Dan Fullerton

Magnetic Fields & Properties

Slide Duration:

Section 1: Introduction
What is Physics?

7m 38s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:12
What is Physics?
0:31
What is Matter, Energy, and How to They Interact
0:55
Why?
0:58
1:05
Matter
1:23
Matter
1:29
Mass
1:33
Inertial Mass
1:53
Gravitational Mass
2:12
A Spacecraft's Mass
2:58
Energy
3:37
Energy: The Ability or Capacity to Do Work
3:39
Work: The Process of Moving an Object
3:45
The Ability or Capacity to Move an Object
3:54
Mass-Energy Equivalence
4:51
Relationship Between Mass and Energy E=mc2
5:01
The Mass of An Object is Really a Measure of Its Energy
5:05
The Study of Everything
5:42
Introductory Course
6:19
Next Steps
7:15
Math Review

24m 12s

Intro
0:00
Outline
0:10
Objectives
0:28
Why Do We Need Units?
0:52
Need to Set Specific Standards for Our Measurements
1:01
Physicists Have Agreed to Use the Systeme International
1:24
The Systeme International
1:50
Based on Powers of 10
1:52
7 Fundamental Units: Meter, Kilogram, Second, Ampere, Candela, Kelvin, Mole
2:02
The Meter
2:18
Meter is a Measure of Length
2:20
Measurements Smaller than a Meter, Use: Centimeter, Millimeter, Micrometer, Nanometer
2:25
Measurements Larger Than a Meter, Use Kilometer
2:38
The Kilogram
2:46
Roughly Equivalent to 2.2 English Pounds
2:49
Grams, Milligrams
2:53
Megagram
2:59
Seconds
3:10
Base Unit of Time
3:12
Minute, Hour, Day
3:20
Milliseconds, Microseconds
3:33
Derived Units
3:41
Velocity
3:45
Acceleration
3:57
Force
4:04
Prefixes for Powers of 10
4:21
Converting Fundamental Units, Example 1
4:53
Converting Fundamental Units, Example 2
7:18
Two-Step Conversions, Example 1
8:24
Two-Step Conversions, Example 2
10:06
Derived Unit Conversions
11:29
Multi-Step Conversions
13:25
Metric Estimations
15:04
What are Significant Figures?
16:01
Represent a Manner of Showing Which Digits In a Number Are Known to Some Level of Certainty
16:03
Example
16:09
Measuring with Sig Figs
16:36
Rule 1
16:40
Rule 2
16:44
Rule 3
16:52
16:57
All Non-Zero Digits Are Significant
17:04
All Digits Between Non-Zero Digits Are Significant
17:07
Zeros to the Left of the Significant Digits
17:11
Zeros to the Right of the Significant Digits
17:16
Non-Zero Digits
17:21
Digits Between Non-Zeros Are Significant
17:45
Zeroes to the Right of the Sig Figs Are Significant
18:17
Why Scientific Notation?
18:36
Physical Measurements Vary Tremendously in Magnitude
18:38
Example
18:47
Scientific Notation in Practice
19:23
Example 1
19:28
Example 2
19:44
Using Scientific Notation
20:02
Show Your Value Using Correct Number of Significant Figures
20:05
Move the Decimal Point
20:09
Show Your Number Being Multiplied by 10 Raised to the Appropriate Power
20:14
Accuracy and Precision
20:23
Accuracy
20:36
Precision
20:41
Example 1: Scientific Notation w/ Sig Figs
21:48
Example 2: Scientific Notation - Compress
22:25
Example 3: Scientific Notation - Compress
23:07
Example 4: Scientific Notation - Expand
23:31
Vectors & Scalars

25m 5s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:05
Scalars
0:29
Definition of Scalar
0:39
Temperature, Mass, Time
0:45
Vectors
1:12
Vectors are Quantities That Have Magnitude and Direction
1:13
Represented by Arrows
1:31
Vector Representations
1:47
2:42
Graphical Vector Subtraction
4:58
Vector Components
6:08
Angle of a Vector
8:22
Vector Notation
9:52
Example 1: Vector Components
14:30
Example 2: Vector Components
16:05
Example 3: Vector Magnitude
17:26
19:38
Example 5: Angle of a Vector
24:06
Section 2: Mechanics
Defining & Graphing Motion

30m 11s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Position
0:40
An Object's Position Cab Be Assigned to a Variable on a Number Scale
0:43
Symbol for Position
1:07
Distance
1:13
When Position Changes, An Object Has Traveled Some Distance
1:14
Distance is Scalar and Measured in Meters
1:21
Example 1: Distance
1:34
Displacement
2:17
Displacement is a Vector Which Describes the Straight Line From Start to End Point
2:18
Measured in Meters
2:27
Example 2: Displacement
2:39
Average Speed
3:32
The Distance Traveled Divided by the Time Interval
3:33
Speed is a Scalar
3:47
Example 3: Average Speed
3:57
Average Velocity
4:37
The Displacement Divided by the Time Interval
4:38
Velocity is a Vector
4:53
Example 4: Average Velocity
5:06
Example 5: Chuck the Hungry Squirrel
5:55
Acceleration
8:02
Rate At Which Velocity Changes
8:13
Acceleration is a Vector
8:26
Example 6: Acceleration Problem
8:52
Average vs. Instantaneous
9:44
Average Values Take Into Account an Entire Time Interval
9:50
Instantaneous Value Tells the Rate of Change of a Quantity at a Specific Instant in Time
9:54
Example 7: Average Velocity
10:06
Particle Diagrams
11:57
Similar to the Effect of Oil Leak from a Car on the Pavement
11:59
Accelerating
13:03
Position-Time Graphs
14:17
Shows Position as a Function of Time
14:24
Slope of x-t Graph
15:08
Slope Gives You the Velocity
15:09
Negative Indicates Direction
16:27
Velocity-Time Graphs
16:45
Shows Velocity as a Function of Time
16:49
Area Under v-t Graphs
17:47
Area Under the V-T Graph Gives You Change in Displacement
17:48
Example 8: Slope of a v-t Graph
19:45
Acceleration-Time Graphs
21:44
Slope of the v-t Graph Gives You Acceleration
21:45
Area Under the a-t Graph Gives You an Object's Change in Velocity
22:24
Example 10: Motion Graphing
24:03
Example 11: v-t Graph
27:14
Example 12: Displacement From v-t Graph
28:14
Kinematic Equations

36m 13s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Problem-Solving Toolbox
0:42
Graphs Are Not Always the Most Effective
0:47
Kinematic Equations Helps us Solve for Five Key Variables
0:56
Deriving the Kinematic Equations
1:29
Kinematic Equations
7:40
Problem Solving Steps
8:13
Label Your Horizontal or Vertical Motion
8:20
Choose a Direction as Positive
8:24
Create a Motion Analysis Table
8:33
8:42
Solve for Unknowns
8:45
Example 1: Horizontal Kinematics
8:51
Example 2: Vertical Kinematics
11:13
Example 3: 2 Step Problem
13:25
Example 4: Acceleration Problem
16:44
Example 5: Particle Diagrams
17:56
20:13
Free Fall
24:24
When the Only Force Acting on an Object is the Force of Gravity, the Motion is Free Fall
24:27
Air Resistance
24:51
Drop a Ball
24:56
Remove the Air from the Room
25:02
Analyze the Motion of Objects by Neglecting Air Resistance
25:06
Acceleration Due to Gravity
25:22
g = 9.8 m/s2
25:25
Approximate g as 10 m/s2 on the AP Exam
25:37
G is Referred to as the Gravitational Field Strength
25:48
Objects Falling From Rest
26:15
Objects Starting from Rest Have an Initial velocity of 0
26:19
Acceleration is +g
26:34
Example 7: Falling Objects
26:47
Objects Launched Upward
27:59
Acceleration is -g
28:04
At Highest Point, the Object has a Velocity of 0
28:19
Symmetry of Motion
28:27
Example 8: Ball Thrown Upward
28:47
Example 9: Height of a Jump
29:23
Example 10: Ball Thrown Downward
33:08
Example 11: Maximum Height
34:16
Projectiles

20m 32s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
What is a Projectile?
0:26
An Object That is Acted Upon Only By Gravity
0:29
Typically Launched at an Angle
0:43
Path of a Projectile
1:03
Projectiles Launched at an Angle Move in Parabolic Arcs
1:06
Symmetric and Parabolic
1:32
Horizontal Range and Max Height
1:49
Independence of Motion
2:17
Vertical
2:49
Horizontal
2:52
Example 1: Horizontal Launch
3:49
Example 2: Parabolic Path
7:41
Angled Projectiles
8:30
Must First Break Up the Object's Initial Velocity Into x- and y- Components of Initial Velocity
8:32
An Object Will Travel the Maximum Horizontal Distance with a Launch Angle of 45 Degrees
8:43
Example 3: Human Cannonball
8:55
Example 4: Motion Graphs
12:55
Example 5: Launch From a Height
15:33
Example 6: Acceleration of a Projectile
19:56
Relative Motion

10m 52s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Reference Frames
0:18
Motion of an Observer
0:21
No Way to Distinguish Between Motion at Rest and Motion at a Constant Velocity
0:44
Motion is Relative
1:35
Example 1
1:39
Example 2
2:09
Calculating Relative Velocities
2:31
Example 1
2:43
Example 2
2:48
Example 3
2:52
Example 1
4:58
Example 2: Airspeed
6:19
Example 3: 2-D Relative Motion
7:39
Example 4: Relative Velocity with Direction
9:40
Newton's 1st Law of Motion

10m 16s

Intro
0:00
Objective
0:05
Newton's 1st Law of Motion
0:16
An Object At Rest Will Remain At Rest
0:21
An Object In Motion Will Remain in Motion
0:26
Net Force
0:39
Also Known As the Law of Inertia
0:46
Force
1:02
Push or Pull
1:04
Newtons
1:08
Contact and Field Forces
1:31
Contact Forces
1:50
Field Forces
2:11
What is a Net Force?
2:30
Vector Sum of All the Forces Acting on an Object
2:33
Translational Equilibrium
2:37
Unbalanced Force Is a Net Force
2:46
What Does It Mean?
3:49
An Object Will Continue in Its Current State of Motion Unless an Unbalanced Force Acts Upon It
3:50
Example of Newton's First Law
4:20
Objects in Motion
5:05
Will Remain in Motion At Constant Velocity
5:06
Hard to Find a Frictionless Environment on Earth
5:10
Static Equilibrium
5:40
Net Force on an Object is 0
5:44
Inertia
6:21
Tendency of an Object to Resist a Change in Velocity
6:23
Inertial Mass
6:35
Gravitational Mass
6:40
Example 1: Inertia
7:10
Example 2: Inertia
7:37
Example 3: Translational Equilibrium
8:03
Example 4: Net Force
8:40
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion

34m 55s

Intro
0:00
Objective
0:07
Free Body Diagrams
0:37
Tools Used to Analyze Physical Situations
0:40
Show All the Forces Acting on a Single Object
0:45
Drawing FBDs
0:58
Draw Object of Interest as a Dot
1:00
Sketch a Coordinate System
1:10
Example 1: Falling Elephant
1:18
Example 2: Falling Elephant with Air Resistance
2:07
Example 3: Soda on Table
3:00
Example 4: Box in Equilibrium
4:25
Example 5: Block on a Ramp
5:01
Pseudo-FBDs
5:53
Draw When Forces Don't Line Up with Axes
5:56
Break Forces That Don’t Line Up with Axes into Components That Do
6:00
Example 6: Objects on a Ramp
6:32
Example 7: Car on a Banked Turn
10:23
Newton's 2nd Law of Motion
12:56
The Acceleration of an Object is in the Direction of the Directly Proportional to the Net Force Applied
13:06
Newton's 1st Two Laws Compared
13:45
Newton's 1st Law
13:51
Newton's 2nd Law
14:10
Applying Newton's 2nd Law
14:50
Example 8: Applying Newton's 2nd Law
15:23
Example 9: Stopping a Baseball
16:52
Example 10: Block on a Surface
19:51
Example 11: Concurrent Forces
21:16
Mass vs. Weight
22:28
Mass
22:29
Weight
22:47
Example 12: Mass vs. Weight
23:16
Translational Equilibrium
24:47
Occurs When There Is No Net Force on an Object
24:49
Equilibrant
24:57
Example 13: Translational Equilibrium
25:29
Example 14: Translational Equilibrium
26:56
Example 15: Determining Acceleration
28:05
Example 16: Suspended Mass
31:03
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion

5m 58s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Newton's 3rd Law of Motion
0:20
All Forces Come in Pairs
0:24
Examples
1:22
Action-Reaction Pairs
2:07
Girl Kicking Soccer Ball
2:11
Rocket Ship in Space
2:29
Gravity on You
2:53
Example 1: Force of Gravity
3:34
Example 2: Sailboat
4:00
Example 3: Hammer and Nail
4:49
Example 4: Net Force
5:06
Friction

17m 49s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Examples
0:23
Friction Opposes Motion
0:24
Kinetic Friction
0:27
Static Friction
0:36
Magnitude of Frictional Force Is Determined By Two Things
0:41
Coefficient Friction
2:27
Ratio of the Frictional Force and the Normal Force
2:28
Chart of Different Values of Friction
2:48
Kinetic or Static?
3:31
Example 1: Car Sliding
4:18
Example 2: Block on Incline
5:03
Calculating the Force of Friction
5:48
Depends Only Upon the Nature of the Surfaces in Contact and the Magnitude of the Force
5:50
Terminal Velocity
6:14
Air Resistance
6:18
Terminal Velocity of the Falling Object
6:33
Example 3: Finding the Frictional Force
7:36
Example 4: Box on Wood Surface
9:13
Example 5: Static vs. Kinetic Friction
11:49
Example 6: Drag Force on Airplane
12:15
Example 7: Pulling a Sled
13:21
Dynamics Applications

35m 27s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Free Body Diagrams
0:49
Drawing FBDs
1:09
Draw Object of Interest as a Dot
1:12
Sketch a Coordinate System
1:18
Example 1: FBD of Block on Ramp
1:39
Pseudo-FBDs
1:59
Draw Object of Interest as a Dot
2:00
Break Up the Forces
2:07
Box on a Ramp
2:12
Example 2: Box at Rest
4:28
Example 3: Box Held by Force
5:00
What is an Atwood Machine?
6:46
Two Objects are Connected by a Light String Over a Mass-less Pulley
6:49
Properties of Atwood Machines
7:13
Ideal Pulleys are Frictionless and Mass-less
7:16
Tension is Constant in a Light String Passing Over an Ideal Pulley
7:23
Solving Atwood Machine Problems
8:02
Alternate Solution
12:07
Analyze the System as a Whole
12:12
Elevators
14:24
Scales Read the Force They Exert on an Object Placed Upon Them
14:42
Can be Used to Analyze Using Newton's 2nd Law and Free body Diagrams
15:23
Example 4: Elevator Accelerates Upward
15:36
Example 5: Truck on a Hill
18:30
Example 6: Force Up a Ramp
19:28
Example 7: Acceleration Down a Ramp
21:56
Example 8: Basic Atwood Machine
24:05
Example 9: Masses and Pulley on a Table
26:47
Example 10: Mass and Pulley on a Ramp
29:15
Example 11: Elevator Accelerating Downward
33:00
Impulse & Momentum

26m 6s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Momentum
0:31
Example
0:35
Momentum measures How Hard It Is to Stop a Moving Object
0:47
Vector Quantity
0:58
Example 1: Comparing Momenta
1:48
Example 2: Calculating Momentum
3:08
Example 3: Changing Momentum
3:50
Impulse
5:02
Change In Momentum
5:05
Example 4: Impulse
5:26
Example 5: Impulse-Momentum
6:41
Deriving the Impulse-Momentum Theorem
9:04
Impulse-Momentum Theorem
12:02
Example 6: Impulse-Momentum Theorem
12:15
Non-Constant Forces
13:55
Impulse or Change in Momentum
13:56
Determine the Impulse by Calculating the Area of the Triangle Under the Curve
14:07
Center of Mass
14:56
Real Objects Are More Complex Than Theoretical Particles
14:59
Treat Entire Object as if Its Entire Mass Were Contained at the Object's Center of Mass
15:09
To Calculate the Center of Mass
15:17
Example 7: Force on a Moving Object
15:49
Example 8: Motorcycle Accident
17:49
Example 9: Auto Collision
19:32
Example 10: Center of Mass (1D)
21:29
Example 11: Center of Mass (2D)
23:28
Collisions

21m 59s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Conservation of Momentum
0:18
Linear Momentum is Conserved in an Isolated System
0:21
Useful for Analyzing Collisions and Explosions
0:27
Momentum Tables
0:58
Identify Objects in the System
1:05
Determine the Momenta of the Objects Before and After the Event
1:10
Add All the Momenta From Before the Event and Set Them Equal to Momenta After the Event
1:15
Solve Your Resulting Equation for Unknowns
1:20
Types of Collisions
1:31
Elastic Collision
1:36
Inelastic Collision
1:56
Example 1: Conservation of Momentum (1D)
2:02
Example 2: Inelastic Collision
5:12
Example 3: Recoil Velocity
7:16
Example 4: Conservation of Momentum (2D)
9:29
Example 5: Atomic Collision
16:02
Describing Circular Motion

7m 18s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Uniform Circular Motion
0:20
Circumference
0:32
Average Speed Formula Still Applies
0:46
Frequency
1:03
Number of Revolutions or Cycles Which Occur Each Second
1:04
Hertz
1:24
Formula for Frequency
1:28
Period
1:36
Time It Takes for One Complete Revolution or Cycle
1:37
Frequency and Period
1:54
Example 1: Car on a Track
2:08
Example 2: Race Car
3:55
Example 3: Toy Train
4:45
Example 4: Round-A-Bout
5:39
Centripetal Acceleration & Force

26m 37s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Uniform Circular Motion
0:38
Direction of ac
1:41
Magnitude of ac
3:50
Centripetal Force
4:08
For an Object to Accelerate, There Must Be a Net Force
4:18
Centripetal Force
4:26
Calculating Centripetal Force
6:14
Example 1: Acceleration
7:31
Example 2: Direction of ac
8:53
Example 3: Loss of Centripetal Force
9:19
Example 4: Velocity and Centripetal Force
10:08
Example 5: Demon Drop
10:55
Example 6: Centripetal Acceleration vs. Speed
14:11
Example 7: Calculating ac
15:03
Example 8: Running Back
15:45
Example 9: Car at an Intersection
17:15
Example 10: Bucket in Horizontal Circle
18:40
Example 11: Bucket in Vertical Circle
19:20
Example 12: Frictionless Banked Curve
21:55
Gravitation

32m 56s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Universal Gravitation
0:29
The Bigger the Mass the Closer the Attraction
0:48
Formula for Gravitational Force
1:16
Calculating g
2:43
Mass of Earth
2:51
2:55
Inverse Square Relationship
4:32
Problem Solving Hints
7:21
Substitute Values in For Variables at the End of the Problem Only
7:26
Estimate the Order of Magnitude of the Answer Before Using Your Calculator
7:38
7:55
Example 1: Asteroids
8:20
Example 2: Meteor and the Earth
10:17
Example 3: Satellite
13:13
Gravitational Fields
13:50
Gravity is a Non-Contact Force
13:54
Closer Objects
14:14
Denser Force Vectors
14:19
Gravitational Field Strength
15:09
Example 4: Astronaut
16:19
Gravitational Potential Energy
18:07
Two Masses Separated by Distance Exhibit an Attractive Force
18:11
Formula for Gravitational Field
19:21
How Do Orbits Work?
19:36
Example5: Gravitational Field Strength for Space Shuttle in Orbit
21:35
Example 6: Earth's Orbit
25:13
Example 7: Bowling Balls
27:25
Example 8: Freely Falling Object
28:07
Example 9: Finding g
28:40
Example 10: Space Vehicle on Mars
29:10
Example 11: Fg vs. Mass Graph
30:24
Example 12: Mass on Mars
31:14
Example 13: Two Satellites
31:51
Rotational Kinematics

15m 33s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
0:26
In Degrees, Once Around a Circle is 360 Degrees
0:29
In Radians, Once Around a Circle is 2π
0:34
0:57
1:31
Linear vs. Angular Displacement
2:00
Linear Position
2:05
Angular Position
2:10
Linear vs. Angular Velocity
2:35
Linear Speed
2:39
Angular Speed
2:42
Direction of Angular Velocity
3:05
Converting Linear to Angular Velocity
4:22
Example 3: Angular Velocity Example
4:41
Linear vs. Angular Acceleration
5:36
Example 4: Angular Acceleration
6:15
Kinematic Variable Parallels
7:47
Displacement
7:52
Velocity
8:10
Acceleration
8:16
Time
8:22
Kinematic Variable Translations
8:30
Displacement
8:34
Velocity
8:42
Acceleration
8:50
Time
8:58
Kinematic Equation Parallels
9:09
Kinematic Equations
9:12
Delta
9:33
Final Velocity Squared and Angular Velocity Squared
9:54
Example 5: Medieval Flail
10:24
Example 6: CD Player
10:57
Example 7: Carousel
12:13
Example 8: Circular Saw
13:35
Torque

11m 21s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:05
Torque
0:18
Force That Causes an Object to Turn
0:22
Must be Perpendicular to the Displacement to Cause a Rotation
0:27
Lever Arm: The Stronger the Force, The More Torque
0:45
Direction of the Torque Vector
1:53
Perpendicular to the Position Vector and the Force Vector
1:54
Right-Hand Rule
2:08
Newton's 2nd Law: Translational vs. Rotational
2:46
Equilibrium
3:58
Static Equilibrium
4:01
Dynamic Equilibrium
4:09
Rotational Equilibrium
4:22
Example 1: Pirate Captain
4:32
Example 2: Auto Mechanic
5:25
Example 3: Sign Post
6:44
Example 4: See-Saw
9:01
Rotational Dynamics

36m 6s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Types of Inertia
0:39
Inertial Mass (Translational Inertia)
0:42
Moment of Inertia (Rotational Inertia)
0:53
Moment of Inertia for Common Objects
1:48
Example 1: Calculating Moment of Inertia
2:53
Newton's 2nd Law - Revisited
5:09
Acceleration of an Object
5:15
Angular Acceleration of an Object
5:24
Example 2: Rotating Top
5:47
Example 3: Spinning Disc
7:54
Angular Momentum
9:41
Linear Momentum
9:43
Angular Momentum
10:00
Calculating Angular Momentum
10:51
Direction of the Angular Momentum Vector
11:26
Total Angular Momentum
12:29
Example 4: Angular Momentum of Particles
14:15
Example 5: Rotating Pedestal
16:51
Example 6: Rotating Discs
18:39
Angular Momentum and Heavenly Bodies
20:13
Types of Kinetic Energy
23:41
Objects Traveling with a Translational Velocity
23:45
Objects Traveling with Angular Velocity
24:00
Translational vs. Rotational Variables
24:33
Example 7: Kinetic Energy of a Basketball
25:45
Example 8: Playground Round-A-Bout
28:17
Example 9: The Ice Skater
30:54
Example 10: The Bowler
33:15
Work & Power

31m 20s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
What Is Work?
0:31
Power Output
0:35
Transfer Energy
0:39
Work is the Process of Moving an Object by Applying a Force
0:46
Examples of Work
0:56
Calculating Work
2:16
Only the Force in the Direction of the Displacement Counts
2:33
Formula for Work
2:48
Example 1: Moving a Refrigerator
3:16
Example 2: Liberating a Car
3:59
Example 3: Crate on a Ramp
5:20
Example 4: Lifting a Box
7:11
Example 5: Pulling a Wagon
8:38
Force vs. Displacement Graphs
9:33
The Area Under a Force vs. Displacement Graph is the Work Done by the Force
9:37
Find the Work Done
9:49
Example 6: Work From a Varying Force
11:00
Hooke's Law
12:42
The More You Stretch or Compress a Spring, The Greater the Force of the Spring
12:46
The Spring's Force is Opposite the Direction of Its Displacement from Equilibrium
13:00
Determining the Spring Constant
14:21
Work Done in Compressing the Spring
15:27
Example 7: Finding Spring Constant
16:21
Example 8: Calculating Spring Constant
17:58
Power
18:43
Work
18:46
Power
18:50
Example 9: Moving a Sofa
19:26
Calculating Power
20:41
Example 10: Motors Delivering Power
21:27
Example 11: Force on a Cyclist
22:40
Example 12: Work on a Spinning Mass
23:52
Example 13: Work Done by Friction
25:05
Example 14: Units of Power
28:38
Example 15: Frictional Force on a Sled
29:43
Energy

