: the scars of your love, they leave me breathless, I can't help feeling we could've had it all.0067

The scars of your love, to give the idea that love is actually going to scar someone physically0074

is a wonderful example of something like love taking on a human trait like being able to scar.0083

And as you know, if you have heard the song, it is just a powerful description of...0091

Yes, it says here wishing that you had it all with someone and realizing that you do not.0097

Let's go on to the next example, from the same song also Adele, Rolling in the Deep:0105

you had my heart inside your heart and you played it to the beat.0109

You cannot technically hold someone's heart inside your hand because if you could, they would not be living.0113

And if you are writing a song about that, that is a whole another song, but this is another excellent example of personification.0118

And so, we are going to talk about Katy Perry's song Firework:0125

do you ever feel already buried deep 6 feet under screams but no one seems to hear a thing.0129

Whoa! So, if you could be buried 6 feet under the ground and be screaming and have no one hear you,0136

that is an amazing way to say that you are at a point in your life where there is no one around you that really is listening to what you have to say.0144

And from the same song, baby you're a firework, c'mon let your colors burst. A bit more of a positive example.0156

To give someone the idea that they are actually a firework and letting their colors just shine and burst0164

is a way of saying "I want you to celebrate all the amazing things that make you who you are".0170

This is the opposite giving a human the quality of something non-human. What was awesome here is you compared the human being to a firework.0179

It is, kind of, a twist on the same idea but certainly giving one person or thing qualities that it does not necessarily normally have.0187

And that is what makes these lyric examples really strong.0195

So, let's go on to the next exercise for today, further examples of developing your melodies, and as you all know, at this point, this is our example.0198

It is four quarter notes, just C-D-E and D, and we are going to talk about four more ways that you can develop your melodies.0209

Permutation is a fancy way of saying "changing the note order".0219

We still have four quarter notes. We still have a C, a D and two Es - excuse me - a C and E and two Ds, but we are changing the orders.0223

So, now, it is C-E-D-D.0232

Ornamentations keep all the notes and add a few more notes to them. This is a very popular thing to do.0239

So, as you see, we still have the skeleton of the C, a D and E and a D, but we added a few notes.0245

Instead of four quarter notes, now, there are a few additional eighth notes added.0255

And we are going to hear this example and all the others in just a moment.0260

That is an E. There we go.0263

Thinning deletes certain notes, but the overall phrase length is the same.0265

So, we still have one measure here. There are four quarter notes, but we took out this one and replaced it with a quarter note rest.0268

So, it is still one measure of music, and this is also going to sound very interesting once we hear it.0275

Pitch change- same rhythm, change all the notes, so we have one measure of music.0280

We still have four quarter notes, but instead of C-D-E-D, now, we have E-F-D and then, E.0284

So, let's hear these examples. [music playing]0294

That is our example, and here is permutation. [music playing]0304

Here is ornamentation. [music playing]0310

This is thinning. [music playing]0315

And then, this is pitch changing. [music playing]0319

There are a few really cool things happening here.0324

If you noticed here when we heard permutation, repeating these two notes is a really strong thing- adding a little repetition.0326

This, really, once you see, you hear these eighth notes coming in, they really start to speed up the melody.0334

Thinning, and I thought was really cool was that we started, stops for a rest and then, had more notes.0342

So, it, kind of, almost became a call response kind-of-thing.0347

And pitch change is really...you know, if you are going to do a pitch change, you are keeping the rhythm.0352

It is still four quarter notes, but it sounds so radically different from the melody.0358

So, the most effective place in a song to use this is probably when other things are not going to change.0362

Maybe you have the same over and over again and just change the melody notes.0368

So, our final exercise for today, we are going to talk about song sections.0373

We have discussed developing your lyrics and then, from our harmonic standpoint about what you can do to add a0382

chord to make the chorus stand out or start adding minor chords to really brighten and get the listener's attention.0392

Let's talk specifically about the different sections of a song.0401

So, we discussed the verse and chorus. Now, we will introduce the pre-chorus, bridge, breakdown and instrumental breaks.0404

So, this is actually a song by yours truly. I do not know if you have heard it before, but this is a song that was on one of my albums called the Endless Ride.0412

If we just scan this looking at the lyrics, we have a verse. We have a chorus.0420

We have a second verse, another chorus, a bridge, another and then, kind of, a breakdown or what could be called an outro as opposed to an intro.0428

And actually, before this verse begins, there is an intro.0443

So, if you look at this from the verse:0446

it's a brand new year, it's a perfect day, it's a summer breeze floating on the way, it's a coming smile that you give to me.0450

And then, the chorus: baby when you're loving me, I feel I'm on an endless ride, and it makes me say yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah.0456

Repetition: baby when you're loving me, I feel I'm on an endless ride, and it makes me say yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah.0463

And then, I repeated the whole phrase again.0469

So, a second verse: it's a yellow rose, it's a child eyes, it's a winter's night, and I'm warmly tucked inside, it's a sweet tangerine that you feed to me.0471

And then, the chorus repeats again: baby when you're loving me, I feel I'm on an endless ride, and it makes me say yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah.0482

It is actually, when it is your song, it is really hard to just say the lyrics and not sing it.0490

And then, so the second part of the chorus: baby when you're loving me, I feel I'm on an endless ride, and it makes me say yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah.0494

Then, we go to the bridge: how good it is to know I found love, oh, how easily I blush when you take me to the top, baby, baby.0501

Then, it goes back to the chorus, and then, this is just, kind of, a breakdown or outro section.0511

If you think of the song as it is starting to fade in the volume, you are going to just repeat certain sections of the song just as like a little hint at the end.0519

And it is probably going to be just some repetition of the chorus as I did here:0528

baby when you're loving me, I'm on an endless ride, and it makes me say yeah, when you're loving me, I'm on a ride, ooh.0531

So, hopefully on the website, we will have a link to this song so you could actually hear it and then, follow along here with the lyrics.0539

Thank you for tuning in to Educator.com, and I will see you at the next lesson.0545

Hey, welcome back to Educator.com.0000

My name is Eliot, and this is Introduction to Songwriting.0003

So, we are almost nearing the end of our lessons, so I am going to introduce a few new topics to you that we can discuss further in our follow up course.0005

I want to talk just one more time about lyrics and introduce in a concept called exaggeration.0017

To exaggerate is to write an exaggeration on a statement or a fact for stronger effect.0023

So, let's look at a few examples of this. Christina Perri has a song called A Thousand Years.0030

This is a song that is in the Twilight move. I have not seen the movie, but I have heard the song.0035

I have loved you for a thousand years.0041

OK, so clearly and all of you fans out there, help me. If they are vampires, so, I guess, they get to live forever.0043

But, the idea of loving someone for a thousand years is a very...it is not only just a dramatic concept, but it is a very romantic one.0049

It is a wonderful way to say that.0057

Adele has a song called Set Fire to the Rain: but I set fire to the raid, watched it pour as I touched your face, let it burn while I cried.0060

Whoa! That is dramatic.0070

So, whenever you are going to do anything like exaggerate, you can tell, it is going to be a pretty dramatic moment of the song.0072

Watched it pour as I touched your face.0078

To give someone the idea that if you can touch their face, it is so powerful that what would happen when you try to light rain on fire,0082

it is a very beautiful way to say how much you care about someone.0093

Zach Brown Band, if you are not familiar with them, amazing country band, wonderful songwriter he is.0098

This is a from a song called Colder Weather: 'coz I'm a rambling man, I ain't ever gonna change, I got a gypsy's soul to blame, and I was born for leaving.0104

The idea, this is one of the songs, I have to say, when I heard this, I was like "oh, why didn't I write this?".0115

To think that when you are born, you already have this capacity that you are always just going to leave. You are never going to stay.0121

That is an exaggeration because no one is born that way, but to put that in a song, oh my god.0127

It is just a beautiful sentiment and really powerful.0134

And our last example is by someone who I am a huge fan of. This is a song by Pink, and this called Glitter in the Air.0138

Have you ever wished for an endless night, lassoed the moon and the stars and pulled that rope tight?0145

What? That is just beautiful.0154

The idea that you can look up into the sky, have your - well, what would you need for a lasso - a rope.0156

And you just throw it up towards the sky, grab the stars and pulled them towards you.0164

And then, to put that as the lyric: lassoed the moon and the stars and pulled that rope tight.0169

It is such an exaggeration and a beautiful lyric, and so, hopefully, this is a tool you can utilize, yourself.0173

As we are approaching, as I said, the end of Intro to Songwriting,0182

I wanted to talk with you about a few things that are going to be very helpful for you in the future.0185

One is collaborating. You can write a song with someone else, and you both write the melody and the lyrics together.0191

Or maybe they are really good at playing piano, and you are really good at rhyming.0199

Or they are a music producer, and they make amazing beats, and you are really good at coming up with melodies and lyrics.0204

Whatever it is, whatever the combination is, there are a few things that I would love for you to consider when collaborating, so here they are.0209

No. 1: have fun. Writing songs, as I mentioned to you initially, there are no rules.0217

I do not want you to be hard on yourself and especially when you are introducing0225

yourself to other songwriters and lyricists and music producers and artists.0229

Have fun with this process. The idea that you are going to share something creative with someone else, make sure that it is fun for everyone.0235

No. 2: show up on time or even better, early.0241

If you are going to write a song with someone, you are setting an appointment of time0247

that we are going to get together at 4 o'clock and come up with some amazing songs.0250

One of the worst things you could do to annoy the other person is to show up half an hour late and not call.0255

This is actually really helpful in life in general, but especially when you are introducing yourself as a professional to work with another professional.0260

So, no. 3: be prepared. Come with song ideas.0269

You know, what is interesting? If you are writing songs by yourself, and if you remember from our examples,0273

I have purposely tried to teach you to just write for very short spurts of time to get yourself used to coming up with ideas pretty quickly.0278

It is interesting. I find myself, if I have an appointment to write a song with someone else,0287

I hope that when 3 o'clock shows up, I am going to have some ideas and be inspired.0294

I would hate to just walk into the room and not have anything. I mean, I just hope the person plays something, or they have an idea or concept.0298

But, if you can think of that beforehand and come up with an idea or two and come prepared0305

to that collaboration session, I think it is going to make it that much more successful.0312

No. 4: research who you are writing with. There are many different genres, and we are going to talk about them more specifically next time.0316

But, there is pop. There is country.0325

There is RnB. There is also jazz.0327

There is gospel. There is Americana.0330

There is heavy metal. There is rock.0331

There is rap.0333

If you are not familiar with the artist you are writing with or their style of music or their genre or who their influences are, do some research.0335

Be really well-prepared, so when you come to that meeting and that collaboration, you are going have it be that much more successful.0344

No. 03 be flexible. A collaboration is a collaboration.0351

So, if you are coming up with ideas, and the other person is coming up with ideas, try and think of 50-50.0358

Maybe their idea for the verse is better than yours. I want it to be the best song it can be.0364

If it means that the melody you came up with is much better than mine, I am very humble in this situation.0371

I do not care if it is my melody that makes it in, if your melody is going to make it that much better of a song.0377

So, no. 6: follow up politely.0382

Sometimes you write with someone, and it goes really well; and you never work with them again. It is weird when it happens.0388

But, you want to follow up. Tell them it was really awesome writing with them and meeting with them.0394

Would they like to write with you again? If they say that their schedule is busy, maybe their schedule is busy.0398

Or maybe they would just prefer not to write again.0406

You know, building a relationship with another songwriter or co-writer or co-collaborator, it takes time to find that really good fit energy-wise.0410

No. 7: share your goals. You might have this desire to write songs for your album that you are recording yourself.0419

And this person might be a great person to write a song with for your album.0426

But, if you do not tell them that, they are not necessarily going to know that they should be concentrating on writing for you.0430

And maybe they want to write a song for Beyoncé, and maybe your style of music and who you are as an artist has nothing to do with Beyoncé.0437

So, keep that in mind.0445

And then, no. 8: continue to have fun. Enjoy this process.0447

Getting to know other people in your field is so much fun, and go to open mic nights0453

and hear a bunch of other people play and just see who you gravitate towards.0460

And also speaking to that idea, once you meet a lot of different people, maybe you could host some type of collaboration party0464

where you just invite 4 or 6 songwriters over, have some snacks, and then, just start pairing up, who is going to write with who.0472

And then, maybe these two people will write a verse and then, give it to that person, or write the chorus in.0478

Just have really fun experimenting with who you write with and getting to know other artists in your field.0483

So, the last exercise or thing to talk about is I just want to touch a tiny bit on the business of songwriting.0491

The music business is a business, and the more you can appreciate that, that the song that you are writing...0497

And I want you to completely enjoy the creative process.0505

But, once you write a song that is good, and people are starting to hear it, it really is a product to that point.0508

And I want to give you a few guidelines on how to best protect your songs.0513

Let's talk about recording demos.0520

Initially, I just want you to write as much as you can. Eventually, you are going to get to the point where you might have 3 or 4 songs.0522

And you really just want to go into the studio and hear how they sound. That is a very exciting time.0529

Studio time: practice in being prepared with charts. I cannot emphasize this enough.0535

When you are ready to go into a studio to record some of your songs, you are paying them by the hour.0542

So, if you show up, and the musicians that you have hired do not know your song,0548

you do not have charts, and you are just overall not prepared at all, you have not practiced enough to get to that point,0553

you are going to pay a lot more for all that time that you are wasting, and you are not going to enjoy it as much because you are going to be stressed.0560

Practice as much as you can before you go into the studio. Practice!0565

OK, next step is submitting material. It really depends on the type of songs that you write.0574

Maybe your songs are really good for a film, maybe for a commercial or a TV show, or maybe for a specific artist to record them.0580

You first have to determine what your songs are best for. Maybe they are good for a video game.0589

I actually just wrote a song for my friend's video game.0593

And I got to see the trailer for the video game, and then, I wrote a song that I thought would be wonderful for that.0597

You want to submit material for what it is appropriate for.0604

If you are sending songs in for a TV show, let's say, and there is this hit show called Mad Man.0608

The entire show takes place in the 1960s, so for you to send a song that would be really appropriate in the last two years,0614

it would never find its place in that show.0623

It is just not appropriate for that. So, you want to submit you material for what it is appropriate for.0625

Building relationships: this is probably the biggest lesson I have learned being in the music industry. It is all about relationships.0630

I do not even want to call it a mistake, but one choice I made early on in my career is I tried to do every single thing myself.0639

Not only did that make me exhausted, but I was so alone.0645

I was touring the country, and at the time, I did not have a booking agent or a manager or a publicist or someone doing my internet marketing.0651

I just took on way too many jobs, and there are people that are amazing agents. They are amazing managers.0659

They are amazing music supervisors etc., and they are much better at doing their job than I am.0667

So, the idea for you to open yourself up to the idea to meet people in your industry is a wonderful thing.0674

And it is only going to make your career that much better for it.0681

Getting a mentor: this is a wonderful idea for anyone. Find someone who you think is an amazing songwriter.0684

Figure out how they got their break. Figure out how they got their start.0694

At what age did they have their first hit, and then, eventually, contact that person. Ask them to mentor you.0698

Writing out your goals: I think the first step towards reaching your goals is having the courage to write out what you really want.0705

If your career, if you are destined to be an amazing songwriter, write that, that is what you want, and you will figure out how to get there.0714

Meeting other songwriters and producers: we already talked about this a little bit as far as collaboration goes.0721

Meet as many people as you can in your industry.0727

Build a camaraderie with other songwriters or singer-songwriters that you really like,0729

and you really respect their work and even better if they respect your work, too.0735

Going to networking events: I am here in Los Angeles, there are so many music networking events.0739

But, in addition to going to open mics, if there are any networking events in your area where you live, absolutely get out there.0746

And meet as many musicians and songwriters as you can.0753

Being a professional: I think how you carry yourself is really indicative to what type of career you are going to have.0756

So, I would just remember to always be professional and polite with people.0765

And here is another thing about this industry. You never know what someone is going to be a year from now.0769

You could have a runner at a music studio where it is their job when you meet them, all they do was to grab everybody food.0774

And then, 8 months later, they are an A&R director at a major label. I swear to god, it happens all the time.0781

Just be nice. Treat every single person the way you want to be treated.0787

Being a solo artist or starting a band: once you write a few songs, you might decide that you want to just0791

be up there with you and piano or you and guitar and just being a solo artist and playing your songs- that is wonderful.0798

You might think that your songs really would sound best in a band setting, so you want to start meeting other musicians and starting your own band.0803

Wherever your songs take you is a good place.0811

Lastly, performing: this, kind of, goes in line with, as I said, practicing before you enter the studio.0814

Perform as much as you can. It is something that I do not think you can ever have too much experience.0823

And every single time you get on stage, I still get a tiny bit nervous.0829

Not nervous enough that I completely freak out, but there is nothing like being on a stage.0834

It is a home away from home, and so, I hope you enjoyed this little foray into the business side of things.0840

This is such a creative industry, and I just want to give you a few ideas of what to do with your songs in the next step of your career.0848

And thank you for tuning in to Educator.com, and I will see you at the next lesson.0856

Hello and welcome back to Educator.com.0000

My name is Eliot, and this is Intro to Songwriting, and this is our final lesson of the course. I know. I feel it, too.0003

But, that being said, I did not want to give you a glimpse into what we will be studying in the next course if enough of you want to have another course.0012

So, we are going to be talking about genres today.0023

Arguably, the three most popular genres in music today are pop, country and RnB. Rap is actually and probably right up there with those three.0027

But, for the purposes of today's lesson, I am just going to concentrate on pop, country and RnB.0036