20m 15s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
What is Energy?
0:24
The Ability or Capacity to do Work
0:26
The Ability or Capacity to Move an Object
0:34
Types of Energy
0:39
Energy Transformations
2:07
Transfer Energy by Doing Work
2:12
Work-Energy Theorem
2:20
Units of Energy
2:51
Kinetic Energy
3:08
Energy of Motion
3:13
Ability or Capacity of a Moving Object to Move Another Object
3:17
A Single Object Can Only Have Kinetic Energy
3:46
Example 1: Kinetic Energy of a Motorcycle
5:08
Potential Energy
5:59
Energy An Object Possesses
6:10
Gravitational Potential Energy
7:21
Elastic Potential Energy
9:58
Internal Energy
10:16
Includes the Kinetic Energy of the Objects That Make Up the System and the Potential Energy of the Configuration
10:20
Calculating Gravitational Potential Energy in a Constant Gravitational Field
10:57
Sources of Energy on Earth
12:41
Example 2: Potential Energy
13:41
Example 3: Energy of a System
14:40
Example 4: Kinetic and Potential Energy
15:36
Example 5: Pendulum
16:55
Conservation of Energy

23m 20s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Law of Conservation of Energy
0:22
Energy Cannot Be Created or Destroyed.. It Can Only Be Changed
0:27
Mechanical Energy
0:34
Conservation Laws
0:40
Examples
0:49
Kinematics vs. Energy
4:34
Energy Approach
4:56
Kinematics Approach
6:04
The Pendulum
8:07
Example 1: Cart Compressing a Spring
13:09
Example 2
14:23
Example 3: Car Skidding to a Stop
16:15
Example 4: Accelerating an Object
17:27
Example 5: Block on Ramp
18:06
Example 6: Energy Transfers
19:21
Simple Harmonic Motion

58m 30s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
What Is Simple Harmonic Motion?
0:57
Nature's Typical Reaction to a Disturbance
1:00
A Displacement Which Results in a Linear Restoring Force Results in SHM
1:25
Review of Springs
1:43
When a Force is Applied to a Spring, the Spring Applies a Restoring Force
1:46
When the Spring is in Equilibrium, It Is 'Unstrained'
1:54
Factors Affecting the Force of A Spring
2:00
Oscillations
3:42
Repeated Motions
3:45
Cycle 1
3:52
Period
3:58
Frequency
4:07
Spring-Block Oscillator
4:47
Mass of the Block
4:59
Spring Constant
5:05
Example 1: Spring-Block Oscillator
6:30
Diagrams
8:07
Displacement
8:42
Velocity
8:57
Force
9:36
Acceleration
10:09
U
10:24
K
10:47
Example 2: Harmonic Oscillator Analysis
16:22
Circular Motion vs. SHM
23:26
Graphing SHM
25:52
Example 3: Position of an Oscillator
28:31
Vertical Spring-Block Oscillator
31:13
Example 4: Vertical Spring-Block Oscillator
34:26
Example 5: Bungee
36:39
The Pendulum
43:55
Mass Is Attached to a Light String That Swings Without Friction About the Vertical Equilibrium
44:04
Energy and the Simple Pendulum
44:58
Frequency and Period of a Pendulum
48:25
Period of an Ideal Pendulum
48:31
Assume Theta is Small
48:54
Example 6: The Pendulum
50:15
Example 7: Pendulum Clock
53:38
Example 8: Pendulum on the Moon
55:14
Example 9: Mass on a Spring
56:01
Section 3: Fluids
Density & Buoyancy

19m 48s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Fluids
0:27
Fluid is Matter That Flows Under Pressure
0:31
Fluid Mechanics is the Study of Fluids
0:44
Density
0:57
Density is the Ratio of an Object's Mass to the Volume It Occupies
0:58
Less Dense Fluids
1:06
Less Dense Solids
1:09
Example 1: Density of Water
1:27
Example 2: Volume of Gold
2:19
Example 3: Floating
3:06
Buoyancy
3:54
Force Exerted by a Fluid on an Object, Opposing the Object's Weight
3:56
Buoyant Force Determined Using Archimedes Principle
4:03
Example 4: Buoyant Force
5:12
Example 5: Shark Tank
5:56
Example 6: Concrete Boat
7:47
Example 7: Apparent Mass
10:08
Example 8: Volume of a Submerged Cube
13:21
Example 9: Determining Density
15:37
Pressure & Pascal's Principle

18m 7s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Pressure
0:25
Pressure is the Effect of a Force Acting Upon a Surface
0:27
Formula for Pressure
0:41
Force is Always Perpendicular to the Surface
0:50
Exerting Pressure
1:03
Fluids Exert Outward Pressure in All Directions on the Sides of Any Container Holding the Fluid
1:36
Earth's Atmosphere Exerts Pressure
1:42
Example 1: Pressure on Keyboard
2:17
Example 2: Sleepy Fisherman
3:03
Example 3: Scale on Planet Physica
4:12
Example 4: Ranking Pressures
5:00
Pressure on a Submerged Object
6:45
Pressure a Fluid Exerts on an Object Submerged in That Fluid
6:46
If There Is Atmosphere Above the Fluid
7:03
Example 5: Gauge Pressure Scuba Diving
7:27
Example 6: Absolute Pressure Scuba Diving
8:13
Pascal's Principle
8:51
Force Multiplication Using Pascal's Principle
9:24
Example 7: Barber's Chair
11:38
Example 8: Hydraulic Auto Lift
13:26
Example 9: Pressure on a Penny
14:41
Example 10: Depth in Fresh Water
16:39
Example 11: Absolute vs. Gauge Pressure
17:23
Continuity Equation for Fluids

7m

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Conservation of Mass for Fluid Flow
0:18
Law of Conservation of Mass for Fluids
0:21
Volume Flow Rate Remains Constant Throughout the Pipe
0:35
Volume Flow Rate
0:59
Quantified In Terms Of Volume Flow Rate
1:01
Area of Pipe x Velocity of Fluid
1:05
Must Be Constant Throughout Pipe
1:10
Example 1: Tapered Pipe
1:44
Example 2: Garden Hose
2:37
Example 3: Oil Pipeline
4:49
Example 4: Roots of Continuity Equation
6:16
Bernoulli's Principle

20m

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Bernoulli's Principle
0:21
Airplane Wings
0:35
Venturi Pump
1:56
Bernoulli's Equation
3:32
Example 1: Torricelli's Theorem
4:38
Example 2: Gauge Pressure
7:26
Example 3: Shower Pressure
8:16
Example 4: Water Fountain
12:29
Example 5: Elevated Cistern
15:26
Section 4: Thermal Physics
Temperature, Heat, & Thermal Expansion

24m 17s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:12
Thermal Physics
0:42
Explores the Internal Energy of Objects Due to the Motion of the Atoms and Molecules Comprising the Objects
0:46
Explores the Transfer of This Energy From Object to Object
0:53
Temperature
1:00
Thermal Energy Is Related to the Kinetic Energy of All the Particles Comprising the Object
1:03
The More Kinetic Energy of the Constituent Particles Have, The Greater the Object's Thermal Energy
1:12
Temperature and Phases of Matter
1:44
Solids
1:48
Liquids
1:56
Gases
2:02
Average Kinetic Energy and Temperature
2:16
Average Kinetic Energy
2:24
Boltzmann's Constant
2:29
Temperature Scales
3:06
Converting Temperatures
4:37
Heat
5:03
Transfer of Thermal Energy
5:06
Accomplished Through Collisions Which is Conduction
5:13
Methods of Heat Transfer
5:52
Conduction
5:59
Convection
6:19
6:31
Quantifying Heat Transfer in Conduction
6:37
Rate of Heat Transfer is Measured in Watts
6:42
Thermal Conductivity
7:12
Example 1: Average Kinetic Energy
7:35
Example 2: Body Temperature
8:22
Example 3: Temperature of Space
9:30
Example 4: Temperature of the Sun
10:44
Example 5: Heat Transfer Through Window
11:38
Example 6: Heat Transfer Across a Rod
12:40
Thermal Expansion
14:18
When Objects Are Heated, They Tend to Expand
14:19
At Higher Temperatures, Objects Have Higher Average Kinetic Energies
14:24
At Higher Levels of Vibration, The Particles Are Not Bound As Tightly to Each Other
14:30
Linear Expansion
15:11
Amount a Material Expands is Characterized by the Material's Coefficient of Expansion
15:14
One-Dimensional Expansion -> Linear Coefficient of Expansion
15:20
Volumetric Expansion
15:38
Three-Dimensional Expansion -> Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion
15:45
Volumetric Coefficient of Expansion is Roughly Three Times the Linear Coefficient of Expansion
16:03
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion
16:24
16:59
Example 8: Expansion of an Aluminum Rod
18:37
Example 9: Water Spilling Out of a Glass
20:18
Example 10: Average Kinetic Energy vs. Temperature
22:18
Example 11: Expansion of a Ring
23:07
Ideal Gases

24m 15s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:10
Ideal Gases
0:25
Gas Is Comprised of Many Particles Moving Randomly in a Container
0:34
Particles Are Far Apart From One Another
0:46
Particles Do Not Exert Forces Upon One Another Unless They Come In Contact in an Elastic Collision
0:53
Ideal Gas Law
1:18
Atoms, Molecules, and Moles
2:56
Protons
2:59
Neutrons
3:15
Electrons
3:18
Examples
3:25
Example 1: Counting Moles
4:58
Example 2: Moles of CO2 in a Bottle
6:00
Example 3: Pressurized CO2
6:54
Example 4: Helium Balloon
8:53
Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas
10:17
The Average Kinetic Energy of the Particles of an Ideal Gas
10:21
Total Internal Energy of the Ideal Gas Can Be Found by Multiplying the Average Kinetic Energy of the Gas's Particles by the Numbers of Particles in the Gas
10:32
Example 5: Internal Energy of Oxygen
12:00
Example 6: Temperature of Argon
12:41
Root-Mean-Square Velocity
13:40
This is the Square Root of the Average Velocity Squared For All the Molecules in the System
13:43
Derived from the Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution Function
13:56
Calculating vrms
14:56
Example 7: Average Velocity of a Gas
18:32
Example 8: Average Velocity of a Gas
19:44
Example 9: vrms of Molecules in Equilibrium
20:59
Example 10: Moles to Molecules
22:25
Example 11: Relating Temperature and Internal Energy
23:22
Thermodynamics