So, we are going to look at three hit songs in each of those genres and just study them for a bit.0041

The first example is going to be a country song. This is by Keith Urban, a song called You'll Think of Me.0047

I am going to play it in a moment, and so, I am not going to say a whole lot while this song is going, and then, we are going to talk about it after, alright?0054

So, here is Keith Urban. [music playing]0063

So, this is like an instrumental intro. [music playing]0077

This is the pre-chorus. [music playing]0088

That is the title repeated there right at the end. OK, verse two. [music playing]0147

Here is a different pre-chorus. [music playing]0171

And the chorus again. [music playing]0182

This is the bridge. [music playing]0218

Back to the chorus again or the breakdown of it. [music playing]0230

A lot less instrumentation, and then, the instruments come back. [music playing]0237

This is like an outro. [music playing]0283

OK, so that was our country example, a Keith Urban song called You'll Think Of Me.0338

As you can already tell, just a beautiful song, and a wonderful example of the story telling that you will often find in country music.0343

I was taking a few notes as you could tell as we were going through, so let's just look at this for a moment.0351

One thing interesting, remember we were talking about rhyming schemes?0356

I woke up early this morning around 4AM with the moon shining bright as headlights on the interstate.0361

I pulled the covers over my head and tried to catch some sleep, but the thoughts - excuse me - but thoughts of us kept keeping me awake.0367

So, if you know, interstate and awake rhyme, but 4AM and sleep do not, so this is an A-B-C-B rhyme scheme.0376

If you noticed, I tried to get your attention as we were listening to the pre-chorus.0384

But, that's OK, there's nothing left to say but- he really speeds up the...rather than just using a lot of longer notes like half notes and quarter notes,0392

if you listened to the rhythm there of the melody, he is using a lot of eighth notes.0402

And it just speeds you up, speeds you up, and gives you all the sense of anticipation because you are going right into the chorus.0407

It was just a wonderful setup for the chorus.0412

This is such a good example of country music songwriting because it is so direct.0418

They are telling a story, but they are being completely direct. There is not so much discussion of feelings without telling you facts.0424

Country music is a lot about factual story-telling, so take your records, take your freedom, take your memories, I don't need them.0434

It is just so direct, and that is what makes it really strong.0440

We heard after the bridge, if you remember, I mentioned that it is, sort of, a breakdown of the chorus.0446

A lot of the instrumentation was stripped away, and what does that do?0452

You know nothing on the chorus. The lyrics are the same as it were in the first few choruses we heard.0456

But, stripping down the instrumentation, this is more of an arrangement thing that we have not talked about yet, but it really helps grab the listener in.0461

It is the most intimate, quiet part of the song, and it hits the chorus home again, and then, the instrumentation comes back in for the final chorus.0468

So, I hope you enjoyed that example. Certainly, an amazing artist and a songwriter Keith Urban is, if you want to check out some of his other music.0478

And let's go on now to our next example.0487

Our next example is in the genre of pop. This is one of my personal favorite pop artists.0491

This is a song by Pink. This is a song called Who Knew.0497

This was on, I think, two albums ago for her, No. 1 song. It is just a beautiful song, and let's hear it.0500

And I will just say a few little things as we are hearing it, and then, we will talk about it more after.0508

Here is the intro. [music playing]0517

Here is the verse. [music playing]0532

It goes right into the chorus. [music playing]0546

It ends right on the title, and this is the second verse [music playing]0573

So, this is the second chorus, but the lyrics are new. [music playing]0604

Here is the bridge. [music playing]0636

Here is the chorus, and it is the same lyrics as the first chorus. [music playing]0655

Here are some new lyrics right here. [music playing]0671

This is like extending the chorus right here. [music playing]0684

And just repeating the title at the end, and then, just playing the groove until the song ends. [music playing]0702

OK, so that was our pop example. That was a song by Pink called Who Knew, and let's just talk about this one for a moment or two.0720

There is not pre-chorus. She goes from the verse right into the chorus.0728

And from a songwriting strength perspective, to be able to go into the chorus that much quicker,0731

the chorus is often going to be the part of the song that the listener is going to remember the easiest.0743

So, to go right into it without a lot of delay is a pretty smart thing to do.0750

I chose this as an example of pop music because pop music is so much about talking about your emotions.0756

And so, if you can pair this to the country example we just heard, this is so much more about if someone said three years from now, you'd be long gone,0765

I would stand up and punch them out because they're all wrong, I know better 'coz you said forever and ever, who knew.0775

You did not hear as much about take your hat and leave my sweater.0781

There was not a lot of direct commentary as opposed to really just talking about your emotions and your heart and what you are feeling.0786

So, that is, kind of, a main difference I would say between country and pop.0793

And then, RnB, which we are going to learn in a moment, is much more about romance and love.0797

This song happens to be about a relationship, as well but as a general commentary.0801

So, if we look at this further, one thing I really want to comment on this is chorus extension. It is such a powerful tool.0808

At this point, we have already heard the chorus three times, and then, still, what she did was, if you heard it, they elongated the chorus.0818

They added about probably eight more measure of music, but they stayed on the same chords of the chorus that did not resolve.0825

Remember we talked about stable versus unstable tones, so you just have this.0832

It is the most dramatic moment of the song because she is holding onto those dramatic chords,0836

singing the same melody and then, extends it for another 3 or 4 lines.0840

It was just a killer example that.0844

That is our pop example, and we have one more example to go. This is our RnB one, so let's see what that is.0848

This is a song by a gentleman by the name of John Legend. It is called Where Did My Baby Go.0854

OK, technically, this was not a no. 1 song because it was not released as his single.0861

It is actually my favorite song by this artist, and so, as the teacher, hopefully, you will indulge me a little with that.0865

So, let's hear this song, and I will comment on it just a little bit as we are going through, and then, we will talk about it after.0872

This is the intro. [music playing]0887

Verse two. [music playing]0939

A mini-bridge and then, back to the verse. [music playing]0976

We are going to go back to this version of the verse with another bridge. [music playing]1015

As I noted here the first time, the melody is different, and rhythmically, it has a little bit more notes. [music playing]1032

Here is that mini-bridge. [music playing]1051

Back again to our verse. [music playing]1066

Instrumental break, then, it comes back. We ran out of space here, but back to the verse. [music playing]1129

OK, so, I chose that song in specific for a few reasons.1185

You know, you could argue because if the verse begins with where do my baby go, which is the title,1192

and it ends with it, that this is more of like a verse-kind-of-chorus.1196

But, the reason I wanted to call it a verse and discuss it with you is because when you hear the second verse, I'm searching for the lover in you,1203

if you can listen to the chords, underneath, they are same as the verse, and the melody is slightly the same.1210

It picks up rhythmically because there are a few more eighth notes and such in there.1219

But, the part of this section of the song that really separates itself from the first verse is this part in the bridge.1224

So, I wanted to play this with you because it is almost like when you do not have a chorus in the song.1231

And you have a section of a song that ends either with the title or repeats it, it is what is called a verse refrain.1237

The refrain is typically a mini-chorus. It might be just one line, the title, like here.1245

It is really interesting, though, that this section of music includes the title in the first line, too.1252

But, if you remember just from the examples that we just heard from the Pink song and on the country example, Keith Urban,1257

that the title in the chorus was so powerful.1267

It was so melodically and harmonically and rhythmically different from the other sections of the song, and it does not necessarily occur here.1272

What is memorable about this song is the way that they keep repeating the title very strategically.1281

But, I do hope you enjoyed that slightly different example, this one being the RnB example.1287

With that being said, I just wanted to say we are done with the course.1292

Thank you very much for tuning in, and I really hope you enjoyed the lessons.1296

I really hope your songwriting and your lyric writing and your musicianship grows, and please let us know here at Educator.com any feedback.1301

If you would like to learn more about this subject, it would certainly be a pleasure to teach you.1310

So, thank you for tuning in to Educator.com, and see you soon.1315

Hello and welcome back to introduction to songwriting.0000

My name is Elliott your songwriting teacher.0003

So, in today's lesson we are going to talk about the 3 basic components to writing a song.0006

And developing your song ideas and remember those are lyric writing, melody and harmony.0011

So, I am going to give you 3 very basic exercises. 0017

One in each of those areas to help you start developing your ideas.0021

So, the first thing I want to talk to you about is lyrics.0024

So, we are going to go through an exercise. It is called the object write.0028

And that is you are going to take a certain amount of time and it is just 5 minutes.0032

That supposed to say object write.0039

And the purpose of being only 5 minutes is I want you to tap into creatively what you want to say, write it down and then stop. 0040

I do not want you to try this exercise for 4 hours at a time and just end up very frustrated.0050

That is not the point of it at all.0055

So, all you going to do is write a list of things that are associated with this one word.0057

And I am going to tell you what the word is. Just a moment.0061

You do not have to feel pressure to come up with lyrics that rhyme.0063

Or write a paragraph with full sentences, with punctuation.0066

Now, it is probably going to look a lot like a shopping list, like one or two words or maybe some short phrases.0070

So, and I want you to time yourself again just 5 minutes. 0075

It does not sound like a long period of time and it is on purpose.0078

So, the object. I am going to have you do an object write on is the word orange.0084

And a bonus hint is it is not just a color it is also a fruit.0090

So, as much as you can think of the word orange just start writing and writing and writing and see what you come up with.0094

And then next lesson we are going to review that.0100

And I am going to show you a few tips for how you can take that object write and turn that into some ideas for your verse.0103

So, start your timer and I will see you back in a minute.0110

OK, so the next exercise we are going to do today is one having to do with melody.0114

Now, if you think of the QC which is just CDEFGAB. 0121

What notes are going to be the most stable and which notes are going to be the most unstable?0128

Stable meaning to the listener it is going to feel like you are at home.0135

Maybe that you are at the end of a section of a song.0140

It unstable notes will probably appear in most dramatic parts of the song.0143

Maybe the bridge going right into the course where that person is trying to hit the big high note.0148

That is probably an unstable tone.0152

So, if we think of in the QC this C cord and again a cord is just 3 notes played at the same time.0154

It is CE and G and may not surprise you to know that those are the 3 notes that are the most stable in this key.0162

So, the 3. This is going from stable all the way to unstable CGE.0170

And then we start going into some unstable territory with DAF and then finally B.0177

Now, why do you think these notes FA, excuse me DAF and B are more unstable.0188

They do not resolve. They want to go somewhere else.0198

And the somewhere else that they want to go is to actually one of these notes over here.0201

So, having said that here is our first example. This is just one measure of music, 4 quarter notes.0205

I want you to keep your melodies initially very simple just to understand these concepts.0212

So, we have CDED and then I ended it on C.0217

Now, if we look up at our chart here. That is the most stable note I could of ended it on.0225

So, at what part of the song would this probably occur?0231

If you answered the end of the verse through the end of the course you are correct.0235

So, what I want you to do is as you see we just have the same one measure of music 4 different times.0240

And I want you to end it on different notes.0246

So, this is end on a slightly unstable tone.0250

Well, if we look at our chart of stable versus unstable what is a slightly unstable tone?0252

Maybe that would be A. OK, so I am going to draw A here and on a slightly stable tone.0258

What would that be? CDED slightly stable. Let us try E.0268

So, let us draw E and on an unstable tone.0272

Well, the most unstable is B so let us end on a B and C and see how that sounds.0279

So, I want you for homework if you choose to do it on.0285

Choose your own notes here. What would be stable and what would be unstable.0289

And then play them one after another and see how it sounds.0293

So, it will sound something like this.0296

So, that sounds very stable and what would you choose there?0310

Slightly stable tone here and ending on an unstable tone.0320

So, I wanted to show you this is how simple you can be. 0327

You can take one measure of music and then all of the sudden turn it into a Mars, a music.0330

You have a verse here and you start it with just one measure idea and that is how simple your melodies can grow.0336

So, our final exercise for today's lesson is an exercise in harmony.0343

Now, when you hear the idea of what is harmony? 0349

Harmony is the cords that the piano or guitar or any other instrument will play underneath the bed.0351

Providing a bed for the melody and a lyrics.0359

So, the easiest way to think of harmony as far as songwriting goes is to establish a groove.0361

And what you may ask is a groove? A groove is simply 2 cords back and forth. That is it.0368

When you go back and forth between the 2 cords you just feel it is natural rhythm.0374

Harmonically that is occurring and it feels like a groove.0379

Some hit songs, very famous songs have been written just from a 2 bar groove going back and forth.0383

If you need help developing your melodies this is one of the easiest ways to do it.0389

Just choose 2 cords. In this case I have chosen C and F and just play them back and forth.0393

And just think of what might come to you as an idea of a melody.0399

And remember with our previous melody example keep it really simple.0403

Just a few quarter notes. That is all you really need.0407

So, listen to this harmonic groove and see if you can come up with something. And then back to C, F. 0409

So, I have got an idea right there at the end there.0452

You can play with a temple play them faster or slow it down even further.0454

That was actually already a little bit on the slow side anyway but.0461

So, to give you an idea on the groove it is just 2 cords going back and forth.0464

And it is the easiest way harmonically to get you used to coming up with ideas of how to grow the sections of your song.0471

So, that is it for today's lesson. Thank you for tuning into educator.com.0478

This is Elliot your songwriting teacher and I will see you again soon.0483

Hello and welcome back to Intro to Songwriting.0000

My name is Eliot, and let's get right into today's lesson.0003

Last time, I introduced you to the wonderful exercise called an object write, and you spent 5 minutes writing on the word orange.0007

Hopefully, you came up with some really cool stuff. Let me show you what it is that I came up with because I actually did the exercise, too.0017

So, again, no judgement. We are just getting creative, figuring out what it is that we really want to say.0025

I will just briefly go through my list with you.0033

I came up with sun-kissed. I was thinking of the soda- juicy, sweet, summer fruit, natural healer, sitting by the fountain laughing.0037

I am going to circle that because I think that sounds really cool.0047

I do not exactly know why I was...oh, OK, sharing brunch is the next thing.0050

I think I was thinking of people having orange juice outside of the cafe on a Sunday morning, so I have sitting by the fountain laughing.0053

Again, you could think of that as such a stretch from the word orange.0060

But, whatever it makes you come up with, I love the idea of that as far as being in a song.0065

So, let's go on: bright sun, perfect sunset, peel the skin I treasure inside.0070

Oh, you know that rap song black and yellow, black and yellow? I thought about red and yellow, red and yellow because red and yellow makes orange.0076

That is about as much as I know about rap music.0083

OK, lazy morning, not a care in the world- oh, that is a nice idea.0084

I think I was thinking of, again, orange juice and brunch, and on a Sunday, not having to wake up early and having to do something,0089

just having, kind of, a leisurely day, so I came up with not a care in the world.0095

No time limit, enjoying the late morning into the afternoon, starting my day, going into the sun- oh, I love that, so I am going to circle that, too.0099

I just get this idea of someone walking down a dirt road, and you see the sun in the horizon; and you do not know where they are going.0109

See, that is, kind of, a good example - excuse me - of...these lines can, kind of, stand on their own.0117

Sitting by the fountain laughing- you automatically get an idea of two people outside on a sunny day sitting by a fountain laughing.0125

They are surrounded by all these other people, and they are just enjoying a meal together or a laugh together, or maybe it is a date.0134

It is a complete thought, and I think that is what I am hoping that you can get out of this is that after you come through this whole list of just...0141

It feels silly initially to write all these stuff about orange. You might come up with some really cool things.0150

So, go through your list. Do not judge yourself, and if you see anything that looks really cool, circle it.0154

And then, next time, I am going to show you what you can do with those ideas0161

and develop them into more of a section of a song and maybe even a whole verse.0165

So, speaking of object writes, your homework, should you choose to accept it, is to do two more object writes.0169

Again, these are just 5-minute exercises, so just time yourself for 5 minutes.0175

The first one I want you to do is on the word ocean, and the second object write I want you to do is on the word truck- ocean and truck.0180

So, again, just create your list. Have fun with it, and that concludes the object write lesson.0190

The next thing we are going to do is talk more about melodies.0196

If you remember last time, I told you, we talked about stable tones which were C, E and G,0200

and then, the more unstable tones in the key of C, which are D, F, A and B.0207

And I mentioned to you that these tones, it does not make you feel warm and cozy that0216

you are at the end of a song section, that you feel like you are at home in the song.0222

These do the opposite. They make you feel like you are going to anticipate "wow, where is this song going to go?".0227

And this is where these tones want to go. D always wants to fall back down to C.0231

F wants to fall back down to E. A wants to go down to G, and then, B wants to go up to C, so let's talk about this for a minute more.0238

Now, why would they want to do that? If you think of do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do, D is re falling down to do.0252

F is fa going down to mi. A is la going down to so, and then, B is ti going up to do.0262

So, let's hear these tones resolving, and hopefully that can give you a further idea of which melody notes to choose at what parts of your song.0274

So, let's listen to this. [music playing]0285

So, that was D to C. [music playing]0291

fa, mi. [music playing]0296

And that was A to G. [music playing]0299

And then, did you hear that daaaaaaa, daaaaaaa like you could hang on to that ti note or the B.0304

That is like the note at the end of the bridge where there is just this big dramatic thing happening.0311

And then, you finally resolve it once you hit the chorus again to C, which is do in this case.0315

So, hopefully, that gives you a little bit further of an understanding in regards to tone tendencies and how to utilize those in your melodies.0320

I am going to give you another example. Remember last time, we had a 1-measure phrase.0328

And then, we repeated it four times. Then, all of a sudden, we have eight measures of music.0335

I want you to do the same thing with this example, but I want you to choose what the next note is going to be.0341