22m 29s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
0:26
First Law of Thermodynamics
1:00
The Change in the Internal Energy of a Closed System is Equal to the Heat Added to the System Plus the Work Done on the System
1:04
It is a Restatement of the Law of Conservation of Energy
1:19
Sign Conventions Are Important
1:25
Work Done on a Gas
1:44
Example 1: Adding Heat to a System
3:25
Example 2: Expanding a Gas
4:07
P-V Diagrams
5:11
Pressure-Volume Diagrams are Useful Tools for Visualizing Thermodynamic Processes of Gases
5:13
Use Ideal Gas Law to Determine Temperature of Gas
5:25
P-V Diagrams II
5:55
Volume Increases, Pressure Decreases
6:00
As Volume Expands, Gas Does Work
6:19
Temperature Rises as You Travel Up and Right on a PV Diagram
6:29
Example 3: PV Diagram Analysis
6:40
Types of PV Processes
7:52
8:03
Isobaric
8:19
Isochoric
8:28
Isothermal
8:35
8:47
Heat Is not Transferred Into or Out of The System
8:50
Heat = 0
8:55
Isobaric Processes
9:19
Pressure Remains Constant
9:21
PV Diagram Shows a Horizontal Line
9:27
Isochoric Processes
9:51
Volume Remains Constant
9:52
PV Diagram Shows a Vertical Line
9:58
Work Done on the Gas is Zero
10:01
Isothermal Processes
10:27
Temperature Remains Constant
10:29
Lines on a PV Diagram Are Isotherms
10:31
PV Remains Constant
10:38
Internal Energy of Gas Remains Constant
10:40
10:46
Example 5: Removing Heat
11:25
Example 6: Ranking Processes
13:08
Second Law of Thermodynamics
13:59
Heat Flows Naturally From a Warmer Object to a Colder Object
14:02
Heat Energy Cannot be Completely Transformed Into Mechanical Work
14:11
All Natural Systems Tend Toward a Higher Level of Disorder
14:19
Heat Engines
14:52
Heat Engines Convert Heat Into Mechanical Work
14:56
Efficiency of a Heat Engine is the Ratio of the Engine You Get Out to the Energy You Put In
14:59
Power in Heat Engines
16:09
Heat Engines and PV Diagrams
17:38
Carnot Engine
17:54
It Is a Theoretical Heat Engine That Operates at Maximum Possible Efficiency
18:02
It Uses Only Isothermal and Adiabatic Processes
18:08
Carnot's Theorem
18:11
Example 7: Carnot Engine
18:49
Example 8: Maximum Efficiency
21:02
Example 9: PV Processes
21:51
Section 5: Electricity & Magnetism
Electric Fields & Forces

38m 24s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:10
Electric Charges
0:34
Matter is Made Up of Atoms
0:37
Protons Have a Charge of +1
0:45
Electrons Have a Charge of -1
1:00
Most Atoms Are Neutral
1:04
Ions
1:15
Fundamental Unit of Charge is the Coulomb
1:29
Like Charges Repel, While Opposites Attract
1:50
Example 1: Charge on an Object
2:22
Example 2: Charge of an Alpha Particle
3:36
Conductors and Insulators
4:27
Conductors Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely
4:30
Insulators Do Not Allow Electric Charges to Move Freely
4:39
Resistivity is a Material Property
4:45
Charging by Conduction
5:05
Materials May Be Charged by Contact, Known as Conduction
5:07
Conductors May Be Charged by Contact
5:24
Example 3: Charging by Conduction
5:38
The Electroscope
6:44
Charging by Induction
8:00
Example 4: Electrostatic Attraction
9:23
Coulomb's Law
11:46
Charged Objects Apply a Force Upon Each Other = Coulombic Force
11:52
Force of Attraction or Repulsion is Determined by the Amount of Charge and the Distance Between the Charges
12:04
Example 5: Determine Electrostatic Force
13:09
Example 6: Deflecting an Electron Beam
15:35
Electric Fields
16:28
The Property of Space That Allows a Charged Object to Feel a Force
16:44
Electric Field Strength Vector is the Amount of Electrostatic Force Observed by a Charge Per Unit of Charge
17:01
The Direction of the Electric Field Vector is the Direction a Positive Charge Would Feel a Force
17:24
Example 7: Field Between Metal Plates
17:58
Visualizing the Electric Field
19:27
Electric Field Lines Point Away from Positive Charges and Toward Negative Charges
19:40
Electric Field Lines Intersect Conductors at Right Angles to the Surface
19:50
Field Strength and Line Density Decreases as You Move Away From the Charges
19:58
Electric Field Lines
20:09
E Field Due to a Point Charge
22:32
Electric Fields Are Caused by Charges
22:35
Electric Field Due to a Point Charge Can Be Derived From the Definition of the Electric Field and Coulomb's Law
22:38
To Find the Electric Field Due to Multiple Charges
23:09
Comparing Electricity to Gravity
23:56
Force
24:02
Field Strength
24:16
Constant
24:37
Charge/ Mass Units
25:01
Example 8: E Field From 3 Point Charges
25:07
Example 9: Where is the E Field Zero?
31:43
Example 10: Gravity and Electricity
36:38
Example 11: Field Due to Point Charge
37:34
Electric Potential Difference

35m 58s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Electric Potential Energy
0:32
When an Object Was Lifted Against Gravity By Applying a Force for Some Distance, Work Was Done
0:35
When a Charged Object is Moved Against an Electric Field by Applying a Force for Some Distance, Work is Done
0:43
Electric Potential Difference
1:30
Example 1: Charge From Work
2:06
Example 2: Electric Energy
3:09
The Electron-Volt
4:02
Electronvolt (eV)
4:15
1eV is the Amount of Work Done in Moving an Elementary Charge Through a Potential Difference of 1 Volt
4:28
Example 3: Energy in eV
5:33
Equipotential Lines
6:32
Topographic Maps Show Lines of Equal Altitude, or Equal Gravitational Potential
6:36
Lines Connecting Points of Equal Electrical Potential are Known as Equipotential Lines
6:57
Drawing Equipotential Lines
8:15
Potential Due to a Point Charge
10:46
Calculate the Electric Field Vector Due to a Point Charge
10:52
Calculate the Potential Difference Due to a Point Charge
11:05
To Find the Potential Difference Due to Multiple Point Charges
11:16
Example 4: Potential Due to a Point Charge
11:52
Example 5: Potential Due to Point Charges
13:04
Parallel Plates
16:34
Configurations in Which Parallel Plates of Opposite Charge are Situated a Fixed Distance From Each Other
16:37
These Can Create a Capacitor
16:45
E Field Due to Parallel Plates
17:14
Electric Field Away From the Edges of Two Oppositely Charged Parallel Plates is Constant
17:15
Magnitude of the Electric Field Strength is Give By the Potential Difference Between the Plates Divided by the Plate Separation
17:47
Capacitors
18:09
Electric Device Used to Store Charge
18:11
Once the Plates Are Charged, They Are Disconnected
18:30
Device's Capacitance
18:46
Capacitors Store Energy
19:28
Charges Located on the Opposite Plates of a Capacitor Exert Forces on Each Other
19:31
Example 6: Capacitance
20:28
Example 7: Charge on a Capacitor
22:03
Designing Capacitors
24:00
Area of the Plates
24:05
Separation of the Plates
24:09
Insulating Material
24:13
Example 8: Designing a Capacitor
25:35
Example 9: Calculating Capacitance
27:39
Example 10: Electron in Space
29:47
Example 11: Proton Energy Transfer
30:35
Example 12: Two Conducting Spheres
32:50
Example 13: Equipotential Lines for a Capacitor
34:48
Current & Resistance

21m 14s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Electric Current
0:19
Path Through Current Flows
0:21
Current is the Amount of Charge Passing a Point Per Unit Time
0:25
Conventional Current is the Direction of Positive Charge Flow
0:43
Example 1: Current Through a Resistor
1:19
Example 2: Current Due to Elementary Charges
1:47
Example 3: Charge in a Light Bulb
2:35
Example 4: Flashlights
3:03
Conductivity and Resistivity
4:41
Conductivity is a Material's Ability to Conduct Electric Charge
4:53
Resistivity is a Material's Ability to Resist the Movement of Electric Charge
5:11
Resistance vs. Resistivity vs. Resistors
5:35
Resistivity Is a Material Property
5:40
Resistance Is a Functional Property of an Element in an Electric Circuit
5:57
A Resistor is a Circuit Element
7:23
Resistors
7:45
Example 5: Calculating Resistance
8:17
Example 6: Resistance Dependencies
10:09
Configuration of Resistors
10:50
When Placed in a Circuit, Resistors Can be Organized in Both Serial and Parallel Arrangements
10:53
May Be Useful to Determine an Equivalent Resistance Which Could Be Used to Replace a System or Resistors with a Single Equivalent Resistor
10:58
Resistors in Series
11:15
Resistors in Parallel
12:35
Example 7: Finding Equivalent Resistance
15:01
Example 8: Length and Resistance
17:43
Example 9: Comparing Resistors
18:21
Example 10: Comparing Wires
19:12
Ohm's Law & Power

10m 35s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:06
Ohm's Law
0:21
Relates Resistance, Potential Difference, and Current Flow
0:23
Example 1: Resistance of a Wire
1:22
Example 2: Circuit Current
1:58
Example 3: Variable Resistor
2:30
Ohm's 'Law'?
3:22
Very Useful Empirical Relationship
3:31
Test if a Material is 'Ohmic'
3:40
Example 4: Ohmic Material
3:58
Electrical Power
4:24
Current Flowing Through a Circuit Causes a Transfer of Energy Into Different Types
4:26
Example: Light Bulb
4:36
Example: Television
4:58
Calculating Power
5:09
Electrical Energy
5:14
Charge Per Unit Time Is Current
5:29
Expand Using Ohm's Law
5:48
Example 5: Toaster
7:43
Example 6: Electric Iron
8:19
Example 7: Power of a Resistor
9:19
Example 8: Information Required to Determine Power in a Resistor
9:55
Circuits & Electrical Meters

8m 44s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Electrical Circuits
0:21
A Closed-Loop Path Through Which Current Can Flow
0:22
Can Be Made Up of Most Any Materials, But Typically Comprised of Electrical Devices
0:27
Circuit Schematics
1:09
Symbols Represent Circuit Elements
1:30
Lines Represent Wires
1:33
Sources for Potential Difference: Voltaic Cells, Batteries, Power Supplies
1:36
Complete Conducting Paths
2:43
Voltmeters
3:20
Measure the Potential Difference Between Two Points in a Circuit
3:21
Connected in Parallel with the Element to be Measured
3:25
Have Very High Resistance
3:59
Ammeters
4:19
Measure the Current Flowing Through an Element of a Circuit
4:20
Connected in Series with the Circuit
4:25
Have Very Low Resistance
4:45
Example 1: Ammeter and Voltmeter Placement
4:56
Example 2: Analyzing R
6:27
Example 3: Voltmeter Placement
7:12
Example 4: Behavior or Electrical Meters
7:31
Circuit Analysis

48m 58s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Series Circuits
0:27
Series Circuits Have Only a Single Current Path
0:29
Removal of any Circuit Element Causes an Open Circuit
0:31
Kirchhoff's Laws
1:36
Tools Utilized in Analyzing Circuits
1:42
Kirchhoff's Current Law States
1:47
Junction Rule
2:00
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law States
2:05
Loop Rule
2:18
Example 1: Voltage Across a Resistor
2:23
Example 2: Current at a Node
3:45
Basic Series Circuit Analysis
4:53
Example 3: Current in a Series Circuit
9:21
Example 4: Energy Expenditure in a Series Circuit
10:14
Example 5: Analysis of a Series Circuit
12:07
Example 6: Voltmeter In a Series Circuit
14:57
Parallel Circuits
17:11
Parallel Circuits Have Multiple Current Paths
17:13
Removal of a Circuit Element May Allow Other Branches of the Circuit to Continue Operating
17:15
Basic Parallel Circuit Analysis
18:19
Example 7: Parallel Circuit Analysis
21:05
Example 8: Equivalent Resistance
22:39
Example 9: Four Parallel Resistors
23:16
Example 10: Ammeter in a Parallel Circuit
26:27
Combination Series-Parallel Circuits
28:50
Look For Portions of the Circuit With Parallel Elements
28:56
Work Back to Original Circuit
29:09
Analysis of a Combination Circuit
29:20
Internal Resistance
34:11
In Reality, Voltage Sources Have Some Amount of 'Internal Resistance'
34:16
Terminal Voltage of the Voltage Source is Reduced Slightly
34:25
Example 11: Two Voltage Sources
35:16
Example 12: Internal Resistance
42:46
Example 13: Complex Circuit with Meters
45:22
Example 14: Parallel Equivalent Resistance
48:24
RC Circuits

24m 47s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
Capacitors in Parallel
0:34
Capacitors Store Charge on Their Plates
0:37
Capacitors In Parallel Can Be Replaced with an Equivalent Capacitor
0:46
Capacitors in Series
2:42
Charge on Capacitors Must Be the Same
2:44
Capacitor In Series Can Be Replaced With an Equivalent Capacitor
2:47
RC Circuits
5:40
Comprised of a Source of Potential Difference, a Resistor Network, and One or More Capacitors
5:42
Uncharged Capacitors Act Like Wires
6:04
Charged Capacitors Act Like Opens
6:12
Charging an RC Circuit
6:23
Discharging an RC Circuit
11:36
Example 1: RC Analysis
14:50
Example 2: More RC Analysis
18:26
Example 3: Equivalent Capacitance
21:19
Example 4: More Equivalent Capacitance
22:48
Magnetic Fields & Properties