So, mix it up. Choose some that are stable, some that are unstable.0346

For those of you that do not know, whenever you put a dot on a note, it increases the length value by half.0351

So, instead of one beat, a dotted quarter note is 1/2 beats, so followed by an eighth note, which is half a beat.0357

Let's listen to this, and again, I want you to choose what the four endings are going to be and come up with eight bars of music on your own.0363

So, let's listen to this. [music playing]0371

And then, you choose a note there. [music playing]0379

OK, so, your homework, should you choose to do is, is to come up with four one note endings here, so you had completed your eight bars of music.0398

And then, I want you to come up with one bar music, yourself.0407

Keep it simple, just four quarter notes is fine, and then, I want you to choose four endings and come up with another eight bars of music.0412

Lastly for today, remember last time we talked about what a groove is?0420

Harmonically, a groove is two chords going back and forth, and it creates a natural harmonic rhythm.0425

What I want you to do is choose your own two chords to start your own groove and play them back and forth.0431

And maybe actually with the example I just told or homework that I want you to do for coming up with a one measure of melody,0436

maybe that will come from the groove that you would create yourself.0442

Thanks for tuning in. My name is Eliot.0446

This is Intro to Songwriting. Thanks for watching Educator.com, and I will see you soon.0448

Hello and welcome back to Educator.com, and this is Intro to Songwriting, and my name is Eliot, your teacher.0000

So, let's get right into today's exercises.0006

If you remember last time, we did two different types of object writes. One was on ocean, and one was on - there we go - the word truck.0009

Today, for the purposes of this exercise, we are going to focus on the one we did on ocean.0021

Again, remember, an objects write is just a 5-minute exercise.0025

It is timed for a short amount of time just to get you into the practice of figuring out what you want to say.0028

Now, again, you can use the object write as a tool. You might not necessarily want to write a song about the ocean.0036

You might want to write a song about a beach or a vacation home that you used to stay at- anything having to do with water.0042

Once you use the object write as the tool, you might be really surprised with what you come up with.0049

So, here is just a 5-minute list that I came up with.0053

Some of these things I personally think are really cool, and some I would not use in a song; and that is both OK.0056

Let's go through: cool water, each wave is a new breath. That is, kind of, interesting.0063

A new moment, seagulls diving, soothing sounds, children splashing in the waves- for some reason, I really like that, so I am going to circle that.0068

And again, this is where your personal taste comes into play.0077

For me, you can take this as an example outside of the object write and just once sentence children splashing in the waves.0080

You get an idea of a vision and a story and a picture just with that one line.0089

So, we will see what I can do with that, but for now, I am going to circle it.0094

Running by the water, calm, clear, clean blue- that is really good alliteration.0098

That is when you have the first letter or sound of each word is the same: C-C-C.0102

Come here to think, ships passing, people going into place, ships passing-0110

I think there is this really this old song ships passing in the night, something like that.0116

I might be dating myself, but that is, kind of, nice. I think I probably came up with that because I like to go on cruises, so we will see.0119

People going to new places- that is good.0126

New voyages, new experiences, cold salty sea- I cannot imagine where that would fit in a song, but who knows.0129

If one of you uses cold salty sea and writes a lyric, let me know.0137

Family vacations, finding my breath, volleyball on the beach- I used to play beach volleyball all the time.0141

Sand castles- I love sand castles. I love to write a song having to do with sand castles.0146

Ocean wave crashing into the castle, breaking it apart, burying people into the sand- that was always fun, and sand and toes.0152

OK, so that is the idea with an object write. You go through your 5-minute list of ideas in your head, and you get it all down.0159

And then, see if anything that you came up with is something you might potentially be able to use as far as the lyric.0165

Maybe it is an idea for a verse or even the subject or title of the song.0172

And so, next time, I am going to show what I did with these that I circled, so let's go on to our next exercise.0176

This is our first examples of rhyming, and so, the rhyme scheme is the pattern by which a certain rhyme is repeated, and here are a few examples.0185

So, if we think of a verse as having four lines, 1, 2, 3, 4,0196

and you see something that says A, B, A, B, that would mean that the first line that rhymes with the third.0201

So, this would be 1, 2, 3, 4, while the second line rhymes with the fourth. That is why it goes A-B-A-B, so let's look at an example of that.0208

Amazing Grace- this is a song that I think all of us know.0219

Amazing Grace, how sweet the sound that saved a wretch like me, I was lost - excuse me - I once was lost, but now I'm found, was blind, but now I see.0222

So, sound rhymes with found, and then, me rhymes with see, so that is why we have A-B-A-B.0233

Alright, so, let's look at our next example. So, this one is A-A-B-B, which means that the first and the second lines are going to rhyme.0246

And then, the third and the fourth lines are going to rhyme, so this is different from Amazing Grace.0253

This is an example from Beyoncé, a song called Irreplaceable.0258

And keep talking that mess, that's fine, but could you walk and talk at the same,0263

and it's my name that's on that Jag - short for Jaguar - so go move your bags, let me call you a cab.0268

So, we have fine, time. It is pretty funny how I moved from Amazing Grace to Beyoncé.0277

Hey, they are all examples: Jag and cab, so, this is A-A-B-B.0281

If you think Jag and cab, you have a G here and then, a B in cab, it is not a perfect rhyme, but it is actually the same thing here.0289

You have an N here in fine and M in time, but they are more family rhymes.0298

The way that our voices sound those consonants, they are, kind of, in the same family.0302

So, when you sing them in a song keep talking that mess, that's fine, could you walk and talk at the same time,0307

your voice is going to sing the vowel, which is the I sound, and that is why it sounds like a really good rhyme.0313

So, this would be an example A-A-B-B. Oh, here is a bonus tip.0319

Bags is an internal rhyme because this is within in the middle of the line:0323

and it's my name that's on that Jag, so go move your bags, let me call you a cab.0329

She is rhyming, giving a bonus rhyme right in the middle of the line, and that even accelerates the rhyme scheme rhythmically.0334

It really impresses the listener, and it is just a wonderful additional tip you can do.0343

So, you can stay with rhyme scheme of A-A-B-B and then, even add an internal one, too- just a little bonus tip for you.0346

OK, so, let's go to our final exercise of today. This is an exercise.0353

This is the first time we are going to combine melody and harmony.0360

So, if you remember, this is one of our very simple examples of melody. It is just a 1-measure phrase.0364

And we are going to repeat it four different times, and then, we are going to choose four different endings, and here is an audio example.0372

So, we are going to be playing these chords, C and F, just two chords, back and forth to establish a groove with this melody.0381

And then, I am going to leave the second measure of each 2-measure example open for you to come up with what you think a possible ending could be.0388

And then, all of a sudden, here we go again with an example where we have 1-measure of an idea, and we are turning it into an 8-measure verse.0397

So, let's play this example for you. [music playing]0403

So, there we have it. You can probably guess what note is going to sound the most at home.0432

Remember, we were talking earlier about stable versus unstable tones.0437

And again, if we are talking about eight bars of eight measures of music, we probably want to have the most stable tone at the end.0444

So, the listener feels like it is a complete thought.0448

So, probably, this one here, I would choose C because that...OK, this is a C. Here we go, me and this pen.0450

Why do not you look at this and then, choose the other three endings, and then, all of a sudden, you have written another eight bars of music.0464

That concludes this lesson. Thank you for tuning in at Educator.com, and I will see you very soon at our next lesson.0471

Hello and welcome back to Educator.com Intro to Songwriting.0000

My name is Eliot, and let's get right to today's lesson. As you can see, it is pretty exciting.0004

We are going to take one of our object writes and turn it into a verse or lyrics.0009

So, let's get right to work here.0015

Right before we do that, though, we are going to do a little bit more of a lesson on rhyming.0018

Remember last time, we talked about A-B-A-B in which the first and the third lines will rhyme, and the second and the fourth lines will rhyme.0023

And then, A-A-B-B is when the first two lines rhyme, and then, the third and the fourth lines rhyme.0034

Let's look at one more example. This is A-B-C-C, where the first and the second lines do not rhyme, but the third and the fourth ones do.0039

And we will look at an example. This is an amazing song in case you have not heard it.0049

It is by a group called The Band Perry. It is called If I Die Young, so here is the lyric:0054

if I die young, bury me in satin, lay me down on a bed or roses, sink me in the river at dawn, send me away with the words of a love song.0059

If we think of the rhyme scheme, we have words satin, and then, we have roses, dawn and song.0073

This is an example where the first two lines do not rhyme at all, and then, the second and the third - excuse me - the third and the fourth lines rhyme.0085

So, this is A-B-C-C.0092

Let's look at another example, and this is one where we completely break the rules.0095

This is a song by Katy Perry. This is called Firework.0099

Do you ever feel like a plastic bag, drifting through the wind, wanting to start again.0103

Do you ever feel, feel so paper-thin, like a house of cards, one blow from caving in.0110

Now, we have bag, again, thin and in. Any idea what the rhyme scheme is here?0119

Obviously, some of these rhyme. So, this is actually A-B-B-B.0131

The first line bag does not rhyme with anything, and again, actually, both of these have been downloaded probably over 3, 4 million times by people.0138

These are very well-known songs, and it is amazing to me that they really thought outside of the box in terms of rhymes.0147

And when you hear the song, it really fits because remember, a song is about lyrics, melody and harmony and obviously, rhyming.0154

And it is how those work together.0162

In these examples, if you go back and listen to the song examples, you will see that the melodies are very memorable and say the same.0163

And you do not necessarily feel that the rhyme scheme is that different line to line.0171

Let's look at one more example, and as I said here, go way outside the box.0177

This is a song that is by Janet Jackson, and it is called Love Will Never Do Without You.0184

Check out this rhyme scheme: others think we're opposites, falling in and out of love, they all said we'd never last, still, we manage to stay together.0188

Now, this was a no. 1 song for many weeks. Do you know that none of these lines rhyme at all?0199

There are no rhymes. We have opposites, love, last and together.0205

They are not even close to rhyming, and this is an amazing song.0218

But, I will tell you, here is just my attempt to trying to sing Janet Jackson, but it goes something like:0222

others think we're opposites, falling in and out of love, they all said we'd never last, still, we manage to stay together.0227

I hope you enjoyed me singing Janet Jackson.0241

If you hear in the melody, it is very similar line by line, and you cannot even tell that she is not rhyming.0243

Now, what this is, is this is actually an A-B-C-D. Not one of these lines rhyme with each other at all.0249

And it is an amazing song, and it was a huge hit.0255

So, I would like to give you the guidelines.0258

And then, you feel free to break any rule as often as you want because you can come up with something amazing like this.0259

Onto our next exercise, and this is when we are going to take one of our object writes and turn it into a verse.0266

So, if you remember we did an object write on the word orange,0272

So, this was the list that I came up with in our 5-minute exercise.0275

And I am just going to scan through and see if there is anything here that really speaks out to me:0279

sun-kissed, juicy sweet, summer fruit, natural healer, sitting by the fountain laughing.0284

That I really like- sitting by the fountain laughing.0292

I think this is such a cool...and this is just your personal preference.0295

Did I come through? There we go.0301

I can hear this line by itself: sitting by the fountain laughing.0305

And I automatically conjure up an idea. I see people, maybe having lunch together.0308

There is a beautiful fountain in the background, and they are sitting in together laughing, and I can see it is a pretty scene outside, and the sun is beating down.0314

Now, what does this have to do with orange? Very little.0322

I mean, I can think of the time maybe I thought about two people sharing oranges or eating brunch outside on a Sunday or something like that.0326

But, the great news is I came up with a really cool idea for a one line of the lyric.0332

It does not necessarily matter how I got there. Now I have this sitting by the fountain laughing.0338

So, let's see if I can come up...if I think anything else like this might work in a song.0342

Sharing brunch oh, so then, I was thinking about two people eating together.0347

Bright sun, perfect sunset, peel the skin you treasure inside, red and yellow, red and yellow.0351

For all of you rap fans, you know that Wiz Khalifa have black and yellow, black and yellow.0358

Red and yellow make orange, so that was just me being inside wishing I was a rapper.0364

Lazy morning, not a care in the world, oh, I like that- not a care in the world. That just sounds like the lyric to me.0369

And again, at this point, at my assessment, if you will, I do not know if these two things that I am circling are going to work together or not.0375

I am just going to circle what I like and see what I can do with it.0382

No time limit, enjoying the late morning into the afternoon, starting my day going into the sun- that is very pretty.0385

I just automatically think of someone maybe walking on a dirt road, not knowing where they are going.0393

And you just see the sun in the background. That could be really cool in a song.0398

Late nights playing outside, sticky fingers bursting with flavor.0403

Alright, so I am going to show you what these three that I circled...what can happen as far as a verse goes.0407

I actually used those two of the things I have circled: sitting by the fountain laughing, not a care in the world.0416

I used them as full lines in an idea for a verse.0422

So, we have sitting by the fountain laughing, not a care in the world, all the sudden, something happens, I saw this pretty girl.0425

Let's look at what the rhyme scheme is. We have laughing, world, happened and girl, so this is actually A-B-C-B.0433

The first and the third lines do not rhyme, and world and girl, the second and the fourth lines do rhyme.0450

And I actually had an idea for a melody for this:0457

sitting by the fountain laughing, not a care in the world, all the sudden, something happens, I saw this pretty girl.0460

If you can hear in the melody the first and the third lines of the melody were the same:0471

na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na, na.0475

So, I am changing the lyric, and again, the third line does not rhyme with the first one at all, but I kept the melody the same.0482

So, the listeners still has somewhat of a feel of a comfort, that there is something to remember0490

there because the melody stays exactly the same even though the lyric changes.0495

What you can do as far as two more object writes, this is a really fun exercise.0500

You could still keep it at 5 minutes, but if you could go somewhere like a cafe or a library and pick two people to do an object write on.0505

It could be the person, the barista working behind the coffee counter or someone else sitting in the library.0515

That person does not have to know it all that you are writing an object write about them.0520

I would recommend you not tell them, but all you are going to do is describe them.0524

What do you think they are thinking? What do you think they are feeling?0528

What do they look like? Describe, describe as much as you can in those 5 minutes two very different people.0531

And I hope you enjoy that exercise, so let's go right on to our next part here.0537

Remember, I introduced the idea to you last time about melody and harmony.0544

And so, what I want you to do for next time is finish each one of these phrases.0548

What note here is going to make it sound more stable or more unstable?0553

I would recommend you choose a stable tone here for the end of the 8-bar phrase,0561

and maybe a slightly stable one here because you do not want to completely close the thought.0566

Here, I would do an unstable tone, maybe here, a slightly unstable one.0575

OK, and then, again, we are taking just the 1-bar idea, just one measure of music, repeating it four times and choosing a different ending.0589

And all of a sudden, you have an 8-measure verse of melody.0599

So, that concludes today's lesson.0605

Thank you very much for tuning in to Educator.com, and I will see you at the next set of exercises. Thank you.0606

Hello and welcome back to Educator.com Introduction to Songwriting.0000

My name is Eliot, and let's get right to today's exercises.0004

This is going to be the start of quite a few lessons in a row talking about lyrics and all the different ways we0009

can develop them and manipulate them and help them grow to become sections of our song and full lyrics.0014

So, last lesson, you did two object writes on people in public. It could be a cafe or a park or a library, and I certainly hope you had a great time doing that.0021

I have one more object write exercise to give for you, and again, this is the same.0035

You just want to time yourself for 5 minutes, but you want to describe something as much as you can, and there is no subject.0039

Do not even tell me what it is. You want to describe, describe, describe without revealing what it is.0046

And if you described it well enough, anyone should be able to figure out what it is that you are talking about.0052

So, that is yours, and I hope you enjoy doing that exercise, and let's get right into today's lesson.0059

This is an object write that we did on ocean, and if you remember, I circled a few key phrases that really just jumped out to me.0065

This is your opportunity to scan your work and what you came up with and just see whatever moves you.0071

I remember I loved this idea of children splashing in the waves, ships passing.0078

I loved the idea of sandcastles. I want to write a song about sandcastles.0088

I must say one more, new voyages, ships passing, I want to circle that and new voyages.0092

OK, this is what I came up with from this object write. I used the first line that is exactly from the object write.0102

Children splashing in the waves, ships are passing in the night, I come here every summer to watch the time go by.0115

I had this idea of people...you know, sometimes when you grow up, and every summer, your family goes to a beach house or a vacation home.0122

And it is just something you come to every single summer, and have those very special memories about that environment and everything around it.0130

What is the rhyme scheme? Good question.0138

So, we have waves, night, summer and by, waves, night, summer, by.0140

If you said A-B-C-B, you are correct. This is supposed to say by.0155

Night and by rhyme, so this is A-B-C-B because the first and the third lines, waves and summer, do not rhyme.0164

However, what if we wanted a different rhyme scheme?0172

So, we have the same line in the beginning:0176

Children splashing in the waves, ships are passing in the night, I come here every Saturday to watch the time go by.0178

What is the rhyme scheme now? So, now, we have waves, night, Saturday and by.0187

If you can read that, it says, waves, night, Saturday, and by. This is actually A-B-A-B.0202

By putting in this word Saturday instead of summer, I rhymed it with the first line.0211

So, now, we have children splashing in the waves, ships are passing in the night, I come here every Saturday to watch the time go by.0216

You can manipulate and edit this as much as you want.0225

You can keep it just like this if you really like the word summer, or for whatever reason, if you are really moved to rhyme as much as you can,0227

then, go in and plug in another word like Saturday, and then, you are rhyming waves and Saturday.0237

And to give you an idea why that rhymes, the A in waves - waves - and A and in Saturday, that is where the singer is going to sing it.0243