19m 48s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:07
Magnetism
0:32
A Force Caused by Moving Charges
0:34
Magnetic Domains Are Clusters of Atoms with Electrons Spinning in the Same Direction
0:51
Example 1: Types of Fields
1:23
Magnetic Field Lines
2:25
Make Closed Loops and Run From North to South Outside the Magnet
2:26
Magnetic Flux
2:42
Show the Direction the North Pole of a Magnet Would Tend to Point If Placed in the Field
2:54
Example 2: Lines of Magnetic Force
3:49
Example 3: Forces Between Bar Magnets
4:39
The Compass
5:28
The Earth is a Giant Magnet
5:31
The Earth's Magnetic North pole is Located Near the Geographic South Pole, and Vice Versa
5:33
A Compass Lines Up with the Net Magnetic Field
6:07
Example 3: Compass in Magnetic Field
6:41
Example 4: Compass Near a Bar Magnet
7:14
Magnetic Permeability
7:59
The Ratio of the Magnetic Field Strength Induced in a Material to the Magnetic Field Strength of the Inducing Field
8:02
Free Space
8:13
Highly Magnetic Materials Have Higher Values of Magnetic Permeability
8:34
Magnetic Dipole Moment
8:41
The Force That a Magnet Can Exert on Moving Charges
8:46
Relative Strength of a Magnet
8:54
Forces on Moving Charges
9:10
Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields
9:11
Magnetic Fields Exert Forces on Moving Charges
9:17
Direction of the Magnetic Force
9:57
Direction is Given by the Right-Hand Rule
10:05
Right-Hand Rule
10:09
Mass Spectrometer
10:52
Magnetic Fields Accelerate Moving Charges So That They Travel in a Circle
10:58
Used to Determine the Mass of an Unknown Particle
11:04
Velocity Selector
12:44
Mass Spectrometer with an Electric Field Added
12:47
Example 5: Force on an Electron
14:13
Example 6: Velocity of a Charged Particle
15:25
Example 7: Direction of the Magnetic Force
16:52
Example 8: Direction of Magnetic Force on Moving Charges
17:43
Example 9: Electron Released From Rest in Magnetic Field
18:53
Current-Carrying Wires

21m 29s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Force on a Current-Carrying Wire
0:30
A Current-Carrying Wire in a Magnetic Field May Experience a Magnetic Force
0:33
Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule
1:11
Example 1: Force on a Current-Carrying Wire
1:38
Example 2: Equilibrium on a Submerged Wire
2:33
Example 3: Torque on a Loop of Wire
5:55
Magnetic Field Due to a Current-Carrying Wire
8:49
Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields
8:53
Wires Carry Moving Charges
8:56
Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule
9:21
Example 4: Magnetic Field Due to a Wire
10:56
Magnetic Field Due to a Solenoid
12:12
Solenoid is a Coil of Wire
12:19
Direction Given by the Right-Hand Rule
12:47
Forces on 2 Parallel Wires
13:34
Current Flowing in the Same Direction
14:52
Current Flowing in Opposite Directions
14:57
Example 5: Magnetic Field Due to Wires
15:19
Example 6: Strength of an Electromagnet
18:35
Example 7: Force on a Wire
19:30
Example 8: Force Between Parallel Wires
20:47
Intro to Electromagnetic Induction

17m 26s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Induced EMF
0:42
Charges Flowing Through a Wire Create Magnetic Fields
0:45
Changing Magnetic Fields Cause Charges to Flow or 'Induce' a Current in a Process Known As Electromagnetic Induction
0:49
Electro-Motive Force is the Potential Difference Created by a Changing Magnetic Field
0:57
Magnetic Flux is the Amount of Magnetic Fields Passing Through an Area
1:17
Finding the Magnetic Flux
1:36
Magnetic Field Strength
1:39
Angle Between the Magnetic Field Strength and the Normal to the Area
1:51
Calculating Induced EMF
3:01
The Magnitude of the Induced EMF is Equal to the Rate of Change of the Magnetic Flux
3:04
Induced EMF in a Rectangular Loop of Wire
4:03
Lenz's Law
5:17
Electric Generators and Motors
9:28
Generate an Induced EMF By Turning a Coil of Wire in a magnetic Field
9:31
Generators Use Mechanical Energy to Turn the Coil of Wire
9:39
Electric Motor Operates Using Same Principle
10:30
Example 1: Finding Magnetic Flux
10:43
Example 2: Finding Induced EMF
11:54
Example 3: Changing Magnetic Field
13:52
Example 4: Current Induced in a Rectangular Loop of Wire
15:23
Section 6: Waves & Optics
Wave Characteristics

26m 41s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Waves
0:32
Pulse
1:00
A Pulse is a Single Disturbance Which Carries Energy Through a Medium or Space
1:05
A Wave is a Series of Pulses
1:18
When a Pulse Reaches a Hard Boundary
1:37
When a Pulse Reaches a Soft or Flexible Boundary
2:04
Types of Waves
2:44
Mechanical Waves
2:56
Electromagnetic Waves
3:14
Types of Wave Motion
3:38
Longitudinal Waves
3:39
Transverse Waves
4:18
Anatomy of a Transverse Wave
5:18
Example 1: Waves Requiring a Medium
6:59
Example 2: Direction of Displacement
7:36
Example 3: Bell in a Vacuum Jar
8:47
Anatomy of a Longitudinal Wave
9:22
Example 4: Tuning Fork
9:57
Example 5: Amplitude of a Sound Wave
10:24
Frequency and Period
10:47
Example 6: Period of an EM Wave
11:23
Example 7: Frequency and Period
12:01
The Wave Equation
12:32
Velocity of a Wave is a Function of the Type of Wave and the Medium It Travels Through
12:36
Speed of a Wave is Related to Its Frequency and Wavelength
12:41
Example 8: Wavelength Using the Wave Equation
13:54
Example 9: Period of an EM Wave
14:35
Example 10: Blue Whale Waves
16:03
Sound Waves
17:29
Sound is a Mechanical Wave Observed by Detecting Vibrations in the Inner Ear
17:33
Particles of Sound Wave Vibrate Parallel With the Direction of the Wave's Velocity
17:56
Example 11: Distance from Speakers
18:24
Resonance
19:45
An Object with the Same 'Natural Frequency' May Begin to Vibrate at This Frequency
19:55
Classic Example
20:01
Example 12: Vibrating Car
20:32
Example 13: Sonar Signal
21:28
Example 14: Waves Across Media
24:06
Example 15: Wavelength of Middle C
25:24
Wave Interference

20m 45s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Superposition
0:30
When More Than One Wave Travels Through the Same Location in the Same Medium
0:32
The Total Displacement is the Sum of All the Individual Displacements of the Waves
0:46
Example 1: Superposition of Pulses
1:01
Types of Interference
2:02
Constructive Interference
2:05
Destructive Interference
2:18
Example 2: Interference
2:47
Example 3: Shallow Water Waves
3:27
Standing Waves
4:23
When Waves of the Same Frequency and Amplitude Traveling in Opposite Directions Meet in the Same Medium
4:26
A Wave in Which Nodes Appear to be Standing Still and Antinodes Vibrate with Maximum Amplitude Above and Below the Axis
4:35
Standing Waves in String Instruments
5:36
Standing Waves in Open Tubes
8:49
Standing Waves in Closed Tubes
9:57
Interference From Multiple Sources
11:43
Constructive
11:55
Destructive
12:14
Beats
12:49
Two Sound Waves with Almost the Same Frequency Interfere to Create a Beat Pattern
12:52
A Frequency Difference of 1 to 4 Hz is Best for Human Detection of Beat Phenomena
13:05
Example 4
14:13
Example 5
18:03
Example 6
19:14
Example 7: Superposition
20:08
Wave Phenomena

19m 2s

Intro
0:00
Objective
0:08
Doppler Effect
0:36
The Shift In A Wave's Observed Frequency Due to Relative Motion Between the Source of the Wave and Observer
0:39
When Source and/or Observer Move Toward Each Other
0:45
When Source and/or Observer Move Away From Each Other
0:52
Practical Doppler Effect
1:01
Vehicle Traveling Past You
1:05
1:56
Doppler Effect - Astronomy
2:43
Observed Frequencies Are Slightly Lower Than Scientists Would Predict
2:50
More Distant Celestial Objects Are Moving Away from the Earth Faster Than Nearer Objects
3:22
Example 1: Car Horn
3:36
Example 2: Moving Speaker
4:13
Diffraction
5:35
The Bending of Waves Around Obstacles
5:37
Most Apparent When Wavelength Is Same Order of Magnitude as the Obstacle/ Opening
6:10
Single-Slit Diffraction
6:16
Double-Slit Diffraction
8:13
Diffraction Grating
11:07
Sharper and Brighter Maxima
11:46
Useful for Determining Wavelengths Accurately
12:07
Example 3: Double Slit Pattern
12:30
Example 4: Determining Wavelength
16:05
18:04
Example 6: Red Shift
18:29
Light As a Wave

11m 35s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:14
Electromagnetic (EM) Waves
0:31
Light is an EM Wave
0:43
EM Waves Are Transverse Due to the Modulation of the Electric and Magnetic Fields Perpendicular to the Wave Velocity
1:00
Electromagnetic Wave Characteristics
1:37
The Product of an EM Wave's Frequency and Wavelength Must be Constant in a Vacuum
1:43
Polarization
3:36
Unpoloarized EM Waves Exhibit Modulation in All Directions
3:47
Polarized Light Consists of Light Vibrating in a Single Direction
4:07
Polarizers
4:29
Materials Which Act Like Filters to Only Allow Specific Polarizations of Light to Pass
4:33
Polarizers Typically Are Sheets of Material in Which Long Molecules Are Lined Up Like a Picket Fence
5:10
Polarizing Sunglasses
5:22
Reduce Reflections
5:26
Polarizing Sunglasses Have Vertical Polarizing Filters
5:48
Liquid Crystal Displays
6:08
LCDs Use Liquid Crystals in a Suspension That Align Themselves in a Specific Orientation When a Voltage is Applied
6:13
Cross-Orienting a Polarizer and a Matrix of Liquid Crystals so Light Can Be Modulated Pixel-by-Pixel
6:26
Example 1: Color of Light
7:30
Example 2: Analyzing an EM Wave
8:49
Example 3: Remote Control
9:45
Example 4: Comparing EM Waves
10:32
Reflection & Mirrors

24m 32s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:10
Waves at Boundaries
0:37
Reflected
0:43
Transmitted
0:45
Absorbed
0:48
Law of Reflection
0:58
The Angle of Incidence is Equal to the Angle of Reflection
1:00
They Are Both Measured From a Line Perpendicular, or Normal, to the Reflecting Surface
1:22
Types of Reflection
1:54
Diffuse Reflection
1:57
Specular Reflection
2:08
Example 1: Specular Reflection
2:24
Mirrors
3:20
Light Rays From the Object Reach the Plane Mirror and Are Reflected to the Observer
3:27
Virtual Image
3:33
Magnitude of Image Distance
4:05
Plane Mirror Ray Tracing
4:15
Object Distance
4:26
Image Distance
4:43
Magnification of Image
7:03
Example 2: Plane Mirror Images
7:28
Example 3: Image in a Plane Mirror
7:51
Spherical Mirrors
8:10
Inner Surface of a Spherical Mirror
8:19
Outer Surface of a Spherical Mirror
8:30
Focal Point of a Spherical Mirror
8:40
Converging
8:51
Diverging
9:00
Concave (Converging) Spherical Mirrors
9:09
Light Rays Coming Into a Mirror Parallel to the Principal Axis
9:14
Light Rays Passing Through the Center of Curvature
10:17
Light Rays From the Object Passing Directly Through the Focal Point
10:52
Mirror Equation (Lens Equation)
12:06
Object and Image Distances Are Positive on the Reflecting Side of the Mirror
12:13
Formula
12:19
Concave Mirror with Object Inside f
12:39
Example 4: Concave Spherical Mirror
14:21
Example 5: Image From a Concave Mirror
14:51
Convex (Diverging) Spherical Mirrors
16:29
Light Rays Coming Into a Mirror Parallel to the Principal Axis
16:37
Light Rays Striking the Center of the Mirror
16:50
Light Rays Never Converge on the Reflective Side of a Convex Mirror
16:54
Convex Mirror Ray Tracing
17:07
Example 6: Diverging Rays
19:12
Example 7: Focal Length
19:28
Example 8: Reflected Sonar Wave
19:53
Example 9: Plane Mirror Image Distance
20:20
Example 10: Image From a Concave Mirror
21:23
Example 11: Converging Mirror Image Distance
23:09
Refraction & Lenses