And so, that is why it works.0252

Alright, so let's move on to our next exercise. Now, we are also going to talk in addition a lot about lyrics, how to develop our melodies.0253

If you remember, this is our original example, and I am going to play all these in a moment. It was C-D-E-D.0262

So, each exercise that I am going to give you a few different ideas on how you can0268

just take this one simple 1-measure phrase and create so many more melodies from it.0273

So, let's listen to what we have here. [music playing]0280

OK, so what did we just hear? This is our original example, and then, we just took each note and moved it up one step.0302

So, instead of C-D-E-D, now, we have D-E-F-E. Notice that is exactly the same shape, this tiny little arch, but we just moved it up one step.0311

In the third example, we used the same exact rhythm, so we still have four quarter notes, but we just made each note go up, so now, it is C-D-E-F.0323

Let's hear this one more time. [music playing]0333

And now, it is all up one step. [music playing]0343

Same rhythm, and the notes are ascending. [music playing]0348

So, there we have it, so you could take this example and use it with a few more lines, and then, maybe, the fourth line, you would just change this.0354

Instead of playing this, you would have this instead. It is just another different way you can add to your melodies.0362

So, lastly today, we are going to talk a little bit more about chords.0369

OK, so, this is the final exercise in today's lesson.0375

If you remember, when we were talking about harmony, we talked about establishing a groove, and it is really just two chords going back and forth.0379

And we have used this to the example of C going to F, C going to F.0387

To introduce a new section of music, and today, we are going to be introducing the chorus, all I want you to do is add one new chord. That is it.0391

We are keeping this as simple as possible to begin with, so we are going to listen to this example.0400

The verse is just C to F, C to F, C to F etc., and then, once the chorus starts, we are going to hit a new chord, G.0405

And it is just going to be that nice little lift to the listener to make them understand "oh, something new is happening".0414

So, let's hear this and see what we got. [music playing]0421

Here we go. [music playing]0452

So, we are just going back and forth between C and F in the verse. [music playing]0460

And here comes the chorus. [music playing]0471

It is just a simple way to introduce new sounds and new ideas to the listener, and it really helps elevate your song.0496

So, what I want you to do is whatever chords you came up with for your verse, if it is C and F, introduce a new one in your chorus.0504

In this case, I used G, and I hope you enjoyed that.0514

And thank you for tuning in to Educator.com, and I will see you at the next lesson.0517

Hello. Welcome back to Educator.com, Intro to Songwriting.0000

I am Eliot, and let's get right to today's lessons.0004

So, we are going to talk a lot over the next few lessons about different ways to develop your lyrics and your melodies.0007

And you will be very happy to know that I do not have any more object write exercises to give you.0014

So, I hope you enjoyed the ones that I gave you, but let's get right to today's first exercise.0019

In talking about lyric writing and developing your lyrics, we are going to talk about the idea of metaphors, and what is a metaphor?0026

A metaphor is a comparison between two things that are unrelated, and here are a few examples.0033

Patrick Swayze's She's Like The Wind: she's like the wind through my tree, she rides the night next to me.0039

You could look at this saying your tree, what does that have to do with the wind?0048

Excuse me. This should actually say she's like the wind.0055

The next example, The Band Perry, If I Die Young: Lord, make me a rainbow, I'll shine down on my mother.0059

That has got to be one of the most...just the prettiest lyrics I have heard in years.0065

But, you are asking Lord or God to make you a rainbow. Clearly, you are not a rainbow.0070

But, if you are to become one, what would you do? You would shine down on your mother.0077

Absolutely beautiful lyric and a wonderful example of metaphor.0081

Next, Mary Chapin Carpenter, this song is called Where Time Stands Still: baby, where is that place where time stands still.0085

All three of these, if you have not heard the songs, so you are not familiar with them, please go ahead and check them out.0094

This is just an amazing example of metaphor, and it is just a beautiful lyric: where is that place where time stands still.0102

I do not know if there is a place where time stands still, and if there is a place where time stands still, what are the qualities of it?0110

That is actually...if we look at the lyric of this entire song:0116

baby, where is that place where time stands still, is it under glass inside a frame, was it over when you had your fill,0120

it's no place you can get to by yourself, you've got to love someone and they love you, time won't stop for nothing else.0127

Beautiful! A wonderful song and a wonderful lyric and an excellent example of what a metaphor is.0133

So, let's go right on to our next exercise. We are going to talk, as I mention, further about more ideas about developing your melodies.0141

This is our initial example. Again, it is just four quarter notes.0150

It was C-D-E and then, D, and so, we are going to about arches today.0154

So, if you see here, this example actually already uses a tiny bit of an arch. It goes up, and then, it goes back down.0162

We are talking about two different arches now: going up and then, going way up and coming back down.0168

And again, any jump in melody is going to create to the listener just a sense of excitement like it is going to feel really brand new.0176

So, let's listen to these examples. [music playing]0187

That is our original, and here is the small arch. [music playing]0197

And here is the big arch. [music playing]0203

Do you hear in that da, da, da, da? It really opens up the melody.0209

And it creates a sense of excitement to the listener to introduce something that new to them, and that is a wonderful tool you can use.0214

You could have the first few lines of your verse just follow the same da, da, da, da.0221

And then, the fourth line just comes up with this like a big arch like that. Oh my god.0227

It is going to sound so pretty.0231

So, let's go on to our next example. OK, so, this is our final example, lesson of today.0232

We are going to talk more about harmony, major versus minor chords.0239

In our last lesson, we talked about introducing a new chord in the chorus.0243

Remember, a groove is just two chords going back and forth, so now, we are going to introduce yet something additionally new.0247

What happens if you introduce a minor chord into the mix? How is it going to sound?0254

And how will this affect the lyrics and the melody if you are introducing a minor chord?0261

So, let's hear this example. [music playing]0265

And then, it is the same four bars again. [music playing]0281

The A minor, it just sounds so dramatic. It adds a lot of excitement.0292

It clearly sounds different from anything we have heard before.0296

And I would think that the best time to use that is when you are going to do something dramatic in the0301

lyrics and the melody to just really bump up this part of your song to grab the listener's attention.0306

So, thank you for tuning in to Educator.com, and I will see you at the next lesson. Thanks.0314

Hello and welcome back to Educator.com, Introduction to Songwriting.0000

My name is Eliot, and let's get right to today's lesson.0004

So, we are going to talk about the idea of repetition in lyrics.0008

Repeating a word or phrase really grabs a listener's attention, and it makes that word or phrase very important, best to use for the title.0013

So, let's look at a few examples here. This is a song by Johnny Nash, I Can See Clearly Now.0021

If that does not ring a bell, it is I can see clearly now, the rain is gone.0027

You know it is that song. You all know the melody.0033

I can see all the obstacles in my way, gone are the dark clouds that had me blind, it's gonna be a bright, bright, bright, bright sun shiny day.0035

If you remember in the song, the background vocals really help emphasize the lyric.0045

It's gonna be a bright, bright, bright, bright sun shiny day.0051

So, here is a much more recent example because that song was from quite a few years ago: Nicki Minaj, Superbass, for all you Nicki fans out there.0056

Boy, you got my heartbeat running away, beating like a drum and it's coming your way.0064

Can't you hear that boom-ba-doom-boom-boom-ba-doom-boom bass, he got that superbass.0069

Boom-ba-doom-boom-boom-ba-doom-boom bass. Yeah, that's that superbass.0075

I have never heard a title set up so well with this.0079

The repetition in this whole section is so strong that you cannot help but sing along and remember what it is that she sang.0084

Yes, as I mentioned, it is just completely set up.0095

And that is a wonderful example of how you can use repetition to really strengthen and drive home an idea or a title in your song.0097

OK, let's go right to the next exercise today.0106

We are going to talk more about developing our melodies. Again, here is our tried and true example going C-D-E-D.0110

And we are going to talk about a few different ideas today.0118

Descending is you keep the same rhythm of the notes, so it is just four quarter notes, but you are going to go down the scale, so this is D-C-B-A.0121

In inversion, you know how we talked about doing an arch in the melody. You can do an opposite arch.0131

So now, we are just going to go like this in the melody, C-B-A-B.0136

Truncation is a fancy way of saying "just take away a note, add the rest".0141

Instead of C-D-E-D like our example here, we are just going to take away this final note, so it is just going to be C-D-E.0145

Let's listen to this example. [music playing]0153

OK, that is the original example. [music playing]0155

That is the one going down, descending. [music playing]0160

That is the inversion. [music playing]0185

And that is the truncation where you take away the last note.0192

Just a few more examples of how you can take just one simple idea and create a bunch more melodies from it.0194

OK, let's go on to the final example today. This is first lesson in discussing rhythms.0204

And again, if you remember, rhythm was that bonus component.0210

The song is primarily melody, harmony and lyrics and rhythm, especially what you just saw in that example with Nicki Minaj,0213

it can really help drive a song especially in certain sections when you want to use it to highlight perhaps the title or a new section of the song.0220