39m 42s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Refraction
0:42
When a Wave Reaches a Boundary Between Media, Part of the Wave is Reflected and Part of the Wave Enters the New Medium
0:43
Wavelength Must Change If the Wave's Speed Changes
0:57
Refraction is When This Causes The Wave to Bend as It Enters the New Medium
1:12
Marching Band Analogy
1:22
Index of Refraction
2:37
Measure of How Much Light Slows Down in a Material
2:40
Ratio of the Speed of an EM Wave in a Vacuum to the Speed of an EM Wave in Another Material is Known as Index of Refraction
3:03
Indices of Refraction
3:21
Dispersion
4:01
White Light is Refracted Twice in Prism
4:23
Index of Refraction of the Prism Material Varies Slightly with Respect to Frequency
4:41
Example 1: Determining n
5:14
Example 2: Light in Diamond and Crown Glass
5:55
Snell's Law
6:24
The Amount of a Light Wave Bends As It Enters a New Medium is Given by the Law of Refraction
6:32
Light Bends Toward the Normal as it Enters a Material With a Higher n
7:08
Light Bends Toward the Normal as it Enters a Material With a Lower n
7:14
Example 3: Angle of Refraction
7:42
Example 4: Changes with Refraction
9:31
Total Internal Reflection
10:10
When the Angle of Refraction Reaches 90 Degrees
10:23
Critical Angle
10:34
Total Internal Reflection
10:51
Applications of TIR
12:13
Example 5: Critical Angle of Water
13:17
Thin Lenses
14:15
Convex Lenses
14:22
Concave Lenses
14:31
Convex Lenses
15:24
Rays Parallel to the Principal Axis are Refracted Through the Far Focal Point of the Lens
15:28
A Ray Drawn From the Object Through the Center of the Lens Passes Through the Center of the Lens Unbent
15:53
Example 6: Converging Lens Image
16:46
Example 7: Image Distance of Convex Lens
17:18
Concave Lenses
18:21
Rays From the Object Parallel to the Principal Axis Are Refracted Away from the Principal Axis on a Line from the Near Focal Point Through the Point Where the Ray Intercepts the Center of the Lens
18:25
Concave Lenses Produce Upright, Virtual, Reduced Images
20:30
Example 8: Light Ray Thought a Lens
20:36
Systems of Optical Elements
21:05
Find the Image of the First Optical Elements and Utilize It as the Object of the Second Optical Element
21:16
Example 9: Lens and Mirrors
21:35
Thin Film Interference
27:22
When Light is Incident Upon a Thin Film, Some Light is Reflected and Some is Transmitted Into the Film
27:25
If the Transmitted Light is Again Reflected, It Travels Back Out of the Film and Can Interfere
27:31
Phase Change for Every Reflection from Low-Index to High-Index
28:09
Example 10: Thin Film Interference
28:41
Example 11: Wavelength in Diamond
32:07
Example 12: Light Incident on Crown Glass
33:57
Example 13: Real Image from Convex Lens
34:44
Example 14: Diverging Lens
35:45
Example 15: Creating Enlarged, Real Images
36:22
Example 16: Image from a Converging Lens
36:48
Example 17: Converging Lens System
37:50
Wave-Particle Duality

23m 47s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:11
Duality of Light
0:37
Photons
0:47
Dual Nature
0:53
Wave Evidence
1:00
Particle Evidence
1:10
Blackbody Radiation & the UV Catastrophe
1:20
Very Hot Objects Emitted Radiation in a Specific Spectrum of Frequencies and Intensities
1:25
Color Objects Emitted More Intensity at Higher Wavelengths
1:45
1:56
Photoelectric Effect
2:38
EM Radiation Striking a Piece of Metal May Emit Electrons
2:41
Not All EM Radiation Created Photoelectrons
2:49
Photons of Light
3:23
Photon Has Zero Mass, Zero Charge
3:32
Energy of a Photon is Quantized
3:36
Energy of a Photon is Related to its Frequency
3:41
Creation of Photoelectrons
4:17
Electrons in Metals Were Held in 'Energy Walls'
4:20
Work Function
4:32
Cutoff Frequency
4:54
Kinetic Energy of Photoelectrons
5:14
Electron in a Metal Absorbs a Photon with Energy Greater Than the Metal's Work Function
5:16
Electron is Emitted as a Photoelectron
5:24
Any Absorbed Energy Beyond That Required to Free the Electron is the KE of the Photoelectron
5:28
Photoelectric Effect in a Circuit
6:37
Compton Effect
8:28
Less of Energy and Momentum
8:49
Lost by X-Ray Equals Energy and Gained by Photoelectron
8:52
Compton Wavelength
9:09
Major Conclusions
9:36
De Broglie Wavelength
10:44
Smaller the Particle, the More Apparent the Wave Properties
11:03
Wavelength of a Moving Particle is Known as Its de Broglie Wavelength
11:07
Davisson-Germer Experiment
11:29
Verifies Wave Nature of Moving Particles
11:30
Shoot Electrons at Double Slit
11:34
Example 1
11:46
Example 2
13:07
Example 3
13:48
Example 4A
15:33
Example 4B
18:47
Example 5: Wave Nature of Light
19:54
Example 6: Moving Electrons
20:43
Example 7: Wavelength of an Electron
21:11
Example 8: Wrecking Ball
22:50
Section 7: Modern Physics
Atomic Energy Levels

14m 21s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:09
Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment
0:35
Most of the Particles Go Through Undeflected
1:12
Some Alpha Particles Are Deflected Large Amounts
1:15
Atoms Have a Small, Massive, Positive Nucleus
1:20
Electrons Orbit the Nucleus
1:23
Most of the Atom is Empty Space
1:26
Problems with Rutherford's Model
1:31
Charges Moving in a Circle Accelerate, Therefore Classical Physics Predicts They Should Release Photons
1:39
Lose Energy When They Release Photons
1:46
Orbits Should Decay and They Should Be Unstable
1:50
Bohr Model of the Atom
2:09
Electrons Don't Lose Energy as They Accelerate
2:20
Each Atom Allows Only a Limited Number of Specific Orbits at Each Energy Level
2:35
Electrons Must Absorb or Emit a Photon of Energy to Change Energy Levels
2:40
Energy Level Diagrams
3:29
n=1 is the Lowest Energy State
3:34
Negative Energy Levels Indicate Electron is Bound to Nucleus of the Atom
4:03
When Electron Reaches 0 eV It Is No Longer Bound
4:20
Electron Cloud Model (Probability Model)
4:46
Electron Only Has A Probability of Being Located in Certain Regions Surrounding the Nucleus
4:53
Electron Orbitals Are Probability Regions
4:58
Atomic Spectra
5:16
Atoms Can Only Emit Certain Frequencies of Photons
5:19
Electrons Can Only Absorb Photons With Energy Equal to the Difference in Energy Levels
5:34
This Leads to Unique Atomic Spectra of Emitted and Absorbed Radiation for Each Element
5:37
Incandescence Emits a Continuous Energy
5:43
If All Colors of Light Are Incident Upon a Cold Gas, The Gas Only Absorbs Frequencies Corresponding to Photon Energies Equal to the Difference Between the Gas's Atomic Energy Levels
6:16
Continuous Spectrum
6:42
Absorption Spectrum
6:50
Emission Spectrum
7:08
X-Rays
7:36
The Photoelectric Effect in Reverse
7:38
Electrons Are Accelerated Through a Large Potential Difference and Collide with a Molybdenum or Platinum Plate
7:53
Example 1: Electron in Hydrogen Atom
8:24
Example 2: EM Emission in Hydrogen
10:05
Example 3: Photon Frequencies
11:30
Example 4: Bright-Line Spectrum
12:24
Example 5: Gas Analysis
13:08
Nuclear Physics

15m 47s

Intro
0:00
Objectives
0:08
The Nucleus
0:33
Protons Have a Charge or +1 e
0:39
Neutrons Are Neutral (0 Charge)
0:42
Held Together by the Strong Nuclear Force
0:43
Example 1: Deconstructing an Atom
1:20
Mass-Energy Equivalence
2:06
Mass is a Measure of How Much Energy an Object Contains
2:16
Universal Conservation of Laws
2:31
Nuclear Binding Energy
2:53
A Strong Nuclear Force Holds Nucleons Together
3:04
Mass of the Individual Constituents is Greater Than the Mass of the Combined Nucleus
3:19
Binding Energy of the Nucleus
3:32
Mass Defect
3:37
Nuclear Decay
4:30
Alpha Decay
4:42
Beta Decay
5:09
Gamma Decay
5:46
Fission
6:40
The Splitting of a Nucleus Into Two or More Nuclei
6:42
For Larger Nuclei, the Mass of Original Nucleus is Greater Than the Sum of the Mass of the Products When Split
6:47
Fusion
8:14
The Process of Combining Two Or More Smaller Nuclei Into a Larger Nucleus
8:15
This Fuels Our Sun and Stars
8:28
Basis of Hydrogen Bomb
8:31
Forces in the Universe
9:00
Strong Nuclear Force
9:06
Electromagnetic Force
9:13
Weak Nuclear Force
9:22
Gravitational Force
9:27
Example 2: Deuterium Nucleus
9:39
Example 3: Particle Accelerator
10:24
Example 4: Tritium Formation
12:03
Example 5: Beta Decay
13:02
Example 6: Gamma Decay
14:15
Example 7: Annihilation
14:39
Section 8: Sample AP Exams
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part 1

38m 1s

Intro
0:00
Problem 1
1:33
Problem 2
1:57
Problem 3
2:50
Problem 4
3:46
Problem 5
4:13
Problem 6
4:41
Problem 7
6:12
Problem 8
6:49
Problem 9
7:49
Problem 10
9:31
Problem 11
10:08
Problem 12
11:03
Problem 13
11:30
Problem 14
12:28
Problem 15
14:04
Problem 16
15:05
Problem 17
15:55
Problem 18
17:06
Problem 19
18:43
Problem 20
19:58
Problem 21
22:03
Problem 22
22:49
Problem 23
23:28
Problem 24
24:04
Problem 25
25:07
Problem 26
26:46
Problem 27
28:03
Problem 28
28:49
Problem 29
30:20
Problem 30
31:10
Problem 31
33:03
Problem 32
33:46
Problem 33
34:47
Problem 34
36:07
Problem 35
36:44
AP Practice Exam: Multiple Choice, Part 2

37m 49s

Intro
0:00
Problem 36
0:18
Problem 37
0:42
Problem 38
2:13
Problem 39
4:10
Problem 40
4:47
Problem 41
5:52
Problem 42
7:22
Problem 43
8:16
Problem 44
9:11
Problem 45
9:42
Problem 46
10:56
Problem 47
12:03
Problem 48
13:58
Problem 49
14:49
Problem 50
15:36
Problem 51
15:51
Problem 52
17:18
Problem 53
17:59
Problem 54
19:10
Problem 55
21:27
Problem 56
22:40
Problem 57
23:19
Problem 58
23:50
Problem 59
25:35
Problem 60
26:45
Problem 61
27:57
Problem 62
28:32
Problem 63
29:52
Problem 64
30:27
Problem 65
31:27
Problem 66
32:22
Problem 67
33:18
Problem 68
35:21
Problem 69
36:27
Problem 70
36:46
AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 1

16m 53s

Intro
0:00
Question 1
0:23
Question 2
8:55
AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 2

9m 20s

Intro
0:00
Question 3
0:14
Question 4
4:34
AP Practice Exam: Free Response, Part 3

18m 12s

Intro
0:00
Question 5
0:15
Question 6
3:29
Question 7
6:18
Question 8
12:53
Metric Estimation

3m 53s

Intro
0:00
Question 1
0:38
Question 2
0:51
Question 3
1:09
Question 4
1:24
Question 5
1:49
Question 6
2:11
Question 7
2:27
Question 8
2:49
Question 9
3:03
Question 10
3:23
Defining Motion

7m 6s

Intro
0:00
Question 1
0:13
Question 2
0:50
Question 3
1:56
Question 4
2:24
Question 5
3:32
Question 6
4:01
Question 7
5:36
Question 8
6:36
Motion Graphs

6m 48s

Intro
0:00
Question 1
0:13
Question 2
2:01
Question 3
3:06
Question 4
3:41
Question 5
4:30
Question 6
5:52
Horizontal Kinematics

8m 16s

Intro
0:00
Question 1
0:19
Question 2
2:19
Question 3
3:16
Question 4
4:36
Question 5
6:43
Free Fall

7m 56s

Intro
0:00
Question 1-4
0:12
Question 5
2:36
Question 6
3:11
Question 7
4:44
Question 8
6:16
Projectile Motion

4m 17s

Intro
0:00
Question 1
0:13
Question 2
0:45
Question 3
1:25
Question 4
2:00
Question 5
2:32
Question 6
3:38
Newton's 1st Law

4m 34s

Intro
0:00
Question 1
0:15
Question 2
1:02
Question 3
1:50
Question 4
2:04
Question 5
2:26
Question 6
2:54
Question 7
3:11
Question 8
3:29
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3:47
Question 10
4:02
Newton's 2nd Law

5m 40s

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0:16
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0:55
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1:50
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2:40
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3:33
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3:56
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4:29
Newton's 3rd Law

3m 44s

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2:11
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Friction

6m 37s

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0:47
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3:43
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4:41
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5:13
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5:50
Ramps and Inclines

6m 13s

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0:18
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1:01
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2:50
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3:11
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5:08
Circular Motion

5m 17s

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0:21
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1:01
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1:50
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2:33
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3:10
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3:31
Question 7
3:56
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4:33
Gravity

6m 33s

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0:19
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1:05
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2:09
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2:53
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3:17
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4:00
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4:41
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5:20
Momentum & Impulse

9m 29s

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2:17
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3:25
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3:56
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4:28
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5:04
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6:18
Question 8
6:57
Question 9
7:47
Conservation of Momentum

9m 33s

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0:15
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2:08
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4:03
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4:10
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6:08
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6:55
Question 7
8:26
Work & Power

6m 2s

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0:29
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0:55
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1:36
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2:18
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3:22
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4:01
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4:18
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4:49
Springs

7m 59s

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0:13
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2:26
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3:37
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4:39
Question 7
5:28
Question 8
5:51
Energy & Energy Conservation

8m 47s

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0:18
Question 2
1:27
Question 3
1:44
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2:33
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2:44
Question 6
3:33
Question 7
4:41
Question 8
5:19
Question 9
5:37
Question 10
7:12
Question 11
7:40
Electric Charge

7m 6s

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0:10
Question 2
1:03
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1:32
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2:12
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3:01
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3:49
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4:24
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4:50
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5:32
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5:55
Question 11
6:26
Coulomb's Law

4m 13s

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0:14
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0:47
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1:25
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2:25
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3:01
Electric Fields & Forces

4m 11s

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0:51
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1:30
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2:19
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3:12
Electric Potential

5m 12s

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0:14
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0:42
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1:08
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1:43
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2:22
Question 6
2:49
Question 7
3:14
Question 8
4:02
Electrical Current

6m 54s

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0:42
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2:01
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3:02
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3:52
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4:15
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4:37
Question 8
4:59
Question 9
5:50
Resistance

5m 15s

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0:12
Question 2
0:53
Question 3
1:44
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2:31
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3:21
Question 6
4:06
Ohm's Law

4m 27s

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0:12
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0:33
Question 3
0:59
Question 4
1:32
Question 5
1:56
Question 6
2:50
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3:19
Question 8
3:50
Circuit Analysis

6m 36s

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0:12
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2:16
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2:33
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2:42
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3:18
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5:51
Question 7
6:00
Magnetism

3m 43s

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0:31
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0:56
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1:19
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1:35
Question 6
2:36
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3:03
Wave Basics

4m 21s

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0:13
Question 2
0:36
Question 3
0:47
Question 4
1:13
Question 5
1:27
Question 6
1:39
Question 7
1:54
Question 8
2:22
Question 9
2:51
Question 10
3:32
Wave Characteristics

5m 33s

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0:00
Question 1
0:23
Question 2
1:04
Question 3
2:01
Question 4
2:50
Question 5
3:12
Question 6
3:57
Question 7
4:16
Question 8
4:42
Question 9
4:56
Wave Behaviors

3m 52s

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0:40
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1:04
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1:17
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1:39
Question 6
2:07
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2:41
Question 8
3:09
Reflection

3m 48s

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0:50
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1:29
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1:46
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3:08
Refraction

2m 49s

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0:29
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1:03
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1:24
Question 7
2:01
Diffraction

2m 34s

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0:31
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0:50
Question 4
1:05
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1:37
Question 6
2:04
Electromagnetic Spectrum

7m 6s

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Question 1
0:24
Question 2
0:39
Question 3
1:05
Question 4
1:51
Question 5
2:03
Question 6
2:58
Question 7
3:14
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3:52
Question 9
4:30
Question 10
5:04
Question 11
6:01
Question 12
6:16
Wave-Particle Duality

5m 30s

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0:15
Question 2
0:34
Question 3
0:53
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1:54
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2:16
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2:42
Question 8
2:59
Question 9
3:45
Question 10
4:13
Question 11
4:33
Energy Levels

8m 13s

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0:00
Question 1
0:25
Question 2
1:18
Question 3
1:43
Question 4
2:08
Question 5
3:17
Question 6
3:54
Question 7
4:40
Question 8
5:15
Question 9
5:54
Question 10
6:41
Question 11
7:14
Mass-Energy Equivalence

8m 15s

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0:00
Question 1
0:19
Question 2
1:02
Question 3
1:37
Question 4
2:17
Question 5
2:55
Question 6
3:32
Question 7
4:13
Question 8
5:04
Question 9
5:29
Question 10
5:58
Question 11
6:48
Question 12
7:39
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• ## Related Books

 2 answersLast reply by: Professor Dan FullertonTue Oct 4, 2016 5:16 PMPost by Sujay Das on October 4, 2016What grade is this for? 1 answerLast reply by: Daniel FullertonWed Nov 5, 2014 6:13 AMPost by Jungle Jones on November 4, 2014For example 7, since the charge is going into the page, I put my hand out palm down and curled my fingers down, but then my thumb was pointing to the left, not up. I also tried curling my fingers to the right since the charge was moving to the right, but then my thumb was pointing down, and still not up. Could you clarify how to do this? 1 answerLast reply by: Professor Dan FullertonWed May 8, 2013 9:40 PMPost by help me on May 8, 2013I really don't understand the direction concept. Could you please elaborate if possible? 1 answerLast reply by: Professor Dan FullertonTue Apr 23, 2013 8:30 PMPost by Terri Keeley on April 23, 2013This helped a lot with my understanding of the right hand rule. Thanks!

### Magnetic Fields & Properties

• Magnetism is caused by moving charges.
• All magnets have a north and a south pole. There are no magnetic monopoles.
• Like poles repel, opposite poles attract.
• Magnetic field lines make closed loops and run from north to south outside of the magnet.
• Compasses are magnets which are free to align themselves with the net magnetic field.
• Magnetic permeability is a material property relating to the ratio of the magnetic field strength induced in a material to the magnetic field strength of the inducing field. Highly magnetic materials have high magnetic permeability.
• The magnetic dipole moment (or magnetic moment) of a magnet refers to the force that a magnet can exert on moving charges. It is analogous to the strength of a magnet.
• Magnet fields exert forces on moving charges proportional to the charge, the velocity, and the magnetic field strength. The magnetic force on a moving charges is always perpendicular to both the charge's velocity and the magnetic field.
• A mass spectrometer bends a moving charge using the magnetic force to determine the mass of unknown charged particles.

### Magnetic Fields & Properties

Lecture Slides are screen-captured images of important points in the lecture. Students can download and print out these lecture slide images to do practice problems as well as take notes while watching the lecture.

• Intro 0:00
• Objectives 0:07
• Magnetism 0:32
• A Force Caused by Moving Charges
• Magnetic Domains Are Clusters of Atoms with Electrons Spinning in the Same Direction
• Example 1: Types of Fields 1:23
• Magnetic Field Lines 2:25
• Make Closed Loops and Run From North to South Outside the Magnet
• Magnetic Flux
• Show the Direction the North Pole of a Magnet Would Tend to Point If Placed in the Field
• Example 2: Lines of Magnetic Force 3:49
• Example 3: Forces Between Bar Magnets 4:39
• The Compass 5:28
• The Earth is a Giant Magnet
• The Earth's Magnetic North pole is Located Near the Geographic South Pole, and Vice Versa
• A Compass Lines Up with the Net Magnetic Field
• Example 3: Compass in Magnetic Field 6:41
• Example 4: Compass Near a Bar Magnet 7:14
• Magnetic Permeability 7:59
• The Ratio of the Magnetic Field Strength Induced in a Material to the Magnetic Field Strength of the Inducing Field
• Free Space
• Highly Magnetic Materials Have Higher Values of Magnetic Permeability
• Magnetic Dipole Moment 8:41
• The Force That a Magnet Can Exert on Moving Charges
• Relative Strength of a Magnet
• Forces on Moving Charges 9:10
• Moving Charges Create Magnetic Fields
• Magnetic Fields Exert Forces on Moving Charges
• Direction of the Magnetic Force 9:57
• Direction is Given by the Right-Hand Rule
• Right-Hand Rule
• Mass Spectrometer 10:52
• Magnetic Fields Accelerate Moving Charges So That They Travel in a Circle
• Used to Determine the Mass of an Unknown Particle
• Velocity Selector 12:44
• Mass Spectrometer with an Electric Field Added
• Example 5: Force on an Electron 14:13
• Example 6: Velocity of a Charged Particle 15:25
• Example 7: Direction of the Magnetic Force 16:52
• Example 8: Direction of Magnetic Force on Moving Charges 17:43
• Example 9: Electron Released From Rest in Magnetic Field 18:53

### Transcription: Magnetic Fields & Properties

Hi everyone. I am Dan Fullerton and I would like to welcome you back to Educator.com.0000

This lesson is on magnetic fields and properties.0004

Our objectives are going to explain that magnetism is caused by moving electrical charges, describing the magnetic poles and interactions between magnets, drawing magnetic field lines, recognizing magnetic permeability (magnetic dipole moment) as properties of matter...0007

...calculating the force exerted on a charge moving through a magnetic field and explaining the operation of a mass spectrometer.0023

Let us start by talking about what magnetism is. Magnetism is a force caused by moving charges.0031

Magnets are dipoles; they all have a north and a south. You cannot have a north without a south or a south without a north and there are no magnetic monopoles.0038

Like poles repel and opposite poles attract.0047

Now magnetic domains are clusters of atoms with electrons spinning in the same direction.0051

Atoms have those moving electrons, therefore they are magnetic, so the same thing here as we have magnetic domains -- electrons spinning in the same direction and we get a net that we call magnetic domain.0056

If we have random domains where they are all pointing in random directions, you do not have any net magnetic field, but if you can get some of those domains to point in the same direction, you could end up creating a strong magnet because you have a net magnetic field all pointing in the same direction.0066

To start off with -- Which type of field is present near a moving electric charge?0083

Not an electric field only because a moving charge has a magnetic field and not a magnetic field only because you still have the electric field.0089

So what type of field is present? You must have both an electric field and a magnetic field.0097

You have the electric field because you have a charge and because it is a moving charge, you get a magnetic field.0102

Now magnetic field strength is a vector quantity. It is given the symbol (B), typically, and its units are teslas (T), where 1 T is equal to 1 Newton second/coulomb meter.0109

Now magnets are polarized; each has two opposite ends. You have a north with a south.0125