So, let's talk about what we have here. This is called a whole note, and it lasts for four beats.0231

When you have something looking like this, it is a half note, and that is two beats.0241

This is a quarter note. That is one beat.0246

And then, if you just see something that looks like this, that is a half note. It lasts for half a beat.0251

Oh, and if you see something like this with two lines, this is a sixteenth note, and it lasts for a quarter of a beat.0256

So, we are going to go very slow through these examples, and I am going to clap them out with you.0266

And I just want you to get used to the idea of using rhythm as well in your songs.0271

So, these are all a 4/4 time signature, which means that the quarter note is one beat, and it is four beats to a measure.0276

Let's look at our first example here.0283

If you count yourself in for one measure, 1, 2, 3, 4. This is 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 1, 2 and 3, 1, OK?0286

Let's do that one, one more time. I am going to start at the beginning here again, right here.0305

OK, so, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 1, 3, 4 and 1, 2 and 3, 1.0310

Alright, let's go on to the next one. As you can see, they are going to get more and more interesting.0326

So, we are going to count ourselves in for four beats, and then, we are going to start right here.0330

1, 2, 3, 4, 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 1, 2 and 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2 and 3.0335

OK, let's do that one, one more time. I am going do it slower, too.0349

1, 2, 3, 4, 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 1, 2 and 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2 and 3.0352

Alright? Let's try the last example, and we have some sixteenth notes here.0368

So, I am also going to count us in for one measure, and then, we are going to start right here.0373

1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 3, 1, 2, 3 and a 4, 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 1.0376

So, when you have a sixteenth note, you count it as 3 e and a and a eighth note is just 1 and.0392

Did you hear how when we got to the sixteenth note, it immediately...0402

Not only did the rhythm speed up, but the anticipation of what is going to happen next in the song can also speed up, too, so a wonderful tool.0407

This is really what Nicki Minaj used boom-ba-doom-boom-boom-ba-doom-boom bass, you got that superbass.0413

So, let's do this example one more time, and I am going to count us in 1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 3, 1, 2, 3 and a 4, 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 1.0418

Alright, so I hope you enjoyed today's lesson.0436

I will see you at the next lesson, and thank you for tuning in to Educator.com0439

OK, so, welcome back to Educator.com and Introduction to Songwriting.0000

My name is Eliot, your songwriting teacher, and let's get right to today's exercises.0004

So, lyrically, we are going to talk about the idea of imagery, and what is imagery?0010

With your lyrics, you can use all five senses as a description. Your audience can see, smell, touch, taste.0014

And then, remember, something I heard in your song.0023

And let's look at a few examples of this. This first example is by an excellent band called Linkin Park, and this song is called the Shadow of the Day.0026

And the sun will set for you, the sun will set for you, and the shadow of the day will embrace the world in gray, and the sun will set for you.0034

This is such a beautiful lyric. The idea that the sun is going to set specifically for just one person, it is their way of saying, I think,0045

this is just my interpretation, that this person is that important to you, that you want the sun to set just for them.0053

It is just not only a beautiful lyric but just an amazing example of imagery.0059

And let's look at our second example, so this is a song by Beyoncé called Halo.0064

I found a way to let you in, but I never really had a doubt, standing in the light of your halo, I got my angel now.0070

Just a beautiful example, not just of imagery. This is just a stunning song, really.0079

What basically they are trying to say, again, just my interpretation is, there is a person who is very afraid to open their heart and meet somebody new.0086

And this person has become an angel to them, that they feel comfortable enough,0095

that they are standing in the light of their halo, that they have an angel beside them.0100

It is just a wonderful...I am sure you know the song, but if you do not, certainly go check it out.0103

Here is our final example. This is a song by Christina Perri, Jar of Hearts.0109

And who do you think you are running round leaving scars, collecting your jar of hearts and tearing love apart.0113

OK, sometimes, as a song writer, you hear a song, and you think "wow, I wish I wrote that".0121

The first time I heard this song, this concept alone was fascinating to me.0127

So, there is this person who breaks people hearts, and they collect them in a jar.0132

And they are just running around with their jar of hearts because it is not the first time that they have broken someone's heart.0136

How did she come up with that? I just think that it is an amazing, a beautiful song and a wonderful example of imagery.0141

And so, let's go on to the next exercise today, so, we are going to discuss a few more examples of how you can take your melodic ideas and develop them.0148

If you remember, this is our tried and true example. It is four quarter notes C-D-E and D.0160

And we are going to discuss quite a few different ways of how we can develop it.0166

The first one is repetition. Just repeat what you have.0170

If you remember from our example lyrically of Nicki Minaj boom-bo-doom-boom-boom-bo-doom-boom bass, he got that superbass,0172

when you repeat something, it completely alerts the listener that something exciting and new is going to happen here.0179

It is a wonderful way to setup a title.0188

And melodically, it is a wonderful way to have the listener start to remember what it is that melodically you are trying to say.0190

The next thing is called augmentation. Just a very fancy way of saying “lengthen the note value”.0197

Instead of four quarter notes, the first two are half notes and then, two more quarter notes.0203

As you can imagine, we are going to hear this in a moment, but it really slows down the music.0208

Retrograde: repeat the phrase backwards. Instead of C-D-E-D, now, we have D-E-D and then, C.0213

OK, and our last example is called diminution, which is a very fancy was of saying shorten the note values.0226

The faster rhythm picks up and grabs the listener's attention, so instead of four quarter notes, now, we have eight eighth notes.0233

So, let's hear these examples right now. [music playing]0240

And here comes repetition. [music playing]0251

This is augmentation. [music playing]0255

It really slows it down. Here is retrograde. [music playing]0261

And then, diminution. [music playing]0265

Yes, isn't it amazing, really fascinating how much slower this sounds with the augmentation?0271

And then, the diminution, I am going to introduce a new phrase here, an arpeggio. A chord is when you play three notes, C-E-G, at the same time.0278

And arpeggio is when you play them separately, and this almost sounds like an arpeggio. It sounds like a really pretty background to a melody.0288

And that almost does not sound as much of like a melody.0296

If you are going to use this as a melody though, it is really, as you can tell, going to pick things up quickly and grab the listener's attention.0298

So, let's go to our final exercise for today. This is our second exercise in developing your rhythms.0305

And again, rhythm is the fourth component besides melody, harmony and lyrics that can really help drive the listener's attention at certain parts of the song.0313

I am introducing two new concepts here. The first one is a dotted note.0322

So, when you see a quarter note with a dot, the dot increases the length of the note by half or 50%.0326

A quarter note, instead of one beat, when you have a dotted quarter note, it is 1 1/2 beats. Also, I am introducing this idea of a bar.0335

So, when you have a quarter note, and it is bar to an eighth note, this first note takes on the quality of both length values.0346

So, now, this is also, you have a bar, 1 1/2 beats.0358

OK, I am going to, as we did last time, count you in for a measure, and we are going to clap out our examples very slowly.0363

So, here is our first example. We are going to start right here.0371

OK, so, that is where I want to start. OK, so, I am going to count us in.0376

1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3 and 1 and 2, a 3 and 1 and 3 and 1, 4 and.0384

So, if you remember the and here, we did a dot on the half note, so this lasts for three beats.0405

Now, I am going to introduce one more new concept.0412

We have always been talking about the time signature of 4/4. That means the quarter note gets the beat, and each measure has four beats.0415

Now, we are going to do a 3/4. Still, the quarter note gets a beat, but there is only beats per measure.0422

This is really popular in waltzes, and it is also, kind of, popular in RnB music.0429

They do things like 3/4 and also 6/8, which we will talk about at a later time, but it is based on this where there is only three beats in a measure.0436

So, let's clap out this example. I am going to count us in for two measures because this is different.0443

So, it is 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1 and 2 and 3, 1 and 3 and 1 and 2, 3. Let's try that one more time, and this time, I am going to go slower.0447

So, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1 and 2 and 3, 1 and 3 and 1 and 2, 3.0464

Alright, so one more example to go for rhythms. Now, we are going to go back into the 4/4 time signature.0480

Let's scan this. We have some dotted notes, and we have some bars.0488

So, we are going to count this one really slowly, and we will do it two times.0492

So, I am going to count us in for one measure. 1, 2, 3, 4, 1 and 3 and 1, 3 and, and 1 and, and, and, and 1, 2, 3.0495

I wanted you to see what all these bar notes sounds like. They are really going against the beat.0515

Just to look at this example, this measure, 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and.0521

So, instead of 1, dot, dot, dot, dot, that you are hearing only the ands or the second half of each beat.0528

So, it sounds again like 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and. So, let's do this example all the way from the beginning again, and I will count us in for one measure.0535

1, 2, 3, 4, 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 1, 2, 3 and 4 and 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 and 1, 2, 3.0544

Alright, so I hope you enjoyed that lesson on exercising rhythm.0560

Thank you for tuning in to Educator.com, and I will see you at the next lesson.0565