The end of the magnet that points toward the geographic North Pole of the earth is called the North Pole of the magnet.0130

Now there are no magnetic monopoles again; you cannot have a north without a south or a south without a north.0137

Magnetic field lines make closed loops and run from north to south outside the magnet.0145

Very similar to electric field lines, magnetic field lines run from North to South and they continue through the magnet, but outside the magnet, they always run from North to South.0150

Now the density of the magnetic field is known as the magnetic flux, so you have more magnetic flux in a region like this than you do in a region like this because the magnetic field lines are closer.0160

The magnetic field lines show the direction the North Pole of a magnet would tend to point if it were placed in that field.0172

Now because we are going to have to deal with three dimensions as we answer some of these problems and analyze some of these situations, we need a way of representing that on a page that is only two-dimensional.0180

Up, down, left and right on a page are pretty easy, but how about if you want to go out of the page.0190

Well, to represent a vector pointing out of the page or toward you out of the screen, you would put a dot or sometimes you will see it as a dot with a circle around it.0196

Imagine that is an arrow. If the point is coming toward you, what you are going to see is the point, so it is coming toward you or out of that plane.0205

If it was going away or into that plane, you would see the fletching's on the arrow, so those are typically shown as x's or x's with a circle around them.0213

That would be pointing into the plane here or going into your screens at home.0222

Let us take a look at another example where we have lines of magnetic force.0231

The diagram below shows the lines of magnetic force between two North Magnetic Poles.0234

At which point is the magnetic field strength greatest?0240

That is going to be where we have the densest lines or over here at B -- densest lines -- therefore you have the greatest magnetic flux.0244

The density of the magnetic field, our B field is known as magnetic flux and it gets the symbol Φ, magnetic flux.0253

Sometimes you will see that written as ΦB to show that it is magnetic or even as ΦM for magnetic.0272

Let us take a look at an example where we look at forces between bar magnets.0281

The diagram below represents a 0.5 kg bar magnet and a 0.7 kg bar magnet with a distance of 0.2 m between their centers.0284

Which statement best describes the forces between the bar magnets?0293

The gravitational force and magnetic force are repulsive.0296

Well, if we have like poles, they are going to repel, so the magnetic force is going to repel, but gravity can never repel; gravity can only attract, so it cannot be A.0300

Gravitational force is repulsive. No, gravity still cannot repel.0311

Gravitational force is attractive. Yes, that looks good.0315

Magnetic force is repulsive. Now, that has to be it because we have two North's, so they will repel magnetically and the gravitational force will attract.0318

Let us take a look at the compass. The earth is a giant magnet.0328

The Earth's magnetic north pole is located near the geographic S pole of the earth and vice versa.0333

The reason that is is if you were to take a magnet and you want to put it somewhere on Earth, you want the north end of the magnet, of the compass to point toward the N magnetic pole.0339

If this is the north end of the compass, it is going to be attracted to the magnetic south at that part of the earth.0349

So the geographic N pole is Earth's magnetic south and the geographic S pole, where the penguins live, is the magnetic north pole of the earth, and the compass lines up with a net magnetic field.0356

Now having talked about magnetic north and magnetic south poles, somewhat interesting, in actuality, the magnetic north and south pole of the earth are constantly moving.0370

The current rate of change of the magnetic north pole is thought to be somewhere around 20 km per year or even perhaps more than that.0379

It is believed that it has shifted more than 1,000 km since it was first reached by an explorer in 1831.0387

That is a lot of movement for what we base all of our compasses on.0395

Let us take a look at a problem with a compass and a magnetic field.0401

The diagram below represents the magnetic field near point (P).0405

If a compass is placed at point (P) in the same plane as the magnetic field, which arrow represents the direction of the north end that the compass needle will point?0408

If we were to put a compass here at point (P), compasses line up with the magnetic field, so it would point in the same direction.0417

Our compass arrow would look kind of like that -- pointing in the same direction.0424

Compasses line up with the net magnetic field.0430

The diagram below shows a bar magnet.0435

Which way will the needle of a compass placed at a point?0438

Well, let us draw the magnetic field lines; they run outside the compass from north to south and a compass lines up with a magnetic field.0440

If that was our compass -- I will draw it here in purple -- it would be pointing that direction, toward the right, which makes sense because the north end of a compass is attracted to the south end of the magnet and the south end of the compass is attracted to the north end of the magnet.0459

That should make sense there, so it would point to the right.0475

Now magnetic permeability, a fancy term that refers to the ratio of the magnetic field strength induced in a material to the magnetic field strength of the inducing field or kind of how susceptible a material is to magnetic fields.0480

Free space vacuum has a constant value of magnetic permeability that appears in physical relationships.0493

That is called the permeability of free space and it is 4π × 10-7 tesla meters/amps.0499

The permeability of matter has a value different from that of free space.0509

Highly magnetic material such as iron have higher values of magnetic permeability.0513

Another term we are going to have to know is magnetic dipole moment, which is also sometimes called just the magnetic moment.0520

The magnetic dipole moment of a magnet refers to the force the magnet can exert on moving charges.0526

In simplistic terms, you can think of that as the relative strength of a magnet, so the magnetic dipole moment of a hydrogen atom compared to the magnetic dipole moment of a highly magnetized iron bar -- well, the magnetic dipole moment of the iron bar is certainly going to be a whole lot stronger.0532

We know moving charges create magnetic fields, but does it work the other way?0550

Well, yes. Magnetic fields exert forces on moving charges and we can find the magnitude of that magnetic force (FB) is equal to the charge times the velocity of your charged particle times the magnetic field strength (B) times the sine of the angle between the velocity of the moving charge and the magnetic field direction.0555

The magnetic force is measured in Newton's, the charge is measured in coulombs, velocity is measured in m/s, magnetic field strength in tesla, and the angle between them should be a θ, the angle between the velocity vector and the direction of the magnetic field.0578

Now the direction of the magnetic force -- this is going to take little bit more work.0597

We found the magnitude pretty easily using that formula.0602

The direction of the force is given by the right-hand rule.0604

Here is how that works. Point the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the positive particles velocity.0607

If it is a positive particle, use your right hand to point your fingers in the direction of its velocity.0615

If it is moving this way, your fingers are going in that direction.0619

Then bend your fingers inward in the direction of the magnetic field.0622

Let us assume we have a particle going this way and a magnetic field pointing right toward me, so I would point my finger in the direction of the particle's velocity, bend them toward the magnetic field and my thumb is going to point in the direction of the magnetic force.0627

That is called the right-hand rule.0642

If you have a negative charge or it is an electron that is moving, go ahead and use your left hand, but the same rules.0644

A mass spectrometer is used to determine the mass of an unknown particle.0653

Because magnetic fields accelerate moving charges, so that they travel in a circle, this can be used to determine the mass of an unknown particle.0658

Here is the idea. If we put an unknown charged particle into this magnetic field -- a uniformed magnetic field of strength (B -- we can figure out where it lands here and measure the radius.0665

Knowing the radius and a few other things, we can figure out what the mass of that particle must be.0676

Let us take a look and analyze it from the perspective of circular motion because it is moving in part of a circle here.0682

In order to move in a circle, it must have a centripetal force, which we know is mv2/r from our mechanic's days, but what is causing that centripetal force?0690

Well, that is the magnetic force and we know the magnitude of that is qvBsin(θ).0700

In this case the force is always going to act at an angle of 90 degrees to the velocity.0709

The magnetic field is acting at an angle of 90 degrees to the velocity, so the sin(θ), θ is going to be 90 degrees, so sin(90 degrees) = 1, so mv2/r = qvB.0716

Some simplifications we can make here is we can divide a (v) out of both sides and I can rearrange this then to say that mass must equal qrB divided by the particles velocity.0735

To know the charge on it, find the radius by measuring where it hits here, given the known magnetic field strength and the known incoming velocity, you can figure out the mass of that unknown particle.0751

A velocity selector works on a similar principle; it is a mass spectrometer, but you add an electric field.0764

Now, the electric force down has to balance the magnetic force up.0770

So, here is the idea -- If we have a charged particle coming in here, we have a uniformed magnetic field.0774

That is going to want to cause our particle to go this way, to go up and make that circular path.0780

But if we apply an electric field as well, the electric field in this direction is going to offset that, so we want the electric force to balance the magnetic force in order for that particle to go directly through our velocity selector.0787

If that is going to happen, the electric force must be equal in magnitude to the magnetic force or we know that the electric force is charge times the electric field and the magnetic force is qvB and we already talked about the angle being 90 degrees, so the sin(θ) does not really play in here because that is 1.0801

We can divide the charge out of both sides and then see that the velocity that allows a particle to go directly through here is just the electric field strength divided by the magnetic field strength.0821

So if we tailor our electric field strength and magnetic field strength just right, only particles at the specific velocity we want will make it directly through here.0834

Everything else is either going to be deflected one way or the other.0840

Let us look at the force on an electron.0853

An electron moves at 2 × 106 m/s -- V = 2 × 10-6 m/s -- and it is an electron so we know its charge is -1.6 × 10-19 C perpendicular (θ = 90 degrees) to a magnetic field having a flux density of 2 T, so our magnetic field strength, the flux density is 2 T.0856

What is the magnitude of the magnetic force on the electron?0881

The magnetic force, FB = qvBsin(θ), which is going to be (q) -1.6 × 10-19 C, our velocity (2 × 10-6 m/s)...0885

...our magnetic field strength (2 T) × sin(90 degrees).0904

If I put all of that into my calculator, I find the magnetic force is 6.4 × 10-13 N.0911

How about the velocity of a charged particle?0925

A particle with a charge of 6.4 × 10-19 C experiences a force of 2 × 10-12 N.0928

As it travels through a 3 T magnetic field at an angle of 30 degrees to the field, what is the particle's velocity?0942

We will go back to our formula for the magnitude of the magnetic force, FB = qvBsin(θ).0954

Therefore velocity is going to be equal to the magnetic force divided by qBsin(θ)...0969

...or V = 2 × 10-12 N/6.4 × 10-19 C (charge) × 3 T (magnetic field strength) × sin(30 degrees).0981

When I put all of that into my calculator, I come up with a velocity of about 2.08 × 106 m/s.0999

How about a right-hand rule problem?1012

The diagram shows a proton, a positive charge moving with velocity (V) about to enter a uniformed magnetic field directed into the page.1015

As the proton moves in the magnetic field, determine the direction of the force on the proton.1022

First thing you are going to do is take your right hand, since it is a positive charge and point the fingers of your right hand in the direction of the velocity.1027

Now the magnetic field is (x), so that is directed into the page, so bend your fingers 90 degrees into the page.1035

Your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic force, and in this case if our particle is moving to the right, our fingers point in that direction, they bend into the page and we will find that our thumb should point up, the direction of the force on the particle.1045

For each diagram below, indicate the direction of the magnetic force on the charged particle.1064

Well, the first thing we need to do over here on the left is realize that the magnetic field runs from North to South outside the magnet, so our magnetic field is going to look like it has that direction.1069

Then we are going to take our left hand because it is a negative charge and point the fingers of your left hand in the direction of the particles velocity, bend them down in the direction of the magnetic field and you should find that your thumb is going to point into the plane of screen.1082

Therefore the direction of the magnetic force in this case is going to be into the plane that way.1097

Over here on the right hand side, we have a positive charge, so we can use our right hand.1106

Point your right hand in the direction of the particle's velocity, bend your fingers in the direction of the magnetic field into the plane and you should see that your thumb points toward the left of the screen, so you would get a magnetic force in this case to the left.1110

Just practicing using those right-hand rules or left-hand rules if it is a negative charge.1126

Last question -- An electron released from rest in a magnetic field.1134

An electron is released from rest between the poles of two bar magnets in a region where the magnitude of the magnetic field strength is 6 T, as shown below.1139

What is the magnetic force on the electron?1149

Here is the key. It is at rest, so the magnetic force is going to be 0, since V = 0.1152

Remember FB = qvBsin(θ). You only have that force on a moving charge.1163

If V = 0, then that whole thing is 0; no magnetic force, so our answer is 0.1171

Hopefully that gets you a good start on magnetic fields and magnetic properties.1180

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